Lipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Fatty Acid Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase: A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 220.127.116.11.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Fatty Acid Synthase, Type I: Animal form of fatty acid synthase which is encoded by a single gene and consists of seven catalytic domains and is functional as a homodimer. It is overexpressed in some NEOPLASMS and is a target in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and some ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS.TriglyceridesStarvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Orphan Nuclear Receptors: A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.ATP Citrate (pro-S)-Lyase: An enzyme that, in the presence of ATP and COENZYME A, catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to yield acetyl CoA, oxaloacetate, ADP, and ORTHOPHOSPHATE. This reaction represents an important step in fatty acid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 18.104.22.168.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Glucosephosphate DehydrogenaseMalate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 22.214.171.124.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Sebum: The oily substance secreted by SEBACEOUS GLANDS. It is composed of KERATIN, fat, and cellular debris.Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedAdipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 2: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates GENES involved in CHOLESTEROL synthesis and uptake.PyruvatesLipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Proteins: Sterol regulatory element binding proteins are basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors that bind the sterol regulatory element TCACNCCAC. They are synthesized as precursors that are threaded into the MEMBRANES of the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Palmitates: Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Hep G2 Cells: A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Epididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.Liver Extracts: Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Formic Acid EstersCarbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Malonyl Coenzyme A: A coenzyme A derivative which plays a key role in the fatty acid synthesis in the cytoplasmic and microsomal systems.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Clenbuterol: A substituted phenylaminoethanol that has beta-2 adrenomimetic properties at very low doses. It is used as a bronchodilator in asthma.Acne Vulgaris: A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.CitratesStearates: Salts and esters of the 18-carbon saturated, monocarboxylic acid--stearic acid.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Mice, Inbred C57BLOxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 6-phospho-D-gluconate and NADP+ to yield D-ribulose 5-phosphate, carbon dioxide, and NADPH. The reaction is a step in the pentose phosphate pathway of glucose metabolism. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 126.96.36.199.Palmitic Acid: A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.Hypobetalipoproteinemia, Familial, Apolipoprotein B: An autosomal dominant disorder of lipid metabolism. It is caused by mutations of APOLIPOPROTEINS B, main components of CHYLOMICRONS and BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL). Features include abnormally low LDL, normal triglyceride level, and dietary fat malabsorption.Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Lipid Mobilization: LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.Aurothioglucose: A thioglucose derivative used as an antirheumatic and experimentally to produce obesity in animals.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Isocitrate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC 188.8.131.52.) EC 184.108.40.206.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hypertriglyceridemia: A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Calorimetry, Indirect: Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 220.127.116.11.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Stearic Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Ethoxzolamide: A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used as diuretic and in glaucoma. It may cause hypokalemia.Omentum: A double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches the STOMACH to other organs in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex: A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Refeeding Syndrome: A condition of metabolic imbalance that is caused by complications of initially feeding a severely malnourished patient too aggressively. Usually occurring within the first 5 days of refeeding, this syndrome is characterized by WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; and DIARRHEA.GlycogenAcetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Palmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 18.104.22.168.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.PentosephosphatesAdenylate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 22.214.171.124.Sterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Glycerolphosphate DehydrogenaseWeight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Glucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 126.96.36.199.Adipocytes, White: Fat cells with light coloration and few MITOCHONDRIA. They contain a scant ring of CYTOPLASM surrounding a single large lipid droplet or vacuole.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Ligases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.Triiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.KetonesOsmium: Osmium. A very hard, gray, toxic, and nearly infusible metal element, atomic number 76, atomic weight 190.2, symbol Os. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Sodium Acetate: The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Pyruvate Carboxylase: A biotin-dependent enzyme belonging to the ligase family that catalyzes the addition of CARBON DIOXIDE to pyruvate. It is occurs in both plants and animals. Deficiency of this enzyme causes severe psychomotor retardation and ACIDOSIS, LACTIC in infants. EC 188.8.131.52.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Thermogenesis: The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.Insulin Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of insulin.Azo CompoundsDietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Safflower Oil: An oily liquid extracted from the seeds of the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius. It is used as a dietary supplement in the management of HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA. It is used also in cooking, as a salad oil, and as a vehicle for medicines, paints, varnishes, etc. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA-Reductases, NADP-dependent: Specific hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductases that utilize the cofactor NAD. In liver enzymes of this class are involved in cholesterol biosynthesis.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC 184.108.40.206.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Hydroxybutyrate DehydrogenaseLinoleic Acids, Conjugated: A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Malonates
Lipid droplet: Lipid droplets, also referred to as lipid bodies, oil bodies or adiposomes, are lipid-rich cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids and are found largely in the adipose tissue.Mobilization and cellular uptake of stored fats and triacylglycerol (with Animation) They also serve as a reservoir for cholesterol and acyl-glycerols for membrane formation and maintenance.List of MeSH codes (D12.776.930): This is a sub-part (transcription factors only) of List of MeSH codes (D12.776), itself a part of the list of the "D" codes for MeSH.Cannabidiolic acid synthase: Cannabidiolic acid synthase (, CBDA synthase) is an enzyme with system name cannabigerolate:oxygen oxidoreductase (cyclizing, cannabidiolate-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionLiver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIHeptadecanoic acidAdipose tissue macrophages: Adipose tissue macrophages (abbr. ATMs) comprise tissue resident macrophages present in adipose tissue.Lipotoxicity: Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading to cellular dysfunction and death. The tissues normally affected include the kidneys, liver, heart and skeletal muscle.ACACB: Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 also known as ACC-beta or ACC2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ACACB gene.Lipolysis: Lipolysis is the breakdown of lipids and involves hydrolysis of triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids. The following hormones induce lipolysis: epinephrine, norepinephrine, ghrelin, growth hormone, testosterone, and cortisol.Insulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.Glucose transporterFatty acid synthase: Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FASN gene.TriglycerideIndian Famine Codes: The Indian Famine Codes, developed by the colonial British in the 1880s, were one of the earliest famine scales. The Famine Codes defined three levels of food insecurity: near-scarcity, scarcity, and famine.Fatty liverCarbohydrate loading: Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.http://www.Butyl acetate (disambiguation): Butyl acetate most often refers to n-butyl acetate. However, there are other isomers that may be considered to be butyl acetates:Animal fatATC code H04: ==H04A Glycogenolytic hormones==Male lactation: Male lactation in zoology means production of milk from mammary glands in the presence of physiological stimuli connected with nursing infants. It is well documented in the Dayak fruit bat.Fructose malabsorptionGlyceroneogenesis: Glyceroneogenesis is a metabolic pathway which synthesizes glycerol 3-phosphate or triglyceride from precursors other than glucose.Banquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.KetogenesisAmphiregulin: Amphiregulin, also known as AREG, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AREG gene.Trifluoromethylation: Trifluoromethylation in organic chemistry describes any organic reaction that introduces a trifluoromethyl group in an organic compound. Trifluoromethylated compounds are of some importance in pharma and agrochemicals.Acetoacetic acidGlucogenic amino acid: A glucogenic amino acid is an amino acid that can be converted into glucose through gluconeogenesis. This is in contrast to the ketogenic amino acids, which are converted into ketone bodies.Steptoean positive carbon isotope excursion: The Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE) was a geological event which occurred about 500 million years ago at the end of the Cambrian Period. The SPICE event was a sudden reversal of the anoxia (lack of oxygen) that had steadily spread throughout the oceans during the Cambrian which also affected the atmosphere.CholesterolMature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.Blood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.Pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1: POU domain, class 1, transcription factor 1 (Pit1, growth hormone factor 1), also known as POU1F1, is a transcription factor for growth hormone.Adipogenesis: Adipogenesis is the process of cell differentiation by which preadipocytes become adipocytes. Adipogenesis has been one of the most intensively studied models of cellular differentiation.Epididymis: The epididymis (; plural: epididymides or ) is a tube that connects a testicle to a vas deferens in the male reproductive system. It is present in all male reptiles, birds, and mammals.Orphan receptor: An orphan receptor is an apparent receptor that has a similar structure to other identified receptors but whose endogenous ligand has not yet been identified. If a ligand for an orphan receptor is later discovered, the receptor is referred to as an "adopted orphan".Methyl chloroformateMalonyl-CoA O-methyltransferase: Malonyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (, BioC) is an enzyme with system name S-adenosyl-L-methionine:malonyl-CoA O-methyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionGlycerol 3-phosphate: -glycerol 1-phosphate-glycerol 3-phosphate-α-glycerophosphate-α-phosphoglycerolSlovakia Davis Cup team: 3 (as of July 20, 2015)Skin flora: The skin flora, more properly referred to as the skin microbiota, are the microorganisms which reside on the skin. Most research has been upon those that reside upon the 2 square metres of human skin, cf.Trisodium citrateStearate: Stearates are the salts and esters of stearic acid. The conjugate base of stearic acid, C17H35COO−, is also known as the stearate anion.Glucagon rescueTable of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.Ethyl oleatePRX-07034: PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. It has cognition and memory-enhancing properties and potently decreases food intake and body weight in rodents.Phosphogluconate dehydrogenaseAnaerobic glycolysis: Anaerobic glycolysis is the transformation of glucose to pyruvate when limited amounts of oxygen (O2) are available. Anaerobic glycolysis is only an effective means of energy production during short, intense exercise, providing energy for a period ranging from 10 seconds to 2 minutes.Isocitric acidSeparator (oil production): The term separator in oilfield terminology designates a pressure vessel used for separating well fluids produced from oil and gas wells into gaseous and liquid components. A separator for petroleum production is a large vessel designed to separate production fluids into their constituent components of oil, gas and water.HypertriglyceridemiaLipokine: A lipokine is a lipid-controlling hormone. The term "lipokine" was first used by Haiming Cao in 2008 to classify fatty acids which modulate lipid metabolism by what he called a "chaperone effect".
(1/518) Fatty acid indices of stearoyl-CoA desaturase do not reflect actual stearoyl-CoA desaturase enzyme activities in adipose tissues of beef steers finished with corn-, flaxseed-, or sorghum-based diets.
We hypothesized that stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) enzyme activity would not correlate with fatty acid indices of SCD activity in steers fed different grains. Forty-five Angus steers (358 +/- 26 kg BW) were individually fed for 107 d diets differing in whole cottonseed (WCS) supplementation (0, 5, or 15% of DM) and grain source (rolled corn, flaxseed plus rolled corn, or ground sorghum grain) in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement. Flaxseed- and corn-fed steers had greater (P < 0.01) G:F (0.119 and 0.108, respectively) than sorghum-fed steers (0.093). Marbling score was decreased by WCS (P = 0.04), and LM area was decreased (P < 0.01) by sorghum. Plasma 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n-7, and 18:2n-6 were greatest in corn-fed steers, whereas plasma 18:3n-3 and 20:5n-3 were greatest in the flax-seed-fed steers (P < 0.01). Plasma 18:1trans-11 was least in sorghum-fed steers, and plasma cis-9,trans-11 CLA was barely detectable, in spite of high intestinal mucosal SCD enzyme activity (118 to 141 nmol*g tissue(-1).7 min(-1)). Interfascicular (i.f.) and s.c. cis-9,trans-11 CLA remained unchanged (P > or = 0.25) by treatment, although 18:1trans-11 was increased (P < or = 0.02) in steers fed corn or flaxseed. Steers fed flaxseed also had greater (P < 0.01) i.f. and s.c. concentrations of 18:3n-3 than steers fed the other grain sources. Oleic acid (18:1n-9) was least and total SFA were greatest (P < 0.01) in i.f. adipose tissue of steers fed 15% WCS. Lipogenesis from acetate in s.c. adipose tissue was greater (P < 0.01) in flaxseed-fed steers than in the corn- or sorghum-fed steers. Steers fed flaxseed or corn had larger i.f. mean adipocyte volumes (P < 0.01) than those fed sorghum and tended (P = 0.07) to have larger s.c. adipocyte volumes. Several fatty acid indices of SCD enzyme activity were decreased (P < or = 0.03) by WCS in i.f. adipose tissue, including the 18:2cis-9,trans-11/ 18:1trans-11 ratio. The 18:2cis-9,trans-11/18:1trans-11 ratio also tended to be decreased (P = 0.09) in s.c. adipose tissue by flaxseed; however, SCD enzyme activities in i.f. and s.c. adipose tissue were not affected by dietary WCS (P > or = 0.47) or grain source (P > or = 0.37). Differences in SFA seemed to be independent of SCD enzyme activity in both adipose tissues, suggesting that duodenal concentrations of fatty acids were more important in determining tissue fatty acid concentrations than endogenous desaturation by SCD. (+info)
(2/518) Polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress glycolytic and lipogenic genes through the inhibition of ChREBP nuclear protein translocation.
Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are potent inhibitors of hepatic glycolysis and lipogenesis. Recently, carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) was implicated in the regulation by glucose of glycolytic and lipogenic genes, including those encoding L-pyruvate kinase (L-PK) and fatty acid synthase (FAS). The aim of our study was to assess the role of ChREBP in the control of L-PK and FAS gene expression by PUFAs. We demonstrated in mice, both in vivo and in vitro, that PUFAs [linoleate (C18:2), eicosapentanoic acid (C20:5), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6)] suppressed ChREBP activity by increasing ChREBP mRNA decay and by altering ChREBP translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus, independently of an activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase, previously shown to regulate ChREBP activity. In contrast, saturated [stearate (C18)] and monounsaturated fatty acids [oleate (C18:1)] had no effect. Since glucose metabolism via the pentose phosphate pathway is determinant for ChREBP nuclear translocation, the decrease in xylulose 5-phosphate concentrations caused by a PUFA diet favors a PUFA-mediated inhibition of ChREBP translocation. In addition, overexpression of a constitutive nuclear ChREBP isoform in cultured hepatocytes significantly reduced the PUFA inhibition of both L-PK and FAS gene expression. Our results demonstrate that the suppressive effect of PUFAs on these genes is primarily caused by an alteration of ChREBP nuclear translocation. In conclusion, we describe a novel mechanism to explain the inhibitory effect of PUFAs on the genes encoding L-PK and FAS and demonstrate that ChREBP is a pivotal transcription factor responsible for coordinating the PUFA suppression of glycolytic and lipogenic genes. (+info)
(3/518) Inverse relationship between PGC-1alpha protein expression and triacylglycerol accumulation in rodent skeletal muscle.
PGC-1alpha is a key regulator of tissue metabolism, including skeletal muscle. Because it has been shown that PGC-1alpha alters the capacity for lipid metabolism, it is possible that PGC-1alpha expression is regulated by the intramuscular lipid milieu. Therefore, we have examined the relationship between PGC-1alpha protein expression and the intramuscular fatty acid accumulation in hindlimb muscles of animals in which the capacity for fatty acid accumulation in muscle is increased (Zucker obese rat) or reduced [FAT/CD36 null (KO) mice]. Rates of palmitate incorporation into triacylglycerols were determined in perfused red (RG) and white gastrocnemius (WG) muscles of lean and obese Zucker rats and in perfused RG and WG muscles of FAT/CD36 KO and wild-type (WT) mice. In obese Zucker rats, the rate of palmitate incorporation into triacylglycerol depots in RG and WG muscles were 28 and 24% greater than in lean rats (P < 0.05). In FAT/CD36 KO mice, the rates of palmitate incorporation into triacylglycerol depots were lower in RG (-50%) and WG muscle (-24%) compared with the respective muscles in WT mice (P < 0.05). In the obese animals, PGC-1alpha protein content was reduced in both RG (-13%) and WG muscles (-15%) (P < 0.05). In FAT/CD36 KO mice, PGC-1alpha protein content was upregulated in both RG (+32%, P < 0.05) and WG muscles (+50%, P < 0.05). In conclusion, from studies in these two animal models, it appears that PGC-1alpha protein expression is inversely related to components of intramuscular lipid metabolism, because 1) PGC-1alpha protein expression is downregulated when triacylglycerol synthesis rates, an index of intramuscular lipid metabolism, are increased, and 2) PGC-1alpha protein expression is upregulated when triacylglycerol synthesis rates are reduced. Therefore, we speculate that the intramuscular lipid sensing may be involved in regulating the protein expression of PGC-1alpha in skeletal muscle. (+info)
(4/518) Effect of randomly interesterified triacylglycerols containing medium- and long-chain fatty acids on energy expenditure and hepatic fatty acid metabolism in rats.
In our previous studies, medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCT), randomly interesterified triacylglycerols containing medium-chain and long-chain fatty acids in the same glycerol molecule, significantly reduced body fat accumulation in humans and rats. To clarify mechanism(s) for this effect of MLCT, we measured energy expenditure and hepatic fatty acid metabolism in rats by comparison with long-chain triacylglycerols (LCT) or medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT). MLCT, compared with LCT, showed significantly lower body fat accumulation, higher 24-h energy expenditure and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity measured using octanoyl-CoA as a substrate, and similar lipogenic activity. MCT, compared with LCT, showed significantly higher energy expenditure, but fat accumulation was comparable. Additionally, MCT exhibited significantly higher lipogenic activity than the other oils. These data suggest that enhancement of energy expenditure and medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) oxidation without activating de novo lipogenesis are responsible at least for the lower body fat accumulation in rats fed MLCT. The activation of hepatic lipogenesis by excessive intake of MCFA might counteract their preventive effects on body fat accumulation. (+info)
(5/518) Augmentation of lipogenesis by 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 in hamster sebaceous glands: identification of cytochrome P-450-mediated 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 production.
Prostaglandins (PGs) play important roles in the regulation of cutaneous cell functions under physiological and pathological conditions. In this study, we examined the involvement of PGs in sebocyte lipogenesis using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in vivo and in vitro. Hamster auricle sebocytes spontaneously differentiated to accumulate intracellular triacylglycerol (TG), under which the relative levels of 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2) to PGF(2alpha) and PGE2 increased. 15d-PGJ2 was found to augment the formation of lipid droplets, which was because of an increase of TG synthesis by diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT). Furthermore, sebocytes constitutively produced cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), but not COX-1, in vivo and in vitro. When sebocytes were treated with COX inhibitors such as indomethacin, diclofenac, or NS-398, the production of PGF(2alpha) and PGE2 decreased. The production of 15d-PGJ2, however, was increased in these inhibitor-treated sebocytes. In addition, indomethacin, diclofenac, and NS-398 augmented the synthesis of TG along with the increase in DGAT activity. Similarly, topical administration of indomethacin to hamster auricles caused the development of sebaceous glands with the augmentation of sebum deposition in vivo. Furthermore, indomethacin and NS-398-augmented 15d-PGJ2 production and TG synthesis were suppressed by a non-selective cytochrome P-450 (CYP) inhibitor, SKF-525A. A ligand activator of peroxisome proliferation activating receptor gamma (PPARgamma), troglitazone-induced synthesis of TG, however, was not altered even in the presence of SKF-525A. These results suggest that 15d-PGJ2 is a crucial stimulator of sebocyte lipogenesis by augmenting DGAT-mediated synthesis of TG. In addition to the COX-2-dependent pathway of PG synthesis, our findings suggest a sebocyte-specific pathway of 15d-PGJ2 production by CYP, the activity of which may be evoked by inhibiting COX-2. (+info)
(6/518) The kinase LKB1 mediates glucose homeostasis in liver and therapeutic effects of metformin.
The Peutz-Jegher syndrome tumor-suppressor gene encodes a protein-threonine kinase, LKB1, which phosphorylates and activates AMPK [adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase]. The deletion of LKB1 in the liver of adult mice resulted in a nearly complete loss of AMPK activity. Loss of LKB1 function resulted in hyperglycemia with increased gluconeogenic and lipogenic gene expression. In LKB1-deficient livers, TORC2, a transcriptional coactivator of CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein), was dephosphorylated and entered the nucleus, driving the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha), which in turn drives gluconeogenesis. Adenoviral small hairpin RNA (shRNA) for TORC2 reduced PGC-1alpha expression and normalized blood glucose levels in mice with deleted liver LKB1, indicating that TORC2 is a critical target of LKB1/AMPK signals in the regulation of gluconeogenesis. Finally, we show that metformin, one of the most widely prescribed type 2 diabetes therapeutics, requires LKB1 in the liver to lower blood glucose levels. (+info)
(7/518) Compensatory increase in hepatic lipogenesis in mice with conditional intestine-specific Mttp deficiency.
Microsomal TG transfer protein (MTTP) is required for the assembly and secretion of TG (TG)-rich lipoproteins from both enterocytes and hepatocytes. Liver-specific deletion of Mttp produced a dramatic reduction in plasma very low density lipoprotein-TG and virtually eliminated apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) secretion yet caused only modest reductions in plasma apoB48 and apoB48 secretion from primary hepatocytes. These observations prompted us to examine the phenotype following intestine-specific Mttp deletion because murine, like human enterocytes, secrete virtually exclusively apoB48. We generated mice with conditional Mttp deletion in villus enterocytes (Mttp-IKO), using a tamoxifen-inducible, intestine-specific Cre transgene. Villus enterocytes from chow-fed Mttp-IKO mice contained large cytoplasmic TG droplets and no chylomicron-sized particles within the secretory pathway. Chow-fed, Mttp-IKO mice manifested steatorrhea, growth arrest, and decreased cholesterol absorption, features that collectively recapitulate the phenotype associated with abetalipoproteinemia. Chylomicron secretion was reduced dramatically in vivo, in conjunction with an approximately 80% decrease in apoB48 secretion from primary enterocytes. Additionally, although plasma and hepatic cholesterol and TG content were decreased, Mttp-IKO mice demonstrated a paradoxical increase in both hepatic lipogenesis and very low density lipoprotein secretion. These findings establish distinctive features for MTTP involvement in intestinal chylomicron assembly and secretion and suggest that hepatic lipogenesis undergoes compensatory induction in the face of defective intestinal TG secretion. (+info)
(8/518) Effects of body condition score at parturition and postpartum supplemental fat on adipose tissue lipogenic activity of lactating beef cows.
Three-year-old Angus x Gelbvieh beef cows nutritionally managed to achieve a BCS of 4 +/- 0.07 (479.3 +/- 36.3 kg of initial BW) or 6 +/- 0.07 (579.6 +/- 53.1 kg of initial BW) at parturition were used in a 2-yr experiment (n = 36/yr) to determine the effects of BCS at parturition and postpartum lipid supplementation on cow adipose tissue lipogenesis. Beginning 3 d postpartum, cows within each BCS were randomly assigned to be fed hay and a low-fat control supplement or supplements with either cracked high-linoleate safflower seeds or cracked high-oleate safflower seeds until d 60 of lactation. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric, and safflower seed diets provided 5% DMI as fat. Adipose tissue biopsies were collected near the tail-head region of cows on d 30 and 60 of lactation. Dietary treatment did not affect (P > or = 0.43) adipose tissue lipogenesis. Body condition score at parturition did not affect acetate incorporation into lipid (P = 0.53) or activity of acetyl CoA carboxylase (P = 0.77) or fatty acid synthase (P = 0.18). Lipoprotein lipase activity and palmitate incorporation into triacyl-glycerol tended to be greater (P = 0.06), and palmitate esterification into total acylglycerols was greater (P = 0.01) in cows with a BCS of 4 at parturition. Mean activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (P < 0.001), lipoprotein lipase (P = 0.01), and rate of palmitate incorporation into monoacylglycerol (P = 0.02), diacylglycerol (P = 0.001), triacylglycerol (P = 0.003), and total acylglycerols (P = 0.002) were greater at d 30 than d 60, suggesting a greater proclivity for fatty acid biosynthesis and esterification by adipose tissue at d 30 of lactation. Although dietary lipid supplementation did not affect adipose tissue lipogenesis, results suggest that cows with a BCS of 4 at parturition have a greater propensity to deliver exogenously derived fatty acids to the adipocyte surface and incorporate preformed fatty acids into acylglycerols as stored adipocyte lipid. Additionally, cows in early lactation seemed to be able to synthesize and incorporate more fatty acids into stored lipid than cows during peak lactation. (+info)