Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell: Aggressive T-Cell malignancy with adult onset, caused by HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1. It is endemic in Japan, the Caribbean basin, Southeastern United States, Hawaii, and parts of Central and South America and sub-Saharan Africa.Dihydrouracil Dehydrogenase (NAD+)Deltaretrovirus: A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of exogenous horizontally-transmitted viruses found in a few groups of mammals. Infections caused by these viruses include human B- or adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), and bovine leukemia (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS). The type species is LEUKEMIA VIRUS, BOVINE.Human T-lymphotropic virus 1: A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Leukemia, B-Cell: A malignant disease of the B-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow and/or blood.Leukemia, T-Cell: A malignant disease of the T-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow, thymus, and/or blood.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Lymphoma, T-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors representing malignant transformations of T-lymphocytes.HTLV-I InfectionsGene Products, tax: Transcriptional trans-acting proteins of the promoter elements found in the long terminal repeats (LTR) of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The tax (trans-activator x; x is undefined) proteins act by binding to enhancer elements in the LTR.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, T-Cell: A lymphoid leukemia characterized by a profound LYMPHOCYTOSIS with or without LYMPHADENOPATHY, hepatosplenomegaly, frequently rapid progression, and short survival. It was formerly called T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A leukemia/lymphoma found predominately in children and young adults and characterized LYMPHADENOPATHY and THYMUS GLAND involvement. It most frequently presents as a lymphoma, but a leukemic progression in the bone marrow is common.Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A leukemia/lymphoma found predominately in children and adolescents and characterized by a high number of lymphoblasts and solid tumor lesions. Frequent sites involve LYMPH NODES, skin, and bones. It most commonly presents as leukemia.Genes, pX: DNA sequences that form the coding region for at least three proteins which regulate the expression of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The proteins are p21(x), p27(rex), and p40(tax). The tax (trans-activator x) and rex (regulator x) genes are part of pX but are in overlapping reading frames. X was the original designation for the sequences or region (at that time of unknown function) in the long open reading frame (lor) which is now called pX.Deltaretrovirus Infections: Infections caused by the HTLV or BLV deltaretroviruses. They include human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED).Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral: A group of malignant lymphomas thought to derive from peripheral T-lymphocytes in lymph nodes and other nonlymphoid sites. They include a broad spectrum of lymphocyte morphology, but in all instances express T-cell markers admixed with epithelioid histiocytes, plasma cells, and eosinophils. Although markedly similar to large-cell immunoblastic lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, LARGE-CELL, IMMUNOBLASTIC), this group's unique features warrant separate treatment.HTLV-I Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with the HTLV-I ANTIGENS.Leukemic Infiltration: A pathologic change in leukemia in which leukemic cells permeate various organs at any stage of the disease. All types of leukemia show various degrees of infiltration, depending upon the type of leukemia. The degree of infiltration may vary from site to site. The liver and spleen are common sites of infiltration, the greatest appearing in myelocytic leukemia, but infiltration is seen also in the granulocytic and lymphocytic types. The kidney is also a common site and of the gastrointestinal system, the stomach and ileum are commonly involved. In lymphocytic leukemia the skin is often infiltrated. The central nervous system too is a common site.Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous: A group of lymphomas exhibiting clonal expansion of malignant T-lymphocytes arrested at varying stages of differentiation as well as malignant infiltration of the skin. MYCOSIS FUNGOIDES; SEZARY SYNDROME; LYMPHOMATOID PAPULOSIS; and PRIMARY CUTANEOUS ANAPLASTIC LARGE CELL LYMPHOMA are the best characterized of these disorders.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Proviruses: Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic: A subacute paralytic myeloneuropathy occurring endemically in tropical areas such as the Caribbean, Colombia, India, and Africa, as well as in the southwestern region of Japan; associated with infection by HUMAN T-CELL LEUKEMIA VIRUS I. Clinical manifestations include a slowly progressive spastic weakness of the legs, increased reflexes, Babinski signs, incontinence, and loss of vibratory and position sensation. On pathologic examination inflammatory, demyelination, and necrotic lesions may be found in the spinal cord. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1239)Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Hypercalcemia: Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.Receptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Deltaretrovirus Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with various types of human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma antigens or bovine leukemia virus antigens.Sezary Syndrome: A form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma manifested by generalized exfoliative ERYTHRODERMA; PRURITUS; peripheral lymphadenopathy, and abnormal hyperchromatic mononuclear (cerebriform) cells in the skin, LYMPH NODES, and peripheral blood (Sezary cells).Human T-lymphotropic virus 2: A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2 that can transform normal T-lymphocytes and can replicate in both T- and B-cell lines. The virus is related to but distinct from HTLV-1.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Jamaica: An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Kingston. It was discovered in 1494 by Columbus and was a Spanish colony 1509-1655 until captured by the English. Its flourishing slave trade was abolished in the 19th century. It was a British colony 1655-1958 and a territory of the West Indies Federation 1958-62. It achieved full independence in 1962. The name is from the Arawak Xaymaca, rich in springs or land of springs. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p564 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p267)HTLV-I Antigens: Antigens associated with HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.JapanMice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Gene Rearrangement, beta-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the beta-chain of antigen receptors.Retroviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Prurigo: A name applied to several itchy skin eruptions of unknown cause. The characteristic course is the formation of a dome-shaped papule with a small transient vesicle on top, followed by crusting over or lichenification. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Hyptis: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that contains 5-methoxydehydropodophyllotoxin (a PODOPHYLLOTOXIN) and other LIGNANS.Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein: A ubiquitously expressed, secreted protein with bone resorption and renal calcium reabsorption activities that are similar to PARATHYROID HORMONE. It does not circulate in appreciable amounts in normal subjects, but rather exerts its biological actions locally. Overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related protein by tumor cells results in humoral calcemia of malignancy.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Mycosis Fungoides: A chronic, malignant T-cell lymphoma of the skin. In the late stages, the LYMPH NODES and viscera are affected.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.

*  Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma
... What every physician needs to know:. Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a distinct subtype ... Beware of other conditions that can mimic adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma:. Other conditions that can mimic adult T-cell ... What other clinical manifestations may help me to diagnose adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma?. A new diagnosis of T-cell lymphoma ... Human T cell leukemia virus reactivation with progression of adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma". PLoS One. vol. 4. 2009. pp. 4420 ...
*  A Lack of Cellular Senescence, Formation of Microenvironment, and Role of Soluble CD30 in Development of Adult T-Cell Leukemia...
... and Role of Soluble CD30 in Development of Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma Abstract. ... Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a highly aggressive leukemia/lymphoma. The long clinical latency and low incidence of ... and Role of Soluble CD30 in Development of Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma. Ratiorn Pornkuna1,2 and Shigeki Takemoto1,3*. ... and Role of Soluble Cd30 in Development of Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma. J Hematol Thrombo Dis 2:151. doi:10.4172/2329- ...
*  Methylation analysis of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene in cdult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma | Cancer Research
We investigated whether the same mechanism occurs in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) by analyzing 31 DNA samples from 30 ... Methylation analysis of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene in cdult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Masahide Matsushita, Yang ... gene in cdult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Masahide Matsushita, Yang Yang, Kunihiro Tsukasaki, Yasuaki Yamada, Tomoko Hata, Naoki ... gene in cdult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Masahide Matsushita, Yang Yang, Kunihiro Tsukasaki, Yasuaki Yamada, Tomoko Hata, Naoki ...
*  CADM1 expression and stepwise downregulation of CD7 are closely associated with clonal expansion of HTLV-1-infected cells in...
... has recently been reported to be ectopically expressed in primary adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) cells. We incorporated ... downregulation of CD7 are closely associated with clonal expansion of HTLV-1-infected cells in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. ... downregulation of CD7 are closely associated with clonal expansion of HTLV-1-infected cells in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma ... downregulation of CD7 are closely associated with clonal expansion of HTLV-1-infected cells in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma ...
*  Restoration of microRNA-212 causes a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma cells by...
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a highly aggressive T-cell malignancy. This study was designed to explore the ... Restoration of microRNA-212 causes a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma cells by ... Restoration of microRNA-212 causes a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma cells by ... Restoration of microRNA-212 causes a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma cells by ...
*  Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Infection in Patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: Preliminary Observations
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Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL), a highly aggressive peripheral T-cell malignancy caused by human T-cell lymphotropic ... Defucosylated anti-CCR4 monoclonal antibody (KW-0761) for relapsed adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma: a multicenter phase II study ... Additional studies may elucidate whether KW-0761 will show therapeutic activity against other CCR4-positive T-cell cancers. ... Impact: Patients with CCR4-positive T-cell neoplasms may benefit from KW-0761 treatment. ...
*  Phase II Study of KW-0761 in Subjects With CCR4-positive Adult T-cell Leukemia-lymphoma - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Lymphoma. Leukemia. Leukemia, T-Cell. Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Neoplasms. ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Lymphosarcoma Leukemia, T-cell, Chronic Adult T-cell Leukemia/lymphoma ... Phase II Study of KW-0761 in Subjects With CCR4-positive Adult T-cell Leukemia-lymphoma. This study has been completed. ... Phase II Clinical Study of KW-0761 in Patients With CCR4-Positive Adult T-cell Leukemia-Lymphoma. ...
*  Tacrolimus and Mycophenolate Mofetil in Preventing Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Patients Who Have Undergone Total-Body...
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*  Imaging of Radiolabeled White Blood Cells in Patients With Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
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*  American Urological Association - Guidelines
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*  JCI - Volume 127, Issue 5
T cells early after hematopoietic cell transplantation effectively prevents GVHD while preserving strong graft-versus-leukemia ... adult mice. Findings from Chn1KI/KI Epha4KO/KO. mice demonstrated that mutant α2-chimaerin and EphA4 have different genetic ... curative treatment for a variety of hematologic malignancies due to the well-recognized graft-versus-leukemia/lymphoma (GVL) ... The mixed-lineage leukemia (. MLL. ) gene often fuses with ENL. and AF10. family genes in leukemia. However, the functional ...
*  Takedown Cancer - Takedown Cancer | Wrestling Cancer Organization
Why are CD8+ T Cells that Re-Express CD45RA Associated with Lymphoma Relapse? ... Engaging the Natural Killer (NK) Cells of our Immune System to Kill Leukemia ...
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*  Sorafenib in Treating Patients With Refractory or Relapsed Acute Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndromes, or Blastic Phase Chronic...
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*  Cough and Low blood platelet level and Mouth symptoms - Symptom Checker - check medical symptoms at RightDiagnosis
Nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's lymphoma. More causes » , All causes ». , Show causes with descriptions ». , Start Again ». ... 3. Hodgkin's disease, adult. 4. Hodgkin's disease, childhood. 5. Hodgkin's disease, nodular sclerosis. 6. Human granulocytic ... AND Red blood cell symptoms (11 matches). *AND Sweat symptoms (11 matches) ... AND Painless swelling of a cervical lymph node similar to lymphoma (1 match) ...
*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
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*  Science Researcher Update | life science research
Tags: cell biology, biological analysis, Molecular Cell Biology, Developmental Biology, October, Computational Biology, life ... The 33rd Annual Echocardiography in Pediatric and Adult Congenital Heart Disease Symposium returns to the Rochester, MN campus ... The NYSCF conference is unique: it focuses on translational stem cell research, demonstrating the potential to advance cures ... Spotlight on Science Meetings, Conferences and Events brings you information on the following: Translational Stem Cell Research ...
*  C57BL/6 Origin Harlan Laboratories
This is associated with early hair cell changes including bent and fused stereocillia, bulging of the cuticle plates, hair cell ... Dietz M, Rick MA (1972) Effect of host strain and H-2 type on spontaneous regression of murine leukemia virus. Int. J. Cancer ... Beamer WG, Donahue LR, Rosen CJ, Baylink DJ (1996) Genetic-variability in adult bone-density among inbred strains of mice. Bone ... High incidence of lymphomas after methylcholanthrene administration by gavage (Akamatsu and Barton, 1974). Susceptible to toxic ...

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphomaDihydrouracilHuman T-lymphotropic virus: The human T-lymphotropic virus or human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) family of viruses are a group of human retroviruses that are known to cause a type of cancer called adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and a demyelinating disease called HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The HTLVs belong to a larger group of primate T-lymphotropic viruses (PTLVs).World Lymphoma Awareness Day: World Lymphoma Awareness Day (WLAD) is held on September 15 every year and is a day dedicated to raising awareness of lymphoma, an increasingly common form of cancer. It is a global initiative hosted by the Lymphoma Coalition (LC), a non-profit network organisation of 63 lymphoma patient groups from 44 countries around the world.Childhood leukemia: Childhood leukemia is a type of leukemia, usually acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and a type of childhood cancer. The cure rate of childhood leukemia is generally higher than adult leukemia, approaching 90%, although some side effects of treatment last into adulthood.Pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox: Pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox (PBX) refers to a family of transcription factors.PMHC cellular microarray: PMHC cellular microarrays are a type of cellular microarray that has been spotted with pMHC complexes peptide-MHC class I or peptide-MHC class II.Tax gene product: A Tax Gene Product (Tax) is a nuclear protein that has a molecular weight of about 37,000 to 40,000 daltons.Kinetic-segregation model of T cell activationThe Simon Flavell Leukaemia Research Laboratory: The Simon Flavell Leukaemia Research Laboratory is based at Southampton General Hospital and named after ten-year-old Simon Flavell who died in 1990 from an aggressive form of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). The laboratory specialises in researching and developing antibody type treatments for adults and children with currently incurable types of leukaemia.Peripheral T-cell lymphomaLeukemia cutis: Leukemia cutis is the infiltration of neoplastic leukocytes or their precursors into the skin resulting in clinically identifiable cutaneous lesions. This condition may be contrasted with leukemids, which are skin lesions that occur with leukemia, but which are not related to leukemic cell infiltration.Cutaneous lymphoma: There are two classes of lymphomas that affect the skin:Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemiaColes PhillipsMonoclonal antibody therapyJamaicans in Ethiopia: TewahedoProtestantIslamSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Niigata UniversityImmunophenotyping: Immunophenotyping is a technique used to study the protein expressed by cells. This technique is commonly used in basic science research and laboratory diagnostic purpose.Flow cytometry: In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them by an electronic detection apparatus. It allows simultaneous multiparametric analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of up to thousands of particles per second.Prurigo pigmentosa: Prurigo pigmentosa is a rare skin condition of unknown cause, characterized by the sudden onset of erythematous papules that leave a reticulated hyperpigmentation when they heal.James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).Thermal cyclerHyptis suaveolensParathyroid hormone-related protein: Parathyroid hormone-related protein (or PTHrP) is a protein member of the parathyroid hormone family. It is occasionally secreted by cancer cells (breast cancer, certain types of lung cancer including squamous cell lung carcinoma).Non-mycosis fungoides CD30− cutaneous large T-cell lymphoma: Non-mycosis fungoides CD30− cutaneous large T-cell lymphoma is a cutaneous condition that usually presents as solitary or generalized plaques, nodules, or tumors of short duration.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.

(1/921) Physical interaction of the bHLH LYL1 protein and NF-kappaB1 p105.

The LYL1 gene was first identified upon the molecular characterization of the t(7;9)(q35;p13) translocation associated with some human T-cell acute leukemias (T-ALLs). In adult tissues, LYL1 expression is restricted to hematopoietic cells with the notable exclusion of the T cell lineage. LYL1 encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein highly related to TAL-1, whose activation is also associated with a high proportion of human T-ALLs. A yeast two-hybrid system was used to identify proteins that specifically interact with LYL1 and might mediate its activities. We found that p105, the precursor of NF-kappaB1 p50, was the major LYL1-interacting protein in this system. The association between LYL1 and p105 was confirmed both in vitro and in vivo in mammalian cells. Biochemical studies indicated that the interaction was mediated by the bHLH motif of LYL1 and the ankyrin-like motifs of p105. Ectopic expression of LYL1 in a human T cell line caused a significant decrease in NF-kappaB-dependent transcription, associated with a reduced level of NF-kappaB1 proteins.  (+info)

(2/921) Similarities and differences in 111In- and 90Y-labeled 1B4M-DTPA antiTac monoclonal antibody distribution.

Monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) labeled with 90Y are being used for radioimmunotherapy. Because 90Y is a beta emitter, quantitative information from imaging is suboptimal. With the concept of a "matched pair" of isotopes, 111In is used as a surrogate markerfor90Y. We evaluated the differences in biodistribution between 111In- and 90Y-labeled murine antiTac MoAb directed against the IL-2Ralpha receptor. METHODS: The antiTac was conjugated to the 2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-6-methyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (1B4M-DTPA, also known as MX-DTPA). Nine patients with adult T-cell leukemia were treated. Patients received approximately 185 MBq (5 mCi) 111In-labeled antiTac for imaging and 185-555 MBq (5-15 mCi) 90Y-labeled antiTac for therapy. The immunoreactivity of 111In-labeled antiTac was 90%+/-6%, whereas for 90Y-labeled antiTac, it was 74%+/-12%. RESULTS: The differences in blood and plasma kinetics of the two isotopes were small. The area undemeath the blood radioactivity curve was 1.91 percentage+/-0.58 percentage injected dose (%ID) x h/mL for 111In and 1.86%+/-0.64 %ID x h/mL for 90Y. Urinary excretion of 90Y was significantly greater than that of 111In in the first 24 h (P = 0.001), but later, the excretion of 111In was significantly greater (P = 0.001 to P = 0.04). Core biopsies of bone marrow showed a mean of 0.0029+/-0.0012 %ID/g for 111In, whereas the 90Y concentration was 0.0049+/-0.0021 %ID/g. Analyses of activity bound to circulating cells showed concentrations of 500-30,000 molecules of antiTac per cell. When cell-bound activity was corrected for immunoreactive fraction, the ratio of 111In to 90Y in circulating cells was 1.11+/-0.17. Three biopsies of tumor-involved skin showed ratios of 111In to 90Y of 0.7, 0.9 and 1.1. CONCLUSION: This study shows that differences typically ranging from 10% to 15% exist in the biodistribution between 111In- and 90Y-labeled antiTac. Thus, it appears that 111In can be used as a surrogate marker for 90Y when labeling antiTac with the 1 B4M chelate, although underestimates of the bone marrow radiation dose should be anticipated.  (+info)

(3/921) Spectral karyotype analysis of T-cell acute leukemia.

Analysis of 15 cases of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with spectral karyotyping (SKY), which can identify all chromosomes simultaneously, clarified the chromosome rearrangements in 3 cases and confirmed them in 11 others; no abnormal cells were identified in 1 case, which had only 10% abnormal cells. Five of the latter cases had a normal karyotype. Thus, the use of SKY substantially improves the precision of karyotype analysis of malignant cells, which in turn leads to a more accurate assessment of the genotypic abnormalities in those cells.  (+info)

(4/921) Fatal disseminated Trichoderma longibrachiatum infection in an adult bone marrow transplant patient: species identification and review of the literature.

Trichoderma longibrachiatum was recovered from stool surveillance cultures and a perirectal ulcer biopsy specimen from a 29-year-old male who had received an allogeneic bone marrow transplant for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The amphotericin B (2.0 microgram/ml) and itraconazole (1.0 microgram/ml) MICs for the organism were elevated. Therapy with these agents was unsuccessful, and the patient died on day 58 posttransplantation. At autopsy, histologic sections from the lungs, liver, brain, and intestinal wall showed infiltration by branching septate hyphae. Cultures were positive for Trichoderma longibrachiatum. While Trichoderma species have been recognized to be pathogenic in profoundly immunosuppressed hosts with increasing frequency, this is the first report of probable acquisition through the gastrointestinal tract. Salient features regarding the identification of molds in the Trichoderma longibrachiatum species aggregate are presented.  (+info)

(5/921) Subcellular distribution and redistribution of Bcl-2 family proteins in human leukemia cells undergoing apoptosis.

It has been suggested that the ratio of Bcl-2 family proapoptotic proteins to antiapoptotic proteins determines the sensitivity of leukemic cells to apoptosis. However, it is believed that Bcl-2 family proteins exert their function on apoptosis only when they target to the mitochondrial outer membrane. The vinblastine-resistant T-lymphoblastic leukemic cell line CEM/VLB100 has increased sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced cytochrome c release, mitochondrial respiratory inhibition, and consequently apoptosis, compared with parental CEM cells. However, there was no difference between the two cell lines in the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bcl-XS, Bad, and Bax at the whole cell level, as analyzed by Western blotting. Bcl-2 mainly located to mitochondria and light membrane as a membrane-bound protein, whereas Bcl-XL was located in both mitochondria and cytosol. Similar levels of both Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL were present in the resting mitochondria of the two cell lines. Although the proapoptotic proteins Bcl-XS, Bad, and Bax were mainly located in the cytosol, CEM/VLB100 mitochondria expressed higher levels of these proapoptotic proteins. Subcellular redistribution of the Bcl-2 family proteins was detected in a cell-free system by both Western blotting and flow cytometry after exposure to TNF-alpha. The levels of Bcl-2 family proteins were not altered at the whole cell level by TNF-alpha. However, after exposure to TNF-alpha, Bax, Bad, and Bcl-XS translocated from the cytosol to the mitochondria of both cell lines. An increase in Bcl-2 levels was observed in CEM mitochondria, which showed resistance to TNF-alpha-induced cytochrome c release. By contrast, decreased mitochondrial Bcl-2 was observed in CEM/VLB100 cells, which released cytochrome c from the mitochondria and underwent apoptosis as detected by fluorescence microscopy. We conclude that mitochondrial levels of Bcl-2 family proteins may determine the sensitivity of leukemic cells to apoptosis and that, furthermore, these levels may change rapidly after exposure of cells to toxic stimuli.  (+info)

(6/921) Constitutive activation of NF-kappaB in primary adult T-cell leukemia cells.

Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is an etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). The viral protein Tax induces the activation and nuclear translocalization of transcription factor NF-kappaB, which is proposed to play a crucial role in the transformation of T cells by HTLV-I. However, the HTLV-I genes including Tax are not expressed significantly in primary leukemic cells from ATL patients. In this study, we examined the basis for NF-kappaB activation in freshly isolated leukemic cells from ATL patients. We found that leukemic cells from ATL patients, like HTLV-I-infected T-cell lines, display constitutive NF-kappaB DNA binding activity and increased degradation of IkappaBalpha (an inhibitor of NF-kappaB). Whereas the NF-kappaB binding activity in Tax-expressing T-cell lines consisted mostly of p50/c-Rel, fresh ATL samples contained p50/p50 and p50/p65 heterodimers. One T-cell line derived from ATL leukemic cells, TL-Om1, displayed constitutive NF-kappaB activity, as well as enhanced degradation of IkappaBalpha, despite the lack of detectable Tax expression. Interestingly, the NF-kappaB in TL-Om1 consists of p50/p50 and p50/p65 like that in fresh primary leukemic cells. Our results suggest that activation of NF-kappaB occurs through a Tax-independent mechanism in leukemic cells of ATL patients, possibly due to differential NF-kappaB subunit activation.  (+info)

(7/921) Fas gene mutation in the progression of adult T cell leukemia.

Fas antigen (Apo-1/CD95) is an apoptosis-signaling cell surface receptor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. Adult T cell leukemia (ATL) cells express Fas antigen and show apoptosis after treatment with an anti-Fas monoclonal antibody. We established the ATL cell line KOB, which showed resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis, and found that KOB expressed two forms of Fas mRNA, the normal form and a truncated form. The truncated transcript lacked 20 base pairs at exon 9, resulting in a frame shift and the generation of a premature stop codon at amino acid 239. The same mutation was detected in primary ascitic cells and peripheral blood cells. The mutation was not detected in lymph node cells, however, although all of the primary ATL cells were of the same clonal origin. A retroviral-mediated gene transfer of the truncated Fas to Jurkat cells rendered the cells resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis, suggesting a dominant negative interference mechanism. These results indicate that an ATL subclone acquires a Fas mutation in the lymph nodes, enabling the subclone to escape from apoptosis mediated by the Fas/Fas ligand system and proliferate in the body. Mutation of the Fas gene may be one of the mechanisms underlying the progression of ATL.  (+info)

(8/921) Use of alanosine as a methylthioadenosine phosphorylase-selective therapy for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in vitro.

Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) is an important enzyme for the salvage of adenine and methionine and is deficient in a variety of cancers including T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (T-ALL). Previously, we reported that the MTAP gene was deleted in over 30% of T-ALL patients at both diagnosis and relapse. We now report that MTAP-primary T-ALL cells are more sensitive to the toxicity of L-alanosine, an inhibitor of de novo AMP synthesis, than are MTAP+ primary T-ALL cells. As measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation, DNA synthesis in all seven MTAP-primary T-ALL cells was inhibited by L-alanosine with a mean IC50 of 4.8+/-5.3 ILM (range, 0.3-11.3 microM). On the other hand, the IC50 for 60% (12 of 20) of MTAP+ primary T-ALL was 19+/-18 microM (range, 1.7-67 microM; P = 0.02), whereas the remaining 40% (8 of 20) had an IC50 of >80 microM4. Furthermore, normal lymphocytes and MTAP+ primary T-ALL cells were rescued from L-alanosine toxicity by the MTAP substrate 5'-deoxyadenosine, but MTAP-T-ALL cells were not. These results indicate that normal cells, which are intrinsically MTAP+, would be protected from L.-alanosine toxicity, whereas MTAP-tumor cells would be killed. Thus, our results support the use of L-alanosine alone or in combination with a salvage agent as a MTAP-selective therapy and therefore lay the foundation for the initiation of clinical trials for the treatment of T-ALL and other MTAP-deficient malignancies with L-alanosine.  (+info)

  • cells
  • Giving low doses of chemotherapy, such as fludarabine phosphate, and TBI before a donor peripheral blood stem cell transplant helps stop the growth of cancer cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Why are CD8+ T Cells that Re-Express CD45RA Associated with Lymphoma Relapse? (takedowncancer.org)
  • Sorafenib may stop the growth of cancer cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth and by blocking blood flow to the cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Briefly, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are isolated from routine phlebotomy samples and then cultured in defined growth factors to yield a highly proliferative erythrocyte progenitor cell population that is remarkably amenable to reprogramming. (jove.com)
  • Potential uses of human iPSCs include modeling pathogenesis of human genetic diseases, autologous cell therapy after gene correction, and personalized drug screening by providing a source of patient-specific and symptom relevant cells. (jove.com)
  • 3-AP may also stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In a typical scenario, a virus-infected cell will release interferons causing nearby cells to heighten their anti-viral defenses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A virus-infected cell releases viral particles that can infect nearby cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the infected cell can prepare neighboring cells against a potential infection by the virus by releasing interferons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike most non-Hodgkin lymphomas (which are generally B cell related), CTCL is caused by a mutation of T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac arrest Cytokine release syndrome Tumor lysis syndrome, causing acute renal failure Infections Hepatitis B reactivation Other viral infections Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) Immune toxicity, with depletion of B cells in 70% to 80% of lymphoma patients Pulmonary toxicity Bowel obstruction and perforation Two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus died of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) after being treated with rituximab. (wikipedia.org)
  • They include: Cell growth and division absent the proper signals Continuous growth and division even given contrary signals Avoidance of programmed cell death Limitless number of cell divisions Promoting blood vessel construction Invasion of tissue and formation of metastases The progression from normal cells to cells that can form a detectable mass to outright cancer involves multiple steps known as malignant progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • In January 2016 Juno announced it had acquired AbVitro, allowing it to use next-generation single cell sequencing platforms to complement its ability to create T cells engineered to target a broad array of cancer targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most normal cells will undergo a programmed form of rapid cell death (apoptosis) when critical functions are altered and malfunctioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • further explanation needed] According to the CDC definition, a patient has AIDS if they are infected with HIV and have either: a CD4+ T-cell count below 200 cells/µL a CD4+ T-cell percentage of total lymphocytes of less than 15% or one of the defining illnesses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, canonical PRC1 complexes and PRC2 can act together to repress gene transcription and maintain this repression through cell division (i.e. the repressed state is also present in daughter cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Maintenance of embryonic stem cells (ES) Lineage-specific genes are genes that will define the final identity of the differentiated cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lack of the normal distribution of these B cells is one basis for demonstrating clonality, the key element for establishing a diagnosis of any B cell malignancy (B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancers
  • Cancers are a large family of diseases that involve abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Resulting iPSCs were further characterized and deemed free of transfected DNA, integrated transgene DNA, and lack detectable gene rearrangements such as those within the immunoglobulin heavy chain and T cell receptor loci of more differentiated cell types. (jove.com)
  • Interferon type I: All type I IFNs bind to a specific cell surface receptor complex known as the IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR) that consists of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • It targets the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) receptor of lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pembrolizumab is an immunoglobulin G4, with a variable region against the human programmed cell death 1 receptor, a humanized mouse monoclonal [228-L-proline(H10-S>P)]γ4 heavy chain (134-218') disulfide and a humanized mouse monoclonal κ light chain dimer (226-226:229-229)-bisdisulfide. (wikipedia.org)
  • In December 2014 the company signed an agreement with Opus Bio, Inc for a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-T) cell product candidate targeting CD22. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trials will assess combinations of MEDI4736 and one of Juno's CD19 directed chimeric antigen receptor T cell candidates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later in the same month the company launched a collaboration, with Editas Medicine, to create CAR-T and high-affinity T cell receptor therapies to treat cancer, with the potential to generate up to $737 million-plus for Editas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukemia inhibitory factor receptor has been shown to interact with Glycoprotein 130. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • These factors act, at least partly, by changing the genes of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most oncogenes began as proto-oncogenes, normal genes involved in cell growth and proliferation or inhibition of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • If normal genes promoting cellular growth, through mutation, are up-regulated, (gain of function mutation) they will predispose the cell to cancer and are thus termed oncogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human genome may encode over 1000 miRNAs, which are abundant in many mammalian cell types and appear to target about 60% of the genes of humans and other mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maturation
  • In August the company announced it would license rights from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Eureka Therapeutics for a novel, fully human binding domain targeting B-cell maturation antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral blood
  • In the mid-1990s, my research group began to devise a method to establish endothelial cell cultures from human peripheral blood, with an ultimate goal of examining interindividual heterogeneity of endothelial biology. (jci.org)
  • aggressive
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 or human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I), also called the adult T-cell lymphoma virus type 1, is a retrovirus of the human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) family that has been implicated in several kinds of diseases including very aggressive adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL), HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, uveitis, Strongyloides stercoralis hyper-infection and some other diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem
  • Once iPSC colonies exhibit typical human embryonic stem cell (hESC) morphology, they are gently transferred to individual iMEF-coated tissue culture plates for continued growth and expansion. (jove.com)
  • The NYSCF conference is unique: it focuses on translational stem cell research, demonstrating the potential to advance cures for the major diseases of our time. (biotech-calendar.com)
  • It is designed for all professionals with an interest in stem cell research, including physicians, researchers, clinical investigators, professors, government and health officials, postdoctoral fellows and graduate students. (biotech-calendar.com)
  • Haematopoietic stem cell pool 11-fold lower than in DBA/2. (spotidoc.com)
  • diseases
  • According to the medicalnewstoday cancer is a class of diseases characterized by out-of-control cell growth. (melandriaromero.net)
  • Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adolescents
  • Bleyer A, O'Leary M, Barr R, Ries LAG (eds): Cancer Epidemiology in Older Adolescents and Young Adults 15 to 29 Years of Age, Including SEER Incidence and Survival: 1975-2000. (seventyk.org)
  • commonly
  • While the majority of miRNAs are located within the cell, some miRNAs, commonly known as circulating miRNAs or extracellular miRNAs, have also been found in extracellular environment, including various biological fluids and cell culture media. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Life-course socioeconomic status and breast and cervical cancer screening: analysis of the WHO's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE). (seventyk.org)
  • protein
  • the phosphorylated eIF-2 forms an inactive complex with another protein, called eIF2B, to reduce protein synthesis within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • When it binds to this protein it triggers cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pembrolizumab is a therapeutic antibody that binds to and blocks the PD-1, programmed cell death protein 1 located on lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkaline phosphatase in E. coli is located in the periplasmic space and can thus be released using techniques that weaken the cell wall and release the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The unregulated expression of this protein activates other proteins that are involved in cell cycle and cell division which can cause a cell to grow and divide uncontrollably (the cell becomes cancerous). (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • Oncogenes play an important role in the regulation or synthesis of proteins linked to tumorigenic cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissues
  • miRNA research revealed different sets of miRNAs expressed in different cell types and tissues and multiple roles for miRNAs in plant and animal development and in many other biological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • CCL8 elicits its effects by binding to several different cell surface receptors called chemokine receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • results
  • Together, the results of this study lay the groundwork for future studies to explore the role of DNA replication in immune cell generation and function. (jci.org)