Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Legislation, Medical: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Public Facilities: An area of recreation or hygiene for use by the public.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.RestaurantsTobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Head Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of heads from impact, penetration from falling and flying objects, and from limited electric shock and burn.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Smoke-Free Policy: Prohibition against tobacco smoking in specific areas to control TOBACCO SMOKE POLLUTION.Lobbying: A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.LegislationLegislation, Dental: Laws and regulations pertaining to the field of dentistry, proposed for enactment or recently enacted by a legislative body.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Legislation, Pharmacy: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of pharmacy, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Drug Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for drugs and BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS. These include those in ampule, capsule, tablet, solution or other forms. Packaging includes immediate-containers, secondary-containers, and cartons. In the United States, such packaging is controlled under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which also stipulates requirements for tamper-resistance and child-resistance. Similar laws govern use elsewhere. (From Code of Federal Regulations, 21 CFR 1 Section 210, 1993) DRUG LABELING is also available.Legislation, Veterinary: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of veterinary medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Civil Rights: Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from http://www.usccr.gov/ accessed 1/31/2003)Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Euthanasia: The act or practice of killing or allowing death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)Legislation, Hospital: Laws and regulations concerning hospitals, which are proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Law Enforcement: Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.United StatesSmoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Seat Belts: Restraining belts fastened to the frame of automobiles, aircraft, or other vehicles, and strapped around the person occupying the seat in the car or plane, intended to prevent the person from being thrown forward or out of the vehicle in case of sudden deceleration.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Infanticide: The killing of infants at birth or soon after.Legislation, Nursing: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of nursing, proposed for enactment by a legislative body.Commitment of Mentally Ill: Legal process required for the institutionalization of a patient with severe mental problems.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Mandatory Programs: Programs in which participation is required.Patient Rights: Fundamental claims of patients, as expressed in statutes, declarations, or generally accepted moral principles. (Bioethics Thesaurus) The term is used for discussions of patient rights as a group of many rights, as in a hospital's posting of a list of patient rights.Social Control, Formal: Control which is exerted by the more stable organizations of society, such as established institutions and the law. They are ordinarily embodied in definite codes, usually written.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Right to Die: The right of the patient or the patient's representative to make decisions with regard to the patient's dying.Bicycling: The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Animal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.Accident Prevention: Efforts and designs to reduce the incidence of unexpected undesirable events in various environments and situations.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Wills: Legal documents that are declarations of individuals' wishes regarding the disposal of their property or estate after death; esp: written instruments, legally executed, by which dispositions are made of estates. LIVING WILLS are written declarations regarding prolongation of life by extraordinary means.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Facility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)ScotlandWomen's Rights: The rights of women to equal status pertaining to social, economic, and educational opportunities afforded by society.EuropeJudicial Role: The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Motorcycles: Two-wheeled, engine-driven vehicles.Euthanasia, Active, Voluntary: Active euthanasia of a patient at the patient's request and/or with the patient's consent.Insanity Defense: A legal concept that an accused is not criminally responsible if, at the time of committing the act, the person was laboring under such a defect of reason from disease of the mind as not to know the nature and quality of the act done or if the act was known, to not have known that what was done was wrong. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed)Cotinine: The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.Jurisprudence: The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Insemination, Artificial, Heterologous: Human artificial insemination in which the semen used is that of a man other than the woman's husband.Retrospective Moral Judgment: The application of current standards of morality to past actions, institutions, or persons.Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Animal Rights: The moral and ethical bases of the protection of animals from cruelty and abuse. The rights are extended to domestic animals, laboratory animals, and wild animals.Licensure: The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.Great BritainInsurance, Psychiatric: Insurance providing benefits to cover part or all of the psychiatric care.Minors: A person who has not attained the age at which full civil rights are accorded.Paternalism: Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Euthanasia, Passive: Failing to prevent death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy by the withdrawal or withholding of life-prolonging treatment.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Child Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of children; frequently through a legal process.Embryo Research: Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus during the prenatal stage of development that is characterized by rapid morphological changes and the differentiation of basic structures. In humans, this includes the period from the time of fertilization to the end of the eighth week after fertilization.IrelandHistory, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Animal Experimentation: The use of animals as investigational subjects.Policy: A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.Euthanasia, Active: The act or practice of killing for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person or animal from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Compensation and Redress: Payment, or other means of making amends, for a wrong or injury.Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Consumer Product SafetyDisclosure: Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.Mental Competency: The ability to understand the nature and effect of the act in which the individual is engaged. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed).Mandatory Reporting: A legal requirement that designated types of information acquired by professionals or institutions in the course of their work be reported to appropriate authorities.Posthumous Conception: Conception after the death of the male or female biological parent through techniques such as the use of gametes that have been stored during his or her lifetime or that were collected immediately after his or her death.Consumer Advocacy: The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.Firearms: Small-arms weapons, including handguns, pistols, revolvers, rifles, shotguns, etc.Freedom: The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.Product Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Suicide, Assisted: Provision (by a physician or other health professional, or by a family member or friend) of support and/or means that gives a patient the power to terminate his or her own life. (from APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed).Beauty CultureOrphan Drug Production: Production of drugs or biologicals which are unlikely to be manufactured by private industry unless special incentives are provided by others.Germany, EastSafety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Forensic Psychiatry: Psychiatry in its legal aspects. This includes criminology, penology, commitment of mentally ill, the psychiatrist's role in compensation cases, the problems of releasing information to the court, and of expert testimony.Liability, Legal: Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Rare Diseases: A large group of diseases which are characterized by a low prevalence in the population. They frequently are associated with problems in diagnosis and treatment.Surrogate Mothers: Women who allow themselves to be impregnated with the understanding that the offspring are to be given over to the parents who have commissioned the surrogate.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Counterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.Withholding Treatment: Withholding or withdrawal of a particular treatment or treatments, often (but not necessarily) life-prolonging treatment, from a patient or from a research subject as part of a research protocol. The concept is differentiated from REFUSAL TO TREAT, where the emphasis is on the health professional's or health facility's refusal to treat a patient or group of patients when the patient or the patient's representative requests treatment. Withholding of life-prolonging treatment is usually indexed only with EUTHANASIA, PASSIVE, unless the distinction between withholding and withdrawing treatment, or the issue of withholding palliative rather than curative treatment, is discussed.Living Wills: Written, witnessed declarations in which persons request that if they become disabled beyond reasonable expectation of recovery, they be allowed to die rather than be kept alive by extraordinary means. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Parental Consent: Informed consent given by a parent on behalf of a minor or otherwise incompetent child.Presumed Consent: An institutional policy of granting authority to health personnel to perform procedures on patients or to remove organs from cadavers for transplantation unless an objection is registered by family members or by the patient prior to death. This also includes emergency care of minors without prior parental consent.Oocyte Donation: Transfer of preovulatory oocytes from donor to a suitable host. Oocytes are collected, fertilized in vitro, and transferred to a host that can be human or animal.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)National Health Insurance, United StatesIndustry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Labor Unions: Organizations comprising wage and salary workers in health-related fields for the purpose of improving their status and conditions. The concept includes labor union activities toward providing health services to members.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Hippocratic Oath: An oath, attributed to Hippocrates, that serves as an ethical guide for the medical profession.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Germany, WestDirected Tissue Donation: Tissue, organ, or gamete donation intended for a designated recipient.International Agencies: International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.Drug Overdose: Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Reimbursement Mechanisms: Processes or methods of reimbursement for services rendered or equipment.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Double Effect Principle: Guideline for determining when it is morally permissible to perform an action to pursue a good end with knowledge that the action will also bring about bad results. It generally states that, in cases where a contemplated action has such double effect, the action is permissible only if: it is not wrong in itself; the bad result is not intended; the good result is not a direct causal result of the bad result; and the good result is "proportionate to" the bad result. (from Solomon, "Double Effect," in Becker, The Encyclopedia of Ethics, 1992)Economics, Hospital: Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.CaliforniaMedical Device Legislation: Laws and regulations pertaining to devices used in medicine, proposed for enactment, or enacted by a legislative body.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Genetic Privacy: The protection of genetic information about an individual, family, or population group, from unauthorized disclosure.Reproductive Rights: Reproductive rights rest on the recognition of the basic right of all couples and individuals to decide freely and responsibly the number, spacing and timing of their children and to have the information and means to do so, and the right to attain the highest standard of sexual and reproductive health. They also include the right of all to make decisions concerning reproduction free of discrimination, coercion and violence.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Social Control Policies: Decisions for determining and guiding present and future objectives from among alternatives.Financial Support: The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Caribbean Region: The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Postnatal Care: The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.Sperm Banks: Centers for acquiring and storing semen.Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Abortion, Legal: Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)EnglandEuthanasia, Animal: The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Social Marketing: Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Drugs, Essential: Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Nonprescription Drugs: Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Workers' Compensation: Insurance coverage providing compensation and medical benefits to individuals because of work-connected injuries or disease.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Reproductive Techniques, Assisted: Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.Insurance Benefits: Payments or services provided under stated circumstances under the terms of an insurance policy. In prepayment programs, benefits are the services the programs will provide at defined locations and to the extent needed.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Advance Directives: Declarations by patients, made in advance of a situation in which they may be incompetent to decide about their own care, stating their treatment preferences or authorizing a third party to make decisions for them. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Mentally Ill Persons: Persons with psychiatric illnesses or diseases, particularly psychotic and severe mood disorders.Child Restraint Systems: Devices used to protect and restrain infant and child automotive passengers.Advisory Committees: Groups set up to advise governmental bodies, societies, or other institutions on policy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Brain Death: A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Abortion, Therapeutic: Abortion induced to save the life or health of a pregnant woman. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

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*  Drug law and legislation Bills - GovTrack.us

Drug law and legislation-related bills in the U.S. Congress. ... Drug law and legislation. Use this page to browse bills in the ... U.S. Congress related to the subject Drug law and legislation, as determined by the Library of Congress. ...
https://govtrack.us/congress/bills/subjects/drug_law_and_legislation/1245?congress=99

*  Chart: Anti-abortion legislation in states | MSNBC

The folks at Guttmacher Institute track anti-abortion legislation in the states each year, and today they've released the data ... Chart: Anti-abortion legislation in states. 01/02/13 01:33 PM. Updated 08/22/13 04:39 PM. ... Chart: Anti-abortion legislation in states. 01/02/13 01:33 PM. Updated 08/22/13 04:39 PM. ... The folks at Guttmacher Institute track anti-abortion legislation in the states each year, and today they've released the data ...
msnbc.com/rachel-maddow-show/chart-anti-abortion-legislation-stat

*  California lawmakers to unveil drought response legislation | Reuters

Officials did not immediately release details of the legislation, but a draft of a $644 million emergency drought relief bill, ... Feb 19 (Reuters) - California lawmakers are set to unveil legislation on Wednesday to combat a devastating drought, a month ... will join Brown in presenting the legislation, according to a statement from Brown's office. Democrats control a majority in ...
reuters.com/article/usa-drought-legislation/california-lawmakers-to-unveil-drought-response-legislation-idUSL2N0LO1I420140219?feedType=RSS

*  National Right to Life | Issues and Legislation

Tips about communicating with Members and general information about Hill staffers, the legislative process and more. ...
https://capwiz.com/nrlc/issues/

*  Energy Legislation Applications on Environmental XPRT

Results for energy legislation from leading brands. Compare and contact a supplier near you on Environmental XPRT ... Being driven by new legislation, the production of substitute fuel/alternative fuel will be gain momentum in the next few years ... For biodiesel, the following quality indices should be monitored, on order to comply with international legislation on biofuel ...
https://environmental-expert.com/applications/keyword-energy-legislation-75890

*  Minister says abortion legislation will be 'monitored'

Clearly we passed legislation earlier in the year and will continue to monitor legislation and see how it is being implemented ... Minister says abortion legislation will be 'monitored'. Protection of Life During Pregnancy Act criticised after suicidal woman ... Implementation of new abortion legislation will be "monitored" by the Government, Minister for Justice Frances Fitzgerald has ... The Pro-Life Campaign said the case highlighted "the horror and deep seated flaws" in the legislation. ...
irishtimes.com/news/social-affairs/minister-says-abortion-legislation-will-be-monitored-1.1899811

*  Petition Sexual Orientation Discrimination Legislation for Hong Kong

The Hong Kong government is considering legislation to outlaw sexual orientation discrimination and it needs to see public ... If you are not a member of the LGBT community, I trust you too agree to equality for all and legislation to protect us from ... Summary of our position: • SOD legislation does not warrant legalization of same-sex marriage • SOD law is about equal access ... Public opinion shall be sought but not as a pre-requisite to legislation You are encouraged to write to the Chief Executive and ...
https://ipetitions.com/petition/sodbhk

*  Children in care: legislation, policy and guidance | NSPCC

Legislation, policy and guidance around children in care. ... Legislation. Key pieces of legislation providing for children ... Children in care Legislation, policy and guidance More on children in care * Children in care ... New adoption legislation is intended to be introduced in the Northern Ireland Assembly in 2014. ... These pages outline the legislation, policy and guidance that specifically relates to children in care in the UK. National ...
https://nspcc.org.uk/preventing-abuse/child-protection-system/children-in-care/legislation-policy-guidance/

*  Polity.org.za | News | Legislation | Acts

Polity.org.za offers a unique take on news, with a focus on political, legal, economic and social issues in South Africa and Africa, as well as international affairs. Polity strives to provide our readers reliable and objective reporting on important issu
polity.org.za/page/2003-acts

*  Prescription drugs safety legislation coming today - Politics - CBC News

Prescription drugs safety legislation coming today. By Susan Lunn, CBC News Posted: Dec 06, 2013 5:00 AM ET Last Updated: Dec ... "I'm hoping that new legislation will give regulators at Health Canada the power to order drugs off the market, to say to drug ... NDP health critic Libby Davies is also watching today's legislation carefully.. "What we're looking for is a comprehensive ... Ambrose is set to introduce patient safety legislation following a promise in October's throne speech. ...
cbc.ca/news/politics/prescription-drugs-safety-legislation-coming-today-1.2452519

*  Rita Landgraf Health Care Reform Legislation, June 1, 2010

... * 1. Health Care Reform Care The Knotty Issues of Health Rita ... 7. Public Law 111-148 - Historic Legislation Patient Protection and Affordable Health Care Act (H.R. 3590) into law on March 23 ... secretary of the Division of Health and Social Services for the State of Delaware about the Health Care Reform Legislation. ...
https://slideshare.net/DEStateChamber/rita-landgraf-health-care-reform-legislation-june-1-2010

*  The Truth About Europe's Pedestrian Safety Legislation

The legislation in Europe is targeting the speed of 24 mph. What is NOT given in the statistics is the vehicle speed at which ... This legislation is reactive not proactive. It is focusing on what happens AFTER the accident. I say that the money spent on ... Smart legislation would attach the root of the problem, not give us another band-aid to slow the bleeding. These tragedies are ... Generally, this is a weak point of all safety legislation. If I understand you correctly, you see a danger of cars getting so ...
thetruthaboutcars.com/2007/12/the-truth-about-europes-pedestrian-safety-legislation/

*  Reproduction Legislation Must be Thought Through | Scoop News

Sue Kedgley's call for hastily-drawn up legislation in reaction to news that scientists will soon be able to fertilise human ... Reproduction Legislation Must be Thought Through. Wednesday, 11 July 2001, 2:04 pm. Press Release: ACT New Zealand ... Sue Kedgley's call for hastily-drawn up legislation in reaction to news that scientists will soon be able to fertilise human ...
scoop.co.nz/stories/PA0107/S00185.htm

*  Food Legislation | Rentokil Pest Control

Food Legislation & Pest Control. Ever-tightening legislation and directives make it essential for businesses to take ... Many companies rely on us to help them control pest risks in compliance with industry best practice and hygiene legislation. ...
rentokil.co.uk/food-legislation/food-legislation-and-pest-control.html

*  LEGISLATION SCENE - Hall - 2012 - Rehabilitation Nursing - Wiley Online Library

Patients and/or caregivers may access this content for use in relation to their own personal healthcare or that of a family member only. Terms and conditions will apply. ...
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/j.2048-7940.1984.tb02403.x/pdf

Statute Law (Repeals) Act 1993: The Statute Law (Repeals) Act 1993 (c 50) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.Oakleigh Recreation CentrePublic Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness Response ActChapter One (restaurant): Michelin GuideSmokefree Environments Amendment Act 2003: The Smokefree Environments Amendment Bill was passed by the Parliament of New Zealand on 3 December 2003. The smoking ban legislation calls for progressive introduction of various clauses to totally ban smoking in all workplaces including offices, clubs, pubs, restaurants, airports, schools etc.Type 66 helmet: The Type 66 is a combat helmet that is used by the Japanese Self-Defense Forces. Other GSDF, MSDF and is also used.Smoke-free Environments Act 1990: The Smoke-free Environments Act 1990 is an Act of Parliament in New Zealand.Treaty of the Bogue: The Treaty of the Bogue () was an unequal treaty between China and the United Kingdom, concluded in October 1843 to supplement the previous Treaty of Nanking. The treaty's key provisions granted extraterritoriality and most favored nation status to Britain.Terence Thomas, Baron Thomas of Macclesfield: Terence James Thomas, Baron Thomas of Macclesfield CBE (born 19 October 1937) is a Labour and Co-operative member of the House of Lords, and a retired banker. He is a member of the Regional Policy Forum, President of the Society.State health agency: A state health agency (SHA), or state department of health, is a department or agency of the state governments of the United States focused on public health. The state secretary of health is a constitutional or at times a statutory official in several states of the United States.European Union climate and energy package: The European plan on climate change consists of a range of measures adopted by the members of the European Union to fight against climate change. The plan was launched in March 2007, and after months of tough negotiations between the member countries, it was adopted by the European Parliament on December 2008.Generic Pharmaceutical Price Decay: Generic Pharmaceutical Price Decay is what happens (in the UK) once the originator brand has lost its patent exclusivity (patent expiry) and generic versions of the originator brand have been launched.Applied Economics, 2004, 36, 731–73, The price premium of generic to brand-names and pharmaceutical price index, Ying KonNHH Dept.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.List of tobacco-related topics: Nicotiana is the genus of herbs and shrubs which is cultivated to produce tobacco products.Child-resistant packaging: Child-resistant packaging or CR packaging is special packaging used to reduce the risk of children ingesting dangerous items. This is often accomplished by the use of a special safety cap.Foresight (psychology): Foresight is the ability to predict, or the action of predicting, what will happen or what is needed in the future. Studies suggest that much of human daily thought is directed towards potential future events.Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987: The Civil Rights Restoration Act was a U.S.Opinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010: Opinion polling (popularly known as surveys in the Philippines) for the 2010 Philippine presidential election is managed by two major polling firms: Social Weather Stations and Pulse Asia, and several minor polling firms. The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.Voluntary euthanasia: Voluntary euthanasia is the practice of ending a life in a painless manner. Voluntary euthanasia (VE) and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) have been the focus of great controversy in recent years.International Law Enforcement Academy: International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) are international police academies administered by the U.S.Whitehall Study: The original Whitehall Study investigated social determinants of health, specifically the cardiovascular disease prevalence and mortality rates among British male civil servants between the ages of 20 and 64. The initial prospective cohort study, the Whitehall I Study, examined over 18,000 male civil servants, and was conducted over a period of ten years, beginning in 1967.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Fold and thrust belt: A fold and thrust belt is a series of mountainous foothills adjacent to an orogenic belt, which forms due to contractional tectonics. Fold and thrust belts commonly form in the forelands adjacent to major orogens as deformation propagates outwards.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Indoor air pollution in developing nations: Indoor air pollution in developing nations is a significant form of indoor air pollution (IAP) that is little known to those in the developed world.Stepfamily: The Stepfather}}Involuntary commitment: Involuntary commitment or civil commitment is a legal process through which an individual with symptoms of severe mental illness is court-ordered into treatment in a psychiatric hospital (inpatient) or in the community (outpatient).Health marketing: Health marketing is a new approach to public health that applies traditional marketing principles and theories alongside science-based strategies to prevention, health promotion and health protection. Health marketing is one of the ways through which advancements in medicine and in health-protecting services like insurance are made widely known.Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: The Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program is a system of "managed competition" through which employee health benefits are provided to civilian government employees and annuitants of the United States government.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Inverse benefit law: The inverse benefit law states that the more a new drug is marketed, the worse it is for patients. More precisely, the ratio of benefits to harms among patients taking new drugs tends to vary inversely with how extensively a drug is marketed.Talking CCTV: Talking CCTV is a CCTV surveillance camera that is equipped with a speaker to allow an operator to speak to the people at the CCTV-monitored site.Australian referendum, 1913 (Trade and Commerce): The Constitution Alteration (Trade and Commerce) 1912 was an Australian referendum held in the 1913 referendums which sought to alter the Australian Constitution to extend Commonwealth legislative power in respect to trade and commerce.British Columbia Human Rights Tribunal: The British Columbia Human Rights Tribunal is a quasi-judicial human rights body in British Columbia, Canada. It was established under the British Columbia Human Rights Code.Cadence (cycling): In cycling, cadence (or pedaling rate) is the number of revolutions of the crank per minute; roughly speaking, this is the rate at which a cyclist is pedalling/turning the pedals. Cadence is related to wheel speed, but is a distinct measurement.ISO 39001: The ISO 39001 "Road Traffic Safety Management" is an ISO standard for a management system (similar to ISO 9000) for road traffic safety. The implementation of the standard is supposed to put the organizations, that provide the system "road traffic", into the position to improve the traffic safety and to reduce by that the number of persons killed or severely injured in road traffic.Public opinion on nuclear issues: Public opinion on nuclear issues is the aggregate of attitudes or beliefs held by the adult population concerning nuclear power, nuclear weapons and uranium mining.Medix UK Limited: Medix UK Limited is a UK-based market research consultancy providing online research in healthcare.International Life Sciences Institute: The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) is a nonprofit [501c3]IRS 501c3 Definition1985 IRS ILSI Tax Code Determination science organization founded in 1978 and headquartered in Washington, DC. It is a member organization whose members are primarily food and beverage, agricultural, chemical, and pharmaceutical companies.Chronic care: Chronic care refers to medical care which addresses pre-existing or long term illness, as opposed to acute care which is concerned with short term or severe illness of brief duration. Chronic medical conditions include asthma, diabetes, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, congestive heart disease, cirrhosis of the liver, hypertension and depression.Advertising Standards Canada: Advertising Standards Canada (ASC) is the advertising industry's non-profit self-regulating body created in 1957 to ensure the integrity and viability of advertising in Canada. The organization includes over 160 advertisers, advertising agencies, media organizations, and suppliers to the advertising sector.Testamentary capacity: In the common law tradition, testamentary capacity is the legal term of art used to describe a person's legal and mental ability to make or alter a valid will. This concept has also been called sound mind and memory or disposing mind and memory.Indian trademark law: Indian trademark law statutorily protects trademarks as per the Trademark Act, 1999 and also under the common law remedy of passing off. Statutory protection of trademark is administered by the Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trade Marks, a government agency which reports to the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP), under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry.Privacy Center: Privacy Center is a form of ransomware that hijacks a Microsoft Windows operating system and insists that the upgrades their protection for a price. It is a green system tray icon that often takes over the screen and blocks the desktop, including the start icon.Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition: The Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition was adopted by governments attending the 1974 World Food Conference. In it, states recognised that it is the common purpose of all nations to eliminate hunger and malnutrition.Hog Farm: Hog farm}}List of Drug Enforcement Administration operations: The following is a list of major operations undertaken by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration, in reverse chronological order.Pharmaceutical manufacturing: Drug manufacturing is the process of industrial-scale synthesis of pharmaceutical drugs by pharmaceutical companies. The process of drug manufacturing can be broken down into a series of unit operations, such as milling, granulation, coating, tablet pressing, and others.United States–Thailand Free Trade Agreement: President George W. Bush and Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra announced the intention to negotiate a US-Thailand free trade agreement on October 19, 2003 during President Bush's state visit to Thailand on the event of the APEC Leaders' meeting in Bangkok.Dundee Royal Infirmary: Dundee Royal Infirmary, often shortened to DRI, was a major teaching hospital in Dundee, Scotland. Until the opening of Ninewells Hospital in 1974, Dundee Royal Infirmary was Dundee’s main hospital.Lucretia MottGA²LENArchie MorrisCalifornia Proposition 29 (2012): Proposition 29, the California Cancer Research Act, is a California ballot measure that was defeated by California voters at the statewide election on June 5, 2012.NS Motorcycle: The NS motorcycle, made by Narazo Shimazu in 1909, was the first motorcycle to be designed, built and sold in Japan. Shimazu created the Nihon Motorcycle Company (NMC) to manufacture the NS.YourLastRight.com: YourLastRight.com Limited is an Australian national non-profit organisation which lobbies for law reform to permit voluntary euthanasia in restricted circumstances.InsanityIslamic sexual hygienical jurisprudence: Islamic sexual hygienical jurisprudence is a prominent topic in Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) due to its everyday nature.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Richard K. Bernstein: Richard K. Bernstein (born June 17, 1934) is a physician and an advocate for a low-carbohydrate diabetes diet to help achieve normal blood sugars for diabetics.Tema Motorway: The Tema Motorway is a highway that links Tema to Accra—capital of Ghana. It was the only motorway in Ghana.Massachusetts Animal Rights Coalition: The Massachusetts Animal Rights Coalition (MARC), is a non-profit volunteer-run animal rights organization based in Massachusetts, United States. MARC is the largest and most active animal rights group in Massachusetts and operates as a tax exempt 501(c)(3) corporationhttp://corp.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Biologically based mental illness: One of three major definitions used in state parity laws.An Analysis of the Definitions of Mental Illness Used in State Parity LawsIsrael and animal welfare: Israel's protection of animal welfare rests upon the Animal Welfare Law, 1994 which is composed of an Animal Protection Law and an Animal Experimentation Law. The law was originally introduced by Abraham Poraz in 1993 and passed by the Knesset on January 11, 1994.Ellen Lewis Herndon Arthur: Ellen Lewis Herndon Arthur (August 30, 1837 – January 12, 1880) was the wife of the 21st President of the United States, Chester A. Arthur I.Mark Siegler: Mark Siegler (born June 20, 1941) is an American physician who specializes in internal medicine. He is the Lindy Bergman Distinguished Service Professor of Medicine and Surgery at the University of Chicago.Child Rights Taskforce – AustraliaDolly Parton singles discography: The singles discography of American country singer Dolly Parton includes 106 singles and 45 music videos.Royal College of Surgeons in IrelandThe Flash ChroniclesOrgan procurement organization: In the United States, an organ procurement organization (OPO) is a non-profit organization that is responsible for the evaluation and procurement of deceased-donor organs for organ transplantation. There are 58 such organizations in the United States, each responsible for organ procurement in a specific region, and each a member of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network, a federally mandated network created by and overseen by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS).Groningen Protocol: The Groningen Protocol is a text created in September 2004 by Eduard Verhagen, the medical director of the department of pediatrics at the University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG) in Groningen, the Netherlands. It contains directives with criteria under which physicians can perform "active ending of life on infants" (child euthanasia) without fear of legal prosecution.Vaccine Information Statement: Vaccine Information Statement is a formal description of a vaccine, with a concise description of the benefits of the vaccine, a concise description of the risks associated with the vaccine, a statement of the availability of the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program, and is required as a provision of the United States National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act. Such materials shall be provided prior to the administration of a vaccine set forth in the Vaccine Injury Table.Motivations for joining the Special OlympicsConsumer Product Safety Act: The Consumer Product Safety Act (CPSA) was enacted in 1972 by the United States Congress. The act established the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) as an independent agency of the United States federal government and defined its basic authority.