Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Discrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Reversal Learning: Any situation where an animal or human is trained to respond differentially to two stimuli (e.g., approach and avoidance) under reward and punishment conditions and subsequently trained under reversed reward values (i.e., the approach which was previously rewarded is punished and vice versa).Serial Learning: Learning to make a series of responses in exact order.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Probability Learning: Usually refers to the use of mathematical models in the prediction of learning to perform tasks based on the theory of probability applied to responses; it may also refer to the frequency of occurrence of the responses observed in the particular study.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Transfer (Psychology): Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Retention (Psychology): The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Practice (Psychology): Performance of an act one or more times, with a view to its fixation or improvement; any performance of an act or behavior that leads to learning.Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Paired-Associate Learning: Learning in which the subject must respond with one word or syllable when presented with another word or syllable.Feedback, Psychological: A mechanism of information stimulus and response that may control subsequent behavior, cognition, perception, or performance. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Education, Distance: Education via communication media (correspondence, radio, television, computer networks) with little or no in-person face-to-face contact between students and teachers. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1997)Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Long-Term Potentiation: A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Generalization (Psychology): The phenomenon of an organism's responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Vocabulary: The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Conditioning, Eyelid: Reflex closure of the eyelid occurring as a result of classical conditioning.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Concept Formation: A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.Neural Networks (Computer): A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Students, Pharmacy: Individuals enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a formal educational program leading to a degree in pharmacy.Memory, Long-Term: Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Programmed Instruction as Topic: Instruction in which learners progress at their own rate using workbooks, textbooks, or electromechanical devices that provide information in discrete steps, test learning at each step, and provide immediate feedback about achievement. (ERIC, Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1996).Habituation, Psychophysiologic: The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Knowledge of Results (Psychology): A principle that learning is facilitated when the learner receives immediate evaluation of learning performance. The concept also hypothesizes that learning is facilitated when the learner is promptly informed whether a response is correct, and, if incorrect, of the direction of error.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Group Processes: The procedures through which a group approaches, attacks, and solves a common problem.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Teaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Mushroom Bodies: Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Amnesia: Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Finches: Common name for small PASSERIFORMES in the family Fringillidae. They have a short stout bill (BEAK) adapted for crushing SEEDS. Some species of Old World finches are called CANARIES.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Support Vector Machines: Learning algorithms which are a set of related supervised computer learning methods that analyze data and recognize patterns, and used for classification and regression analysis.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Competency-Based Education: Educational programs designed to ensure that students attain prespecified levels of competence in a given field or training activity. Emphasis is on achievement or specified objectives.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Clinical Clerkship: Undergraduate education programs for second- , third- , and fourth-year students in health sciences in which the students receive clinical training and experience in teaching hospitals or affiliated health centers.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Blinking: Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Imprinting (Psychology): A particular kind of learning characterized by occurrence in very early life, rapidity of acquisition, and relative insusceptibility to forgetting or extinction. Imprinted behavior includes most (or all) behavior commonly called instinctive, but imprinting is used purely descriptively.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Olfactory Pathways: Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.Pattern Recognition, Physiological: The analysis of a critical number of sensory stimuli or facts (the pattern) by physiological processes such as vision (PATTERN RECOGNITION, VISUAL), touch, or hearing.Comprehension: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Self-Evaluation Programs: Educational programs structured in such a manner that the participating professionals, physicians, or students develop an increased awareness of their performance, usually on the basis of self-evaluation questionnaires.Linguistics: The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Education, Nursing: Use for general articles concerning nursing education.Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Long-Term Synaptic Depression: A persistent activity-dependent decrease in synaptic efficacy between NEURONS. It typically occurs following repeated low-frequency afferent stimulation, but it can be induced by other methods. Long-term depression appears to play a role in MEMORY.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Histology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Scopolamine Hydrobromide: An alkaloid from SOLANACEAE, especially DATURA and SCOPOLIA. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like ATROPINE, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in URINARY INCONTINENCE, in MOTION SICKNESS, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Habits: Acquired or learned responses which are regularly manifested.Robotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.Multimedia: Materials, frequently computer applications, that combine some or all of text, sound, graphics, animation, and video into integrated packages. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Goals: The end-result or objective, which may be specified or required in advance.Rotarod Performance Test: A performance test based on forced MOTOR ACTIVITY on a rotating rod, usually by a rodent. Parameters include the riding time (seconds) or endurance. Test is used to evaluate balance and coordination of the subjects, particular in experimental animal models for neurological disorders and drug effects.Education, Professional: Formal education and training in preparation for the practice of a profession.Preceptorship: Practical experience in medical and health-related services that occurs as part of an educational program wherein the professionally-trained student works outside the academic environment under the supervision of an established professional in the particular field.ReadingFeeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Mice, Inbred C57BLEscape Reaction: Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Dendritic Spines: Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Semantics: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Child Language: The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Dyslexia: A cognitive disorder characterized by an impaired ability to comprehend written and printed words or phrases despite intact vision. This condition may be developmental or acquired. Developmental dyslexia is marked by reading achievement that falls substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education. The disturbance in reading significantly interferes with academic achievement or with activities of daily living that require reading skills. (From DSM-IV)CA1 Region, Hippocampal: One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.Dentate Gyrus: GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.Set (Psychology): Readiness to think or respond in a predetermined way when confronted with a problem or stimulus situation.Psychology, Educational: The branch of psychology concerned with psychological aspects of teaching and the formal learning process in school.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Olfactory Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Cultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Mentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.

*  Genetics of Motor Learning - Full Text View -

Motor Learning. Genetic Analysis. BDNF. Parkinson Disease. Movement Disorders. Dystonia. Healthy Volunteer. HV. ... Blood draws for genetic testing will usually be done on the same day as the motor learning study. Participants will provide one ... Individuals between 18 and 100 years of age who are or will be participating in motor learning research studies at the National ... Genetic polymorphism frequency (e.g. BNDF Va166Met) compared to measures of motor learning (e.g. reaction time or fMRI BOLD ..."Movement Disorders"&rank=10

*  Set up a confidence interval

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*  Psychology Chapter 6: Learning Flashcards -

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*  Needs Assesment, Effective Learning, Theories examined

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Learning Plan: A Learning Plan is a document (possibly an interactive or on-line document) that is used to plan learning, usually over an extended period of time.Graphic facilitation: Graphic Facilitation is the use of large scale imagery to lead groups and individuals towards a goal. The method is used in various processes such as meetings, seminars, workshops and conferences.Avoidance reactionSequence learning: In cognitive psychology, sequence learning is inherent to human ability because it is an integrated part of conscious and nonconscious learning as well as activities. Sequences of information or sequences of actions are used in various everyday tasks: "from sequencing sounds in speech, to sequencing movements in typing or playing instruments, to sequencing actions in driving an automobile.Explicit memory: Explicit memory is the conscious, intentional recollection of previous experiences and information. People use explicit memory throughout the day, such as remembering the time of an appointment or recollecting an event from years ago.Mexican International Conference on Artificial Intelligence: MICAI (short for Mexican International Conference on Artificial Intelligence) is the name of an annual conference covering all areas of Artificial Intelligence (AI), held in Mexico. The first MICAI conference was held in 2000.Adult interaction with infants: When adults come into contact with infants, it is unlikely that they would be able to have a proper conversation, as the infant would not know enough about pop culture or general knowledge to create a stimulating conversation for the adult. Also, the adult may not understand baby-language and cannot relate to their situation properly.Homeostatic plasticity: In neuroscience, homeostatic plasticity refers to the capacity of neurons to regulate their own excitability relative to network activity, a compensatory adjustment that occurs over the timescale of days. Synaptic scaling has been proposed as a potential mechanism of homeostatic plasticity.Conditioned place preference: Conditioned place preference (CPP) is a form of Pavlovian conditioning used to measure the motivational effects of objects or experiences. This paradigm can also be used to measure conditioned place aversion with an identical procedure involving aversive stimuli instead.Kiten (program)Place cellSyllabus: A syllabus (pl. syllabi) is an outline and summary of topics to be covered in an education or training course.Tower of Babel (M. C. Escher): Tower of Babel is a 1928 woodcut by M. C.Fear conditioning: Fear conditioning is a behavioral paradigm in which organisms learn to predict aversive events. It is a form of learning in which an aversive stimulus (e.Alexander Walker (physiologist): Alexander Walker (1779—1852) was a Scottish physiologist, aesthetician, encyclopaedist, translator, novelist, and journalist.Cue stick: A cue stick (or simply cue, more specifically pool cue, snooker cue, or billiards cue), is an item of sporting equipment essential to the games of pool, snooker and carom billiards. It is used to strike a ball, usually the .Memory clinic: A memory clinic is a dedicated medical clinic specialising in the assessment and diagnosis of memory disorders. Memory clinics were first seen in the UK in the 1980s, mainly in academic research centres.Reward system: The reward system is a group of neural structures that are critically involved in mediating the effects of reinforcement. A reward is an appetitive stimulus given to a human or some other animal to alter its behavior.Atlantic University: Atlantic University is private, distance education institution of higher and continuing education in Virginia Beach, Virginia. It is associated with Edgar Cayce's Association for Research and Enlightenment (A.Information hypothesis of conditioned reinforcementLeiden International Medical Student ConferenceCognitive skill: Cognitive functioning is a term referring to a human’s ability to process to (thoughts) that should not deplete on a large scale in healthy individuals. Cognition mainly refers to things like memory, the ability to learn new information, speech, understanding of written material.Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status: The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status is a neuropsychological assessment initially introduced in 1998. It consists of ten subtests which give five scores, one for each of the five domains tested (immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, delayed memory).Retrograde signaling: Retrograde signaling in biology is a process whereby function of one part of a cell is controlled by feedback from another part of the cell, or where one cell sends reciprocal messages back to another cell that regulates it.Universal law of generalization: The universal law of generalization is a theory of cognition originally posited by Roger Shepard. According to it, the probability that a response to one stimulus will be generalized to another will be a function of the distance between the two stimuli.Vocabulary mismatch: Vocabulary mismatch is a common phenomenon in the usage of natural languages, occurring when different people name the same thing or concept differently.Spaced retrieval: Spaced retrieval, also known as expanded retrieval or uniform retrieval, is a learning technique, which requires users to rehearse information to be learned at different and increasing spaced intervals of time or a set uniform amount of time.Haslam, C.Shape theory of olfaction: The Shape theory of smell proposes that a molecule's smell character is due to its molecular shape, molecular size and functional groups. It has also been described by a 'lock and key' mechanism by which a scent molecule fits into olfactory receptors in the nasal epithelium.Interstimulus interval: The interstimulus interval (often abbreviated as ISI) is the temporal interval between the offset of one stimulus to the onset of another. For instance, Max Wertheimer did experiments with two stationary, flashing lights that at some interstimulus intervals appeared to the subject as moving instead of stationary.Song control system: A song system, also known as a song control system (SCS), is a series of discrete brain nuclei involved in the production and learning of song in songbirds. It was first observed by Fernando Nottebohm in 1976 in a paper titled "Central control of song in the canary, Serinus canarius", published in the Journal of Comparative Neurology.HSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).Language pedagogy: Language education may take place as a general school subject, in a specialized language school, or out of school with a rich selection of proprietary methods online and in books, CDs and DVDs. There are many methods of teaching languages.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingOlson's Extinction: Olson's Extinction was a mass extinction that occurred in the Early Guadalupian of the Permian period and which predated the Permian–Triassic extinction event.Print permanence: Print permanence refers to the longevity of printed material, especially photographs, and preservation issues. Over time, the optical density, color balance, lustre, and other qualities of a print will degrade.Physical neural network: A physical neural network is a type of artificial neural network in which an electrically adjustable resistance material is used to emulate the function of a neural synapse. "Physical" neural network is used to emphasize the reliance on physical hardware used to emulate neurons as opposed to software-based approaches which simulate neural networks.Curiosity: Curiosity (from Latin curiosus "careful, diligent, curious," akin to cura "care") is a quality related to inquisitive thinking such as exploration, investigation, and learning, evident by observation in human and animal species. Curiosity is heavily associated with all aspects of human development, in which derives the process of learning and desire to acquire knowledge and skill.Sensitization: Sensitization is a non-associative learning process in which repeated administrations of a stimulus results in the progressive amplification of a response. Sensitization often is characterized by an enhancement of response to a whole class of stimuli in addition to the one that is repeated.Gary H. Posner: Gary H. Posner (born c.Electroshock (wrestler)The great imitator: The Great Imitator is a phrase used for medical conditions that feature nonspecific symptoms and may be confused with a number of other diseases.J.Representativeness heuristic: The representativeness heuristic is used when making judgments about the probability of an event under uncertainty. It is one of a group of heuristics (simple rules governing judgment or decision-making) proposed by psychologists Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman in the early 1970s.HyperintensityPeer-led Team Learning: Peer-led Team Learning, (PLTL), is a model of teaching undergraduate science, math, and engineering courses that introduces peer-led workshops as an integral part of a course.Gosser,D.DJ College of Dental Sciences and Research: Divya Jyoti (DJ) College of Dental Sciences and Research is a dental college located in Modinagar in the nagar panchayat of Niwari in Ghaziabad district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The founder and chairman is Ajit Singh Jassar.Prosection: A prosection is the dissection of a cadaver (human or animal) or part of a cadaver by an experienced anatomist in order to demonstrate for students anatomic structure."Prosection.Voluntary Parenthood League: The Voluntary Parenthood League (VPL) was an organization that advocated for contraception during the birth control movement in the United States. The VPL was founded in 1919 by Mary Dennett.The Art of Negative Thinking: The Art of Negative Thinking (Norwegian: Kunsten å tenke negativt) is a 2006 Norwegian black comedy film directed and written by Bård Breien. The storyline revolves around a man (played by Fridtjov Såheim) who is adjusting to life in a wheelchair, and the socializing group he is made to join.Kenyon cell: In arthropods' nervous system, Kenyon cells are mushroom body neurons derived from globuli cells. Some species possess hundreds of thousands of Kenyon cells.Postoperative cognitive dysfunction: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a short-term decline in cognitive function (especially in memory and executive functions) that may last from a few days to a few weeks after surgery. In rare cases, this disorder may persist for several months after major surgery.Amnesia (Chumbawamba song): "Amnesia" is the second single from Chumbawamba's album Tubthumper, released on January 28, 1998. The song's lyrical content addresses the sense of betrayal that English leftists felt during the rise of New Labour.

(1/7032) High-linoleate and high-alpha-linolenate diets affect learning ability and natural behavior in SAMR1 mice.

Semipurified diets incorporating either perilla oil [high in alpha-linolenate, 18:3(n-3)] or safflower oil [high in linoleate, 18:2(n-6)] were fed to senescence-resistant SAMR1 mouse dams and their pups. Male offspring at 15 mo were examined using behavioral tests. In the open field test, locomotor activity during a 5-min period was significantly higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group. Observations of the circadian rhythm (48 h) of spontaneous motor activity indicated that the safflower oil group was more active than the perilla oil group during the first and second dark periods. The total number of responses to positive and negative stimuli was higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group in the light and dark discrimination learning test, but the correct response ratio was lower in the safflower oil group. The difference in the (n-6)/(n-3) ratios of the diets reflected the proportions of (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids, rather than those of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain total fatty acids, and in the proportions of (n-6) and (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the total polyunsaturated fatty acids of the brain phospholipids. These results suggest that in SAMR1 mice, the dietary alpha-linolenate/linoleate balance affects the (n-6)/(n-3) ratio of brain phospholipids, and this may modify emotional reactivity and learning ability.  (+info)

(2/7032) Improvement by nefiracetam of beta-amyloid-(1-42)-induced learning and memory impairments in rats.

1. We have previously demonstrated that continuous i.c.v. infusion of amyloid beta-peptide (A beta), the major constituent of senile plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, results in learning and memory deficits in rats. 2. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nefiracetam [N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl) acetamide, DM-9384] on A beta-(1-42)-induced learning and memory deficits in rats. 3. In the A beta-(1-42)-infused rats, spontaneous alternation behaviour in a Y-maze task, spatial reference and working memory in a water maze task, and retention of passive avoidance learning were significantly impaired as compared with A beta-(40-1)-infused control rats. 4. Nefiracetam, at a dose range of 1-10 mg kg(-1), improved learning and memory deficits in the A beta-(1-42)-infused rats when it was administered p.o. 1 h before the behavioural tests. 5. Nefiracetam at a dose of 3 mg kg(-1) p.o. increased the activity of choline acetyltransferase in the hippocampus of A beta-(1-42)-infused rats. 6. Nefiracetam increased dopamine turnover in the cerebral cortex and striatum of A beta-(1-42)-infused rats, but failed to affect the noradrenaline, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid content. 7. These results suggest that nefiracetam may be useful for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease.  (+info)

(3/7032) Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation suppresses learning-induced synaptic elimination.

Auditory filial imprinting in the domestic chicken is accompanied by a dramatic loss of spine synapses in two higher associative forebrain areas, the mediorostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale (MNH) and the dorsocaudal neostriatum (Ndc). The cellular mechanisms that underlie this learning-induced synaptic reorganization are unclear. We found that local pharmacological blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the MNH, a manipulation that has been shown previously to impair auditory imprinting, suppresses the learning-induced spine reduction in this region. Chicks treated with the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) during the behavioral training for imprinting (postnatal day 0-2) displayed similar spine frequencies at postnatal day 7 as naive control animals, which, in both groups, were significantly higher than in imprinted animals. Because the average dendritic length did not differ between the experimental groups, the reduced spine frequency can be interpreted as a reduction of the total number of spine synapses per neuron. In the Ndc, which is reciprocally connected with the MNH and not directly influenced by the injected drug, learning-induced spine elimination was partly suppressed. Spine frequencies of the APV-treated, behaviorally trained but nonimprinted animals were higher than in the imprinted animals but lower than in the naive animals. These results provide evidence that NMDA receptor activation is required for the learning-induced selective reduction of spine synapses, which may serve as a mechanism of information storage specific for juvenile emotional learning events.  (+info)

(4/7032) Object location learning and non-spatial working memory of patients with Parkinson's disease may be preserved in "real life" situations.

The presence of a spatial memory deficit in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still a matter of discussion. Nineteen PD patients and 16 controls were given two spatial tests and a non-spatial task. First, the subject was led into a room containing 4 objects and had 10 s to memorize their location. After being led outside, the subject had to place icons representing the objects on a map of the room. Differences between the real and estimated locations were evaluated. Afterwards, the subject had to choose a map showing the correct arrangement of objects from 4 alternatives. Locations of some objects were changed before the second test. The subject had 10 s to detect these changes. One point was given for each change or its absence detected. In the non-spatial working memory task, 8 cards of different shapes were used. The subject had to select a different card each time while the cards were shuffled between choices. Errors consisted of selecting previously chosen cards. The means of the above measures for both groups were compared. Absence of any significant differences suggests that PD patients perform well in "real life" memory tests in contrast to similar computerized tests.  (+info)

(5/7032) Cortical function: jump-starting the brain.

Magnetic stimulation as used in studies of the human brain may not merely disrupt cognitive functions, but also enhance them. The direction of the effect may depend on the frequency of stimulation as much as the area of the brain that is stimulated.  (+info)

(6/7032) Segregating the functions of human hippocampus.

It is now accepted that hippocampal lesions impair episodic memory. However, the precise functional role of the hippocampus in episodic memory remains elusive. Recent functional imaging data implicate the hippocampus in processing novelty, a finding supported by human in vivo recordings and event-related potential studies. Here we measure hippocampal responses to novelty, using functional MRI (fMRI), during an item-learning paradigm generated from an artificial grammar system. During learning, two distinct types of novelty were periodically introduced: perceptual novelty, pertaining to the physical characteristics of stimuli (in this case visual characteristics), and exemplar novelty, reflecting semantic characteristics of stimuli (in this case grammatical status within a rule system). We demonstrate a left anterior hippocampal response to both types of novelty and adaptation of these responses with stimulus familiarity. By contrast to these novelty effects, we also show bilateral posterior hippocampal responses with increasing exemplar familiarity. These results suggest a functional dissociation within the hippocampus with respect to the relative familiarity of study items. Neural responses in anterior hippocampus index generic novelty, whereas posterior hippocampal responses index familiarity to stimuli that have behavioral relevance (i.e., only exemplar familiarity). These findings add to recent evidence for functional segregation within the human hippocampus during learning.  (+info)

(7/7032) Seasonal neuroplasticity in the songbird telencephalon: a role for melatonin.

Neuroplasticity in the vocal control system of songbirds is strongly influenced by seasonal fluctuations in circulating testosterone. These seasonally plastic telencephalic structures are implicated in the learning and production of song in songbirds. The role of the indoleamine melatonin in seasonal adaptations in birds has remained unclear. In this experiment, European starlings were castrated to remove the neuromodulating activity of gonadal steroids and were exposed to different photoperiods to induce reproductive states characteristic of different seasonal conditions. Long days increased the volume of the song-control nucleus high vocal center compared with its volume on short days. Exogenous melatonin attenuated the long-day-induced volumetric increase in high vocal center and also decreased the volume of another song-control nucleus, area X. This effect was observed regardless of reproductive state. To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence of a role for melatonin in functional plasticity within the central nervous system of vertebrates.  (+info)

(8/7032) Is integer arithmetic fundamental to mental processing?: the mind's secret arithmetic.

Unlike the ability to acquire our native language, we struggle to learn multiplication and division. It may then come as a surprise that the mental machinery for performing lightning-fast integer arithmetic calculations could be within us all even though it cannot be readily accessed, nor do we have any idea of its primary function. We are led to this provocative hypothesis by analysing the extraordinary skills of autistic savants. In our view such individuals have privileged access to lower levels of information not normally available through introspection.  (+info)

California Verbal Learning Test

  • The California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) is recognized as a standard clinical tool for assessing episodic memory difficulties in multiple sclerosis (MS), but its neural correlates have not yet been examined in detail in this patient population. (


  • Regression analyses in the complete study sample showed that CVLT learning scores correlated with impairment of the right UF. (


  • Evaluate delayed recall as assessed by the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVTL-R) at 4 months after hippocampal avoidance during whole-brain radiotherapy (HA-WBRT) in patients with brain metastasis. (


  • Online Collaborative Learning: Theory and Practice. (
  • In T. Roberts (Ed.), Online Collaborative Learning: Theory and Practice (pp. 86-102). (
  • Instead it presents chapters from academics in a range of disciplines and countries who have not only implemented problem-based learning but also researched their own practice and the practice of others. (


  • Several problems with the use of computer-mediated communication for collaborative learning online are identified. (
  • The samples followed all the PBL learning activities (i.e., learner-centred, self-directed learning, inductive learning, collaborative and interdependent learning). (

Problem-Based Le

  • Supporting Distributed Problem-Based Learning: The Use of Feedback Mechanisms in Outline Learning. (
  • In this chapter we discuss possibilities and shortcomings of Internet usage for distributed problem-based learning. (
  • In a synchronous and an asynchronous distributed problem-based learning environment, we show how we applied this methodology to support learners' motivation and problem solving. (
  • Problem-based learning (PBL) is an exciting alternative to traditional classroom learning. (
  • This paper reports the evaluation of students' perception on their capability to engage critical thinking in a problem-based learning online (PBL online) environment. (
  • This four week, online introductory course provides an overview of the instructional strategies associated with Transdisciplinary Problem-Based Learning (TPBL). (
  • Problem-based learning is an approach to learning that continues to grow and develop and the variations in its use still tend to cause much debate in higher education. (
  • The idea for this book emerged out of discussions with colleagues about the need for the problem-based learning community to illustrate such variety in a research-based text. (
  • It is a book that does not present a single view about what counts as problem-based learning, nor does it offer ideal ways of undertaking it in a module, course or programme. (


  • Both regulatory and effector IEGs have been found to be overexpressed following various learning tasks and are critical components of long-term memory formation in the hippocampus. (


  • - Machine Learning: An Artificial Intelligence Approach contains tutorial overviews and research papers representative of trends in the area of machine learning as viewed from an artificial intelligence perspective. (


  • In designing an experimental test of morphic resonance together, Rose and I decided that it would be best to use a technique routinely employed in his laboratory, namely a form of learning involving conditioned aversion. (
  • Evaluate auditory and visual learning and memory, as assessed by 2 CogState tests (International Shopping List Test and One Card Learning Test), after HA-WBRT in these patients. (
  • Patients neurocognitive functions (delayed recall, auditory and visual learning, and memory) are evaluated by the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVTL-R), The One Card Learning Test (OCLT), and the International Shopping List Test (ISLT) at baseline and periodically during study. (


  • Is the Subject Area "Learning" applicable to this article? (


  • The research of Rose and his group is largely centred on biochemical changes in the brains of chicks following various kinds of learning. (


  • From this experiment, the selective expression of homer 1a in CA1 neurons during memory formation suggests that homer 1a may contribute to the modification of synaptic networks of the hippocampus along with the integration of memory processing in associative learning. (


  • As a result of this attack, Steven Rose of the Biology Department at the Open University in Britain, wrote to me offering facilities in his laboratory for testing the hypothesis in the learning of animals. (


  • Data were gathered through an open-ended questions and a semi-structured focus group interviews after the students finished with the learning activities by the end of the semester. (


  • The goal of this project is to see if the hippocampal expression of homer 1a is upregulated in response to a specific type of associative learning. (