Language Tests: Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Language Therapy: Rehabilitation of persons with language disorders or training of children with language development disorders.Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.Speech Therapy: Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.Aphasia: A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Sign Language: A system of hand gestures used for communication by the deaf or by people speaking different languages.Programming Languages: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.Natural Language Processing: Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.Linguistics: The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Language Arts: Skills in the use of language which lead to proficiency in written or spoken communication.Semantics: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.Unified Medical Language System: A research and development program initiated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE to build knowledge sources for the purpose of aiding the development of systems that help health professionals retrieve and integrate biomedical information. The knowledge sources can be used to link disparate information systems to overcome retrieval problems caused by differences in terminology and the scattering of relevant information across many databases. The three knowledge sources are the Metathesaurus, the Semantic Network, and the Specialist Lexicon.Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Psycholinguistics: A discipline concerned with relations between messages and the characteristics of individuals who select and interpret them; it deals directly with the processes of encoding (phonetics) and decoding (psychoacoustics) as they relate states of messages to states of communicators.Comprehension: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.Schizophrenic Language: The artificial language of schizophrenic patients - neologisms (words of the patient's own making with new meanings).Communication Barriers: Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
Language delay: Language delay is a failure in children to develop language abilities on the usual age appropriate for their developmental timetable. Language delay is distinct from speech delay, in which the speech mechanism itself is the focus of delay.Michael Palin Centre for Stammering Children: The Michael Palin Centre for Stammering Children is a specialist centre for speech and language therapy for the treatment of stammering, located at 13-15 Pine Street,Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination: The Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination or BDAE is a neuropsychological battery used to evaluate adults suspected of having aphasia, and is currently in its third edition. It was created by Harold Goodglass and Edith Kaplan.Language pedagogy: Language education may take place as a general school subject, in a specialized language school, or out of school with a rich selection of proprietary methods online and in books, CDs and DVDs. There are many methods of teaching languages.Ka'apor Sign Language: Urubu Sign Language (also known as Urubu–Ka'apor or Ka'apor Sign Language) is a village sign language used by the small community of Ka'apor people in the state of Maranhão. Linguist Jim Kakumasu observed in 1968 that the number of deaf people in the community was 7 out of a population of 500.RDF query language: An RDF query language is a computer language, specifically a query language for databases, able to retrieve and manipulate data stored in Resource Description Framework format.Dragomir R. Radev: Dragomir R. Radev is a University of Michigan computer science professor and Columbia University computer science adjunct professor working on natural language processing and information retrieval.JAPE (linguistics): In computational linguistics, JAPE is the Java Annotation Patterns Engine, a component of the open-source General Architecture for Text Engineering (GATE) platform. JAPE is a finite state transducer that operates over annotations based on regular expressions.Trace theory: In mathematics and computer science, trace theory aims to provide a concrete mathematical underpinning for the study of concurrent computation and process calculi. The underpinning is provided by an algebraic definition of the free partially commutative monoid or trace monoid, or equivalently, the history monoid, which provides a concrete algebraic foundation, analogous to the way that the free monoid provides the underpinning for formal languages.Concurrency semantics: In computer science, concurrency semantics is a way to give meaning to concurrent systems in a mathematically rigorous way. Concurrency semantics is often based on mathematical theories of concurrency such as various process calculi, the actor model, or Petri nets.Statutory auditor: Statutory auditor is a title used in various countries to refer to a person or entity with an auditing role, whose appointment is mandated by the terms of a statute.Mass nounSlab serif: In typography, a slab serif (also called mechanistic, square serif, antique or Egyptian) typeface is a type of serif typeface characterized by thick, block-like serifs. Serif terminals may be either blunt and angular (Rockwell), or rounded (Courier).Foreign branding: Foreign branding is an advertising and marketing term describing the implied cachet or superiority of products and services with foreign or foreign-sounding names.Non-native pronunciations of English: Non-native pronunciations of English result from the common linguistic phenomenon in which non-native users of any language tend to carry the intonation, phonological processes and pronunciation rules from their mother tongue into their English speech. They may also create innovative pronunciations for English sounds not found in the speaker's first language.Prelingual deafness: A prelingual deaf individual is someone who was born with a hearing loss, or whose hearing loss occurred before they began to speak. Infants usually start saying their first words around one year.
(1/716) Global aphasia without hemiparesis: language profiles and lesion distribution.
OBJECTIVES: Global aphasia without hemiparesis (GAWH) is an uncommon stroke syndrome involving receptive and expressive language impairment, without the hemiparesis typically manifested by patients with global aphasia after large left perisylvian lesions. A few cases of GAWH have been reported with conflicting conclusions regarding pathogenesis, lesion localisation, and recovery. The current study was conducted to attempt to clarify these issues. METHODS: Ten cases of GAWH were prospectively studied with language profiles and lesion analysis; five patients had multiple lesions, four patients had a single lesion, and one had a subarachnoid haemorrhage. Eight patients met criteria for cardioembolic ischaemic stroke. RESULTS: Cluster analysis based on acute language profiles disclosed three subtypes of patients with GAWH; these clusters persisted on follow up language assessment. Each cluster evolved into a different aphasia subtype: persistent GAWH, Wernicke's aphasia, or transcortical motor aphasia (TCM). Composite lesion analysis showed that persistent GAWH was related to lesioning of the left superior temporal gyrus. Patients with acute GAWH who evolved into TCM type aphasia had common lesioning of the left inferior frontal gyrus and adjacent subcortical white matter. Patients with acute GAWH who evolved into Wernicke's type aphasia were characterised by lesioning of the left precentral and postcentral gyri. Recovery of language was poor in all but one patient. CONCLUSIONS: Although patients with acute GAWH are similar on neurological examination, they are heterogeneous with respect to early aphasia profile, language recovery, and lesion profile. (+info)
(2/716) Language outcome following multiple subpial transection for Landau-Kleffner syndrome.
Landau-Kleffner syndrome is an acquired epileptic aphasia occurring in normal children who lose previously acquired speech and language abilities. Although some children recover some of these abilities, many children with Landau-Kleffner syndrome have significant language impairments that persist. Multiple subpial transection is a surgical technique that has been proposed as an appropriate treatment for Landau-Kleffner syndrome in that it is designed to eliminate the capacity of cortical tissue to generate seizures or subclinical epileptiform activity, while preserving the cortical functions subserved by that tissue. We report on the speech and language outcome of 14 children who underwent multiple subpial transection for treatment of Landau-Kleffner syndrome. Eleven children demonstrated significant postoperative improvement on measures of receptive or expressive vocabulary. Results indicate that early diagnosis and treatment optimize outcome, and that gains in language function are most likely to be seen years, rather than months, after surgery. Since an appropriate control group was not available, and that the best predictor of postoperative improvements in language function was that of length of time since surgery, these data might best be used as a benchmark against other Landau-Kleffner syndrome outcome studies. We conclude that multiple subpial transection may be useful in allowing for a restoration of speech and language abilities in children diagnosed with Landau-Kleffner syndrome. (+info)
(3/716) Electrophysiological manifestations of open- and closed-class words in patients with Broca's aphasia with agrammatic comprehension. An event-related brain potential study.
This paper presents electrophysiological data on the on-line processing of open- and closed-class words in patients with Broca's aphasia with agrammatic comprehension. Event-related brain potentials were recorded from the scalp when Broca patients and non-aphasic control subjects were visually presented with a story in which the words appeared one at a time on the screen. Separate waveforms were computed for open- and closed-class words. The non-aphasic control subjects showed clear differences between the processing of open- and closed-class words in an early (210-375 ms) and a late (400-700 ms) time-window. The early electrophysiological differences reflect the first manifestation of the availability of word-category information from the mental lexicon. The late differences presumably relate to post-lexical semantic and syntactic processing. In contrast to the control subjects, the Broca patients showed no early vocabulary class effect and only a limited late effect. The results suggest that an important factor in the agrammatic comprehension deficit of Broca's aphasics is a delayed and/or incomplete availability of word-class information. (+info)
(4/716) Evaluation and management of the child with speech delay.
A delay in speech development may be a symptom of many disorders, including mental retardation, hearing loss, an expressive language disorder, psychosocial deprivation, autism, elective mutism, receptive aphasia and cerebral palsy. Speech delay may be secondary to maturation delay or bilingualism. Being familiar with the factors to look for when taking the history and performing the physical examination allows physicians to make a prompt diagnosis. Timely detection and early intervention may mitigate the emotional, social and cognitive deficits of this disability and improve the outcome. (+info)
(5/716) Preserved performance by cerebellar patients on tests of word generation, discrimination learning, and attention.
Recent theories suggest that the human cerebellum may contribute to the performance of cognitive tasks. We tested a group of adult patients with cerebellar damage attributable to stroke, tumor, or atrophy on four experiments involving verbal learning or attention shifting. In experiment 1, a verb generation task, participants produced semantically related verbs when presented with a list of nouns. With successive blocks of practice responding to the same set of stimuli, both groups, including a subset of cerebellar patients with unilateral right hemisphere lesions, improved their response times. In experiment 2, a verbal discrimination task, participants learned by trial and error to pick the target words from a set of word pairs. When age was taken into account, there were no performance differences between cerebellar patients and control subjects. In experiment 3, measures of spatial attention shifting were obtained under both exogenous and endogenous cueing conditions. Cerebellar patients and control subjects showed similar costs and benefits in both cueing conditions and at all SOAs. In experiment 4, intra- and interdimensional shifts of nonspatial attention were elicited by presenting word cues before the appearance of a target. Performance was substantially similar for cerebellar patients and control subjects. These results are presented as a cautionary note. The experiments failed to provide support for current hypotheses regarding the role of the cerebellum in verbal learning or attention. Alternative interpretations of previous results are discussed. (+info)
(6/716) Explicit and implicit processing of words and pseudowords by adult developmental dyslexics: A search for Wernicke's Wortschatz?
Two groups of male university students who had been diagnosed as dyslexic when younger, and two groups of control subjects of similar age and IQ to the dyslexics, were scanned whilst reading aloud and during a task where reading was implicit. The dyslexics performed less well than their peers on a range of literacy tasks and were strikingly impaired on phonological tasks. In the reading aloud experiment, simple words and pseudowords were presented at a slow pace so that reading accuracy was equal for dyslexics and controls. Relative to rest, both normal and dyslexic groups activated the same peri- and extra-sylvian regions of the left hemisphere that are known to be involved in reading. However, the dyslexic readers showed less activation than controls in the left posterior inferior temporal cortex [Brodmann area (BA) 37, or Wernicke's Wortschatz], left cerebellum, left thalamus and medial extrastriate cortex. In the implicit reading experiment, word and pseudoword processing was contrasted to visually matched false fonts while subjects performed a feature detection paradigm. The dyslexic readers showed reduced activation in BA 37 relative to normals suggesting that this group difference, seen in both experiments, resides in highly automated aspects of the reading process. Since BA 37 has been implicated previously in modality-independent naming, the reduced activation may indicate a specific impairment in lexical retrieval. Interestingly, during the reading aloud experiment only, there was increased activation for the dyslexics relative to the controls in a pre-motor region of Broca's area (BA 6/44). We attribute this result to the enforced use of an effortful compensatory strategy involving sublexical assembly of articulatory routines. The results confirm previous findings that dyslexic readers process written stimuli atypically, based on abnormal functioning of the left hemisphere reading system. More specifically, we localize this deficit to the neural system underlying lexical retrieval. (+info)
(7/716) Invariance between subjects of brain wave representations of language.
In three experiments, electric brain waves of 19 subjects were recorded under several different experimental conditions for two purposes. One was to test how well we could recognize which sentence, from a set of 24 or 48 sentences, was being processed in the cortex. The other was to study the invariance of brain waves between subjects. As in our earlier work, the analysis consisted of averaging over trials to create prototypes and test samples, to both of which Fourier transforms were applied, followed by filtering and an inverse transformation to the time domain. A least-squares criterion of fit between prototypes and test samples was used for classification. In all three experiments, averaging over subjects improved the recognition rates. The most significant finding was the following. When brain waves were averaged separately for two nonoverlapping groups of subjects, one for prototypes and the other for test samples, we were able to recognize correctly 90% of the brain waves generated by 48 different sentences about European geography. (+info)
(8/716) Cortical language activation in stroke patients recovering from aphasia with functional MRI.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Two mechanisms for recovery from aphasia, repair of damaged language networks and activation of compensatory areas, have been proposed. In this study, we investigated whether both mechanisms or one instead of the other take place in the brain of recovered aphasic patients. METHODS: Using blood oxygenation level-dependent functional MRI (fMRI), we studied cortical language networks during lexical-semantic processing tasks in 7 right-handed aphasic patients at least 5 months after the onset of left-hemisphere stroke and had regained substantial language functions since then. RESULTS: We found that in the recovered aphasic patient group, functional language activity significantly increased in the right hemisphere and nonsignificantly decreased in the left hemisphere compared with that in the normal group. Bilateral language networks resulted from partial restitution of damaged functions in the left hemisphere and activation of compensated (or recruited) areas in the right hemisphere. Failure to restore any language function in the left hemisphere led to predominantly right hemispheric networks in some individuals. However, better language recovery, at least for lexical-semantic processing, was observed in individuals who had bilateral rather than right hemisphere-predominant networks. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the restoration of left-hemisphere language networks is associated with better recovery and inversely related to activity in the compensated or recruited areas of the right hemisphere. (+info)