Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Sign Language: A system of hand gestures used for communication by the deaf or by people speaking different languages.Programming Languages: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.Language Therapy: Rehabilitation of persons with language disorders or training of children with language development disorders.Natural Language Processing: Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.Linguistics: The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Language Arts: Skills in the use of language which lead to proficiency in written or spoken communication.Semantics: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.Unified Medical Language System: A research and development program initiated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE to build knowledge sources for the purpose of aiding the development of systems that help health professionals retrieve and integrate biomedical information. The knowledge sources can be used to link disparate information systems to overcome retrieval problems caused by differences in terminology and the scattering of relevant information across many databases. The three knowledge sources are the Metathesaurus, the Semantic Network, and the Specialist Lexicon.Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Psycholinguistics: A discipline concerned with relations between messages and the characteristics of individuals who select and interpret them; it deals directly with the processes of encoding (phonetics) and decoding (psychoacoustics) as they relate states of messages to states of communicators.Comprehension: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.Schizophrenic Language: The artificial language of schizophrenic patients - neologisms (words of the patient's own making with new meanings).Communication Barriers: Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.ReadingCultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.Speech Production Measurement: Measurement of parameters of the speech product such as vocal tone, loudness, pitch, voice quality, articulation, resonance, phonation, phonetic structure and prosody.Persons With Hearing Impairments: Persons with any degree of loss of hearing that has an impact on their activities of daily living or that requires special assistance or intervention.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Translating: Conversion from one language to another language.Speech Therapy: Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Anomia: A language dysfunction characterized by the inability to name people and objects that are correctly perceived. The individual is able to describe the object in question, but cannot provide the name. This condition is associated with lesions of the dominant hemisphere involving the language areas, in particular the TEMPORAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p484)Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Articulation Disorders: Disorders of the quality of speech characterized by the substitution, omission, distortion, and addition of phonemes.Education of Hearing Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with hearing disability or impairment.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Aphasia, Broca: An aphasia characterized by impairment of expressive LANGUAGE (speech, writing, signs) and relative preservation of receptive language abilities (i.e., comprehension). This condition is caused by lesions of the motor association cortex in the FRONTAL LOBE (BROCA AREA and adjacent cortical and white matter regions).Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Nonverbal Communication: Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.Symbolism: A concept that stands for or suggests something else by reason of its relationship, association, convention, or resemblance. The symbolism may be mental or a visible sign or representation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Cochlear Implants: Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Concept Formation: A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Narration: The act, process, or an instance of narrating, i.e., telling a story. In the context of MEDICINE or ETHICS, narration includes relating the particular and the personal in the life story of an individual.Aptitude: The ability to acquire general or special types of knowledge or skill.Communication Disorders: Disorders of verbal and nonverbal communication caused by receptive or expressive LANGUAGE DISORDERS, cognitive dysfunction (e.g., MENTAL RETARDATION), psychiatric conditions, and HEARING DISORDERS.Names: Personal names, given or surname, as cultural characteristics, as ethnological or religious patterns, as indications of the geographic distribution of families and inbreeding, etc. Analysis of isonymy, the quality of having the same or similar names, is useful in the study of population genetics. NAMES is used also for the history of names or name changes of corporate bodies, such as medical societies, universities, hospitals, government agencies, etc.Aphasia, Wernicke: Impairment in the comprehension of speech and meaning of words, both spoken and written, and of the meanings conveyed by their grammatical relationships in sentences. It is caused by lesions that primarily affect Wernicke's area, which lies in the posterior perisylvian region of the temporal lobe of the dominant hemisphere. (From Brain & Bannister, Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p141; Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p846)Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Subject Headings: Terms or expressions which provide the major means of access by subject to the bibliographic unit.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Amobarbital: A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Translations: Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.Lipreading: The process by which an observer comprehends speech by watching the movements of the speaker's lips without hearing the speaker's voice.Speech Acoustics: The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Aphasia, Primary Progressive: A progressive form of dementia characterized by the global loss of language abilities and initial preservation of other cognitive functions. Fluent and nonfluent subtypes have been described. Eventually a pattern of global cognitive dysfunction, similar to ALZHEIMER DISEASE, emerges. Pathologically, there are no Alzheimer or PICK DISEASE like changes, however, spongiform changes of cortical layers II and III are present in the TEMPORAL LOBE and FRONTAL LOBE. (From Brain 1998 Jan;121(Pt 1):115-26)Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Cochlear Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Metaphor: The application of a concept to that which it is not literally the same but which suggests a resemblance and comparison. Medical metaphors were widespread in ancient literature; the description of a sick body was often used by ancient writers to define a critical condition of the State, in which one corrupt part can ruin the entire system. (From Med Secoli Arte Sci, 1990;2(3):abstract 331)Stuttering: A disturbance in the normal fluency and time patterning of speech that is inappropriate for the individual's age. This disturbance is characterized by frequent repetitions or prolongations of sounds or syllables. Various other types of speech dysfluencies may also be involved including interjections, broken words, audible or silent blocking, circumlocutions, words produced with an excess of physical tension, and monosyllabic whole word repetitions. Stuttering may occur as a developmental condition in childhood or as an acquired disorder which may be associated with BRAIN INFARCTIONS and other BRAIN DISEASES. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Apraxias: A group of cognitive disorders characterized by the inability to perform previously learned skills that cannot be attributed to deficits of motor or sensory function. The two major subtypes of this condition are ideomotor (see APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR) and ideational apraxia, which refers to loss of the ability to mentally formulate the processes involved with performing an action. For example, dressing apraxia may result from an inability to mentally formulate the act of placing clothes on the body. Apraxias are generally associated with lesions of the dominant PARIETAL LOBE and supramarginal gyrus. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp56-7)History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Speech Intelligibility: Ability to make speech sounds that are recognizable.Acculturation: Process of cultural change in which one group or members of a group assimilate various cultural patterns from another.Auditory Perceptual Disorders: Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Cultural Competency: Cultural and linguistic competence is a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals that enables effective work in cross-cultural situations. Competence implies the capacity to function effectively as an individual and an organization within the context of the cultural beliefs, behaviors, and needs presented by consumers and their communities.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Logic: The science that investigates the principles governing correct or reliable inference and deals with the canons and criteria of validity in thought and demonstration. This system of reasoning is applicable to any branch of knowledge or study. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Cultural Characteristics: Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Manual Communication: Method of nonverbal communication utilizing hand movements as speech equivalents.Hypermedia: Computerized compilations of information units (text, sound, graphics, and/or video) interconnected by logical nonlinear linkages that enable users to follow optimal paths through the material and also the systems used to create and display this information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Cultural Diversity: Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Mathematical Concepts: Numeric or quantitative entities, descriptions, properties, relationships, operations, and events.Magnetoencephalography: The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Data Mining: Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.Emigrants and Immigrants: People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.Echolalia: Involuntary ("parrot-like"), meaningless repetition of a recently heard word, phrase, or song. This condition may be associated with transcortical APHASIA; SCHIZOPHRENIA; or other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p485)Early Intervention (Education): Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Speech Recognition Software: Software capable of recognizing dictation and transcribing the spoken words into written text.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.United StatesNerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.Kinesics: Systematic study of the body and the use of its static and dynamic position as a means of communication.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Voice: The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Dysarthria: Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Hearing Aids: Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)Pattern Recognition, Physiological: The analysis of a critical number of sensory stimuli or facts (the pattern) by physiological processes such as vision (PATTERN RECOGNITION, VISUAL), touch, or hearing.Generalization (Psychology): The phenomenon of an organism's responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Asian Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.Literature: Writings having excellence of form or expression and expressing ideas of permanent or universal interest. The body of written works produced in a particular language, country, or age. (Webster, 3d ed)Human Migration: Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.Achievement: Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Theory of Mind: The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Software Design: Specifications and instructions applied to the software.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Dichotic Listening Tests: Tests for central hearing disorders based on the competing message technique (binaural separation).Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Correction of Hearing Impairment: Procedures for correcting HEARING DISORDERS.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Speech Discrimination Tests: Tests of the ability to hear and understand speech as determined by scoring the number of words in a word list repeated correctly.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tool Use Behavior: Modifying, carrying, or manipulating an item external to itself by an animal, before using it to effect a change on the environment or itself (from Beck, Animal Tool Behavior, 1980).Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Executive Function: A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Communication Aids for Disabled: Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.Agraphia: Loss or impairment of the ability to write (letters, syllables, words, or phrases) due to an injury to a specific cerebral area or occasionally due to emotional factors. This condition rarely occurs in isolation, and often accompanies APHASIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p485; APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)ArtPhotic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Neuroanatomy: Study of the anatomy of the nervous system as a specialty or discipline.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Remedial Teaching: Specialized instruction for students deviating from the expected norm.Pitch Perception: A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Diffusion Tensor Imaging: The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Education, Special: Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.Rehabilitation of Speech and Language Disorders: Procedures for assisting a person with a speech or language disorder to communicate with maximum efficiency.Hearing Tests: Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.Transfer (Psychology): Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).ComputersChromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Databases, Bibliographic: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.CaliforniaNeuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Radiology Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.Speech Articulation Tests: Tests of accuracy in pronouncing speech sounds, e.g., Iowa Pressure Articulation Test, Deep Test of Articulation, Templin-Darley Tests of Articulation, Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation, Screening Speech Articulation Test, Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale.Knowledge Bases: Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).Dictionaries, MedicalPhilosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Hearing Disorders: Conditions that impair the transmission of auditory impulses and information from the level of the ear to the temporal cortices, including the sensorineural pathways.

*  Quenya Language

This is a group for people to practice reading and writing in Quenya (and for other people to correct them :-|). If you post to this group, please do so in Quenya, using English only for comments and explanations. Group Moderator: To subscribe, send a message to or go to this e-group's home page at

*  Language Processing

I am interested in Natural and Formal Language Processing, the Semantic Web, Linked/Open Data and Provenance. These postings ... I am interested in Natural and Formal Language Processing, the Semantic Web, Linked/Open Data and Provenance. These postings ...

*  PCHS Language Arts

Welcome to the Paris Cooperative High School English Department page. Here you will find information about our teachers, contact information, and lesson plans ...

*  Scandoromani language - Wikipedia

CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link). *^ A recent suggestion apparently backed by the Swedish Language Council is to call ... LLOW Language Server - Tavringer Romani. *^ a b Resande Folkets Riksorganisation (2006). Ordlista i resandespråket romani (in ... tavringens rakripa[6][7]), also known as Tavringer Romani[8] and the Tattare language,[9] is a North Germanic based Para-Romani ... a b c Carling et al., 2014, Scandoromani: Remnants of a Mixed Language. Leiden: Brill. ...

*  Záparo language - Wikipedia

The language is no longer used in everyday conversations, even though a language revival is currently underway. ... "Capturing a Dying Language: Professor Documents Linguistic and Oral History of Záparo". Retrieved January 3, 2012.. ... Záparo is a nearly extinct language spoken by the Sápara or Záparo people of Ecuador. As of 2000, it was spoken by only one ... The Zaparos were one of the most numerous peoples of western Amazonia, and it is thought the language was spoken by more than ...

*  Cipu language - Wikipedia

Language. Cicipu. Cipu (Cicipu), or Western Acipa, is a Kainji language spoken by about 20,000 people in northwest Nigeria. The ... Like most Benue-Congo languages, Cipu has a complex noun class system.[3] It has a fairly complex phonology with lexical and ... Journal of West African Languages, 34(2), 51-90.. *^ Williamson, Kay and Roger M. Blench. 2000. Niger-Congo in African ... The name of the Cicipu language Archived 2011-07-25 at the Wayback Machine. ...

*  The Language Exchange

What Language(s) can you offer? This should be your first languages and/or any other language that you speak fluently and would ... The Language Exchange is an opportunity for students and staff to share their languages. ... The Language Exchange is only open to the universities' students and staff. We will only contact, ...

*  Tennet language - Wikipedia

"Interrogatives in Surmic Languages and Greenberg's Universals," Occasional Papers in the Study of Sudanese Languages 7:71-90. ... The non-Bantu languages of northeastern Africa. "Handbook of African languages, 3." London: Oxford University Press for ... Mice are men: Language and society among the Murle of Sudan. International Museum of Cultures Publication, 27. Dallas: ... Tennet (also Tenet (early language survey),[3] and Irenge (to the Lopit people)[4]) is a Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Surmic ...

*  Language packs - Windows Help

Find out how to download and install additional language packs for your version of Windows. ... Language packs: Windows 8/8.1. The easiest way to get language packs for Windows 8.1, Windows 8, Windows RT 8.1, and Windows RT ... Language packs: Windows 10. . Download and install additional languages for Windows 10 to view menus, dialog boxes, and other ... Language packs: Windows 7. Download and install additional languages to view menus, dialog boxes, and other user interface ...

*  "Survival Analysis: Timelines to English Language Proficiency at the S" by Elisha W. Beardsley

The ELL population in the United States continues to increase. Research suggests that the English language proficiency growth rates for numerous ELL students are strongly correlated with their English language proficiency levels (Cook & Zhao, 2011; Conger, 2008). The results of Conger's 2008 study suggested that just over fifty percent of students gained English language proficiency after three years. According to the same study, the students that did not typically gain English language proficiency were students who entered public schools older and with a lower English language proficiency level. The current study examines the likelihood of high school ELLs in a large, urban district in achieving English language proficiency as measured on the ACCESS for ELLs®. Survival analysis is a robust analytic technique that complements the highly mobile tendencies of ELL students, the ever-expanding ELL ...

*  Patterns and predictors of atypical language representation in epilepsy | Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry

In summary, in the normal population, there appears to be a spectrum of language lateralisation, with the majority of individuals positioned at the left-dominant end of the spectrum. In epilepsy, this continuum is shifted to the right. While relatively rare, the possibility of an interhemispheric dissociation of linguistic subfunctions (eg, receptive and productive language) should be appreciated. In addition, language representation can also be altered intrahemispherically. These different patterns of language representation are not necessarily mutually exclusive. It is usually unclear whether atypical language reflects compensation or reorganisation.. Of direct relevance to the clinician, the localisation of language cannot be established with a single language task16 ,22 due to the possibility of interhemispheric dissociation and because some linguistic subfunctions are represented ...

*  2011 Census, Detailed Characteristics on Demography for 2011 Census Merged Wards and Middle Layer Super Output Areas in England...

This release provides Detailed Characteristics tables on demography and family topics, which show detailed cross-tabulations of these topics with two or more other topics from the census. Tables are provided for local authorities, 2011 Census Merged Wards and Middle Layer Super Output Areas (MSOAs) in England and Wales.. This release also includes detailed characteristics tables on English language proficiency for regions, local authorities, 2011 Census Merged Wards and MSOAs in England and Wales. These tables are accompanied by the analysis 'English language proficiency in England and Wales: Main language and general health characteristics'. There are 16 tables on the demography and family topics at both MSOA and 2011 Census merged ward level, and 5 tables at local authority level. There are 2 tables on English language proficiency at both MSOA and 2011 Census Merged wards and 2 tables at regional level. All 25 tables are available from the ...

*  Tower Diplomacy! Setai Fifth Avenue Whets International Appetite | Observer

At the launch party for the Setai Fifth Avenue Residences, Robert Siegel searched his suit pockets for a business card.'I just went to Japan, where everyone has business cards with different languages on two sides. You trade cards before you even talk,' he said, turning out empty pockets.

*  STUDY THE TOEFL | Prepare for TOEFL Exams

Toll Free 1800-200-3678 (India Only) The TOEFL is used to measure English language proficiency. Your TOEFL score will help admissions staff determine if your skills in English.

*  Lightroom Technique: Staying Organized with Controlled Vocabulary - Eric Scouten

There's nothing special about the «» characters, except that they cause the keyword to sink to the bottom of the list on Mac. They're used as quotation marks in some European languages. As an English speaker, I'm unlikely to use them otherwise, so they stand out for me. You could just as easily use _, $, regular old angle brackets ,,. What symbol you use doesn't really matter, so long as it's the first letter in the keyword name.. Mac users: If you want to be cool like me ;-) and use the «» characters, type Option-backslash («) and Option-Shift-backslash (»). There's no real reason to use the trailing », except that I think the names look funny without them.. Windows users: It looks like Windows wants to sort all special characters to the top of the list. (Why?) I've tried several but haven't found one that sinks to the bottom. If you find one, please speak up in the comments. I'd probably just use an underscore _ in front of the category header keyword names. It's easy to type and floats ...

*  Longest Words in the English Language -

Longest Words in the English Language depends on the definition of what constitutes a word in the English language and as well as how length.

*  LINGUIST List | Home

This summer we have been joined by seven new interns, who are working on projects like redesigning our website, developing new speech corpora, learning the ropes of editing, and more! Learn more about them below. If joining the ranks of these brilliant young interns interests you, watch out for the opening of the 2018 application […] (read more...). ...

*  Freaks 'Say No To Normal,' Want Word Eradicated From English Language | HuffPost

Todd Ray has a beef against a certain word that begins with 'N' and wants to eliminate it from the English language. That word, of course, is 'normal,...

*  July | 2017 | HSP signaling

Comparing Fig. 3a and b shows that, at 1000-1200 ms, speakers were less likely to fixate agents in "easy" events than in "hard" events (a main effect of Event codability; Table 3c): in addition, Selumetinib speakers were less likely to fixate "easy" agents in "easy" events but still fixated "easy" agents in "hard" events (producing a weak interaction of Event and Agent codability; Table 3c). There were no interactions with Time bin, indicating that the decline in agent-directed fixations after 1000 ms was comparable across event categories. However,. since the peak in fixations to the agent occurred earlier in "easy" events than "hard" events, the shift of gaze to the patient also occurred earlier in "easy" events than "hard" events. On the hypothesis that high Event codability favors faster encoding of relational information in the event (hierarchical incrementality), this result suggests that speakers began adding information about the second character to the developing sentence earlier when ...

Language pedagogy: Language education may take place as a general school subject, in a specialized language school, or out of school with a rich selection of proprietary methods online and in books, CDs and DVDs. There are many methods of teaching languages.Language delay: Language delay is a failure in children to develop language abilities on the usual age appropriate for their developmental timetable. Language delay is distinct from speech delay, in which the speech mechanism itself is the focus of delay.Ka'apor Sign Language: Urubu Sign Language (also known as Urubu–Ka'apor or Ka'apor Sign Language) is a village sign language used by the small community of Ka'apor people in the state of Maranhão. Linguist Jim Kakumasu observed in 1968 that the number of deaf people in the community was 7 out of a population of 500.RDF query language: An RDF query language is a computer language, specifically a query language for databases, able to retrieve and manipulate data stored in Resource Description Framework format.Michael Palin Centre for Stammering Children: The Michael Palin Centre for Stammering Children is a specialist centre for speech and language therapy for the treatment of stammering, located at 13-15 Pine Street,Dragomir R. Radev: Dragomir R. Radev is a University of Michigan computer science professor and Columbia University computer science adjunct professor working on natural language processing and information retrieval.JAPE (linguistics): In computational linguistics, JAPE is the Java Annotation Patterns Engine, a component of the open-source General Architecture for Text Engineering (GATE) platform. JAPE is a finite state transducer that operates over annotations based on regular expressions.Trace theory: In mathematics and computer science, trace theory aims to provide a concrete mathematical underpinning for the study of concurrent computation and process calculi. The underpinning is provided by an algebraic definition of the free partially commutative monoid or trace monoid, or equivalently, the history monoid, which provides a concrete algebraic foundation, analogous to the way that the free monoid provides the underpinning for formal languages.Concurrency semantics: In computer science, concurrency semantics is a way to give meaning to concurrent systems in a mathematically rigorous way. Concurrency semantics is often based on mathematical theories of concurrency such as various process calculi, the actor model, or Petri nets.Statutory auditor: Statutory auditor is a title used in various countries to refer to a person or entity with an auditing role, whose appointment is mandated by the terms of a statute.Mass nounSlab serif: In typography, a slab serif (also called mechanistic, square serif, antique or Egyptian) typeface is a type of serif typeface characterized by thick, block-like serifs. Serif terminals may be either blunt and angular (Rockwell), or rounded (Courier).Foreign branding: Foreign branding is an advertising and marketing term describing the implied cachet or superiority of products and services with foreign or foreign-sounding names.Non-native pronunciations of English: Non-native pronunciations of English result from the common linguistic phenomenon in which non-native users of any language tend to carry the intonation, phonological processes and pronunciation rules from their mother tongue into their English speech. They may also create innovative pronunciations for English sounds not found in the speaker's first language.Prelingual deafness: A prelingual deaf individual is someone who was born with a hearing loss, or whose hearing loss occurred before they began to speak. Infants usually start saying their first words around one year.Spalding MethodProto-Greek language: The Proto-Greek language is the assumed last common ancestor of all known varieties of Greek, including Mycenaean, the classical Greek dialects (Attic-Ionic, Aeolic, Doric and Arcado-Cypriot), and ultimately Koine, Byzantine and modern Greek. The unity of Proto-Greek would have ended as Hellenic migrants, speaking the predecessor of the Mycenaean language, entered the Greek peninsula sometime in the Neolithic era or the Bronze Age.Motor speech disorders: Motor speech disorders are a class of speech disorder that disturb the body's natural ability to speak. These disturbances vary in their etiology based on the integrity and integration of cognitive, neuromuscular, and musculoskeletal activities.Cerebral hemisphere: The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the medial longitudinal fissure. The brain can thus be described as being divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres.Robert Thom (translator): Robert Thom (, 1807 – September 14, 1846) was an English nineteenth century Chinese language translator and diplomat based in Canton (modern day Guangzhou) who worked for the trading house Jardine, Matheson & Co. and was seconded to the British armed forces during the First Opium War (1839 – 1842).HyperintensityAnomia trigonopsis: Anomia trigonopsis, also known as the New Zealand jingle, is a species of marine bivalve mollusc in the family Anomiidae, the anomiids.International Committee on Aeronautical Fatigue and Structural IntegrityInternational Deaf Education Association: The International Deaf Education Association (IDEA) is an organization focused on educating the deaf in Bohol, Philippines initiated by the United States Peace Corps, under the leadership of Dennis Drake. The organization is a non-profit establishment that provides education to the impoverished and neglected deaf and blind children in the Philippines.Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status: The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status is a neuropsychological assessment initially introduced in 1998. It consists of ten subtests which give five scores, one for each of the five domains tested (immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, delayed memory).Expressive aphasiaCognitive skill: Cognitive functioning is a term referring to a human’s ability to process to (thoughts) that should not deplete on a large scale in healthy individuals. Cognition mainly refers to things like memory, the ability to learn new information, speech, understanding of written material.Semantic translation: Semantic translation is the process of using semantic information to aid in the translation of data in one representation or data model to another representation or data model. Semantic translation takes advantage of semantics that associate meaning with individual data elements in one dictionary to create an equivalent meaning in a second system.Dyssemia: Dyssemia is a difficulty with receptive and/or expressive nonverbal communication. The word comes from the Greek roots dys (difficulty) and semia (signal).Apple (symbolism): Apples appear in many religious traditions, often as a mystical or forbidden fruit. One of the problems identifying apples in religion, mythology and folktales is that as late as the 17th century, the word "apple" was used as a generic term for all (foreign) fruit other than berries, but including nuts.Brodmann area 38: Brodmann area 38, also BA38 or temporopolar area 38 (H), is part of the temporal cortex in the human brain. BA 38 is at the anterior end of the temporal lobe, known as the temporal pole.Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum: The Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum (formerly Cross-Language Evaluation Forum), or CLEF, is an organization promoting research in multilingual information access (currently focusing on European languages). Its specific functions are to maintain an underlying framework for testing information retrieval systems and to create repositories of data for researchers to use in developing comparable standards.Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities: Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the field of special education. The editors-in-chief are Alisa K.Middle frontal gyrus: The middle frontal gyrus makes up about one-third of the frontal lobe of the human brain. (A gyrus is one of the prominent "bumps" or "ridges" on the surface of the human brain.Print permanence: Print permanence refers to the longevity of printed material, especially photographs, and preservation issues. Over time, the optical density, color balance, lustre, and other qualities of a print will degrade.Life writing: Life writing is the recording of selves, memories, and experiences, whether one's own or another's. This applies to many genres and practices, under which can be found autobiography, biography, memoir, diaries, letters, testimonies, personal essays and, more recently, digital forms such as blogs and email.Mac OS X Server 1.0Downtown Train – Selections from the Storyteller Anthology: [ AllMusic review]Migratory aptitude: Migratory aptitude is the relative ability of a migrating group to migrate in a rearrangement reaction. This can be affected by the leaving group (whichever gives a more stable carbocation)depends upon the electron density of the migrating group i.Glossary of communication disorders: This is a glossary of medical terms related to communications disorders such as blindness and deafness.Charlie, Last Name Wilson: [ link]Transcortical sensory aphasia: Transcortical sensory aphasia (TSA) is a kind of aphasia that involves damage to specific areas of the temporal lobe of the brain, resulting in symptoms such as poor auditory comprehension, relatively intact repetition, and fluent speech with semantic paraphasias present.David Rees Griffiths: David Rees Griffiths (November 6, 1882 – December 17, 1953), also known by his bardic name of Amanwy, was a Welsh poet, and an older brother of politician Jim Griffiths.AmobarbitalRelationship Development Intervention: Relationship Development Intervention (RDI) is a trademarked proprietary treatment program for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), based on the belief that the development of dynamic intelligence is the key to improving the quality of life for individuals with autism. The program's core philosophy is that individuals with autism can participate in authentic emotional relationships if they are exposed to them in a gradual, systematic way.Lip readingFront vowel: A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The defining characteristic of a front vowel is that the tongue is positioned as far in front as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.TBR1: T-box, brain, 1 is a transcription factor protein important in vertebrate embryo development. It is encoded by the TBR1 gene.Primary progressive aphasia: Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a type of neurological syndrome in which language capabilities slowly and progressively become impaired while other mental functions remain intact. It was first described as a distinct syndrome by M.Immersive technologyImage fusion: In computer vision, Multisensor Image fusion is the process of combining relevant information from two or more images into a single image.Haghighat, M.Auditory scene analysis: In psychophysics, auditory scene analysis (ASA) is a proposed model for the basis of auditory perception. This is understood as the process by which the human auditory system organizes sound into perceptually meaningful elements.Illness as Metaphor: Illness as Metaphor is a 1978 book by Susan Sontag. She challenged the "blame the victim" mentality behind the language society often uses to describe diseases and those who suffer from them.International Stuttering Awareness Day: October 22 was designated International Stuttering Awareness Day (ISAD) in 1998. The day is intended to raise public awareness of the millions of people – one percent of the world's population – who have the speech disorder of stuttering, also known as stammering.Developmental Disability (California): In California, Developmental Disabilitymeans a disability that is attributable to mental retardation], [[cerebral palsy, epilepsy, autism, or disabling conditions found to be closely related to mental retardation or to require treatment similar to that required for individuals with mental retardation.Oculomotor apraxia: Oculomotor apraxia (OMA), also known as Cogan ocular motor apraxia or saccadic initiation failure (SIF) is the absence or defect of controlled, voluntary, and purposeful eye movement.Tada, M, Yokoseki, A, Sato, T, Makifuchi, T, Onodera, O.Timeline of historic inventionsAmusia: Amusia is a musical disorder that appears mainly as a defect in processing pitch, but it also encompasses musical memory and recognition.Pearce, J.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Evolution of human intelligence: The evolution of human intelligence refers to a set of theories that attempt to explain how human intelligence has evolved and are closely tied to the evolution of the human brain and to the origin of language.Business Model of Intercultural Analysis: The Business Model of Intercultural Analysis (BMIA) is a tool developed to address cross-cultural problems. The BMIA framework uses six comprehension lenses to analyze cross-cultural interaction in the business environment.Postoperative cognitive dysfunction: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a short-term decline in cognitive function (especially in memory and executive functions) that may last from a few days to a few weeks after surgery. In rare cases, this disorder may persist for several months after major surgery.Logic gate: In electronics, a logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more logical inputs, and produces a single logical output. Depending on the context, the term may refer to an ideal logic gate, one that has for instance zero rise time and unlimited fan-out, or it may refer to a non-ideal physical deviceJaeger, Microelectronic Circuit Design, McGraw-Hill 1997, ISBN 0-07-032482-4, pp.Internet organizations: This is a list of Internet organizations, or organizations that play or played a key role in the evolution of the Internet by developing recommendations, standards, and technology; deploying infrastructure and services; and addressing other major issues.The great imitator: The Great Imitator is a phrase used for medical conditions that feature nonspecific symptoms and may be confused with a number of other diseases.J.Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory: Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory is a framework for cross-cultural communication, developed by Geert Hofstede. It describes the effects of a society's culture on the values of its members, and how these values relate to behavior, using a structure derived from factor analysis.Quantitative electroencephalography: Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) is a field concerned with the numerical analysis of electroencephalography data and associated behavioral correlates.SciDBMARTINI: Martini}}

(1/3485) Descriptive study of cooperative language in primary care consultations by male and female doctors.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of some of the characteristics of male and female language by male and female primary care practitioners during consultations. DESIGN: Doctors' use of the language of dominance and support was explored by using concordancing software. Three areas were examined: mean number of words per consultation; relative frequency of question tags; and use of mitigated directives. The analysis of language associated with cooperative talk examines relevant words or phrases and their immediate context. SUBJECTS: 26 male and 14 female doctors in general practice, in a total of 373 consecutive consultations. SETTING: West Midlands. RESULTS: Doctors spoke significantly more words than patients, but the number of words spoken by male and female doctors did not differ significantly. Question tags were used far more frequently by doctors (P<0.001) than by patients or companions. Frequency of use was similar in male and female doctors, and the speech styles in consultation were similar. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that male and female doctors use a speech style which is not gender specific, contrary to findings elsewhere; doctors consulted in an overtly non-directive, negotiated style, which is realised through suggestions and affective comments. This mode of communication is the core teaching of communication skills courses. These results suggest that men have more to learn to achieve competence as professional communicators.  (+info)

(2/3485) Disrupted temporal lobe connections in semantic dementia.

Semantic dementia refers to the variant of frontotemporal dementia in which there is progressive semantic deterioration and anomia in the face of relative preservation of other language and cognitive functions. Structural imaging and SPECT studies of such patients have suggested that the site of damage, and by inference the region critical to semantic processing, is the anterolateral temporal lobe, especially on the left. Recent functional imaging studies of normal participants have revealed a network of areas involved in semantic tasks. The present study used PET to examine the consequences of focal damage to the anterolateral temporal cortex for the operation of this semantic network. We measured PET activation associated with a semantic decision task relative to a visual decision task in four patients with semantic dementia compared with six age-matched normal controls. Normals activated a network of regions consistent with previous studies. The patients activated some areas consistently with the normals, including some regions of significant atrophy, but showed substantially reduced activity particularly in the left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (iTG) (Brodmann area 37/19). Voxel-based morphometry, used to identify the regions of structural deficit, revealed significant anterolateral temporal atrophy (especially on the left), but no significant structural damage to the posterior inferior temporal lobe. Other evidence suggests that the left posterior iTG is critically involved in lexical-phonological retrieval: the lack of activation here is consistent with the observation that these patients are all anomic. We conclude that changes in activity in regions distant from the patients' structural damage support the argument that their prominent anomia is due to disrupted temporal lobe connections.  (+info)

(3/3485) Language processing is strongly left lateralized in both sexes. Evidence from functional MRI.

Functional MRI (fMRI) was used to examine gender effects on brain activation during a language comprehension task. A large number of subjects (50 women and 50 men) was studied to maximize the statistical power to detect subtle differences between the sexes. To estimate the specificity of findings related to sex differences, parallel analyses were performed on two groups of randomly assigned subjects. Men and women showed very similar, strongly left lateralized activation patterns. Voxel-wise tests for group differences in overall activation patterns demonstrated no significant differences between women and men. In further analyses, group differences were examined by region of interest and by hemisphere. No differences were found between the sexes in lateralization of activity in any region of interest or in intrahemispheric cortical activation patterns. These data argue against substantive differences between men and women in the large-scale neural organization of language processes.  (+info)

(4/3485) Is grammar special?

Recent studies of children with developmental disorders provide striking insights into the nature of language. These studies suggest that, although much of language arises from more general cognitive capacities, certain aspects of grammar have an autonomous psychological and neural basis.  (+info)

(5/3485) Linguistic diversity of the Americas can be reconciled with a recent colonization.

The Americas harbor a very great diversity of indigenous language stocks, many more than are found in any other continent. J. Nichols [(1990) Language 66, 475-521] has argued that this diversity indicates a great time depth of in situ evolution. She thus infers that the colonization of the Americas must have begun around 35,000 years ago. This estimate is much earlier than the date for which there is strong archaeological support, which does not much exceed 12,000 years. Nichols' assumption is that the diversity of linguistic stocks increases linearly with time. This paper compares the major continents of the world to show that this assumption is not correct. In fact, stock diversity is highest in the Americas, which are by consensus the youngest continents, intermediate in Australia and New Guinea, and lowest in Africa and Eurasia where the time depth is greatest. If anything, then, after an initial radiation, stock diversity decreases with time. A simple model is outlined that predicts these dynamics. It assumes that early in the peopling of continents, there are many unfilled niches for communities to live in, and so fissioning into new lineages is frequent. As the habitat is filled up, the rate of fissioning declines and lineage extinction becomes the dominant evolutionary force.  (+info)

(6/3485) Molecular genetic evidence for the human settlement of the Pacific: analysis of mitochondrial DNA, Y chromosome and HLA markers.

Present-day Pacific islanders are thought to be the descendants of Neolithic agriculturalists who expanded from island South-east Asia several thousand years ago. They speak languages belonging to the Austronesian language family, spoken today in an area spanning half of the circumference of the world, from Madagascar to Easter Island, and from Taiwan to New Zealand. To investigate the genetic affinities of the Austronesian-speaking peoples, we analysed mitochondrial DNA, HLA and Y-chromosome polymorphisms in individuals from eight geographical locations in Asia and the Pacific (China, Taiwan, Java, New Guinea highlands, New Guinea coast, Trobriand Islands, New Britain and Western Samoa). Our results show that the demographic expansion of the Austronesians has left a genetic footprint. However, there is no simple correlation between languages and genes in the Pacific.  (+info)

(7/3485) Language outcome following multiple subpial transection for Landau-Kleffner syndrome.

Landau-Kleffner syndrome is an acquired epileptic aphasia occurring in normal children who lose previously acquired speech and language abilities. Although some children recover some of these abilities, many children with Landau-Kleffner syndrome have significant language impairments that persist. Multiple subpial transection is a surgical technique that has been proposed as an appropriate treatment for Landau-Kleffner syndrome in that it is designed to eliminate the capacity of cortical tissue to generate seizures or subclinical epileptiform activity, while preserving the cortical functions subserved by that tissue. We report on the speech and language outcome of 14 children who underwent multiple subpial transection for treatment of Landau-Kleffner syndrome. Eleven children demonstrated significant postoperative improvement on measures of receptive or expressive vocabulary. Results indicate that early diagnosis and treatment optimize outcome, and that gains in language function are most likely to be seen years, rather than months, after surgery. Since an appropriate control group was not available, and that the best predictor of postoperative improvements in language function was that of length of time since surgery, these data might best be used as a benchmark against other Landau-Kleffner syndrome outcome studies. We conclude that multiple subpial transection may be useful in allowing for a restoration of speech and language abilities in children diagnosed with Landau-Kleffner syndrome.  (+info)

(8/3485) Laterality in animals: relevance to schizophrenia.

Anomalies in the laterality of numerous neurocognitive dimensions associated with schizophrenia have been documented, but their role in the etiology and early development of the disorder remain unclear. In the study of normative neurobehavioral organization, animal models have shed much light on the mechanisms underlying and the factors affecting adult patterns of both functional and structural asymmetry. Nonhuman species have more recently been used to investigate the environmental, genetic, and neuroendocrine factors associated with developmental language disorders in humans. We propose that the animal models used to study the basis of lateralization in normative development and language disorders such as dyslexia could be modified to investigate lateralized phenomena in schizophrenia.  (+info)


  • Záparo is a nearly extinct language spoken by the Sápara or Záparo people of Ecuador . (
  • The Zaparos were one of the most numerous peoples of western Amazonia , and it is thought the language was spoken by more than 100,000 people at some point. (
  • Cipu ( Cicipu ), or Western Acipa , is a Kainji language spoken by about 20,000 people in northwest Nigeria . (
  • Tennet (also Tenet (early language survey), [3] and Irenge (to the Lopit people ) [4] ) is a Nilo-Saharan , Eastern Sudanic , Surmic language spoken by the Tennet people . (


  • This article is within the scope of WikiProject Constructed languages , a collaborative effort to improve the coverage of constructed languages on Wikipedia. (


  • The above documentation is transcluded from Template:Norwegian language/doc . (


  • The members of the Záparo ethnic group now speak Quichua , though there is a language revival effort beginning. (
  • Many also speak other nearby languages. (
  • This should be your first languages and/or any other language that you speak fluently and would feel confident teaching. (
  • If a language you speak is not listed here, please consider becoming a translator . (

Sign Language

  • The sender of the best entry will win a copy of the Sign Language 2 book. (


  • How about simply Isotype (picture language) as the new title then? (


  • That would have been appreciated by 'Ma' Ferguson, the Texas Governor,'' writes the Rev. J. Carter Swaim, pastor emeritus of the Church of the Covenant near the United Nations in New York, ''who, when Spanish was proposed as a second language for schools in the Lone Star State, replied: 'Not while I am Governor! (


  • A recent suggestion apparently backed by the Swedish Language Council is to call the language Svedo romani (i.e. (


  • 2002. Sociolinguistic survey (level one) of the Kamuku language cluster [Originally written in 1992]. . (


  • In relation to the Japanese language and computers many adaptation issues arise, some unique to Japanese and others common to languages which have a very large number of characters. (


  • [7] In Hausa , the language is referred to as Acipanci and the people as Acipawa . (


  • The name of the Cicipu language Archived 2011-07-25 at the Wayback Machine . (


  • Please help us collect data to understand more about Canada's English regional language trends. (



  • The language has a category of words that have been analyzed as postpositions. (


  • Greenberg's Universal 12 predicts that for VSO languages, interrogative words will be sentence-initial, [20] but Tennet and its relatives have sentence-final interrogative words. (


  • Like most Benue-Congo languages , Cipu has a complex noun class system. (
  • Like other Surmic languages , Tennet uses a modified vigesimal counting system. (


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