Kerosene: A refined petroleum fraction used as a fuel as well as a solvent.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.HydrocarbonsPetroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Heating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.
TridecaneGentle frying: Gentle frying or low-temperature frying is an oil- or fat-based cooking method used for relatively fragile or starchy foods.fissler.Indoor air pollution in developing nations: Indoor air pollution in developing nations is a significant form of indoor air pollution (IAP) that is little known to those in the developed world.Unsaturated hydrocarbon: Unsaturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons that have double or triple covalent bonds between adjacent carbon atoms. Those with at least one carbon to carbon double bond are called alkenes and those with at least one carbon to carbon triple bond are called alkynes.National Offshore Petroleum Safety Authority: The National Offshore Petroleum Safety Authority (NOPSA) was the occupational health and safety (OHS) regulator for the Australian offshore petroleum industry between 2005 and 2011. The role of regulator has been transferred to NOPSEMA - the National Offshore Petroleum Safety and Environmental Management Authority from the first of January 2012.Gas heater: A gas heater is a space heater used to heat a room or outdoor area by burning natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, propane or butane.Metal sulfur dioxide complex: Metal sulfur dioxide complexes are complexes that contain sulfur dioxide, SO2, bonded to a transition metal. Such compounds are common but are mainly of theoretical interest.Particulates: Atmospheric particulate matter – also known as particulate matter (PM) or particulates – is microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in the Earth's atmosphere. The term aerosol commonly refers to the particulate/air mixture, as opposed to the particulate matter alone.Benzo(k)fluorantheneAerosolization: Aerosolization is the process or act of converting some physical substance into the form of particles small and light enough to be carried on the air i.e.
(1/41) Indoor, outdoor, and regional summer and winter concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO4(2)-, H+, NH4+, NO3-, NH3, and nitrous acid in homes with and without kerosene space heaters.
Twenty-four-hour samples of PM10 (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm), PM2.5, (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm), particle strong acidity (H+), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), ammonia (NH3), nitrous acid (HONO), and sulfur dioxide were collected inside and outside of 281 homes during winter and summer periods. Measurements were also conducted during summer periods at a regional site. A total of 58 homes of nonsmokers were sampled during the summer periods and 223 homes were sampled during the winter periods. Seventy-four of the homes sampled during the winter reported the use of a kerosene heater. All homes sampled in the summer were located in southwest Virginia. All but 20 homes sampled in the winter were also located in southwest Virginia; the remainder of the homes were located in Connecticut. For homes without tobacco combustion, the regional air monitoring site (Vinton, VA) appeared to provide a reasonable estimate of concentrations of PM2.5 and SO42- during summer months outside and inside homes within the region, even when a substantial number of the homes used air conditioning. Average indoor/outdoor ratios for PM2.5 and SO42- during the summer period were 1.03 +/- 0.71 and 0.74 +/- 0.53, respectively. The indoor/outdoor mean ratio for sulfate suggests that on average approximately 75% of the fine aerosol indoors during the summer is associated with outdoor sources. Kerosene heater use during the winter months, in the absence of tobacco combustion, results in substantial increases in indoor concentrations of PM2.5, SO42-, and possibly H+, as compared to homes without kerosene heaters. During their use, we estimated that kerosene heaters added, on average, approximately 40 microg/m3 of PM2.5 and 15 microg/m3 of SO42- to background residential levels of 18 and 2 microg/m3, respectively. Results from using sulfuric acid-doped Teflon (E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, DE) filters in homes with kerosene heaters suggest that acid particle concentrations may be substantially higher than those measured because of acid neutralization by ammonia. During the summer and winter periods indoor concentrations of ammonia are an order of magnitude higher indoors than outdoors and appear to result in lower indoor acid particle concentrations. Nitrous acid levels are higher indoors than outdoors during both winter and summer and are substantially higher in homes with unvented combustion sources. (+info)
(2/41) Modulation of bronchial epithelial cell barrier function by in vitro jet propulsion fuel 8 exposure.
The loss of epithelial barrier integrity in bronchial and bronchiolar airways may be an initiating factor in the observed onset of toxicant-induced lung injuries. Acute 1-h inhalation exposures to aerosolized jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) have been shown to induce cellular and morphological indications of pulmonary toxicity that was associated with increased respiratory permeability to 99mTc-DTPA. To address the hypothesis that JP-8 jet fuel-induced lung injury is initiated through a disruption in the airway epithelial barrier function, paracellular mannitol flux of BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells was measured. Incubation of confluent cell cultures with non-cytotoxic concentrations of JP-8 or n-tetradecane (C14), a primary constituent of JP-8, for a 1-h exposure period resulted in dose-dependent increases of paracellular flux. Following exposures of 0.17, 0.33, 0.50, or 0.67 mg/ml, mannitol flux increased above vehicle controls by 10, 14, 29, and 52%, respectively, during a 2-h incubation period immediately after each JP-8 exposure. C14 caused greater mannitol flux increases of 37, 42, 63, and 78%, respectively, following identical exposure conditions. The effect on transepithelial mannitol flux reached a maximum at 12 h and spontaneously reversed to control values over a 48-h recovery period, for both JP-8 and C14 exposure. These data indicate that non-cytotoxic exposures to JP-8 or C14 exert a noxious effect on bronchial epithelial barrier function that may preclude pathological lung injury. (+info)
(3/41) Dermal application of JP-8 jet fuel induces immune suppression.
Chronic exposure to JP-8 jet fuel induces lung toxicity, adverse neurological effects and some liver and kidney dysfunction. In addition, inhalation of JP-8 induces immune suppression. Besides the lung, the other major route of JP-8 exposure is via the skin. In this study we tested the hypothesis that dermal exposure to JP-8 is immune suppressive. JP-8 was applied to the skin of adult female C3H/HeN mice and various immune parameters were examined. Dermal exposure to JP-8, either multiple small exposures (50 microl for 5 days) or a single large dose (250-300 microl) resulted in immune suppression. The induction of contact hypersensitivity was impaired in a dose-dependent manner regardless of whether the contact allergen was applied directly to the JP-8-treated skin or at a distant un-treated site. In addition, the generation of a classic delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to a bacterial antigen (Borellia burgdorferi) injected into the subcutaneous space was suppressed by dermal application of JP-8 at a distant site. The ability of splenic T lymphocytes from JP-8-treated mice to proliferate in response to plate-bound monoclonal anti-CD3 was also significantly suppressed. Interleukin-10, a cytokine with potent immune suppressive activity, was found in the serum of JP-8-treated mice, suggesting that the mechanism of systemic immune suppression may involve the upregulation of cytokine release by JP-8. These findings confirm the immunosuppressive effects of JP-8 and demonstrate that dermal exposure to JP-8 is immunotoxic. (+info)
(4/41) Assessment of skin absorption and penetration of JP-8 jet fuel and its components.
Dermal penetration and absorption of jet fuels in general, and JP-8 in particular, is not well understood, even though government and industry, worldwide, use over 4.5 billion gallons of JP-8 per year. Exposures to JP-8 can occur from vapor, liquid, or aerosol. Inhalation and dermal exposure are the most prevalent routes. JP-8 may cause irritation during repeated or prolonged exposures, but it is unknown whether systemic toxicity can occur from dermal penetration of fuels. The purpose of this investigation was to measure the penetration and absorption of JP-8 and its major constituents with rat skin, so that the potential for effects with human exposures can be assessed. We used static diffusion cells to measure both the flux of JP-8 and components across the skin and the kinetics of absorption into the skin. Total flux of the hydrocarbon components was 20.3 micrograms/cm(2)/h. Thirteen individual components of JP-8 penetrated into the receptor solution. The fluxes ranged from a high of 51.5 micrograms/cm(2)/h (an additive, diethylene glycol monomethyl ether) to a low of 0.334 micrograms/cm(2)/h (tridecane). Aromatic components penetrated most rapidly. Six components (all aliphatic) were identified in the skin. Concentrations absorbed into the skin at 3.5 h ranged from 0.055 micrograms per gram skin (tetradecane) to 0.266 micrograms per gram skin (undecane). These results suggest: (1) that JP-8 penetration will not cause systemic toxicity because of low fluxes of all the components; and (2) the absorption of aliphatic components into the skin may be a cause of skin irritation. (+info)
(5/41) Mechanisms involved in the immunotoxicity induced by dermal application of JP-8 jet fuel.
Dermal application of JP-8 jet fuel induces immune suppression. Classic delayed-type hypersensitivity as well as the induction of contact hypersensitivity to allergens applied to the shaved skin of JP-8-treated mice is suppressed. In addition, the ability of T cells isolated from JP-8-treated mice to proliferate in vitro is suppressed. Here we focused on further characterizing the immunotoxicity induced by JP-8 exposure and determining the mechanism involved. Suppression of T-cell proliferation was first noted 3 to 4 days after a single JP-8 treatment and lasted for approximately 3 weeks, at which time T-cell proliferation returned to normal. Cellular immune reactions appear to be more susceptible to the immunosuppressive effects of JP-8, as antibody production in JP-8-treated mice was identical to that found in normal controls. The mechanism through which dermal application of JP-8 suppresses cell-mediated immune reactions appears to be via the release of immune biological-response modifiers. Blocking the production of prostaglandin E(2) with a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor abrogated JP-8-induced immune suppression. Neutralizing the activity of interleukin-10 with a highly specific monoclonal antibody also blocked JP-8-induced immune suppression. Furthermore, injecting JP-8-treated mice with recombinant interleukin-12, a cytokine that drives cell-mediated immune reactions in vivo, overcame the immunotoxic effects of JP-8 and restored immune function. These data indicate that immune suppressive cytokines, presumably produced by JP-8-treated epidermal cells, are responsible for immune suppression in JP-8-treated mice and that blocking and/or neutralizing their production in vivo overcomes the immunotoxic effects of JP-8. (+info)
(6/41) What is clinical smoke poisoning?
In this 13-year study, 51 patients were admitted with the primary diagnosis of "smoke poisoning" "carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning" or "respiratory burns." Forty patients (78%) had diagnosis of smoke poisoning with minor or no skin burns. The study indicated that clinical diagnosis of CO poisoning cannot be made reliably without carboxyhemoglobin (COHg) determination and that smoke poisoning patients often had CO poisoning. Seventeen of 19 smoke poisoning patients (89%) had CO poisoning above COHb levels of 15% saturation. Carbon monoxide was successfully removed from the blood by improving alveolar ventilation and oxygen concentration. However, there were 2 smoke poisoning deaths as the result of gaseous chemical injury. There was a correlation coefficient of 0.87 between initial COHg levels and patients' hospital days primarily determined by patients' pulmonary complications. Since CO is non-irritating, COHb levels may be used as an additional indicator of suspected pulmonary injury by noxious combustion gases. (+info)
(7/41) Exposure of infants to outdoor and indoor air pollution in low-income urban areas - a case study of Delhi.
Indoor air pollution is potentially a very serious environmental and public health problem in India. In poor communities, with the continuing trend in biofuel combustion coupled with deteriorating housing conditions, the problem will remain for some time to come. While to some extent the problem has been studied in rural areas, there is a dearth of reliable data and knowledge about the situation in urban slum areas. The microenvironmental model was used for assessing daily-integrated exposure of infants and women to respirable suspended particulates (RSP) in two slums of Delhi - one in an area of high outdoor pollution and the other in a less polluted area. The study confirmed that indoor concentrations of RSP during cooking in kerosene-using houses are lesser than that in wood-using houses. However, the exposure due to cooking was not significantly different across the two groups. This was because, perhaps due to socioeconomic reasons, kerosene-using women were found to cook for longer durations, cook inside more often, and that infants in such houses stayed in the kitchen for longer durations. It was observed that indoor background levels during the day and at nighttime can be exceedingly high. We speculate that this may have been due to resuspension of dust, infiltration, unknown sources, or a combination of these factors. The outdoor RSP levels measured just outside the houses (near ambient) were not correlated with indoor background levels and were higher than those reported by the ambient air quality monitoring network at the corresponding stations. More importantly, the outdoor levels measured in this study not only underestimated the daily-integrated exposure, but were also poorly correlated with it. (+info)
(8/41) Comparative in vivo toxicity of topical JP-8 jet fuel and its individual hydrocarbon components: identification of tridecane and tetradecane as key constituents responsible for dermal irritation.
Despite widespread exposure to military jet fuels, there remains a knowledge gap concerning the actual toxic entities responsible for irritation observed after topical fuel exposure. The present studies with individual hydrocarbon (HC) constituents of JP-8 jet fuel shed light on this issue. To mimic occupational scenarios, JP-8, 8 aliphatic HC (nonane, decane, undecane, dodecane, tridecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, hexadecane) and 6 aromatic HC (ethyl benzene, o-xylene, trimethyl benzene, cyclohexyl benzene, naphthalene, dimethyl naphthalene) soaked cotton fabrics were topically exposed to pigs for 1 day and with repeated daily exposures for 4 days. Erythema, epidermal thickness, and epidermal cell layers were quantitated. No erythema was noted in 1-day in vivo HC exposures but significant erythema was observed in 4-day tridecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, and JP-8 exposed sites. The aromatic HCs did not produce any macroscopic lesions in 1 or 4 days of in vivo exposures. Morphological observations revealed slight intercellular and intracellular epidermal edema in 4-day exposures with the aliphatic HCs. Epidermal thickness and number of cell layers significantly increased (p < 0.05) in tridecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, and JP-8-treated sites. No significant differences were observed in the aromatic HC-exposed sites. Subcorneal microabscesses containing inflammatory cells were observed with most of the long-chain aliphatic HCs and JP-8 in 4-day exposures. Ultrastructural studies depicted that jet fuel HC-induced cleft formation within intercellular lipid lamellar bilayers of the stratum corneum. The degree of damage to the skin was proportional to the length of in vivo HC exposures. These data coupled with absorption and toxicity studies of jet fuel HC revealed that specific HCs (tridecane and tetradecane) might be the key constituents responsible for jet fuel-induced skin irritation. (+info)