Isonicotinic Acids: Heterocyclic acids that are derivatives of 4-pyridinecarboxylic acid (isonicotinic acid).Isoniazid: Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.PeroxidasesNiacin: A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.HydrazinesAntitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
MethylpyridiniumIsoniazidDyP-type peroxidase family: In molecular biology, the DyP-type peroxidase family is a family of haem peroxidase enzymes.LaropiprantHydrazine sulfateCatalase: Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen (such as bacteria, plants, and animals). It catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen.Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex refers to a genetically related group of Mycobacterium species that can cause tuberculosis in humans or other organisms.
(1/83) Incremental conductance levels of GABAA receptors in dopaminergic neurones of the rat substantia nigra pars compacta.
1. Molecular and biophysical properties of GABAA receptors of dopaminergic (DA) neurones of the pars compacta of the rat substantia nigra were studied in slices and after acute dissociation. 2. Single-cell reverse transcriptase-multiplex polymerase chain reaction confirmed that DA neurones contained mRNAs encoding for the alpha3 subunit of the GABAA receptor, but further showed the presence of alpha4 subunit mRNAs. alpha2, beta1 and gamma1 subunit mRNAs were never detected. Overall, DA neurones present a pattern of expression of GABAA receptor subunit mRNAs containing mainly alpha3/4beta2/3gamma3. 3. Outside-out patches were excised from DA neurones and GABAA single-channel patch-clamp currents were recorded under low doses (1-5 microM) of GABA or isoguvacine, a selective GABAA agonist. Recordings presented several conductance levels which appeared to be integer multiples of an elementary conductance of 4-5 pS. This property was shared by GABAA receptors of cerebellar Purkinje neurones recorded in slices (however, with an elementary conductance of 3 pS). Only the 5-6 lowest levels were analysed. 4. A progressive change in the distribution of occupancy of these levels was observed when increasing the isoguvacine concentration (up to 10 microM) as well as when adding zolpidem (20-200 nM), a drug acting at the benzodiazepine binding site: both treatments enlarged the occupancy of the highest conductance levels, while decreasing that of the smallest ones. Conversely, Zn2+ (10 microM), a negative allosteric modulator of GABAA receptor channels, decreased the occupancy of the highest levels in favour of the lowest ones. 5. These properties of alpha3/4beta2/3gamma3-containing GABAA receptors would support the hypothesis of either single GABAA receptor channels with multiple open states or that of a synchronous recruitment of GABAA receptor channels that could involve their clustering in the membranes of DA neurones. (+info)
(2/83) Characterization of RCI-1, a chloroplastic rice lipoxygenase whose synthesis is induced by chemical plant resistance activators.
A full-length lipoxygenase cDNA (RCI-1) has been cloned from rice (Oryza sativa) whose corresponding transcripts accumulate in response to treatment of the plants with chemical inducers of acquired resistance such as benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH), 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA), and probenazole. In contrast, RCI-1 transcript levels did not increase after inoculation with compatible and incompatible races of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea and the nonhost pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. RCI-1 transcript levels also increased after exogenous application of jasmonic acid, but not upon wounding. Dose-response and time course experiments revealed a similar pattern of transcript accumulation and lipoxygenase activity in BTH-treated rice leaves. Enzymatic analysis of recombinant RCI-1 protein produced in Escherichia coli revealed that 13-hydroperoxy-octadecanoic acids were the predominant reaction products when either linoleic or linolenic acid used as a substrate. The RCI-1 sequence features a putative chloroplast targeting sequence at its N-terminus. Indeed, a protein consisting of the putative chloroplast transit peptide fused to green fluorescent protein was exclusively localized in chloroplasts, indicating that RCI-1 is a chloroplastic enzyme. (+info)
(3/83) Urinary 4-pyridoxic acid, plasma pyridoxal phosphate, and erythrocyte aminotransferase levels in oral contraceptive users receiving controlled intakes of vitamin B6.
Fifteen women who had used combination type oral contraceptives (estrogen plus progestogen) and 9 control women who had never used these agents were given a diet deficient in vitamin B6. After 1 month, this diet was supplemented daily with 0.8, 2.0 or 20.0 mg of pyridoxine hydrocholride for an additional month. At weekly intervals, measurements were made of urinary 4-pyridoxic acid, plasma pyridoxal phosphate, and erythocyte alanine and aspartate aminotransterases. No significan differences were observed between oral contraceptive users and controls in any of the above measured indices. The data suggest that if the use of oral contraceptives of the combined estrogen-progestogen type does alter the requirement for vitamin B6, the effect is a mild one and of doubtful clinical significance to the majority of women taking these steroid preparations. The amount of vitamin B6 (as pyridoxine) needed to maintain normal levels of the above indices of vitamin B6 nutrition in these subjects were between 0.8 and 2.0 mg/day. (+info)
(4/83) Post-episode depression of GABAergic transmission in spinal neurons of the chick embryo.
Whole cell recordings were obtained from ventral horn neurons in spontaneously active spinal cords isolated from the chick embryo [embryonic days 10 to 11 (E10-E11)] to examine the post-episode depression of GABAergic transmission. Spontaneous activity occurred as recurrent, rhythmic episodes approximately 60 s in duration with 10- to 15-min quiescent inter-episode intervals. Current-clamp recording revealed that episodes were followed by a transient hyperpolarization (7 +/- 1.2 mV, mean +/- SE), which dissipated as a slow (0.5-1 mV/min) depolarization until the next episode. Local application of bicuculline 8 min after an episode hyperpolarized spinal neurons by 6 +/- 0.8 mV and increased their input resistance by 13%, suggesting the involvement of GABAergic transmission. Gramicidin perforated-patch recordings showed that the GABAa reversal potential was above rest potential (E(GABAa) = -29 +/- 3 mV) and allowed estimation of the physiological intracellular [Cl(-)] = 50 mM. In whole cell configuration (with physiological electrode [Cl(-)]), two distinct types of endogenous GABAergic currents (I(GABAa)) were found during the inter-episode interval. The first comprised TTX-resistant, asynchronous miniature postsynaptic currents (mPSCs), an indicator of quantal GABA release (up to 42% of total mPSCs). The second (tonic I(GABAa)) was complimentary to the slow membrane depolarization and may arise from persistent activation of extrasynaptic GABAa receptors. We estimate that approximately 10 postsynaptic channels are activated by a single quantum of GABA release during an mPSC and that about 30 extrasynaptic GABAa channels are required for generation of the tonic I(GABAa) in ventral horn neurons. We investigated the post-episode depression of I(GABAa) by local application of GABA or isoguvacine (100 microM, for 10-30 s) applied before and after an episode at holding potentials (V(hold)) -60 mV. The amplitude of the evoked I(GABA) was compared after clamping the cell during the episode at one of three different V(hold): -60 mV, below E(GABAa) resulting in Cl(-) efflux; -30 mV, close to E(GABAa) with minimal Cl(-) flux; and 0 mV, above E(GABAa) resulting in Cl(-) influx during the episode. The amplitude of the evoked I(GABA) changed according to the direction of Cl(-) flux during the episode: at -60 mV a 41% decrease, at -30 mV a 4% reduction, and at 0 mV a 19% increase. These post-episode changes were accompanied by shifts of E(GABAa) of -10, -1.2, and +7 mV, respectively. We conclude that redistribution of intracellular [Cl(-)] during spontaneous episodes is likely to be an important postsynaptic mechanism involved in the post-episode depression of GABAergic transmission in chick embryo spinal neurons. (+info)
(5/83) Effects of GABA(A) receptor partial agonists in primary cultures of cerebellar granule neurons and cerebral cortical neurons reflect different receptor subunit compositions.
Based on an unexpected high maximum response to piperidine-4-sulphonic acid (P4S) at human alpha1alpha6beta2gamma2 GABA(A) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes attempts to correlate this finding with the pharmacological profile of P4S and other GABA(A) receptor ligands in neuronal cultures from rat cerebellar granule cells and rat cerebral cortex were carried out. GABA and isoguvacine acted as full and piperidine-4-sulphonic acid (P4S) as partial agonists, respectively, at alpha1beta2gamma2, alpha6beta2gamma2 and alpha1alpha6beta2gamma2 GABA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes with differences in potency. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were used to investigate the pharmacological profile of the partial GABA(A) receptor agonists 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-(5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol (THIP), P4S, 5-(4-piperidyl)isoxazol-3-ol (4-PIOL), and 3-(4-piperidyl)isoxazol-5-ol (iso-4-PIOL), and the competitive GABA(A) receptor antagonists Bicuculline Methbromide (BMB) and 2-(3-carboxypropyl)-3-amino-6-methoxyphenyl-pyridazinium bromide (SR95531) on cerebral cortical and cerebellar granule neurons. In agreement with findings in oocytes, GABA, isoguvacine and P4S showed similar pharmacological profiles in cultured cortical and cerebellar neurones, which are known to express mainly alpha1, alpha2, alpha3, and alpha5 containing receptors and alpha1, alpha6 and alpha1alpha6 containing receptors, respectively. 4-PIOL and iso-4-PIOL, which at GABA(A) receptors expressed in oocytes were weak antagonists, showed cell type dependent potency as inhibitors of GABA mediated responses. Thus, 4-PIOL was slightly more potent at cortical neurones than at granule neurones and iso-4-PIOL was more potent in inhibiting isoguvacine-evoked currents at cortical than at granule neurons. Furthermore the maximum response to 4-PIOL corresponded to that of a partial agonist, whereas that of iso-4-PIOL gave a maximum response close to zero. It is concluded that the pharmacological profile of partial agonists is highly dependent on the receptor composition, and that small structural changes of a ligand can alter the selectivity towards different subunit compositions. Moreover, this study shows that pharmacological actions determined in oocytes are generally in agreement with data obtained from cultured neurons. (+info)
(6/83) Salicylic acid and NIM1/NPR1-independent gene induction by incompatible Peronospora parasitica in arabidopsis.
To identify pathogen-induced genes distinct from those involved in systemic acquired resistance, we used cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism to examine RNA levels in Arabidopsis thaliana wild type, nim1-1, and salicylate hydroxylase-expressing plants after inoculation with an incompatible isolate of the downy mildew pathogen Peronospora parasitica. Fifteen genes are described, which define three response profiles on the basis of whether their induction requires salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and NIM1/NPR1 activity, SA alone, or neither. Sequence analysis shows that the genes include a calcium binding protein related to TCH3, a protein containing ankyrin repeats and potential transmembrane domains, three glutathione S-transferase gene family members, and a number of small, putatively secreted proteins. We further characterized this set of genes by assessing their expression patterns in each of the three plant lines after inoculation with a compatible P. parasitica isolate and after treatment with the SA analog 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid. Some of the genes within subclasses showed different requirements for SA accumulation and NIM1/NPR1 activity, depending upon which elicitor was used, indicating that those genes were not coordinately regulated and that the regulatory pathways are more complex than simple linear models would indicate. (+info)
(7/83) Arabidopsis SON1 is an F-box protein that regulates a novel induced defense response independent of both salicylic acid and systemic acquired resistance.
One of several induced defense responses in plants is systemic acquired resistance (SAR), which is regulated by salicylic acid and in Arabidopsis by the NIM1/NPR1 protein. To identify additional components of the SAR pathway or other genes that regulate SAR-independent resistance, we performed genetic suppressor screens of mutagenized nim1-1 seedlings, which are highly susceptible to infection by Peronospora parasitica. We isolated the son1 (suppressor of nim1-1) mutant, which shows full restoration of pathogen resistance without the induction of SAR-associated genes and expresses resistance when combined with a salicylate hydroxylase (nahG) transgene. These features indicate that son1-mediated resistance is distinct from SAR. Resistance is effective against both the virulent oomycete Peronospora and the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato strain DC3000. We cloned SON1 and found it to encode a novel protein containing an F-box motif, an element found within the specificity determinant in the E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex. We propose the existence of a novel defense response that is independent of SAR and negatively regulated in Arabidopsis by SON1 through the ubiquitin-proteosome pathway. (+info)
(8/83) Reciprocal developmental regulation of presynaptic ionotropic receptors.
Activation of ionotropic glycine receptors potentiates glutamate release in mature calyceal nerve terminals of the rat medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, an auditory brainstem nucleus. In young rats, glycine and its receptors are poorly expressed. We therefore asked whether GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) might play a larger role than glycine in the regulation of glutamate release in the absence of glycine receptors. Indeed, in rats younger than postnatal day 11 (P11), and before the onset of hearing, calyces expressed high levels of ionotropic GABA(A) receptors but few glycine receptors. Isoguvacine, a selective agonist at GABA(A) receptors, strongly enhanced excitatory postsynaptic currents in young rats but had little effect in rats older than P11. Down-regulation of presynaptic GABA(A) receptors did not reflect global changes in receptor expression, because the magnitude of GABA and glycine responses was similar at P13 in the parent-cell bodies of the calyces, the bushy cells of the cochlear nucleus. In outside-out patches excised from the nonsynaptic face of calyces, GABA and glycine evoked single-channel currents consistent with the properties of postsynaptic GABA(A) and glycine receptors. Inhibitory GABA(B) receptors were present on the calyx at all developmental stages examined. Thus, GABA initially acts on two receptor subtypes, both promoting and inhibiting glutamate release. With age, the former role is transferred to the glycine receptor during the period in which postsynaptic glycinergic transmission is acquired. (+info)