*  IZONIAZID - METABOLIZAM, TOKSIČNOST I INTERAKCIJE | Repozitorij Kemijsko-tehnološkog fakulteta u Splitu
... a N-acetylisoniazid which is hydrolyzed by enzymes CES and appears acetylhydrazine and isonicotinic acid. Oxidation of ... Glycine conjugate of nicotinic acid is nicotinuric acid which is not toxic. Toxic effects of INH are associated with genetic ...
  https://repozitorij.ktf-split.hr/islandora/object/ktfst%3A65
*  Unusual anion effect on the direction of three-dimensional (3-D) channel-like silver(I) coordination frameworks with...
Reaction of isonicotinic acid N-oxide (HINO) with AgClO4 or AgBF4 under similar conditions unexpectedly generates two distinct ... isonicotinic acid. N-oxide M. Du, C. Li and J. Guo, CrystEngComm, 2009, 11, 1536 DOI: 10.1039/B903074C ... isonicotinic acid N-oxide. (HINO) with AgClO4 or AgBF4 under similar conditions unexpectedly generates two distinct crystalline ...
  http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/CE/2009/B903074C
*  2-[(3-Hydroxybutyl)amino]isonicotinic acid | VWR
2-[(3-Hydroxybutyl)amino]isonicotinic acid. , 2-[(3-Hydroxybutyl)amino]isonicotinic acid ...
  https://us.vwr.com/store/product/8983973/2-3-hydroxybutyl-amino-isonicotinic-acid
*  Isonicotinic acid, hexadecyl ester
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
  http://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/inchi/InChI%3D1S/C22H37NO2/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-20-25-22
*  Chemical Database: Isonicotinic acid, (o-hydroxybenzylidene)hydrazide (EnvironmentalChemistry.com)
This page contains information on the chemical Isonicotinic acid, (o-hydroxybenzylidene)hydrazide including: 38 synonyms/ ... Isonicotinic acid, (o-hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazide*Isonicotinic acid, 2-hydroxybenzylidenehydrazide*Isonicotinic acid, ... Isonicotinic acid, (o-hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazide. Identifications. *CAS Number: 495-84-1*Synonyms/Related:*1-ISONICOTINOYL-2 ... Isonicotinic acid, salicylidenehydrazide (8CI) *N'-o-Hydroxybenzylidenepyridine-4-carboxyhydrazide*N-Isonicotinoyl-N'-( ...
  https://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/chemicals/cn/Isonicotinic%A0acid%2C%A0%28o-hydroxybenzylidene%29hydrazide.html
*  Chemical Database: Isonicotinic acid, 2-(2-thujyl)hydrazide, dihydrochloride (EnvironmentalChemistry.com)
This page contains information on the chemical Isonicotinic acid, 2-(2-thujyl)hydrazide, dihydrochloride including: 3 synonyms/ ... 2-(2-Thujyl) hydrazide of isonicotinic acid dihydrochloride*Isonicotinic acid, 2-(2-thujyl) hydrazide, dihydrochloride Related ... Isonicotinic acid, 2-(2-thujyl) hydrazide, dihydrochloride. Identifications. *CAS Number: 15946-14-2*Synonyms/Related:* ... Chemical Database - Isonicotinic acid, 2-(2-thujyl)hydrazide, dihydrochloride. EnvironmentalChemistry.com. 1995 - 2018. ...
  https://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/chemicals/cn/Isonicotinic%A0acid%2C%A02-%282-thujyl%29hydrazide%2C%A0dihydrochloride.html
*  Isonicotinic acid - Wikipedia
Isonicotinic acids is a term loosely used for derivatives of isonicotinic acid. Examples include: Ethionamide Iproniazid ... Isoniazid Nialamide Iproniazid Nialamide Pyridinecarboxylic acids Isonicotinic acid at chemicalland21.com Isonicotinic Acids at ... Isonicotinic acid or 4-pyridinecarboxylic acid is an organic compound with the formula C5H4N(CO2H). It is a derivative of ... It is an isomer of picolinic acid and nicotinic acid which have the carboxyl group at the 2- and 3-position respectively ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isonicotinic_acid
*  2-(Butylamino)isonicotinic acid - Alfa Chemistry
... isonicotinic acid/AFI77314784 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products ... 2-(BUTYLAMINO)ISONICOTINIC ACID, 77314-78-4, AGN-PC-00MTG4, SureCN11344172, CTK2H5763, MolPort-004-367-085, AKOS000214324, AG-H ... 2-(butylamino)pyridine-4-carboxylic acid, AK-65917, 4-Pyridinecarboxylicacid, 2-(butylamino)-, 4-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 2-( ...
  http://www.alfa-chemistry.com/cas_77314-78-4.htm
*  2-3-hydroxypropyl-amino-isonicotinic-acid | VWR
Learn more about 2-3-hydroxypropyl-amino-isonicotinic-acid. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process ...
  https://us.vwr.com/store/product/21131577/2-3-hydroxypropyl-amino-isonicotinic-acid
*  2-[(3-Pyridinylmethyl)amino]isonicotinic acid | VWR
2-[(3-Pyridinylmethyl)amino]isonicotinic acid. , 2-[(3-Pyridinylmethyl)amino]isonicotinic acid ...
  https://us.vwr.com/store/product/8984414/2-3-pyridinylmethyl-amino-isonicotinic-acid
*  Acid Isonicotinic manufacturing companies
We are sorry, there are no companies found in " Acid Isonicotinic" Listing your company for Acid Isonicotinic allows buyers to ... Acid Isonicotinic manufacturers and suppliers. Search. Search by Drug Name, Company, CAS, Chem formula, IUPAC Name, Country (e. ...
  http://www.poulvet.com/bulk_drugs/product_companies_india.php?sclid=4514&prefix=Q
*  The 2016-2021 Outlook for Antitubercular Pharmaceuticals Excluding Tuberculostatic Isoniazid (isonicotinic Acid Hydrazide)...
... isonicotinic acid hydrazide) preparations across - India market research analysis. ... The 2016-2021 Outlook for Antitubercular Pharmaceuticals Excluding Tuberculostatic Isoniazid (isonicotinic Acid Hydrazide) ... isonicotinic acid hydrazide) preparations. This report does not discuss the specific players in the market serving the latent ... isonicotinic acid hydrazide) preparations across the states, union territories and cities of India. Latent demand (in millions ...
  http://www.marketreportsonindia.com/life-sciences-market-research-reports-4236/antitubercular-pharmaceuticals-excluding-tuberculostatic-isoniazid-isonicotinic-acid-hydrazide-preparations-india.html
*  Indian Health Manual (IHM) - Home
ISONICOTINIC ACID 2-METHOXYETHYL ACETATE. ISOOCTYL ALCOHOL METRIBUZIN. ISOPHORONE MEVINPHOS. ISOPHORONE DIISOCYANATE MICHLER'S ...
  https://www.ihs.gov/IHM/index.cfm?module=dsp_ihm_circ_main&circ=ihm_circ_9402_apx_942e
*  Rifater | definition of rifater by Medical dictionary
Pharmacologic class: Isonicotinic acid hydrazide. Therapeutic class: Antitubercular. Pregnancy risk category C ... Inhibits cell-wall biosynthesis by interfering with lipid and nucleic acid DNA synthesis in tubercle bacilli cells ...
  https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/rifater
*  Dom-Isoniazid | definition of Dom-Isoniazid by Medical dictionary
isonicotinic acid hydrazide.. i·so·ni·a·zid (ī'sō-nī'ă-zid) Isonicotinic acid hydrazide; first-line and probably most commonly ... Also called INH (isonicotinic acid hydrazide). indications It is prescribed for prophylaxis for those who have been exposed to ... Isonicotinic acid hydrazide; first-line and probably most commonly used antituberculosis drug. Organisms rapidly develop ... Isonicotinic acid hydrazide; first-line and probably most commonly used antituberculosis drug. Organisms rapidly develop ...
  https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Dom-Isoniazid
*  Sohár Pál
Tautomeric equilibrium of isonicotinic acid thioamide derivatives. Acta Chim. Acad. Sci. Hung., 56, 25-37 (l968). ... G. Stájer, A. E. Szabó, A. Csámpai and P. Sohár: Reaction of levulinic acid with norbornane/ene amino acids and diamines. Eur. ... Nucleosides, nucleotides & nucleic acids, 20, 229-241 (2001).. * 388. Gy. Kóczán, G. Csík, A. Csámpai, E. Balog, Sz. Bősze, P. ... Argay and P. Sohár: Application of t-2-benzoyl-t-5-phenyl-cyclohexane-r-1-carboxylic acid for the preparation of saturated ...
  http://www.chem.elte.hu/print/666
*  James O'Shea - The University of Nottingham
Molecular ordering in isonicotinic acid on rutile TiO2(110) investigated with valence band photoemission Journal of Chemical ... N 1S X-Ray Absorption Study Of The Bonding Interaction Of Bi-Isonicotinic Acid Adsorbed On Rutile Tio2(110) Journal Of Chemical ... Structural Study Of Adsorption Of Isonicotinic Acid And Related Molecules On Rutile Tio2(110) I: Xas And Stm Surface Science. ... Structural study of adsorption of isonicotinic acid and related molecules on rutile TiO2(110) II: XPS Surface Science. VOL 544( ...
  https://www.nottingham.ac.uk/physics/people/j.oshea
*  DailyMed - ISONIAZID- isoniazid solution
Isoniazid is chemically known as isonicotinyl hydrazine or isonicotinic acid hydrazide. It has an empirical formula of C6H7N3O ... Isoniazid inhibits the synthesis of mycoloic acids, an essential component of the bacterial cell wall. At therapeutic levels ... This product also contains citric acid USP and potassium sorbate NF.. ...
  https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=fada0e39-68f7-434d-91fc-84a67fc940f9
*  Silent Spring Institute
isonicotinic acid vanillylidenehydrazide 3778-73-2 isophosphamide. 3031-51-4 l-5-morpholinomethyl- 3-[ (5-nitrofurfurylidene ) ...
  http://sciencereview.silentspring.org/mamm_browse.cfm
*  isoniazid facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about isoniazid
isoniazid (isonicotinic acid hydrazide, INH) (I-soh-ny-ă-zid) n. a drug used in the treatment of tuberculosis, usually taken by ... Also known as isonicotinic acid hydrazide, isoniazid is the most effective antituberculosis drug currently available. The drug ... It is usually given together with some other antituberculosis drug such as streptomycin or para-aminosalicylic acid to prevent ...
  https://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/drugs/pharmacology/isoniazid
*  Download Characterization Of Nanocomposites Technology And Industrial Applications
A qualitative Transport Vehicle for Isonicotinic Acid Hydrazide. DiscussionThrough the download characterization of ... A low Transport Vehicle for Isonicotinic Acid Hydrazide. CuCl2 download characterization, lysosomal), 269-278. different ... A expensive Transport Vehicle for Isonicotinic Acid Hydrazide. general ambiguity, gastrointestinal), 269-278. academic download ... acid Problems in Mathematics. 1990): national changes. Sovremennye Problemy Matematiki. other from the Isotopic on 7 August ...
  http://prigsbee.com/Hawaii/freebooks/download-characterization-of-nanocomposites%3A-technology-and-industrial-applications.htm
*  Treating Tuberculosis in People With HIV - North Kansas City Hospital, Kansas City, MO
Three months of weekly doses of the antibiotics isoniazid and rifapentine can be effective for treating latent TB in people with HIV who are not taking antiretroviral medicines.footnote 2 For this treatment, a health professional watches you take each dose of antibiotics, called directly observed therapy (DOT). Making sure that every dose of antibiotic is taken helps prevent the TB bacteria from getting resistant to the antibiotics ...
  https://www.nkch.org/patients-visitors/health-library/healthwise-document-viewer/?id=aa151258
*  38041-19-9/4-Aminotetrahydropyran Tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-ylamine
3-Amino-isonicotinic acid. 4-Amino-nicotinic acid. 3-Chloro-pyridine -4-carbaldehyde/3-chloroisonicotinaldehyde. ... 2-Methylnicotinic acid;2-Methylpyridine-3-carboxylic acid. 3-Amino-2-chloro- 6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine;2-Chloro-6-( ... 6-Bromopicolinic acid,6-Bromo-2- pyridinecarboxylic acid. 6-Bromonicotinic acid,6-Bromo-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid. ... 2-Bromoisonicotinic acid,2-Bromopyridine-4-carboxylic acid. 6- Hydroxynicotinic acid,2-Hydroxy-5-pyridinecarboxylic acid. ...
  http://www.orgsynchem.com/detailproe.php?id=2590

(1/83) Incremental conductance levels of GABAA receptors in dopaminergic neurones of the rat substantia nigra pars compacta.

1. Molecular and biophysical properties of GABAA receptors of dopaminergic (DA) neurones of the pars compacta of the rat substantia nigra were studied in slices and after acute dissociation. 2. Single-cell reverse transcriptase-multiplex polymerase chain reaction confirmed that DA neurones contained mRNAs encoding for the alpha3 subunit of the GABAA receptor, but further showed the presence of alpha4 subunit mRNAs. alpha2, beta1 and gamma1 subunit mRNAs were never detected. Overall, DA neurones present a pattern of expression of GABAA receptor subunit mRNAs containing mainly alpha3/4beta2/3gamma3. 3. Outside-out patches were excised from DA neurones and GABAA single-channel patch-clamp currents were recorded under low doses (1-5 microM) of GABA or isoguvacine, a selective GABAA agonist. Recordings presented several conductance levels which appeared to be integer multiples of an elementary conductance of 4-5 pS. This property was shared by GABAA receptors of cerebellar Purkinje neurones recorded in slices (however, with an elementary conductance of 3 pS). Only the 5-6 lowest levels were analysed. 4. A progressive change in the distribution of occupancy of these levels was observed when increasing the isoguvacine concentration (up to 10 microM) as well as when adding zolpidem (20-200 nM), a drug acting at the benzodiazepine binding site: both treatments enlarged the occupancy of the highest conductance levels, while decreasing that of the smallest ones. Conversely, Zn2+ (10 microM), a negative allosteric modulator of GABAA receptor channels, decreased the occupancy of the highest levels in favour of the lowest ones. 5. These properties of alpha3/4beta2/3gamma3-containing GABAA receptors would support the hypothesis of either single GABAA receptor channels with multiple open states or that of a synchronous recruitment of GABAA receptor channels that could involve their clustering in the membranes of DA neurones.  (+info)

(2/83) Characterization of RCI-1, a chloroplastic rice lipoxygenase whose synthesis is induced by chemical plant resistance activators.

A full-length lipoxygenase cDNA (RCI-1) has been cloned from rice (Oryza sativa) whose corresponding transcripts accumulate in response to treatment of the plants with chemical inducers of acquired resistance such as benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH), 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA), and probenazole. In contrast, RCI-1 transcript levels did not increase after inoculation with compatible and incompatible races of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea and the nonhost pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. RCI-1 transcript levels also increased after exogenous application of jasmonic acid, but not upon wounding. Dose-response and time course experiments revealed a similar pattern of transcript accumulation and lipoxygenase activity in BTH-treated rice leaves. Enzymatic analysis of recombinant RCI-1 protein produced in Escherichia coli revealed that 13-hydroperoxy-octadecanoic acids were the predominant reaction products when either linoleic or linolenic acid used as a substrate. The RCI-1 sequence features a putative chloroplast targeting sequence at its N-terminus. Indeed, a protein consisting of the putative chloroplast transit peptide fused to green fluorescent protein was exclusively localized in chloroplasts, indicating that RCI-1 is a chloroplastic enzyme.  (+info)

(3/83) Urinary 4-pyridoxic acid, plasma pyridoxal phosphate, and erythrocyte aminotransferase levels in oral contraceptive users receiving controlled intakes of vitamin B6.

Fifteen women who had used combination type oral contraceptives (estrogen plus progestogen) and 9 control women who had never used these agents were given a diet deficient in vitamin B6. After 1 month, this diet was supplemented daily with 0.8, 2.0 or 20.0 mg of pyridoxine hydrocholride for an additional month. At weekly intervals, measurements were made of urinary 4-pyridoxic acid, plasma pyridoxal phosphate, and erythocyte alanine and aspartate aminotransterases. No significan differences were observed between oral contraceptive users and controls in any of the above measured indices. The data suggest that if the use of oral contraceptives of the combined estrogen-progestogen type does alter the requirement for vitamin B6, the effect is a mild one and of doubtful clinical significance to the majority of women taking these steroid preparations. The amount of vitamin B6 (as pyridoxine) needed to maintain normal levels of the above indices of vitamin B6 nutrition in these subjects were between 0.8 and 2.0 mg/day.  (+info)

(4/83) Post-episode depression of GABAergic transmission in spinal neurons of the chick embryo.

Whole cell recordings were obtained from ventral horn neurons in spontaneously active spinal cords isolated from the chick embryo [embryonic days 10 to 11 (E10-E11)] to examine the post-episode depression of GABAergic transmission. Spontaneous activity occurred as recurrent, rhythmic episodes approximately 60 s in duration with 10- to 15-min quiescent inter-episode intervals. Current-clamp recording revealed that episodes were followed by a transient hyperpolarization (7 +/- 1.2 mV, mean +/- SE), which dissipated as a slow (0.5-1 mV/min) depolarization until the next episode. Local application of bicuculline 8 min after an episode hyperpolarized spinal neurons by 6 +/- 0.8 mV and increased their input resistance by 13%, suggesting the involvement of GABAergic transmission. Gramicidin perforated-patch recordings showed that the GABAa reversal potential was above rest potential (E(GABAa) = -29 +/- 3 mV) and allowed estimation of the physiological intracellular [Cl(-)] = 50 mM. In whole cell configuration (with physiological electrode [Cl(-)]), two distinct types of endogenous GABAergic currents (I(GABAa)) were found during the inter-episode interval. The first comprised TTX-resistant, asynchronous miniature postsynaptic currents (mPSCs), an indicator of quantal GABA release (up to 42% of total mPSCs). The second (tonic I(GABAa)) was complimentary to the slow membrane depolarization and may arise from persistent activation of extrasynaptic GABAa receptors. We estimate that approximately 10 postsynaptic channels are activated by a single quantum of GABA release during an mPSC and that about 30 extrasynaptic GABAa channels are required for generation of the tonic I(GABAa) in ventral horn neurons. We investigated the post-episode depression of I(GABAa) by local application of GABA or isoguvacine (100 microM, for 10-30 s) applied before and after an episode at holding potentials (V(hold)) -60 mV. The amplitude of the evoked I(GABA) was compared after clamping the cell during the episode at one of three different V(hold): -60 mV, below E(GABAa) resulting in Cl(-) efflux; -30 mV, close to E(GABAa) with minimal Cl(-) flux; and 0 mV, above E(GABAa) resulting in Cl(-) influx during the episode. The amplitude of the evoked I(GABA) changed according to the direction of Cl(-) flux during the episode: at -60 mV a 41% decrease, at -30 mV a 4% reduction, and at 0 mV a 19% increase. These post-episode changes were accompanied by shifts of E(GABAa) of -10, -1.2, and +7 mV, respectively. We conclude that redistribution of intracellular [Cl(-)] during spontaneous episodes is likely to be an important postsynaptic mechanism involved in the post-episode depression of GABAergic transmission in chick embryo spinal neurons.  (+info)

(5/83) Effects of GABA(A) receptor partial agonists in primary cultures of cerebellar granule neurons and cerebral cortical neurons reflect different receptor subunit compositions.

Based on an unexpected high maximum response to piperidine-4-sulphonic acid (P4S) at human alpha1alpha6beta2gamma2 GABA(A) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes attempts to correlate this finding with the pharmacological profile of P4S and other GABA(A) receptor ligands in neuronal cultures from rat cerebellar granule cells and rat cerebral cortex were carried out. GABA and isoguvacine acted as full and piperidine-4-sulphonic acid (P4S) as partial agonists, respectively, at alpha1beta2gamma2, alpha6beta2gamma2 and alpha1alpha6beta2gamma2 GABA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes with differences in potency. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were used to investigate the pharmacological profile of the partial GABA(A) receptor agonists 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-(5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol (THIP), P4S, 5-(4-piperidyl)isoxazol-3-ol (4-PIOL), and 3-(4-piperidyl)isoxazol-5-ol (iso-4-PIOL), and the competitive GABA(A) receptor antagonists Bicuculline Methbromide (BMB) and 2-(3-carboxypropyl)-3-amino-6-methoxyphenyl-pyridazinium bromide (SR95531) on cerebral cortical and cerebellar granule neurons. In agreement with findings in oocytes, GABA, isoguvacine and P4S showed similar pharmacological profiles in cultured cortical and cerebellar neurones, which are known to express mainly alpha1, alpha2, alpha3, and alpha5 containing receptors and alpha1, alpha6 and alpha1alpha6 containing receptors, respectively. 4-PIOL and iso-4-PIOL, which at GABA(A) receptors expressed in oocytes were weak antagonists, showed cell type dependent potency as inhibitors of GABA mediated responses. Thus, 4-PIOL was slightly more potent at cortical neurones than at granule neurones and iso-4-PIOL was more potent in inhibiting isoguvacine-evoked currents at cortical than at granule neurons. Furthermore the maximum response to 4-PIOL corresponded to that of a partial agonist, whereas that of iso-4-PIOL gave a maximum response close to zero. It is concluded that the pharmacological profile of partial agonists is highly dependent on the receptor composition, and that small structural changes of a ligand can alter the selectivity towards different subunit compositions. Moreover, this study shows that pharmacological actions determined in oocytes are generally in agreement with data obtained from cultured neurons.  (+info)

(6/83) Salicylic acid and NIM1/NPR1-independent gene induction by incompatible Peronospora parasitica in arabidopsis.

To identify pathogen-induced genes distinct from those involved in systemic acquired resistance, we used cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism to examine RNA levels in Arabidopsis thaliana wild type, nim1-1, and salicylate hydroxylase-expressing plants after inoculation with an incompatible isolate of the downy mildew pathogen Peronospora parasitica. Fifteen genes are described, which define three response profiles on the basis of whether their induction requires salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and NIM1/NPR1 activity, SA alone, or neither. Sequence analysis shows that the genes include a calcium binding protein related to TCH3, a protein containing ankyrin repeats and potential transmembrane domains, three glutathione S-transferase gene family members, and a number of small, putatively secreted proteins. We further characterized this set of genes by assessing their expression patterns in each of the three plant lines after inoculation with a compatible P. parasitica isolate and after treatment with the SA analog 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid. Some of the genes within subclasses showed different requirements for SA accumulation and NIM1/NPR1 activity, depending upon which elicitor was used, indicating that those genes were not coordinately regulated and that the regulatory pathways are more complex than simple linear models would indicate.  (+info)

(7/83) Arabidopsis SON1 is an F-box protein that regulates a novel induced defense response independent of both salicylic acid and systemic acquired resistance.

One of several induced defense responses in plants is systemic acquired resistance (SAR), which is regulated by salicylic acid and in Arabidopsis by the NIM1/NPR1 protein. To identify additional components of the SAR pathway or other genes that regulate SAR-independent resistance, we performed genetic suppressor screens of mutagenized nim1-1 seedlings, which are highly susceptible to infection by Peronospora parasitica. We isolated the son1 (suppressor of nim1-1) mutant, which shows full restoration of pathogen resistance without the induction of SAR-associated genes and expresses resistance when combined with a salicylate hydroxylase (nahG) transgene. These features indicate that son1-mediated resistance is distinct from SAR. Resistance is effective against both the virulent oomycete Peronospora and the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato strain DC3000. We cloned SON1 and found it to encode a novel protein containing an F-box motif, an element found within the specificity determinant in the E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex. We propose the existence of a novel defense response that is independent of SAR and negatively regulated in Arabidopsis by SON1 through the ubiquitin-proteosome pathway.  (+info)

(8/83) Reciprocal developmental regulation of presynaptic ionotropic receptors.

Activation of ionotropic glycine receptors potentiates glutamate release in mature calyceal nerve terminals of the rat medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, an auditory brainstem nucleus. In young rats, glycine and its receptors are poorly expressed. We therefore asked whether GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) might play a larger role than glycine in the regulation of glutamate release in the absence of glycine receptors. Indeed, in rats younger than postnatal day 11 (P11), and before the onset of hearing, calyces expressed high levels of ionotropic GABA(A) receptors but few glycine receptors. Isoguvacine, a selective agonist at GABA(A) receptors, strongly enhanced excitatory postsynaptic currents in young rats but had little effect in rats older than P11. Down-regulation of presynaptic GABA(A) receptors did not reflect global changes in receptor expression, because the magnitude of GABA and glycine responses was similar at P13 in the parent-cell bodies of the calyces, the bushy cells of the cochlear nucleus. In outside-out patches excised from the nonsynaptic face of calyces, GABA and glycine evoked single-channel currents consistent with the properties of postsynaptic GABA(A) and glycine receptors. Inhibitory GABA(B) receptors were present on the calyx at all developmental stages examined. Thus, GABA initially acts on two receptor subtypes, both promoting and inhibiting glutamate release. With age, the former role is transferred to the glycine receptor during the period in which postsynaptic glycinergic transmission is acquired.  (+info)



  • enzyme
  • In M. tuberculosis, the beta-ketoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase III enzyme is designated mtFabH and is a crucial link between the fatty acid synthase-I and fatty acid synthase-II pathways producing mycolic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deoxycholic acid binds and activates the membrane enzyme NAPE-PLD, which catalyzes the release of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide and other N-acylethanolamines. (wikipedia.org)
  • organic
  • 2006 Abacavir Abciximab Acebutolol Hydrochloride Aclarubicin Inj Actilyse Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) Alclometasone Dipropiponate AllopurinolKNKHNKJHNJB Alphachymotrypsin Albendazole Amantadine Hydrochloride Amikacin Amiloride Hydrochloride Amineptine Aminoglutethimide Tab Aminosalicylic Acid chloride Amitriptyline, its salts Amoscanate Amoxapine_ Amrinone Lactate Analgin Androgenic, Anabolic, Oestrogenic and Progestational Substances Antibiotics Aprotinin Organic Compound of Arsenic for injection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Name
  • In the United States, deoxycholic acid, under the trade name Kybella, is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for reducing moderate-to-severe fat below the chin. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Other names in common use include: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the cause of tuberculosis, evades effective immune clearance through encapsulation, especially with mycolic acids that are particularly resistant to the normal degradative processes of macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some publications point towards the effect of deoxycholic acid as an immunostimulant of the innate immune system, activating its main actors, the macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to these publications, a sufficient amount of deoxycholic acid in the human body would correspond with a good immune reaction of the non-specific immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Clinical studies conducted in the 1970s and 1980s confirm the expectation that deoxycholic acid is involved in the natural healing processes of local inflammations, different types of herpes, and possibly cancer. (wikipedia.org)