Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.Dental Casting Technique: The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.Differential Thermal Analysis: Technique by which phase transitions of chemical reactions can be followed by observation of the heat absorbed or liberated.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Capital Expenditures: Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.Capital Financing: Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.Paternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.Clutch Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by an oviparous or ovoviviparous animal.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Mating Preference, Animal: The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Calcium Fluoride: Calcium fluoride. Occurring in nature as the mineral fluorite or fluorspar. It is the primary source of fluorine and its compounds. Pure calcium fluoride is used as a catalyst in dehydration and dehydrogenation and is used to fluoridate drinking water. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Financial Management: The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Financial Management, Hospital: The obtaining and management of funds for hospital needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Quartz: Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hospitals, Voluntary: Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Reducing Agents: Materials that add an electron to an element or compound, that is, decrease the positiveness of its valence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.United StatesDental Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Economic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.Commonwealth of Independent StatesBoron: A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.Cost Savings: Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Maintenance and Engineering, Hospital: Hospital department whose primary function is the upkeep and supervision of the buildings and grounds and the maintenance of hospital physical plant and equipment which requires engineering expertise.Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Hardness: The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Government Programs: Programs and activities sponsored or administered by local, state, or national governments.Gold Alloys: Alloys that contain a high percentage of gold. They are used in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Pair Bond: In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.Models, Econometric: The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.Urban Renewal: The planned upgrading of a deteriorating urban area, involving rebuilding, renovation, or restoration. It frequently refers to programs of major demolition and rebuilding of blighted areas.Dental Soldering: The joining of pieces of metal through the use of an alloy which has a lower melting point, usually at least 100 degrees Celsius below the fusion temperature of the parts being soldered. In dentistry, soldering is used for joining components of a dental appliance, as in assembling a bridge, joining metals to orthodontic bands, or adding to the bulk of certain structures, such as the establishment of proper contact areas on inlays and crowns with adjacent teeth. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Hospital Design and Construction: The architecture, functional design, and construction of hospitals.Fund Raising: Usually organized community efforts to raise money to promote financial programs of institutions. The funds may include individual gifts.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Benzoyl Peroxide: A peroxide derivative that has been used topically for BURNS and as a dermatologic agent in the treatment of ACNE and POISON IVY DERMATITIS. It is used also as a bleach in the food industry.Thermogravimetry: Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Financial Support: The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)Dental Marginal Adaptation: The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.Parrots: BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Resource Allocation: Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Potentilla: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE. Members contain procyanidins and TANNINS.United States Agency for International Development: An independent Federal agency established in 1961 as the focal point for economic matters affecting U.S. relations with developing countries.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Aluminum Oxide: An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Organizations: Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.Training Support: Financial support for training including both student stipends and loans and training grants to institutions.Equipment and Supplies, Hospital: Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Equipment Reuse: Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Policy: A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.Gryllidae: The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Magnesium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.Paternity: Establishing the father relationship of a man and a child.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Social Planning: Interactional process combining investigation, discussion, and agreement by a number of people in the preparation and carrying out of a program to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community. It usually involves the action of a formal political, legal, or recognized voluntary body.Herpestidae: The family of agile, keen-sighted mongooses of Asia and Africa that feed on RODENTS and SNAKES.Diffusion of Innovation: The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.Entrepreneurship: The organization, management, and assumption of risks of a business or enterprise, usually implying an element of change or challenge and a new opportunity.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Helping Behavior: Behaviors associated with the giving of assistance or aid to individuals.Oxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.Economics, Hospital: Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Biomedical Technology: The application of technology to the solution of medical problems.Couples Therapy: Psychotherapy used specifically for unmarried couples, of mixed or same sex. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Planning Techniques: Procedures, strategies, and theories of planning.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Tenebrio: A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.Metal Ceramic Alloys: The fusion of ceramics (porcelain) to an alloy of two or more metals for use in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry. Examples of metal alloys employed include cobalt-chromium, gold-palladium, gold-platinum-palladium, and nickel-based alloys.ToluidinesDecision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Renewable Energy: Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Purchasing, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the purchasing of supplies and equipment.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Orphan Drug Production: Production of drugs or biologicals which are unlikely to be manufactured by private industry unless special incentives are provided by others.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Translational Medical Research: The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Conflict (Psychology): The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Pensions: Fixed sums paid regularly to individuals.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Ownership: The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.Public-Private Sector Partnerships: An organizational enterprise between a public sector agency, federal, state or local, and a private sector entity. Skills and assets of each sector are shared to deliver a service or facility for the benefit or use of the general public.Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Australian Capital Territory: A territory of Australia consisting of Canberra, the national capital and surrounding land. It lies geographically within NEW SOUTH WALES and was established by law in 1988.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Guinea: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and MALI, east of GUINEA-BISSAU. Its capital is Conakry.Security Measures: Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.Gross Domestic Product: Value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Egg Yolk: Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Professional Review Organizations: Organizations representing designated geographic areas which have contracts under the PRO program to review the medical necessity, appropriateness, quality, and cost-effectiveness of care received by Medicare beneficiaries. Peer Review Improvement Act, PL 97-248, 1982.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Health Facilities, Proprietary: Health care institutions operated by private groups or corporations for a profit.Civil Defense: Preventive emergency measures and programs designed to protect the individual or community in times of hostile attack.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Dental Impression Materials: Substances used to create an impression, or negative reproduction, of the teeth and dental arches. These materials include dental plasters and cements, metallic oxide pastes, silicone base materials, or elastomeric materials.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Privatization: Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Healthy People Programs: Healthy People Programs are a set of health objectives to be used by governments, communities, professional organizations, and others to help develop programs to improve health. It builds on initiatives pursued over the past two decades beginning with the 1979 Surgeon General's Report, Healthy People, Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives, and Healthy People 2010. These established national health objectives and served as the basis for the development of state and community plans. These are administered by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP). Similar programs are conducted by other national governments.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.City Planning: Comprehensive planning for the physical development of the city.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.Organizational Innovation: Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Physician Self-Referral: Referral by physicians to testing or treatment facilities in which they have financial interest. The practice is regulated by the Ethics in Patient Referrals Act of 1989.

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Hu, T. (2013). A Look at China's New Environmental Guidelines on Overseas Investments (post on the WRI website) http://www.wri. ...
scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=43972

*  Text of H.R. 5160 (107th): Business, Investors', and Employees' Bill of Rights Act of 2002 (Introduced version) - GovTrack.us

STUDY OF INVESTMENT BANKS. (a) GAO STUDY- The Comptroller General shall conduct a study on whether investment banks and ... Subtitle F--Investment Advice for Participants and Beneficiaries. SEC. 551. INDEPENDENT INVESTMENT ADVICE.. (a) IN GENERAL- ... EXCLUSION FOR INVESTMENT COMPANIES.. Sections 401, 402, 403, 405, and 421 of this title shall not apply to an investment ... E) the percentage of the net return on investment of plan assets for the preceding plan year (or, with respect to investments ...
https://govtrack.us/congress/bills/107/hr5160/text

*  More people taking stock market risks | Newsday

California-based investment firm. "As stocks go higher and higher without any pullback, there's a greater risk in them." ...
newsday.com/lifestyle/retirement/more-people-taking-stock-market-risks-1.10560929

*  Investments | The New Yorker

Read more about investments from The New Yorker ... investments. *. Currency. The Thrill of Losing Money by ...
https://newyorker.com/tag/investments

*  investments - Google Domains Help

... reference for INVESTMENTS Price: Price per year of registration see Buy a domain $30 ... investments. Top-level domain (TLD) reference for INVESTMENTS. Price:. Price per year of registration. see Buy a domain. $30 ...
https://support.google.com/domains/answer/6296412

*  Investments for retirement - MarketWatch

Gabelli Funds has filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission to offer seven funds pursuing equity-investment strategies. ... Lombard Odier Investment Managers has joined with with ETF Securities to launch five exchange-traded funds that use smart-beta ... Passive investments are hot, but remain a small slice of the stock market ... Gabelli Funds has filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission to offer seven funds pursuing equity-investment strategies ...
marketwatch.com/story/investments-for-retirement-2015-04-03

*  Venture Capital Investments Slide

Accentuating the positive, the NVCA said the current investment figure is close to the $7.2 billion spent in the first quarter ... Fifty-three percent of investments went to existing companies, versus less than 1 percent to new companies in need of seed ... Venture capitalists are clearly feeding much of the money into later stage investments rather than startups. ...
eweek.com/news/venture-capital-investments-slide

*  Making Wise Investments

Targeting real-life situations, the site helps young people negotiate increasingly complex banking and investment options, a ...
montrealgazette.com/business/Making Wise Investments/7699976/story.html

*  Falling rates hitting investments

... A CUT in official interest rates may stimulate the economy, but they also contract the ... The lifestyle of those who depend on income from their investments is under pressure from falling rates and it's going to ... If you need to withdraw any of the initial investment, you could lose all or part of the interest. ... Make sure you get proper advice about how to manage your investments. ...
news.com.au/finance/david-and-libby-koch/david-libby-koch-rising-rates/news-story/0d1c7655e83ccd19e7e4ec5519da477c

*  Socially responsible investments

How the EBRD ensures that its investment activities are environmentally sound and sustainable, designed in compliance with ...
ebrd.com/work-with-us/sri/funding.html

*  Mountainside Deepens Investments in Staff

With the ability to select from top talent nationwide, Mountainside continues to make strategic investments in growth - in team ...
prweb.com/releases/2015/03/prweb12570106.htm

*  return investments

... information, news, reviews and analysis on return investments ...
blog.tmcnet.com/blog/rich-tehrani/tag/return investments

*  American investments Bills - GovTrack.us

American investments-related bills in the U.S. Congress. ... American investments. Use this page to browse bills in the U.S ... Congress related to the subject American investments, as determined by the Library of Congress. ...
https://govtrack.us/congress/bills/subjects/american_investments/3384?congress=94

*  Lasting Investments | Open Library

Lasting Investments by Kent Humphreys; 1 edition; First published in 2004 ... Lasting Investments A Pastor's Guide for Equipping Workplace Leaders to Leave a Spiritual Legacy Published February 2004 by ... You could add Lasting Investments to a list if you log in. ... Are you sure you want to remove Lasting Investments from your ... Investments ,author = Kent Humphreys ,publication-date = February 2004 ,oclc = 52714737 ,id = 1576833550 }}. ...
https://openlibrary.org/works/OL8400101W/Lasting_Investments

*  Best investments for 2017 | Reuters.com

Best investments for 2017. Tuesday, January 10, 2017 - 01:41. The key theme that will drive U.S. investors: Donald Trump. Stock ... The big investment theme this year: Donald Trump. The President-elect is pushing for deregulation, lower taxes, infrastructure ... https://www.reuters.com/video/2017/01/10/best-investments-for-2017?videoId=370890049&videoChannel=13421. ...
https://reuters.com/video/2017/01/10/best-investments-for?videoId=370890049

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It includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.Population healthVenture capital in Israel: Venture capital in Israel refers to the financial capital provided to early-stage, high-potential, high risk, growth startup companies based in Israel. Israel's venture capital industry was born in the mid-1980s and has rapidly developed since.Hele-Shaw clutch: The Hele-Shaw clutch was an early form of multi-plate wet clutch, in use around 1900. It was named after its inventor, Professor Henry Selby Hele-Shaw, who was noted for his work in viscosity and flows through small gaps between parallel plates.The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria: (first Board of Directors meeting)Nest (protein structural motif): The Nest is a type of protein structural motif. Peptide nests are small anion-binding molecular features of proteins and peptides.Victor Willard: Victor M. Willard (1813 – December 10, 1869) was an American farmer from Waterford, Wisconsin who spent two years (1849–1850) as a Free Soil Party member of the Wisconsin State Senate from the 17th District.Sexual motivation and hormones: Sexual motivation is influenced by hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, oxytocin, and vasopressin. In most mammalian species, sex hormones control the ability to engage in sexual behaviours.Biological ornament: A biological ornament is a secondary sexual characteristic of an animal that appears to serve a decorative function rather than an ostensible, utilitarian function. Ornaments are used in displays to attract mates in a process known as sexual selection.FluoriteIncremental cost-effectiveness ratio: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is a statistic used in cost-effectiveness analysis to summarise the cost-effectiveness of a health care intervention. 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The Department of Electricity and Gas Supply acts as the regulator while other players in the energy sector include energy supply and service companies, research and development institutions and consumers.Titanium nitrideQuartz tube furnaceDrumcondra Hospital: Drumcondra Hospital (originally, the Whitworth Fever Hospital, and from 1852 to 1893 the Whitworth General Hospital) was a voluntary hospital on Whitworth Road in Dublin, Ireland, that became part of the Rotunda Hospital in 1970.Lucas paradox: In economics, the Lucas paradox or the Lucas puzzle is the observation that capital does not flow from developed countries to developing countries despite the fact that developing countries have lower levels of capital per worker.}}Silicon dioxideHealth policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.International Network of Prison Ministries: The International Network of Prison Ministries (INPM) is a Dallas, Texas based crime prevention and rehabilitation trans-national organization. INPM functions through a website that serves as a clearinghouse for information about various Christian prison ministries.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Federal budget of Russia: The Federal budget of Russia () is the leading element of the Budget system of Russia. The federal budget is a major state financial plan for the fiscal year, which has the force of law after its approval by the Russian parliament and signed into law by the President of Russia.Andrew Dickson WhitePavement life-cycle cost analysis: In September 1998, the United States Department of Transportation (DoT) introduced risk analysis, a probabilistic approach to account for the uncertainty of the inputs of the cost/benefit evaluation of pavement projects, into its decision-making policies. 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The precautionary motive to delay consumption and save in the current period rises due to the lack of completeness of insurance markets.Mineral trioxide aggregate: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was developed for use as a dental root repair material by Dr. Mahmoud Torabinejad, DMD, MSD, PhD Professor and Director of Advanced Specialty Education Programs in Endodontics at Loma Linda University School of Dentistry and was formulated from commercial Portland cement combined with bismuth oxide powder for radiopacity.Meramec Conservation AreaSilence of the Songbirds: Silence of the Songbirds (ISBN 978-0-8027-1609-5) is a book by bird lover and scientist Bridget Stutchbury about the rapid decline and loss of many species of songbirds. Some major threats covered include pesticides, sun-grown coffee, city lights, cowbirds, and global warming.Hamilton Health Sciences: Hamilton Health Sciences (HHS) is a medical group of seven unique hospitals and a cancer centre located in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. In 2014 it was ranked 2nd in Canada on Research Infosource's Top 40 Hospitals in Canada list.McCloskey critique: The McCloskey critique refers to a critique of post-1940s "official modernist" methodology in economics, inherited from logical positivism in philosophy. The critique maintains that the methodology neglects how economics can be done, is done, and should be done to advance the subject.Powder coating: [Coating Aluminium Extrusions.jpg|thumb|right|Aluminium extrusions being powder coated]Sarah R, Lotfi: Sarah R. Lotfi (b.Metal halides: Metal halides are compounds between metals and halogens. 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Health marketing is one of the ways through which advancements in medicine and in health-protecting services like insurance are made widely known.Friendship (NGO): Friendship is a French - Bangladeshi non-governmental organization that works with poor and marginalized communities in Bangladesh in remote chars and riverbanks in the North, poorer areas in Northeast, cyclone-prone areas in the South and most recently the hard-to-reach indigenous communities in the coastal belt of the country. 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(1/223) Willingness to pay in the context of an economic evaluation of healthcare programs: theory and practice.

Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is defined in the methodology literature as a form of economic evaluation in which both costs and consequences are measured in monetary terms. In recent years we have witnessed renewed enthusiasm for CBA and the use of willingness to pay (WTP) as a method of measuring benefits from healthcare providers. Using the economics perspective, this paper assesses the usefulness of the WTP measure in a context of CBA analysis for economic evaluation of healthcare interventions. Starting from the welfarist approach as the foundation of the analysis, this paper evaluates the benefit and cost of using WTP as a measure of outcome compared mainly with the most commonly used measure of outcome (i.e., quality-adjusted life years) as well as a newly suggested measure of outcome (i.e., healthy-years equivalents). This paper studies this issue from both theoretical and practical aspects. The analysis starts with the premise that we want to use the discipline of economics as the mode of thinking and evaluate the methods suggested using economic criteria. A framework that includes five indicators (or criteria) to help identify the measures of outcome that are proper for use in the context of an economic evaluation are described. Following this framework, the paper argues that from a theoretic perspective the WTP approach is the best available measure, despite its limitations. This paper also describes a new instrument that can be used to measure individuals' WTP as well as a recent experience assessing the feasibility of using such an instrument in the context of evaluating a new pharmaceutical agent in a managed care setting. The conclusion of this study is that this technique holds promise as a method that can generate monetary values for program benefits for future use in CBA.  (+info)

(2/223) Improving the quality of private sector delivery of public health services: challenges and strategies.

Despite significant successes in controlling a number of communicable diseases in low and middle income countries, important challenges remain, one being that a large proportion of patients with conditions of public health significance, such as tuberculosis, malaria, or sexually transmitted diseases, seek care in the largely unregulated 'for profit' private sector. Private providers (PPs) often offer services which are perceived by users to be more attractive. However, the available evidence suggests that serious deficiencies in technical quality are often present. Evaluations of interventions to promote evidence-based care in high income countries have shown that multi-faceted strategies which increase provider knowledge have had some success in improving service quality. A wider range of factors needs to be considered in low and middle income countries (LMICs), especially factors which contribute to discrepancies between provider knowledge and practice. Studies have shown that PPs, especially, perceive or experience patient and community pressures to provide inappropriate treatments. LMIC governments also lack the capacity to enforce regulatory controls. Context-specific multi-faceted strategies are needed, including the local adaptation and dissemination to providers of relevant evidence, the education of patients and communities to adopt effective treatment-seeking and treatment-taking behaviour, and feasible mechanisms for ensuring and monitoring service quality, which may include a role for self-regulation by provider organizations or provider accreditation. Developing, implementing and evaluating strategies to improve the quality of service provision will depend on the involvement of the key stakeholders, including policy makers and PPs. Focusing on studies from Asia, Africa and Latin America, this paper develops a model for identifying the influences on PPs, mainly private medical practitioners, in their management of conditions of public health significance. Based on this, multi-faceted strategies for improving the quality of treatment provision are suggested. Interventions need to be inexpensive, practical, efficient, effective and sustainable over the medium to long term. Achieving this is a significant challenge.  (+info)

(3/223) Financial and organizational determinants of hospital diversification into subacute care.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the financial, market, and organizational determinants of hospital diversification into subacute inpatient care by acute care hospitals in order to guide hospital managers in undertaking such diversification efforts. STUDY SETTING: All nongovernment, general, acute care, community hospitals that were operating during the years 1985 through 1991 (3,986 hospitals in total). DATA SOURCES: Cross-sectional, time-series data were drawn from the American Hospital Association's (AHA) Annual Survey of Hospitals, the Health Care Financing Administration's (HCFA) Medicare Cost Reports, a latitude and longitude listing for all community hospital addresses, and the Area Resource File (ARF) published in 1992, which provides county level environmental variables. STUDY DESIGN: The study is longitudinal, enabling the specification of temporal patterns in conversion, causal inferences, and the treatment of right-censoring problems. The unit of analysis is the individual hospital. KEY FINDINGS: Significant differences were found in the average level of subacute care offered by investor-owned versus tax-exempt hospitals. After controlling for selection bias, financial performance, risk, size, occupancy, and other variables, IO hospitals offered 31.3 percent less subacute care than did NFP hospitals. Financial performance and risk are predictors of IO hospitals' diversification into subacute care, but not of NFP hospitals' activities in this market. Resource availability appears to expedite expansion into subacute care for both types of hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Investment criteria and strategy differ between investor-owned and tax-exempt hospitals.  (+info)

(4/223) The importance of a picture archiving and communications system (PACS) manager for large-scale PACS installations.

Installing a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is a massive undertaking for any radiology department. Facilities making a successful transition to digital systems are finding that a PACS manager helps guide the way and offers a heightened return on the investment. The PACS manager fills a pivotal role in a multiyear, phased PACS installation. PACS managers navigate a facility through the complex sea of issues surrounding a PACS installation by coordinating the efforts of the vendor, radiology staff, hospital administration, and the information technology group. They are involved in the process from the purchase decision through the design and implementation phases. They can help administrators justify a PACS, purchase and shape the request for proposal (RFP) process before a vendor is even chosen. Once a supplier has been selected, the PACS manager works closely with the vendor and facility staff to determine the best equipment configuration for his or her facility, and makes certain that all deadlines are met during the planning and installation phase. The PACS manager also ensures that the infrastructure and backbone of the facility are ready for installation of the equipment. PACS managers also help the radiology staff gain acceptance of the technology by serving as teachers, troubleshooters, and the primary point-of-contact for all PACS issues. This session will demonstrate the value of a PACS manager, as well as point out ways to determine the manager's responsibilities. By the end of the session, participants will be able to describe the role of a PACS manager as it relates to departmental operation and in partnership with equipment vendors, justify a full-time position for a PACS manager, and identify the qualifications of candidates for the position of PACS manager.  (+info)

(5/223) Acceptance testing of integrated picture archiving and communications systems.

An integrated picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is a large investment in both money and resources. With all of the components and systems contained in the PACS, a methodical set of protocols and procedures must be developed to test all aspects of the PACS within the short time allocated for contract compliance. For the Department of Defense (DoD), acceptance testing (AT) sets the protocols and procedures. Broken down into modules and test procedures that group like components and systems, the AT protocol maximizes the efficiency and thoroughness of testing all aspects of an integrated PACS. A standardized and methodical protocol reduces the probability of functionality or performance limitations being overlooked. The AT protocol allows complete PACS testing within the 30 days allocated by the digital imaging network (DIN)-PACS contract. AT shortcomings identified during the testing phase properly allows for resolution before complete acceptance of the system. This presentation will describe the evolution of the process, the components of the DoD AT protocol, the benefits of the AT process, and its significance to the successful implementation of a PACS. This is a US government work. There are no restrictions on its use.  (+info)

(6/223) Integrated radiology information system, picture archiving and communications system, and teleradiology--workflow-driven and future-proof.

The proliferation of integrated radiology information system/picture archiving and communication system (RIS/PACS) and teleradiology has been slow because of two concerns: usability and economic return. A major dissatisfaction on the usability issue is that contemporary systems are not intelligent enough to support the logical workflow of radiologists. We propose to better understand the algorithms underlying the radiologists' reading process, and then embed this intelligence into the software program so that radiologists can interact with the system with less conscious effort. Regarding economic return issues, people are looking for insurance against obsolescence in order to protect their investments. We propose to future-proof a system by sticking to the following principles: compliance to industry standards, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components, and modularity. An integrated RIS/PACS and teleradiology system designed to be workflow-driven and future-proof is being developed at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center.  (+info)

(7/223) The rise and fall of the physician practice management industry.

The dominant view among academic economists is that the financial markets value financial securities "efficiently," in the sense that the prevailing prices of widely traded securities fully and properly reflect, at any time, all publicly available information that bears on these securities. Although that theory has great intuitive appeal, it requires intellectual effort to reconcile it with the rise and fall of the physician practice management industry. This paper explores how acquisition-driven firms are valued in the financial markets and what structural factors may stand in the way of truly efficient security valuation.  (+info)

(8/223) Capital finance and ownership conversions in health care.

This paper analyzes the for-profit transformation of health care, with emphasis on Internet start-ups, physician practice management firms, insurance plans, and hospitals at various stages in the industry life cycle. Venture capital, conglomerate diversification, publicly traded equity, convertible bonds, retained earnings, and taxable corporate debt come with forms of financial accountability that are distinct from those inherent in the capital sources available to nonprofit organizations. The pattern of for-profit conversions varies across health sectors, parallel with the relative advantages and disadvantages of for-profit and nonprofit capital sources in those sectors.  (+info)



Competing Pre-marital Investments


  • Competing Pre-marital Investments ," Working Papers peters-00-01, University of Toronto, Department of Economics. (repec.org)

Borrow


  • AuctionLending.com was founded by Joseph Lunsford through his commercial asset holding company, LHP Investments, Inc. Janice Hall, President of Auctionlending.com, stated that "we seek to obviate the need for investors to mortgage other investment properties or borrow against their personal assets. (prweb.com)

Papers


  • The Pre-Marital Investment Game: Addendum ," Microeconomics.ca working papers peters-05-12-16-12-42-35, Vancouver School of Economics, revised 17 Mar 2006. (repec.org)
  • Investment and Competitive Matching ," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1946, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University, revised Nov 2014. (repec.org)
  • Investment and Competitive Matching ," Working papers 2014/07, Faculty of Business and Economics - University of Basel. (repec.org)
  • Efficiency of Two Sided Investments in an Equilibrium Unemployment Framework ," ILADES-Georgetown University Working Papers inv260, Ilades-Georgetown University, Universidad Alberto Hurtado/School of Economics and Bussines. (repec.org)

Close


  • Accentuating the positive, the NVCA said the current investment figure is close to the $7.2 billion spent in the first quarter of 1999 -- considered very healthy at the time. (eweek.com)

options


  • Targeting real-life situations, the site helps young people negotiate increasingly complex banking and investment options, a great weapon in their arsenal of information - especially when they arrive at CÉGEP or university orientation and are showered with Hacky Sacks, energy drinks and credit-card applications. (montrealgazette.com)

year


  • The big investment theme this year: Donald Trump. (reuters.com)

Understand


  • We understand the needs of investors on investment properties bought through the foreclosure process. (prweb.com)

growth


  • With the ability to select from top talent nationwide, Mountainside continues to make strategic investments in growth - in team members, programming, and new construction. (prweb.com)
  • Unions have consistently argued the need for further investment in infrastructure projects to boost growth and employment. (rte.ie)