Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Intestine, Large: A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Enterocytes: Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.Intestinal Diseases: Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Germ-Free Life: Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Serous Membrane: A thin lining of closed cavities of the body, consisting of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells (MESOTHELIUM) resting on a thin layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and covered with secreted clear fluid from blood and lymph vessels. Major serous membranes in the body include PERICARDIUM; PERITONEUM; and PLEURA.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Paneth Cells: Differentiated epithelial cells of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA, found in the basal part of the intestinal crypts of Lieberkuhn. Paneth cells secrete GROWTH FACTORS, digestive enzymes such as LYSOZYME and antimicrobial peptides such as cryptdins (ALPHA-DEFENSINS) into the crypt lumen.Intestinal Secretions: Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.SucraseEnteritis: Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Animals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.Gastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Myenteric Plexus: One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Mice, Inbred C57BLDisaccharidasesDigestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Gastrointestinal Transit: Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.Enteric Nervous System: Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Mesentery: A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Jejunal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer in the JEJUNUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Peyer's Patches: Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Ileal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer in the ILEUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Peristalsis: A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction.Enteroendocrine Cells: Cells found throughout the lining of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that contain and secrete regulatory PEPTIDE HORMONES and/or BIOGENIC AMINES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Submucous Plexus: One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the enteric nervous system. The submucous (Meissner's) plexus is in the connective tissue of the submucosa. Its neurons innervate the epithelium, blood vessels, endocrine cells, other submucosal ganglia, and myenteric ganglia, and play an important role in regulating ion and water transport. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1: The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Glucose Transporter Type 5: A hexose transporter that mediates FRUCTOSE transport in SKELETAL MUSCLE and ADIPOCYTES and is responsible for luminal uptake of dietary fructose in the SMALL INTESTINE.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Myoelectric Complex, Migrating: A pattern of gastrointestinal muscle contraction and depolarizing myoelectric activity that moves from the stomach to the ILEOCECAL VALVE at regular frequency during the interdigestive period. The complex and its accompanying motor activity periodically cleanse the bowel of interdigestive secretion and debris in preparation for the next meal.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Goblet Cells: A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.PhlorhizinGuinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Trichinellosis: An infection with TRICHINELLA. It is caused by eating raw or undercooked meat that is infected with larvae of nematode worms TRICHINELLA genus. All members of the TRICHINELLA genus can infect human in addition to TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, the traditional etiological agent. It is distributed throughout much of the world and is re-emerging in some parts as a public health hazard and a food safety problem.Intestinal Polyps: Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the INTESTINE. A polyp is attached to the intestinal wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Mice, Inbred BALB CSucrase-Isomaltase Complex: An enzyme complex found in the brush border membranes of the small intestine. It is believed to be an enzyme complex with different catalytic sites. Its absence is manifested by an inherited disease called sucrase-isomaltase deficiency.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Jejunal Diseases: Pathological development in the JEJUNUM region of the SMALL INTESTINE.Interstitial Cells of Cajal: c-Kit positive cells related to SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that are intercalated between the autonomic nerves and the effector smooth muscle cells of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Different phenotypic classes play roles as pacemakers, mediators of neural inputs, and mechanosensors.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cholecystokinin: A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Intestinal Obstruction: Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS toward the ANAL CANAL.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Receptors, CCR: Chemokine receptors that are specific for CC CHEMOKINES.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Mucin-2: A gel-forming mucin found predominantly in SMALL INTESTINE and variety of mucous membrane-containing organs. It provides a protective, lubricating barrier against particles and infectious agents.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Enterocolitis, Necrotizing: ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Lactase: An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of LACTOSE to D-GALACTOSE and D-GLUCOSE. Defects in the enzyme cause LACTOSE INTOLERANCE.Lactase-Phlorizin Hydrolase: The multifunctional protein that contains two enzyme domains. The first domain (EC hydrolyzes glycosyl-N-acylsphingosine to a sugar and N-acylsphingosine. The second domain (EC hydrolyzes LACTOSE and is found in the intestinal brush border membrane. Loss of activity for this enzyme in humans results in LACTOSE INTOLERANCE.Glucagon-Like Peptide 2: A 33-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. It stimulates intestinal mucosal growth and decreased apoptosis of ENTEROCYTES. GLP-2 enhances gastrointestinal function and plays an important role in nutrient homeostasis.Celiac Disease: A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.Intubation, Gastrointestinal: The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.Ileitis: Inflammation of any segment of the ILEUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Colitis: Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Natriuretic Peptides: Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Crohn Disease: A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Enterocolitis: Inflammation of the MUCOSA of both the SMALL INTESTINE and the LARGE INTESTINE. Etiology includes ISCHEMIA, infections, allergic, and immune responses.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Trematode Infections: Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.Ileal Diseases: Pathological development in the ILEUM including the ILEOCECAL VALVE.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Glucagon-Like Peptides: Peptides derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of pancreatic GLUCAGON. Despite expression of proglucagon in multiple tissues, the major production site of glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) is the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLPs include glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon-like peptide 2, and the various truncated forms.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Glucuronides: Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Ileostomy: Surgical creation of an external opening into the ILEUM for fecal diversion or drainage. This replacement for the RECTUM is usually created in patients with severe INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES. Loop (continent) or tube (incontinent) procedures are most often employed.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Boidae: A family of snakes comprising the boas, anacondas, and pythons. They occupy a variety of habitats through the tropics and subtropics and are arboreal, aquatic or fossorial (burrowing). Some are oviparous, others ovoviviparous. Contrary to popular opinion, they do not crush the bones of their victims: their coils exert enough pressure to stop a prey's breathing, thus suffocating it. There are five subfamilies: Boinae, Bolyerinae, Erycinae, Pythoninae, and Tropidophiinae. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p315-320)S100 Calcium Binding Protein G: A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Dipeptides: Peptides composed of two amino acid units.Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type IIb: A sodium-dependent phosphate transporter present primarily at apical sites of EPITHELIAL CELLS in the SMALL INTESTINE.Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Bacterial Translocation: The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Genes, APC: Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Proglucagon: The common precursor polypeptide of pancreatic GLUCAGON and intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Proglucagon is the 158-amino acid segment of preproglucagon without the N-terminal signal sequence. Proglucagon is expressed in the PANCREAS; INTESTINES; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Posttranslational processing of proglucagon is tissue-specific yielding numerous bioactive peptides.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Helminthiasis, Animal: Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Receptors, Guanylate Cyclase-Coupled: A class of cellular membrane receptors that either have an intrinsic guanylate cyclase activity or are closely coupled to specific guanylate cyclases within the cell.Enterohepatic Circulation: Recycling through liver by excretion in bile, reabsorption from intestines (INTESTINAL REABSORPTION) into portal circulation, passage back into liver, and re-excretion in bile.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Malabsorption Syndromes: General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Ulcer: A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Short Bowel Syndrome: A malabsorption syndrome resulting from extensive operative resection of the SMALL INTESTINE, the absorptive region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Colostrum: The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.

*  How to Make Fake Intestines (with Pictures) | eHow

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*  Boy, toddler swallow magnetic balls, causing their intestines to rupture

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*  The Amoeba That Eats Human Intestines, Cell By Cell - Slashdot

The Amoeba That Eats Human Intestines, Cell By Cell 71 Posted by samzenpus on Wednesday April 09, 2014 @09:58PM. from the break ... Submission: Amoeba Eat Human Intestines, Cell by Cell. Scientists/Actress Say They Were 'Tricked' Into Geocentric Universe ...

*  Chemotherapy for small intestine cancer - Canadian Cancer Society

Chemotherapy may be used for small intestine cancer. Learn how and when chemotherapy is used and what chemotherapy drugs and ... Chemotherapy for small intestine cancer. Chemotherapy is sometimes used to treat small intestine adenocarcinoma. This treatment ... Chemotherapy drugs used for small intestine adenocarcinoma. Small intestine adenocarcinoma is very rare. This means that it is ... If small intestine adenocarcinoma does not respond to the above drugs or if it recurs, the following drugs may be used:* ...

*  Diagnosis of small intestine cancer - Canadian Cancer Society

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*  Bacteria in intestines play role in weight gain, study finds - Daily Press

It also alters the composition of bacteria in your intestines, making it easier to gain weight and harder to lose it, research ... Gordon and Turnbaugh found that they could transfer bacteria from human intestines into gnotobiotic mice, which were fed a low- ...

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*  Experts grow human intestine in lab - The Scotsman

SCIENTISTS have grown human intestines from stem cells in a laboratory for the first time, paving the way for new treatment of life-threatening and chronic illnesses such as Crohn's disease and some cancers.

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Haustrum (anatomy): The haustra (singular haustrum) of the colon are the small pouches caused by sacculation (sac formation), which give the colon its segmented appearance. The teniae coli run the length of the large intestine.JejunumMicrovillusCecectomyLiver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GISubtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.Stomach diseaseMature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Caco-2: The Caco-2 cell line is a continuous cell of heterogeneous human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells, developed by the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research through research conducted by Dr. Jorgen Fogh.Cryptdin: Cryptdin is mammalian defensins of the alpha subfamily that are produced within the mouse small bowel. The word is a portmanteau that combines the terms 'crypt' and 'defensin'.Erepsin: Erepsin is a protein fraction found in the intestinal juices and contains a group of enzymes that digest peptones into amino acids. It is produced and secreted by the intestinal glands in the ileum and the pancreas.Sucrase: Sucrase is the name given to a number of enzymes located in on the brush border of the small intestine that catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose to fructose and glucose. The enzyme invertase, which occurs more commonly in plants, also hydrolyzes sucrose but by a different mechanism.EnteritisStratified squamous epithelium: A stratified squamous epithelium consists of squamous (flattened) epithelial cells arranged in layers upon a basal membrane. Only one layer is in contact with the basement membrane; the other layers adhere to one another to maintain structural integrity.Coles PhillipsDisaccharidase: Disaccharidases are glycoside hydrolases, enzymes that break down certain types of sugars called disaccharides into simpler sugars called monosaccharides. A genetic defect in one of these enzymes will cause a disaccharide intolerance, such as lactose intolerance or sucrose intolerance.Gastrointestinal physiology: Gastrointestinal physiology is a branch of human physiology addressing the physical function of the gastrointestinal (GI) system. The major processes occurring in the GI system are that of motility, secretion, regulation, digestion and circulation.Neurogastroenterology: Neurogastroenterology encompasses the study of the brain, the gut, and their interactions with relevance to the understanding and management of gastrointestinal motility and functional gastrointestinal disorders. Specifically, neurogastroenterology focuses on the functions, malfunctions, and the malformations of the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric divisions of the digestive tract.Mediated transportSquamous epithelial cell: In anatomy, squamous epithelium (squama- + -ous) is that whose outermost (apical) layer consists of thin, flat cells called squamous epithelial cells. The epithelium may be composed of one layer of these cells, in which case it is referred to as simple squamous epithelium, or it may possess multiple layers, referred to then as stratified squamous epithelium.Peyer's patch: Peyer's patches (or aggregated lymphoid nodules, or occasionally PP for brevity) are organized lymphoid nodules, named after the 17th-century Swiss anatomist Johann Conrad Peyer. They are aggregations of lymphoid tissue that are usually found in the lowest portion of the small intestine, the ileum, in humans; as such, they differentiate the ileum from the duodenum and jejunum.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Kidney: The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates. They remove excess organic molecules from the blood, and it is by this action that their best-known function is performed: the removal of waste products of metabolism.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.PeristalsisEnteroendocrine cellTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingCongenital chloride diarrhea: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD, also congenital chloridorrhea or Darrow Gamble syndrome) is a genetic disorder due to an autosomal recessive mutation on chromosome 7. The mutation is in downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA), a gene that encodes a membrane protein of intestinal cells.Osmotic controlled-release oral delivery system: OROS (Osmotic [Controlled] Release Oral [Delivery] System) is a controlled release oral drug delivery system in the form of a tablet. The tablet has a rigid water-permeable jacket with one or more laser drilled small holes.SLC5A4: The low affinity sodium-glucose cotransporter also known as the sodium/glucose cotransporter 3 (SGLT3) or solute carrier family 5 member 4 (SLC5A4) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC5A4 gene.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Bile acid malabsorptionElectrogastrogram: An electrogastrogram (EGG) is a graphic produced by an electrogastrograph, which records the electrical signals that travel through the stomach muscles and control the muscles' contractions. An electrogastroenterogram (or gastroenterogram) is a similar procedure, which writes down electric signals not only from the stomach, but also from intestines.New Zealand rabbitBile: Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine. In humans, bile is produced continuously by the liver (liver bile), and stored and concentrated in the gallbladder (gallbladder bile).Goblet cell: A goblet cell is a glandular, modified simple columnar epithelial cell whose function is to secrete gel-forming mucins, the major components of mucus. The goblet cells mainly use the merocrine method of secretion, secreting vesicles into a duct, but may use apocrine methods, budding off their secretions, when under stress.PhlorizinA. N. Hartley: Annie Norah Hartley (1902 – 1994), usually known simply as Norah Hartley, was a dog breeder and the first female board member of the Kennel Club.International Conference on Trichinellosis: The International Commission on Trichinellosis (ICT) was created in 1958 in Budapest and is aiming to exchange information on the biology, the physiopathology, the epidemiology, the immunology, and the clinical aspects of trichinellosis in humans and animals. Prevention is a primary goal (see ICTweb pages).Inflammatory fibroid polyp: Inflammatory fibroid polyp, abbreviated IFP, is a benign abnormal growth of tissue projecting into the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract.Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Dry matter: The dry matter (or otherwise known as dry weight) is a measurement of the mass of something when completely dried.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Chicken as biological research model: Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and their eggs have been used extensively as research models throughout the history of biology. Today they continue to serve as an important model for normal human biology as well as pathological disease processes.Electroneutral cation-Cl: In molecular biology, the electroneutral cation-Cl (electroneutral potassium-chloride cotransporter) family of proteins are a family of solute carrier proteins. This family includes the products of the Human genes: SLC12A1, SLC12A1, SLC12A2, SLC12A3, SLC12A4, SLC12A5, SLC12A6, SLC12A7, SLC12A8 and SLC12A9.Fractional sodium excretion: The fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) is the percentage of the sodium filtered by the kidney which is excreted in the urine. It is measured in terms of plasma and urine sodium, rather than by the interpretation of urinary sodium concentration alone, as urinary sodium concentrations can vary with water reabsorption.Alkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.CholecystokininStrictureplasty: Strictureplasty (also spelled Stricturoplasty) is a surgical procedure performed in response to scar tissue that has built up in the intestinal wall from inflammatory bowel conditions such as Crohn's disease. The scar tissue accumulates as a result of repeated damage and healing, with the scarring causing a stricture (a narrowing of the lumen of the bowel).

(1/10242) Blood thymidine level and iododeoxyuridine incorporation and reutilization in DNA in mice given long-acting thymidine pellets.

A long-acting thymidine pellet consisting of 190 mg of cholesterol and 60 mg of thymidine has been developed for the study of thymidine metabolism and reutilization in vivo. Implantation of such a pellet s.c. in adult mice will maintain the blood plasma concentration of thymidine at levels between 40 and 8 X 10(-6) M, which are from 36 to 7 times those of normal mice, for periods up to 48 hr. During this period, in vivo uptake and reutilization of [125I]iododeoxyuridine, a thymidine analog, into intestinal and tumor DNA were almost completely suppressed. While iododeoxyuridine reutilization is not large in normal proliferative tissue even in the absence of pellet implants, reutilization of over 30% was measured in large, rapidly growing ascites tumors. The inhibition of iododeoxyuridine incorporation by elevated thymidine blood levels is directly proportional to serum concentration. This appears to be due to a thymidine pool in rapid equilibrium with blood thymidine. This pool is at least 10 times larger than the 4-nmole pool of extracellular thymidine.  (+info)

(2/10242) Transformation of intestinal epithelial cells by chronic TGF-beta1 treatment results in downregulation of the type II TGF-beta receptor and induction of cyclooxygenase-2.

The precise role of TGF-beta in colorectal carcinogenesis is not clear. The purpose of this study was to determine the phenotypic alterations caused by chronic exposure to TGF-beta in non-transformed intestinal epithelial (RIE-1) cells. Growth of RIE-1 cells was inhibited by >75% following TGF-beta1 treatment for 7 days, after which the cells resumed a normal growth despite the presence of TGF-beta1. These 'TGF-beta-resistant' cells (RIE-Tr) were continuously exposed to TGF-beta for >50 days. Unlike the parental RIE cells, RIE-Tr cells lost contact inhibition, formed foci in culture, grew in soft agarose. RIE-Tr cells demonstrated TGF-beta-dependent invasive potential in an in vitro assay and were resistant to Matrigel and Na-butyrate-induced apoptosis. The RIE-Tr cells were also tumorigenic in nude mice. The transformed phenotype of RIE-Tr cells was associated with a 95% decrease in the level of the type II TGF-beta receptor (TbetaRII) protein, a 40-fold increase in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein, and 5.9-fold increase in the production of prostacyclin. Most RIE-Tr subclones that expressed low levels of TbetaRII and high levels of COX-2 were tumorigenic. Those subclones that express abundant TbetaRII and low levels of COX-2 were not tumorigenic in nude mice. A selective COX-2 inhibitor inhibited RIE-Tr cell growth in culture and tumor growth in nude mice. The reduced expression of TbetaRII, increased expression of COX-2, and the ability to form colonies in Matrigel were all reversible upon withdrawal of exogenous TGF-beta1 for the RIE-Tr cells.  (+info)

(3/10242) Vibrio parahaemolyticus thermostable direct hemolysin modulates cytoskeletal organization and calcium homeostasis in intestinal cultured cells.

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine bacterium known to be the leading cause of seafood gastroenteritis worldwide. A 46-kDa homodimer protein secreted by this microorganism, the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), is considered a major virulence factor involved in bacterial pathogenesis since a high percentage of strains of clinical origin are positive for TDH production. TDH is a pore-forming toxin, and its most extensively studied effect is the ability to cause hemolysis of erythrocytes from different mammalian species. Moreover, TDH induces in a variety of cells cytotoxic effects consisting mainly of cell degeneration which often leads to loss of viability. In this work, we examined the cellular changes induced by TDH in monolayers of IEC-6 cells (derived from the rat crypt small intestine), which represent a useful cell model for studying toxins from enteric bacteria. In experimental conditions allowing cell survival, TDH induces a rapid transient increase in intracellular calcium as well as a significant though reversible decreased rate of progression through the cell cycle. The morphological changes seem to be dependent on the organization of the microtubular network, which appears to be the preferential cytoskeletal element involved in the cellular response to the toxin.  (+info)

(4/10242) Accumulation of astaxanthin all-E, 9Z and 13Z geometrical isomers and 3 and 3' RS optical isomers in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is selective.

Concentrations of all-E-, 9Z- and 13Z- geometrical and (3R,3'R), (3R, 3'S) and (3S,3'S) optical isomers of astaxanthin were determined in rainbow trout liver, gut tissues, kidney, skin and blood plasma to evaluate their body distribution. Two cold-pelleted diets containing predominantly all-E-astaxanthin (36.9 mg/kg astaxanthin, 97% all-E-, 0.4% 9Z-, 1.5% 13Z-astaxanthin, and 1.1% other isomers, respectively) or a mixture of all-E- and Z-astaxanthins (35.4 mg/kg astaxanthin, 64% all-E-, 18.7% 9Z-, 12.3% 13Z-astaxanthin, and 2.0% other isomers, respectively), were fed to duplicate groups of trout for 69 d. Individual E/Z isomers were identified by VIS- and 1H-NMR-spectrometry, and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Significantly higher total carotenoid concentration was observed in plasma of trout fed diets with all-E-astaxanthin (P < 0.05). The relative E/Z-isomer concentrations of plasma, skin and kidney were not significantly different among groups, whereas all-E-astaxanthin was higher in intestinal tissues and 13Z-astaxanthin was lower in liver of trout fed all-E-astaxanthin (P < 0.05). The relative amount of hepatic 13Z-astaxanthin (39-49% of total astaxanthin) was higher than in all other samples (P < 0.05). Synthetic, optically inactive astaxanthin was used in all experiments, and the determined dietary ratio between the 3R,3'R:3R, 3'S (meso):3S,3'S optical isomers was 25.3:49.6:25.1. The distribution of R/S-astaxanthin isomers in feces, blood, liver and fillet was similar to that in the diets. The ratio between (3S,3'S)- and (3R,3'R)-astaxanthin in the skin and posterior kidney was ca. 2:1 and 3:1, respectively, regardless of dietary E/Z-astaxanthin composition. The results show that geometrical and optical isomers of astaxanthin are distributed selectively in different tissues of rainbow trout.  (+info)

(5/10242) Energy depletion differently affects membrane transport and intracellular metabolism of riboflavin taken up by isolated rat enterocytes.

Isolated rat enterocytes, both normal and those de-energized with rotenone, were used to study the energy dependence of membrane and intracellular intestinal riboflavin transport in vitro. Membrane and intracellular transport were investigated by using short (3 min) and long (20 min) incubation times, respectively. For both types of cells and incubation times, [3H]-riboflavin uptake presented a saturable component prevailing at physiologic intraluminal concentrations. At 3 min incubation, saturable [3H]-riboflavin transport was apparently an energy-independent process with high affinity and low capacity. Values of the saturable component and its apparent constants, Km and Jmax, did not differ in normal and de-energized enterocytes. At 20 min incubation, saturable [3H]-riboflavin transport was a strictly energy-dependent process in which values of the saturable component were significantly greater in normal than in de-energized enterocytes. Km values did not differ in the two types of cells and were unmodified over 3 min, whereas in normal enterocytes, Jmax at 20 min [6.25 +/- 0.2 pmol/(mg protein. 20 min)] was significantly greater than at 3 min [2.67 +/- 0.33 pmol/(mg protein. 3 min)] and compared with de-energized enterocytes at 20 min [2.54 +/- 0.16 pmol/(mg protein. 20 min)]. Both membrane and intracellular events were inhibited by unlabeled riboflavin and analogs, which are good substrates for flavokinase, thus demonstrating the paramount role of this enzyme in riboflavin intestinal transport.  (+info)

(6/10242) The sodium concentration of enteral diets does not influence absorption of nutrients but induces intestinal secretion of water in miniature pigs.

Contradictory opinions exist as to whether the sodium concentration of enteral diets influences absorption of macronutrients and transepithelial movement of sodium and water. Therefore, we investigated the effects of various sodium concentrations of enteral diets on absorption of macronutrients and on net fluxes of sodium and water. In unanesthetized miniature pigs, a 150-cm jejunal segment was perfused with an oligopeptide (Peptisorb), an oligomeric and a polymeric diet. The polymeric diet was supplemented with pancreatic enzymes. The sodium concentrations varied between 30 and 150 mmol/L. The energy density was 3.4 MJ/L. The sodium concentration of the diets did not influence absorption of macronutrients and of total energy. However, increasing sodium concentrations of the diets were associated with increasing osmolality of the solutions, resulting in a linear increase in net secretion of water and flow rate of chyme. With all diets and sodium concentrations net secretion of sodium occurred. The sodium secretion was independent of the initial sodium concentration of the diets. It was linearly correlated with net flux of water and was largest in miniature pigs infused with the oligomeric diet. The sodium concentration of the jejunal effluent did not correspond to the initial sodium concentration of the diets. The present results indicate that enteral feeding of diets with high energy density inevitably increases net secretion of water and sodium as sodium concentration increases. Therefore, the sodium concentration of diets should be as low as possible to meet only the minimal daily requirement of sodium. Low sodium concentrations of diets have no negative effects on absorption of macronutrients.  (+info)

(7/10242) Molecular basis for the enterocyte tropism exhibited by Salmonella typhimurium type 1 fimbriae.

Salmonella typhimurium exhibits a distinct tropism for mouse enterocytes that is linked to their expression of type 1 fimbriae. The distinct binding traits of Salmonella type 1 fimbriae is also reflected in their binding to selected mannosylated proteins and in their ability to promote secondary bacterial aggregation on enterocyte surfaces. The determinant of binding in Salmonella type 1 fimbriae is a 35-kDa structurally distinct fimbrial subunit, FimHS, because inactivation of fimHS abolished binding activity in the resulting mutant without any apparent effect on fimbrial expression. Surprisingly, when expressed in the absence of other fimbrial components and as a translational fusion protein with MalE, FimHS failed to demonstrate any specific binding tropism and bound equally to all cells and mannosylated proteins tested. To determine if the binding specificity of Salmonella type 1 fimbriae was determined by the fimbrial shaft that is intimately associated with FimHS, we replaced the amino-terminal half of FimHS with the corresponding sequence from Escherichia coli FimH (FimHE) that contains the receptor binding domain of FimHE. The resulting hybrid fimbriae bearing FimHES on a Salmonella fimbrial shaft exhibited binding traits that resembled that of Salmonella rather than E. coli fimbriae. Apparently, the quaternary constraints imposed by the fimbrial shaft on the adhesin determine the distinct binding traits of S. typhimurium type 1 fimbriae.  (+info)

(8/10242) Gallstones: an intestinal disease?

Current evidence suggests that impaired intestinal motility may facilitate gallstone formation by influencing biliary deoxycholate levels or by modulating interdigestive gall bladder motility (fig 2), although a primary intestinal defect in gallstone pathogenesis has not yet been demonstrated. In the cold war period, most interesting events, from a political point of view, occurred at the border between capitalist and communist systems, near the iron curtain. Similarly, the gall bladder and biliary tract can be viewed as the border between liver and intestinal tract, where many interesting things occur with profound impact on both systems. Combined efforts by researchers in the field of hepatology and gastrointestinal motility should brake down the Berlin wall of ignorance of one of the most common diseases in the Western world.  (+info)

tumour in the small intestine

  • This means that the drugs travel through the bloodstream to reach and destroy cancer cells all over the body, including those that may have broken away from the primary tumour in the small intestine. (
  • An x-ray isn't generally used to diagnose a tumour in the small intestine. (
  • A CT scan is used to look for the cause of pain or swelling in the abdomen, such as a tumour in the small intestine. (
  • Enteroclysis is a type of x-ray used to look for a tumour in the small intestine. (
  • An endoscopy is done to find out what is causing bleeding in the small intestine or to look for a tumour in the small intestine. (

lining of the small intestine

  • X-rays are taken as the barium coats the lining of the small intestine and moves through it. (


  • Push endoscopy lets doctors examine the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine nearest the stomach. (
  • The doctor pushes it as far as possible along the duodenum and into the middle part of the small intestine (called the jejunum). (
  • Approximately 25% to 50% of the primary malignant tumors in the small intestine are adenocarcinomas, and most occur in the duodenum. (
  • Some 20% of malignant lesions of the small intestine are carcinoid tumors, which occur more frequently in the ileum than in the duodenum or jejunum and may be multiple. (
  • There is some suggestion that the effect on incretins is due to bypassing the duodenum, which is part of the upper small intestine. (
  • Here's how the (very sophisticated) reasoning goes: when the duodenum doesn't get glucose dumped on it, that somehow increases release of incretins by the small intestine further along the line. (


  • Chemotherapy is sometimes used to treat small intestine adenocarcinoma. (
  • Researchers are still trying to find out how helpful adjuvant chemotherapy is for people with small intestine adenocarcinoma. (
  • Small intestine adenocarcinoma is very rare. (
  • The chemotherapy drug that is most often used to treat small intestine adenocarcinoma is 5-fluororuracil (Adrucil, 5-FU). (
  • All drugs used for small intestine adenocarcinoma are given intravenously except for capecitabine, which is given as a pill. (

Small Intest

  • Surgery is the main treatment for small intestine cancer and it's often the only treatment. (
  • Side effects can happen with any type of treatment for small intestine cancer, but everyone's experience is different. (
  • Diagnosing small intestine cancer usually begins with a visit to your family doctor. (
  • Based on this information, your doctor may refer you to a specialist or order tests to check for small intestine cancer or other health problems. (
  • It's normal to worry, but try to remember that other health conditions can cause similar symptoms as small intestine cancer. (
  • It's important for the healthcare team to rule out other reasons for a health problem before making a diagnosis of small intestine cancer. (
  • The following tests are commonly used to rule out or diagnose small intestine cancer. (
  • A physical exam allows your doctor to look for any signs of small intestine cancer. (
  • The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) has designated staging by TNM classification to define small intestine cancer. (


  • Knowing how to make fake organs, such as intestines, can take your low-budget film, or even just your Halloween costume, to new horrifying heights. (
  • It is also used to see if a small intestine tumour has grown into other organs or the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. (


  • The small intestine is very long and has many loops and curves, which make it difficult to examine. (


  • Often, these operations are done to relieve a blocked intestine, to decrease pain, nausea, and vomiting, and allow the patient to eat normally for some time. (


  • Metin Sitti, a professor and principal investigator of the NanoRobotics Lab at CMU, has revealed that the trick to making the robot was finding an adhesive that would "stick repeatedly to tissues like intestines, oesophagus, stomach, heart, and kidney surfaces. (
  • These studies also advance the longer-term goal of growing tissues that can replace damaged human intestine. (


  • This operation removes the piece of intestine that has the tumor and some of the normal tissue on either side of the tumor. (
  • This movement caused them to put pressure on the intestine and cause gangrene and holes in the tissue. (
  • Washington, August 3 (ANI): A group of Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) researchers have developed a prototype robot-capsule which is adhesive enough to anchor inside an intestine, and yet gentle enough not to tear soft tissue. (
  • The scientists, from the Intestinal Rehabilitation Programme, at Cincinnati Children's Hospital, say the new development puts them one step closer to growing artificial tissue to replace damaged human intestine. (


  • SCIENTISTS have grown human intestines from stem cells in a laboratory for the first time, paving the way for new treatment of life-threatening and chronic illnesses such as Crohn's disease and some cancers. (


  • A tube is passed through the nose or mouth, down the throat, through the stomach and into the small intestine. (
  • There was a recent study by the lab of Blanca Olivan which looked into the levels of incretins in patients who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, a common type in which 95% of the stomach and part of the upper small intestine is bypassed. (


  • Sometimes, the surgeon will leave the tumor in place and route the normal small intestine around the tumor so that any blockage is relieved or prevented. (
  • But doctors use it to look for a blockage, or obstruction, in the small intestine when someone has abdominal pain. (
  • It can help the doctor better see the walls of the small intestine and any blockage, bleeding or tumors that may be there. (


  • It also alters the composition of bacteria in your intestines, making it easier to gain weight and harder to lose it, research in mice suggests. (
  • Gordon and Turnbaugh found that they could transfer bacteria from human intestines into gnotobiotic mice, which were fed a low-fat, plant-rich diet in the weeks before the bacteria were transplanted and for a month afterward. (
  • Scientists used genetically modified mice as 'seed beds' for the intestine. (


  • At this time, surgery is the only treatment that can cure a cancer of the small intestine. (
  • Mark Schattner, a gastroenterologist at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center who was not involved in the work, thinks that such robotic tools may help control the movement of camera pills that have been in use for transmitting images of the intestines for the past several years. (
  • Carcinoid tumors of the small intestine are covered elsewhere as a separate cancer entity. (
  • Zureikat AH, Heller MT, Zeh HJ III: Cancer of the small intestine. (


  • The gallbladder and part of the common bile duct are removed and the remaining bile duct is attached to the small intestine so that bile from the liver can continue to enter the small intestine. (


  • Removing a small piece of intestine usually doesn't cause long-term problems with eating or bowel movements. (


  • lots of long intestines hanging. (
  • The small intestine is about four times as long as the average adult is tall. (
  • Well this turned into a long post, so I'll follow up on the parasympathetic (nerve) signaling of the small intestine next time. (


  • The cannabalism really got me, all those intestines, the pain she must have felt. (


  • Squeeze the paper towels sections together at their ends for longer intestines. (
  • The 2 cut ends of intestine are then sewn back together. (
  • Since the magnets were stuck together in the body, an operation was needed to remove them and fix the holes in the intestine. (
  • X-rays showed they were located in two different sections of the intestine but came together because of the magnetic attraction. (


  • The membrane potential measured using the nystatin slow whole-cell technique in primary cultured eel intestine epithelial cells was −35.4+/−1.0 mV (N=14), similar to the expected equilibrium potential for Cl- (−38.2 mV). (


  • If longer intestines are desired, the sections can be connected at the ends. (


  • If possible, the surgeon will remove enough of the tumor and nearby intestine to allow digested food to pass through. (


  • Each animal produced "significant" amounts of fully functional human intestine. (


  • Evidence of the bioavailability of lipase, amylase and protease in the upper intestine from exogenously administered PANCRECARB® (pancrelipase), when taken with a Lundh test meal. (
  • It rapidly reverses diabetes in 83% of patients, and it seems to be due to bypassing the upper small intestine specifically, rather than caloric restriction. (
  • This points to a special role of the upper small intestine in regulating food metabolism. (
  • The reason is that cells in the upper small intestine secrete incretins when they detect glucose. (


  • Pull off a length of paper towels equal to the length the intestines you want. (
  • Doctors can use different types of endoscopy to examine the entire length of the small intestine. (


  • Place the intestines on a dry surface so they can dry out. (


  • The doctor can blow air into the balloon to push open the walls of the small intestine so the endoscope can move farther along. (


  • Below her vent where she lays eggs, about 3 inches, was a gaping hole with her intestines hangining out. (


  • Interestingly, non-diabetic patients who get a Roux-en-Y bypass often get reactive hypoglycemia, where their pancreas overproduces insulin after a meal and they get dangerously low blood sugar. (


  • It is uncommon to find malignant lymphoma as a solitary small intestine lesion. (


  • Sitti said that the capsule robot had been found to successfully anchor on animal intestines in vitro, as well as on an animal oesophagus. (