Intestinal Obstruction: Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS toward the ANAL CANAL.Ileal Diseases: Pathological development in the ILEUM including the ILEOCECAL VALVE.Bezoars: Concretions of swallowed hair, fruit or vegetable fibers, or similar substances found in the alimentary canal.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Jejunal Diseases: Pathological development in the JEJUNUM region of the SMALL INTESTINE.Intussusception: A form of intestinal obstruction caused by the PROLAPSE of a part of the intestine into the adjoining intestinal lumen. There are four types: colic, involving segments of the LARGE INTESTINE; enteric, involving only the SMALL INTESTINE; ileocecal, in which the ILEOCECAL VALVE prolapses into the CECUM, drawing the ILEUM along with it; and ileocolic, in which the ileum prolapses through the ileocecal valve into the COLON.Intestinal Atresia: Congenital obliteration of the lumen of the intestine, with the ILEUM involved in 50% of the cases and the JEJUNUM and DUODENUM following in frequency. It is the most frequent cause of INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION in NEWBORNS. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Duodenal Obstruction: Hindrance of the passage of luminal contents in the DUODENUM. Duodenal obstruction can be partial or complete, and caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors. Simple obstruction is associated with diminished or stopped flow of luminal contents. Strangulating obstruction is associated with impaired blood flow to the duodenum in addition to obstructed flow of luminal contents.Mesenteric Cyst: A rare intra-abdominal tumor in the MESENTERY. Mesenteric cysts are usually benign and can be very large fluid-filled (2000 mL) lesions.Ureteral Obstruction: Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.Meconium: The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a full-term fetus. It consists of secretions of the INTESTINAL GLANDS; BILE PIGMENTS; FATTY ACIDS; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.Colonic Diseases: Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Meckel Diverticulum: A congenital abnormality characterized by the outpouching or sac formation in the ILEUM. It is a remnant of the embryonic YOLK SAC in which the VITELLINE DUCT failed to close.Laparotomy: Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.Hirschsprung Disease: Congenital MEGACOLON resulting from the absence of ganglion cells (aganglionosis) in a distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE. The aganglionic segment is permanently contracted thus causing dilatation proximal to it. In most cases, the aganglionic segment is within the RECTUM and SIGMOID COLON.Tissue Adhesions: Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.Ileal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer in the ILEUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Cecal Diseases: Pathological developments in the CECUM.Hernia: Protrusion of tissue, structure, or part of an organ through the bone, muscular tissue, or the membrane by which it is normally contained. Hernia may involve tissues such as the ABDOMINAL WALL or the respiratory DIAPHRAGM. Hernias may be internal, external, congenital, or acquired.Ileus: A condition caused by the lack of intestinal PERISTALSIS or INTESTINAL MOTILITY without any mechanical obstruction. This interference of the flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS often leads to INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION. Ileus may be classified into postoperative, inflammatory, metabolic, neurogenic, and drug-induced.Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction: A type of ILEUS, a functional not mechanical obstruction of the INTESTINES. This syndrome is caused by a large number of disorders involving the smooth muscles (MUSCLE, SMOOTH) or the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hernia, Abdominal: A protrusion of abdominal structures through the retaining ABDOMINAL WALL. It involves two parts: an opening in the abdominal wall, and a hernia sac consisting of PERITONEUM and abdominal contents. Abdominal hernias include groin hernia (HERNIA, FEMORAL; HERNIA, INGUINAL) and VENTRAL HERNIA.Intestinal Volvulus: A twisting in the intestine (INTESTINES) that can cause INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION.Tuberculosis, Gastrointestinal: TUBERCULOSIS that involves any region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, mostly in the distal ILEUM and the CECUM. In most cases, MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS is the pathogen. Clinical features include ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and palpable mass in the ileocecal area.Radiography, Abdominal: Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.Duodenal Diseases: Pathological conditions in the DUODENUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Ileocecal Valve: The valve, at the junction of the CECUM with the COLON, that guards the opening where the ILEUM enters the LARGE INTESTINE.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Digestive System Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.Lipoma: A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Mesocolon: The fold of peritoneum by which the COLON is attached to the posterior ABDOMINAL WALL.Intestinal Perforation: Opening or penetration through the wall of the INTESTINES.Colon, Sigmoid: A segment of the COLON between the RECTUM and the descending colon.Fecal Impaction: Formation of a firm impassable mass of stool in the RECTUM or distal COLON.Jejunal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer in the JEJUNUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Abdomen, Acute: A clinical syndrome with acute abdominal pain that is severe, localized, and rapid in onset. Acute abdomen may be caused by a variety of disorders, injuries, or diseases.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction: Blocked urine flow through the bladder neck, the narrow internal urethral opening at the base of the URINARY BLADDER. Narrowing or strictures of the URETHRA can be congenital or acquired. It is often observed in males with enlarged PROSTATE glands.Urethral Obstruction: Partial or complete blockage in any part of the URETHRA that can lead to difficulty or inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER. It is characterized by an enlarged, often damaged, bladder with frequent urges to void.Colon, Ascending: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the TRANSVERSE COLON. It passes cephalad from the cecum to the caudal surface of the right lobe of the LIVER where it bends sharply to the left, forming the right colic flexure.Nasal Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the nose. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, and may involve any part of the NASAL CAVITY.Entomophthorales: An order of fungi comprising mostly insect pathogens, though some infect mammals including humans. Strict host specificity make these fungi a focus of many biological control studies.Vitelline Duct: The narrow tube connecting the YOLK SAC with the midgut of the EMBRYO; persistence of all or part of it in post-fetal life produces abnormalities, of which the commonest is MECKEL DIVERTICULUM.Gastric Outlet Obstruction: The hindering of output from the STOMACH into the SMALL INTESTINE. This obstruction may be of mechanical or functional origin such as EDEMA from PEPTIC ULCER; NEOPLASMS; FOREIGN BODIES; or AGING.Enema: A solution or compound that is introduced into the RECTUM with the purpose of cleansing the COLON or for diagnostic procedures.Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.Peritoneal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PERITONEUM.Intestinal Fistula: An abnormal anatomical passage between the INTESTINE, and another segment of the intestine or other organs. External intestinal fistula is connected to the SKIN (enterocutaneous fistula). Internal intestinal fistula can be connected to a number of organs, such as STOMACH (gastrocolic fistula), the BILIARY TRACT (cholecystoduodenal fistula), or the URINARY BLADDER of the URINARY TRACT (colovesical fistula). Risk factors include inflammatory processes, cancer, radiation treatment, and surgical misadventures (MEDICAL ERRORS).Hernia, Obturator: A pelvic hernia through the obturator foramen, a large aperture in the hip bone normally covered by a membrane. Obturator hernia can lead to intestinal incarceration and INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION.Intestinal Diseases: Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.Cola: A plant genus of the family STERCULIACEAE. This is the source of the kola nut which contains CAFFEINE and is used in popular beverages.Ventricular Outflow Obstruction: Occlusion of the outflow tract in either the LEFT VENTRICLE or the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This may result from CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS, predisposing heart diseases, complications of surgery, or HEART NEOPLASMS.Cecal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the CECUM.Ileostomy: Surgical creation of an external opening into the ILEUM for fecal diversion or drainage. This replacement for the RECTUM is usually created in patients with severe INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES. Loop (continent) or tube (incontinent) procedures are most often employed.Petrolatum: A colloidal system of semisolid hydrocarbons obtained from PETROLEUM. It is used as an ointment base, topical protectant, and lubricant.Gangrene: Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply.Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction: Functional obstruction of the COLON leading to MEGACOLON in the absence of obvious COLONIC DISEASES or mechanical obstruction. When this condition is acquired, acute, and coexisting with another medical condition (trauma, surgery, serious injuries or illness, or medication), it is called Ogilvie's syndrome.Duodenostomy: Surgical formation of an opening into the DUODENUM.Ascariasis: Infection by nematodes of the genus ASCARIS. Ingestion of infective eggs causes diarrhea and pneumonitis. Its distribution is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation and where human feces are used for fertilizer.Surgical Sponges: Gauze material used to absorb body fluids during surgery. Referred to as GOSSYPIBOMA if accidentally retained in the body following surgery.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Diverticulum: A pouch or sac developed from a tubular or saccular organ, such as the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Barium Sulfate: A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome: DUODENAL OBSTRUCTION by the superior mesenteric artery (MESENTERIC ARTERY, SUPERIOR) which travels in the root of the MESENTERY and crosses over the DUODENUM. The syndrome is characterized by the dilated proximal duodenum and STOMACH, bloating, ABDOMINAL CRAMPS, and VOMITING. Often it is observed in patient with body casts after spinal surgery.Colostomy: The surgical construction of an opening between the colon and the surface of the body.Vomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.Ascaris lumbricoides: A species of parasitic nematode that is the largest found in the human intestine. Its distribution is worldwide, but it is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation. Human infection with A. lumbricoides is acquired by swallowing fully embryonated eggs from contaminated soil.Intestine, Large: A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.Abdominal NeoplasmsPostoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Diospyros: A plant genus of the family EBENACEAE, order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida best known for the edible fruit and the antibacterial activity and compounds of the wood.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Digestive System Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Sclerosis: A pathological process consisting of hardening or fibrosis of an anatomical structure, often a vessel or a nerve.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Lacrimal Duct Obstruction: Interference with the secretion of tears by the lacrimal glands. Obstruction of the LACRIMAL SAC or NASOLACRIMAL DUCT causing acute or chronic inflammation of the lacrimal sac (DACRYOCYSTITIS). It is caused also in infants by failure of the nasolacrimal duct to open into the inferior meatus and occurs about the third week of life. In adults occlusion may occur spontaneously or after injury or nasal disease. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p250)Jejunostomy: Surgical formation of an opening through the ABDOMINAL WALL into the JEJUNUM, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.Herniorrhaphy: Surgical procedures undertaken to repair abnormal openings through which tissue or parts of organs can protrude or are already protruding.Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Pelvic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the pelvic region.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Enteritis: Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.Constipation: Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.Appendicitis: Acute inflammation of the APPENDIX. Acute appendicitis is classified as simple, gangrenous, or perforated.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Intubation, Gastrointestinal: The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.Colectomy: Excision of a portion of the colon or of the whole colon. (Dorland, 28th ed)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Brunner Glands: The abundant submucosal mucous glands in the DUODENUM. These glands secrete BICARBONATE IONS; GLYCOPROTEINS; and PEPSINOGEN II.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Appendectomy: Surgical removal of the vermiform appendix. (Dorland, 28th ed)Choristoma: A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Gallstones: Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Anal Canal: The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Hydronephrosis: Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.Cholestasis, Extrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Colonoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
Strictureplasty: Strictureplasty (also spelled Stricturoplasty) is a surgical procedure performed in response to scar tissue that has built up in the intestinal wall from inflammatory bowel conditions such as Crohn's disease. The scar tissue accumulates as a result of repeated damage and healing, with the scarring causing a stricture (a narrowing of the lumen of the bowel).BezoarIntussusception (medical disorder)Umbilical cord ulceration and intestinal atresia: Umbilical cord ulceration and intestinal atresia is a rare congenital disease that leads to intestinal atresia, umbilical cord ulceration and severe intrauterine haemorrhage. Only 15 cases have so far been report though newer studies are beginning to conclude that this disease has a higher incidence rate than has been previously reported.Macropædia: The 17-volume Macropædia is the third part of the Encyclopædia Britannica; the other two parts are the 12-volume Micropædia and the 1-volume Propædia. The name Macropædia is a neologism coined by Mortimer J.Mesenteric cyst: A mesenteric cyst () is a cyst in the mesenterium, and is one of the rarest abdominal tumors, with approximately 821 cases reported since 1507. The incidence is between 1 per 100,000 to 1 per 250,000 hospital admissions.Johann Friedrich MeckelLaparotomyHirschsprung's diseaseInternal herniaBerdon syndrome: Berdon syndrome, also called Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIH syndrome), is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder affecting newborns. It is more prevalent in females, and is characterized by constipation and urinary retention, microcolon, giant bladder (megacystis), intestinal hypoperistalis, hydronephrosis, and dilated small bowel.Richter's hernia: A Richter's hernia occurs when the antimesenteric wall of the intestine protrudes through a defect in the abdominal wall. This is discrete from other types of abdominal hernias in that only one intestinal wall protrudes through the defect, such that the lumen of the intestine is incompletely contained in the defect, while the rest remains in the peritoneal cavity.Intestinal malrotationThumbprint sign: In radiology, the thumbprint sign, or thumbprinting, is a radiologic sign found on a lateral C-spine radiograph that suggests the diagnosis of epiglottitis. The sign is caused by a thickened free edge of the epiglottis, which causes it to appear more radiopaque than normal, resembling the distal thumb.Cecum: The cecum or caecum (, plural ceca ; from the Latin [meaning blind]) is an intraperitoneal pouch, that is considered to be the beginning of the large intestine. It receives [[chyme from the ileum, and connects to the ascending colon of the large intestine.List of eponymous surgical procedures: Eponymous surgical procedures are generally named after the surgeon or surgeons who performed or reported them first. In some instances they are named after the surgeon who popularised them or refined existing procedures, and occasionally are named after the patient who first underwent the procedure.Lipoma: (ILDS D17.910)Stomach bed: The stomach bed refers to the structures upon which the stomach rests in mammals.Habershon,S.Gastrointestinal perforationSigmoidocele: Sigmoidocele (also known as Pouch of Douglas descent) refers to a condition where the sigmoid colon descends (prolapses) into the lower pelvic cavity. This can obstruct the rectum and cause symptoms of obstructed defecation.Impaction (animals): Impaction occurs in reptiles when they consume something that they cannot digest. Common causes of impaction are rocks and sand, which might be accidentally consumed when the reptile attacks its prey.Epiploic appendagitis: Epiploic appendagitis (EA) is an uncommon, benign, non-surgical, self-limiting inflammatory process of the epiploic appendices. Other, older terms for the process include appendicitis epiploica and appendagitis, but these terms are used less now in order to avoid confusion with acute appendicitis.Transurethral incision of the prostateUrethrostomy: Urethrostomy is a surgical procedure that creates a permanent opening in the urethra, commonly to remove obstructions to urine flow. The procedure is most often performed in male cats, where the opening is made in the perineum.Ascending colonSomnoplasty: Somnoplasty (composed of the Latin root somnus, meaning sleep, and the Greek word plastia, meaning molding or formation) is a medical treatment approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat three conditions: habitual snoring, chronic nasal obstruction, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) using radiofrequency ablation to shrink the tissues that are causing the problem.Basidiobolus ranarum: Basidiobolus ranarum is a microscopic fungus in the order Entomophthorales.Omphalomesenteric duct cyst: Omphalomesenteric duct cysts (ODC, also known as an omphalomesenteric duct remnant or vitelline cyst) are developmental defects relating to the closure of the omphalomesenteric duct. It usually disintegrates within six weeks of gestation, but remnants of the cyst can sometimes be found along the intestines or umbilicus.Succussion splash: Succussion splash is a sloshing sound heard through the stethoscope during sudden movement of the patient on abdominal auscultation. It reflects the presence of gas and fluid in an obstructed organ, as in gastric outlet obstruction.Malone antegrade continence enema: right|300px|thumb|The [[vermiform appendix is typically used in the Malone antegrade continence enema.]]Rectal foreign bodyHowship–Romberg sign: Howship–Romberg sign is a sign used to identify obturator hernia.Cola (plant): Cola is a genus of trees native to the tropical rainforests of Africa, classified in the family Malvaceae, subfamily Sterculioideae (or treated in the separate family Sterculiaceae). Species in this genus are sometimes referred to as Kola tree or Kola nut for the caffeine-containing fruit produced by the trees that is often used as a flavoring ingredient in beverages.Ventricular outflow tract obstruction: A ventricular outflow tract obstruction is one type of congenital heart defect in which either the right or left ventricular outflow tract is blocked or obstructed. These obstructions represent a spectrum of disorders.IleostomyPetroleum jelly: Petroleum jelly, petrolatum, white petrolatum, soft paraffin or multi-hydrocarbon, CAS number 8009-03-8, is a semi-solid mixture of hydrocarbons (with carbon numbers mainly higher than 25), originally promoted as a topical ointment for its healing properties.GangreneIleusAscariasisJejunumDiverticulum: A diverticulum (plural: diverticula) is the medical or biological term for an outpouching of a hollow (or a fluid-filled) structure in the body. Depending upon which layers of the structure are involved, they are described as being either true or false.Barium sulfate suspension: Barium sulfate suspension is barium sulfate powder turned into a liquid form by suspending it in a quick-flowing drink to aid in CT scans of the gastrointestinal region.Wasting: In medicine, wasting, also known as wasting syndrome, refers to the process by which a debilitating disease causes muscle and fat tissue to "waste" away. Wasting is sometimes referred to as "acute malnutrition" because it is believed that episodes of wasting have a short duration, in contrast to stunting, which is regarded as chronic malnutrition.ColostomyFake vomit: Fake vomit is a flat rubber or plastic disc with indentations and protrusions designed to look like mucus or vomit. It is a practical joke often used by pranksters to disgust victims.Ascaris lumbricoides: Ascaris lumbricoides is the giant roundworm of humans, growing to a length of up to . It is one of several species of Ascaris.Haustrum (anatomy): The haustra (singular haustrum) of the colon are the small pouches caused by sacculation (sac formation), which give the colon its segmented appearance. The teniae coli run the length of the large intestine.Diospyros abyssinica: Diospyros abyssinica (also known as Giant Diospyros,Encyclopedia of Life: Diospyros abyssinica (Hiern) F.White or Kôforonto and Baforonto in local languages spoken in parts of Mali,The Malian Medicinal Plant Project, University of Oslo: Common name, description, distribution, and medical usage blidzo, blitcho, gblit∫o, blonyat∫o or gblεt∫o in some Ghanaian languagesJSTOR Global Plants: Diospyros abyssinica) is trees species in the Ebenaceae family growing in Sub-Saharan Africa.Enteric duplication cyst: Enteric duplication cysts, sometimes simply called duplication cysts, are rare congenital malformations of the gastrointestinal tract. They most frequently occur in the small intestine, particularly the ileum, but can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract.The Society of Elite Laparoscopic Surgeons: The Society of Elite Laparoscopic Surgeons is a non-profit organization based in Chandler, AZ, existing for the purpose of promoting access to minimally invasive surgery in the United States, and to lobby and promote the transition of the US medical system to adopt minimally invasive hysterectomy as standard of care.Society of Elite Laparoscopic Surgeons The organization is made up of member gynecologic surgeons, and holds annual meetings in various locales.Dense artery sign: In medicine, the dense artery sign or hyperdense artery sign is a radiologic sign seen on computer tomography (CT) scans suggestive of early ischemic stroke. In earlier studies of medical imaging in patients with strokes, it was the earliest sign of ischemic stroke in a significant minority of cases.Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes: Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is diabetes specifically caused by cystic fibrosis, a genetic condition. Cystic fibrosis related diabetes mellitus (CFRD) develops with age, and the median age at diagnosis is 21 years.Dietmar Wittmann: Dietmar H. Wittmann, M.Congenital lacrimal duct obstructionJejunostomyUrogenital pelvic malignancyEnteritisFunctional constipation: Functional constipation, known as chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC), is constipation that does not have a physical (anatomical) or physiological (hormonal or other body chemistry) cause. It may have a neurological, psychological or psychosomatic cause.AppendicitisNigerian Ports Authority: The Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA) is a federal government agency that governs and operates the ports of Nigeria. The major ports controlled by the NPA include: the Lagos Port Complex and Tin Can Island Port in Lagos; Calabar Port, Delta Port, Rivers Port at Port Harcourt, and Onne Port.ColectomyTransverse folds of rectum: The transverse folds of rectum (or Houston's valves) are semi-lunar transverse folds of the rectal wall that protrude into the rectum, not the anal canal as that lies below the rectum. Their use seems to be to support the weight of fecal matter, and prevent its urging toward the anus, which would produce a strong urge to defecate.Brunner Mine: The Brunner Mine was a coal mine on the West Coast of the South Island in New Zealand.Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis
(1/963) Functional intestinal obstruction due to deficiency of argyrophil neurones in the myenteric plexus. Familial syndrome presenting with short small bowel, malrotation, and pyloric hypertrophy.
In 3 infants functional intestinal obstruction, associated with a short small intestine, malrotation, and pyloric hypertrophy, was shown to be due to failure of development of the argyrophil myenteric plexus, with the absence of ongoing peristalsis. 4 infants with similar clinical features have been described previously, and there is evidence for an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance of this syndrome. (+info)
(2/963) Peripheral urocortin delays gastric emptying: role of CRF receptor 2.
Urocortin, a new mammalian member of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family has been proposed to be the endogenous ligand for CRF receptor 2 (CRF-R2). We studied the influence of intravenous urocortin on gastric emptying and the role of CRF-R2 in peptide action and postoperative gastric ileus in conscious rats. The intravenous doses of rat CRF and rat urocortin producing 50% inhibition of gastric emptying were 2.5 and 1.1 microgram/kg, respectively. At these intravenous doses, CRF and urocortin have their actions fully reversed by the CRF-R1/CRF-R2 antagonist astressin at antagonist/agonist ratios of 5:1 and 67:1, respectively. Astressin (12 microgram/kg iv) completely prevented abdominal surgery-induced 54% inhibition of gastric emptying 3 h after surgery while having no effect on basal gastric emptying. The selective nonpeptide CRF-R1 antagonists antalarmin (20 mg/kg ip) and NBI-27914 (400 microgram/kg iv) did not influence intravenous CRF-, urocortin- or surgery-induced gastric stasis. These results as well as earlier ones showing that alpha-helical CRF9-41 (a CRF-R2 more selective antagonist) partly prevented postoperative ileus indicate that peripheral CRF-R2 may be primarily involved in intravenous urocortin-, CRF-, and abdominal surgery-induced gastric stasis. (+info)
(3/963) Definitive diagnosis of intestinal volvulus in utero.
Midgut volvulus with or without intestinal malrotation can occur in fetal life. Several reports have described congenital midgut volvulus showing non-specific sonographic findings of intestinal obstruction and perforation in utero. None of the previously reported cases, however, were definitively diagnosed as midgut volvulus by fetal sonography. We report two cases both exhibiting the sonographic 'whirlpool' sign, in utero. Color Doppler interrogation provided a clue to the viability of the involved intestinal segment. (+info)
(4/963) Plasma myeloperoxidase level and polymorphonuclear leukocyte activation in horses suffering from large intestinal obstruction requiring surgery: preliminary results.
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a specific enzyme of neutrophil azurophilic granules with a strong oxidative activity. Thanks to a radioimmunoassay of equine myeloperoxidase, the authors have observed a significantly higher plasma level of MPO in horses operated for strangulation obstruction of the large intestine (n = 6) than in horses suffering from a non-strangulating displacement of the large intestine (n = 9). For the 2 groups, 3 phases were distinguished: reception (P1), intensive care (P2) and terminal phase (P3). The mean peak values of MPO for these phases were 121.6 ng/mL (P1), 168.6 ng/mL (P2), and 107.0 ng/mL (P3) for the non-strangulating group, and 242.6 ng/mL (P1); 426.0 ng/mL (P2), and 379.5 ng/mL (P3) for the strangulation group. The variations of the mean peak values of plasma MPO were significantly different between the 2 groups and between the different phases. A significant increase of the least square means of MPO was observed between P1 and P2. A significant decrease of the least square means of the number of circulating leukocytes was observed between P1 and P3. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil activation could play a major role in the pathogenesis of acute abdominal disease and endotoxic shock. (+info)
(5/963) Simultaneous pyloric and colonic obstruction associated with hiatus hernia in a weightlifter: a case report.
Hiatus hernia is usually attributed to conditions that cause a chronic increase in intra-abdominal pressure such as multiple pregnancies and obesity. A 30-year-old man, a weightlifter, had a massive hiatus hernia causing both high and low gastrointestinal obstruction but no involvement of the gastroesophageal junction or fundus. The onset of the obstruction is attributed to an extreme increase in intra-abdominal pressure caused by the action of lifting weights. (+info)
(6/963) Octreotide treatment of chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction secondary to connective tissue diseases.
Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIPO) is a rare syndrome that may occur in association with connective tissue diseases (CTD). Effective management is a major challenge. We report 3 cases in which subcutaneous octreotide was efficacious in the treatment of digestive symptoms in CIPO. In 2 of the 3 cases, previous treatment with domperidone, cisapride, or erythromycin had been unsuccessful. All 3 patients underwent a regimen of oral antibiotics along with octreotide to stimulate small bowel motility. The effects of octreotide were evident within 48 hours after the first injection in all patients. In 2, the efficacy seemed to decrease after 1 week and 6 months respectively, but increasing the dosage led to another remission. CIPO in CTD is a severe condition that can evolve regardless of the underlying disease activity. Octreotide appears to be efficacious in improving both clinical symptoms and manometric patterns. When its therapeutic effect diminishes, increasing the dosage can be useful. (+info)
(7/963) Laparoscopic adhesiolysis in acute small bowel obstruction: a preliminary experience.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate laparoscopy as another tool for management of cases of adhesive acute small bowel obstruction. METHODS: Fourteen patients suffering from suspected adhesive small bowel obstruction were explored laparoscopically over a period of 24 months. The Veress needle was inserted either in a virgin part of the abdomen away from previous scars or under direct vision using an open technique. Careful inspection of the entire abdomen was done, and the small bowel was "run" in a retrograde fashion starting at the cecum. The point of obstruction was localized and adhesiolysis was performed, thus resolving the problem. RESULTS: Laparoscopic exploration was able to determine the site and cause of obstruction precisely in all 14 cases, with resolution of the problem laparoscopically in 12 patients (85.7%). Two cases were converted to open surgery (14.3%). There were no mortalities and low morbidity (7.1%). The mean hospital stay was 3.7 days. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic surgery can be an advantageous alternative to open surgery in acute small bowel obstruction, thus providing a new technique for its diagnosis and treatment with all the advantages of minimally invasive surgery. (+info)
(8/963) A case of intestinal obstruction following stent graft placement for an abdominal aortic aneurysm.
A 76-year-old male was admitted to hospital complaining of severe abdominal pain, constipation, nausea and vomiting. The patient had undergone stent graft placement of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) at another hospital 13 months prior to admission. An X-ray, computed tomography scan and barium-enema examination revealed partial obstruction of the duodenum. Stent graft placement has been reported to be a useful procedure for AAA. However, as mass effects associated with AAA cannot be excluded, several symptoms may remain postoperatively. (+info)