Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Insect Viruses: Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Hemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.Cockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Heteroptera: A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Tenebrio: A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Tribolium: A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Periplaneta: A genus in the family Blattidae containing several species, the most common being P. americana, the American cockroach.Hymenoptera: An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Bombyx: A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)Gryllidae: The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Rhodnius: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Weevils: BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Orthoptera: An order of insects comprising two suborders: Caelifera and Ensifera. They consist of GRASSHOPPERS, locusts, and crickets (GRYLLIDAE).Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Photorhabdus: A genus of gram-negative bacteria existing symbiotically with nematodes of the family Heterorhabditidae (see RHABDITOIDEA). These nematodes infect a variety of soil-dwelling insects. Upon entering an insect host, the nematode releases Photorhabdus from its intestinal tract and the bacterium establishes a lethal septicemia in the insect.Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Molting: Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.Xenorhabdus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod-shaped cells which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Late in the growth cycle, spheroplasts or coccoid bodies occur, resulting from disintegration of the cell wall. The natural habitat is the intestinal lumen of certain nematodes. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Houseflies: Flies of the species Musca domestica (family MUSCIDAE), which infest human habitations throughout the world and often act as carriers of pathogenic organisms.Fat Body: A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Nucleopolyhedrovirus: A genus of the family BACULOVIRIDAE, subfamily Eubaculovirinae, characterized by the formation of crystalline, polyhedral occlusion bodies in the host cell nucleus. The type species is Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus.Malpighian Tubules: Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Metarhizium: A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.Beauveria: A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.DEET: A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Arthropod Antennae: Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Ecdysteroids: Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Ecdysterone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Locusta migratoria: A species of migratory Old World locusts, in the family ACRIDIDAE, that are important pests in Africa and Asia.Integumentary System: The outer covering of the body composed of the SKIN and the skin appendages, which are the HAIR, the NAILS; and the SEBACEOUS GLANDS and the SWEAT GLANDS and their ducts.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Wolbachia: A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.WingTephritidae: A large family of fruit flies in the order DIPTERA, comprising over 4,500 species in about 100 genera. They have patterned wings and brightly colored bodies and are found predominantly in the tropical latitudes.Sf9 Cells: Cell line derived from SF21 CELLS which are a cell line isolated from primary explants of SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA pupal tissue.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Diapause, Insect: Seasonal suspension of insect growth development. It can be either induced by environmental cues (e.g., PHOTOPERIOD) or as a facultative part of the life cycle in order to time development with seasonal changes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Methoprene: Juvenile hormone analog and insect growth regulator used to control insects by disrupting metamorphosis. Has been effective in controlling mosquito larvae.Spiders: Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Isoptera: An order of insects, restricted mostly to the tropics, containing at least eight families. A few species occur in temperate regions of North America.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Receptors, Odorant: Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Blattellidae: A family of insects in the order Dictyoptera (COCKROACHES), including genera Blattella, Parcoblatta, and Symploce.Ecdysone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Rhabditida: An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Its organisms are characterized by an annulated or smooth cuticle and the absence of caudal glands.Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Triatoma: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Sensilla: Collective name for a group of external MECHANORECEPTORS and chemoreceptors manifesting as sensory structures in ARTHROPODS. They include cuticular projections (setae, hairs, bristles), pores, and slits.Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Catechol Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between catechol and oxygen to yield benzoquinone and water. It is a complex of copper-containing proteins that acts also on a variety of substituted catechols. EC 1.10.3.1.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Sex Attractants: Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Bedbugs: Bugs of the family CIMICIDAE, genus Cimex. They are flattened, oval, reddish insects which inhabit houses, wallpaper, furniture, and beds. C. lectularius, of temperate regions, is the common bedbug that attacks humans and is frequently a serious pest in houses, hotels, barracks, and other living quarters. Experiments have shown that bedbugs can transmit a variety of diseases, but they are not normal vectors under natural conditions. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p272)Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Hypocreales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes a number of species which are parasitic on higher plants, insects, or fungi. Other species are saprotrophic.Triatominae: A subfamily of assassin bugs (REDUVIIDAE) that are obligate blood-suckers of vertebrates. Included are the genera TRIATOMA; RHODNIUS; and PANSTRONGYLUS, which are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, the agent of CHAGAS DISEASE in humans.Respiratory Transport: The processes of diffusion across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER, and the chemical reactions coupled with diffusion that effect the rate of PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE, generally at the alveolar level.Polydnaviridae: A family of insect viruses isolated from endoparasitic hymenopteran insects belonging to the families Ichneumonidae and Braconidae. The two genera are Ichnovirus and Bracovirus.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Solidago: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE known for allergenic pollen (ALLERGENS).Nematoda: A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.Odonata: An order of insects comprising three suborders: Anisoptera, Zygoptera, and Anisozygoptera. They consist of dragonflies and damselflies.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Animal Structures: Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Invertebrate Hormones: Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.Tsetse Flies: Bloodsucking flies of the genus Glossina, found primarily in equatorial Africa. Several species are intermediate hosts of trypanosomes.Amber: A yellowish fossil resin, the gum of several species of coniferous trees, found in the alluvial deposits of northeastern Germany. It is used in molecular biology in the analysis of organic matter fossilized in amber.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Thysanoptera: An order of very small, fringed-wing INSECTS including many agricultural pests.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.

*  Patent US7380369 - Insect trap and method of use - Google Patents
The method includes the steps of mounting an insect trap in a structure opening, allowing insect-enticing chemicals to waft ... and entrapping the insect within the inner chamber because the rear wall apertures are too small to admit passage to the insect ... The insect trap has a roof, side walls, rear wall, front wall, and floor. The front wall has a front wall aperture, and the ... A plurality of dividers are disposed within the insect trap, with a divider aperture associated with each divider. The divider ...
  http://www.google.com/patents/US7380369?dq=6,952,563
*  Using insects to test for drug safety
... 09.09.2009. Insects, such as some moths and fruit flies, react to microbial infection in ... "We will continue to explore the similarities between insect and mammalian immune responses so that insects can be used as ... which are cells that carry out a similar function in insects, react in the same way to infecting microbes. Both the insect and ... Insects such as fruit flies (Drosophila), Greater Wax Moths (Galleria) and a type of Hawkmoth (Manduca) can be used to test the ...
  http://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/life-sciences/insects-test-drug-safety-139309.html
*  Jumping mechanisms in adult caddis flies (Insecta, Trichoptera) | Journal of Experimental Biology
Many insects thus use legs and wings in various sequences and combinations to escape and to launch into flight with advantages ... 2002). Phylogeny of the holometabolous insect orders: molecular evidence. Zool. Scripta 31, 3-15. doi:10.1046/j.0300-3256.2001. ... Second, in insects such as lacewings (Burrows and Dorosenko, 2014) the propulsive jumping movements of the legs add additional ... A number of groups of insects also move both the middle and hind legs together to propel jumping, but the timing of the start ...
  http://jeb.biologists.org/content/218/17/2764
*  Zinc-metalloproteases in insects: ACE and ECE. - Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics
However, activity studies and analysis of insect genomes indicate that this enzyme is also widely distributed among insect ... in insects has substantially advanced during the recent decade. The cloning of this enzyme in many insect species, the ... The discovery of the endothelin-converting enzyme in insects occurred more recently and cloning of the corresponding cDNA has ... of the 3D-structure and several molecular and physiological studies have contributed to the characterization of insect ACE as ...
  https://www.dpag.ox.ac.uk/publications/345833
*  Take a bite out of leaf-feeding insects
If you want to gain a greater understanding of such insects, the damage they can cause and effective control strategies, read ... Grounds managers know that leaf-feeding insects can be a major problem for ornamentals. However, they may or may not be aware ... on.The damage a leaf-feeding insect can inflict on a tree or shrub is significant in many cases. A graphic ... The extent of the damage depends on the number of feeding insects, the plant's health and the number of insect generations per ...
  http://www.grounds-mag.com/mag/grounds_maintenance_bite_leaffeeding_insects/
*  Insect and Pest Control - Wilson Bros Nursery
It may actually create pest problems by killing beneficial insects that eat other insects. And it's generally not good for the ... There are several ways to control insects in the landscape and garden. Controlling insects in your landscape or vegetable ... Gardeners willing to tolerate some insect damage can generally grow their plants with minimal use of insecticides. Some insects ... These insects can be identified on crape myrtles and gardenias by a black, sooty mold that appears on the top side of the ...
  http://gardenei.com/InsectPestControlHomePage.html
*  Rolling Stones - American AnglerAmerican Angler
Needless to say, there were no hatching insects on that July afternoon, and the dry flies were a bust. I panicked and switched ... When, where, and how to imitate one of the meatiest aquatic insects in a trout stream.. [By Nathan Perkinson] ... Remember, stoneflies crawl along the bottom, so you need to get your fly down among the natural insects to draw strikes. Bead ... The so-called winter stoneflies in the Great Lakes region are perhaps the most important insects winter anglers can imitate. ...
  https://www.americanangler.com/rolling-stones/
*  Pharmacophagy in green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae: Chrysopa spp.)? [PeerJ]
... soft-bodied insects and mites. Earlier, we identified (1R,2S,5R,8R)-iridodial from wild males of the goldeneyed lacewing, ... is widespread among phytophagous insects but, to our knowledge, is unknown among lacewings or other predacious insects. Our ... Cyclopentanoid terpene biosynthesis in a phasmid insect and in catmint.. Science 151(3706):79-80 ... Feeding studies with C. oculata showed that males of these predatory insects fed one of the common aphid sex pheromone ...
  https://peerj.com/articles/1564/
*  500 Insects: A Visual Reference
"Insect diversity, especially the almost untapped diversity of little-studied insects, should be seen as a rich ore... to be ... Collecting and Photographing Insects. The study of insects in the field -- let's call it bug-watching, since it has much in ... In fact, most insects are relatively easy to identify to a meaningful level. The orders of insects -- the big groups such as ... Insects account for more than half of the approximately 1.7 million named species of all living things. The number of insect ...
  http://www.fireflybooks.com/index.php/catalogue/adult-books/nature-and-science/insects/product/9743-500-insects-a-visual-reference
*  Prison Planet.com » Hungry? Lacking protein? Eat an insect, UN says
"Insects are everywhere and they reproduce quickly." Currently, most edible insects are gathered in forests, and the small ... The report said that insects are "extremely efficient" in converting feed into edible meat for humans. It added that insects ... The UN said that insects provide a while slew of benefits outside of nutrition. The report claims that eating insects is also ... Insect farming is "one of the many ways to address food and feed security," the agency said in a 200-page report released at a ...
  https://www.prisonplanet.com/hungry-lacking-protein-eat-an-insect-un-says.html
*  Neuroptera
... - Brisbane Insects and Spiders (Australia). Title Illustrations. Click on an image to view larger version & data in ...
  http://tolweb.org/tree?group=Neuroptera&contgroup=Endopterygota
*  Earwig - Wikipedia
Marshall, Stephan A. (June 2006). "4". Insects: Their Natural History and Diversity: With a Photographic Guide to Insects of ... Earwigs make up the insect order Dermaptera. With about 2,000 species[1] in 12 families, they are one of the smaller insect ... Gullan, P.J.; P.S. Cranston (2005). "9 - Ground Dwelling Insects". The Insects: An Outline of Entomology (3 ed.). Oxford: ... "Insects and their Allies. CSIRO. Retrieved 16 November 2015.. *^ Friedrichsen, G W S; Robert W Burchfield (31 December 1966). ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earwigs
*  Patent US2791864 - Lamp carried trap for moths and other insects - Google Patents
Light trap for insects. US20060248783 *. May 8, 2006. Nov 9, 2006. Lindquist Lisa L. Disposable/reusable insect trap with ... Subsequent insects will be annihilated in the same manner and will in kicking about after being slowed down by the heat cause ... An insect trap for attachment to an electric lamp bulb having an enlarged lower portion and a relatively smaller upper portion ... Mai? 14, 1957 B. c. CHAPPELL LAMP CARRIED TRAP FOR MOTHS AND OTHER INSECTS Filed Jan. 25, 1954 IN VEN TOR. BE)? 7 c'. cw PPE l ...
  http://www.google.com/patents/US2791864?dq=system+for+measuring+web+traffic&ei=Lg8FT__TIIr-sQKzxaGRCg
*  Insects Receive 'Voicemail' In Nature - Redorbit
Insects can use plants as ℠green phones´ for communication with other bugs. A new study now shows that through those same ... "The insects are re-living the past." This message from the past strongly influences the growth and possibly also the behavior ... Insects eating plant roots change the chemical composition of the leaves, causing the plant to release volatile signals into ... And future plants growing on that same spot can pick up these signals from the soil and pass them on to other insects. Those ...
  http://www.redorbit.com/news/science/1112552882/insects-receive-voicemail-in-nature/
*  Earwig | insect | Britannica.com
... any of approximately 1,800 species of insects that are characterized by large membranous hindwings that lie hidden under short ... insect: Insect phylogeny. ,earwigs), though doubtless of ancient origin, have not been found yet as fossils dated earlier than ... insect: Annotated classification. Dermaptera (earwigs) Elongated insects with chewing mouthparts; forewings reduced to very ... It has been suggested that the pincers may function in defense, in catching insects and holding them while eating, in helping ...
  https://www.britannica.com/animal/earwig
*  Meet The Insects: Village Edition by NCSoft- Review - The iMums
Insect Story: This is a good place to start, as it gives the student an introduction to insects, teaching them some basic facts ... Meet The Insects: Village Edition is the second in a series of insect encyclopedia iPad apps from NCSOFT, the developer of ... See the Insects: This is the main part of the app, and is an interactive insect encyclopedia. Navigation through the ... The insect story is a nice introduction to insects that live around our homes. The graphics, photographs, and videos are all ...
  http://theimum.com/2013/01/meet-the-insects-village-edition-by-ncsoft-review/
*  MANAGE INSECTS On Your Farm - PDF
Fritz HANDBOOK SERIES BOOK 7 MANAGE INSECTS ON YOUR FARM A Guide to Ecological Strategies ... MANAGE INSECTS On Your Farm A Guide to Ecological Strategies Miguel A. Altieri and Clara I. Nicholls with Marlene A. ... small insects Insect eggs, soft-bodied insects, small insects Insect eggs, soft-bodied insects, small insects Insect eggs, ... soft-bodied insects, insect eggs Insect eggs, soft-bodied insects, caterpillars Small insects Insect eggs, soft-bodied insects ...
  http://docplayer.net/177260-Manage-insects-on-your-farm.html
*  Insects
Narrator] Let's take a look at flying insects,…and we'll start with the moth or the butterfly.…Now, in this example I've locked ...
  https://www.lynda.com/3D-Animation-tutorials/Insects/501129/602249-4.html
*  Category:km:Insects - Wiktionary
Pages in category "km:Insects". The following 6 pages are in this category, out of 6 total. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Category:km:Insects&oldid=47123279" ...
  https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Category:km:Insects
*  Books About Insects | Scholastic
You can learn more about insects in this collection of picture and reference books. Created by Scholastic ... Books About Insects. Did you know some ants can lift up to 50 times their own weight? You can learn more about insects in this ...
  https://www.scholastic.com/teachers/lists/teaching-content/insects-grades-k-5/
*  Stinging insects: Avoidance
The majority of allergic reactions to stings are due to this order of insects. This topic reviews avoidance of the flying ... Stinging insects: Avoidance. Authors. Nancy L Breisch, PhD. Nancy L Breisch, PhD ... See 'Stinging insects: Biology and identification' and 'Entomology and control of imported fire ants'.) ... Stinging insects: Biology and identification. *Stings of imported fire ants: Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment ...
  https://www.uptodate.com/contents/stinging-insects-avoidance
*  Insects: Photos
23 is easy photo sharing. Share private or public with photo albums, tags, storage, slideshow, photoblog, subscriptions, send photos and much more
  http://www.23hq.com/photogroup/insects/photos?orderby=posting_date&page=5
*  10 Extremely Dangerous Insects - YouTube
Anyone else get that feeling of something crawling all over your body after watching a video about insects? ...
  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3zGbibn5xmY&lc=jByvDUsaVYJtwixoZ-GE3Zvar1YVL6dq0h__ZN7gUw0&feature=plcp
*  insects as food
I had a lady call me today who is interested in information on the eating of insects that are easy to find and easy to identify ... She is would like the nutrient value of some of the most common insects and how to prepare them. This idea stemmed from the man ... who survived on insects after being shot down in Bosnia. Any help or leads are greatly appreciated. Thanks, Debi Kelly, Project ...
  http://www.ibiblio.org/london/agriculture/forums/sustainable-agriculture1/msg00321.html
*  Insects 2016
Is it time to start an insects thread for this year - there have been a few about now A hoverfly - as you can see from the ... Insects 2016 Is it time to start an insects thread for this year - there have been a few about now A hoverfly - as you can see ... Re: Insects 2016 All very nice ones so far. I have some insects that I took a shot or two of before I left the US and will edit ... Re: Insects 2016 Nice on Richard, always the way ! Insects are not the most accomodating models ...
  http://www.cambridgeincolour.com/forums/thread52285.htm

Rakiura (genus): Rakiura is a genus of Trichoptera (caddisfly). The genus contains only one species, R.PolyhedrinAntheraea pernyi: Antheraea pernyi, the Chinese (Oak) tussah moth (or "Chinese tasar moth"), also known as temperate tussah moth, is a large moth in the family Saturniidae. Antheraea roylei is an extremely close relative, and the present species might actually have evolved from ancestral A.Prothoracicotropic hormone: Prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) was the first insect hormone to be discovered. It was originally described simply as "brain hormone" by early workers such as Stefan Kopeć (1922) and Vincent Wigglesworth (1934),Wigglesworth, V.RID Insect Repellent: RID is an Australian brand of personal insect repellent sold and distributed in Australia, New Zealand, worldwide and online.Silverleaf whiteflyBacMamAndesobia jelskiiInsect sting allergy: Insect sting allergy is the term commonly given to the allergic response of an animal in response to the bite or sting of an insect. Typically, insects which generate allergic responses are either stinging insects (wasps, bees, hornets and ants) or biting insects (mosquitoes, ticks).Adalia bipunctata: Adalia bipunctata, commonly known as the two-spot ladybird, two-spotted ladybug or two-spotted lady beetle, is a carnivorous beetle of the family Coccinellidae that is found throughout the holarctic region. It is very common in western and central Europe.Chrysomya albiceps: Chrysomya albiceps is a species belonging to the blow fly family, Calliphoridae. It is of great medical and sanitary importance, being associated with myiasis in Africa and America although it plays a more significant role as a predator of other dipteran larvae.Hemolymph: Hemolymph, or haemolymph, is a fluid, analogous to the blood in vertebrates, that circulates in the interior of the arthropod body remaining in direct contact with the animal's tissues. It is composed of a fluid plasma in which hemolymph cells called hemocytes are suspended.Depopulation of cockroaches in post-Soviet states: A mass depopulation of cockroaches has been observed since the beginning of the 21st century in Russia and other countries of the former USSR. Observers note quick disappearance of various types of cockroaches from cities and towns in Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Moldova, and Belarus.List of locust species: This is a list of locust species. These are Orthoptera that swarm and cause significant economic losses to agricultural crops.Coles PhillipsStrider Knives: Strider Knives, Inc. is a custom and production knifemaking facility headed by Mick Strider and Duane Dwyer based in San Marcos, California.MealwormList of diseases of the honey bee: Diseases of the honey bee or abnormal hive conditions include:Harmening High Flyer: The Harmening High Flyer is an American powered parachute that was designed and produced by Harmening's High Flyers of Genoa, Illinois.Cliche, Andre: Ultralight Aircraft Shopper's Guide 8th Edition, page D-7.Polistes dominula: The European paper wasp (Polistes dominula, often misspelled as dominulus) is one of the more common and well-known species of social wasps in the genus Polistes. Its diet is more diverse than that of most Polistes species (many genera of insects versus mainly caterpillars in other Polistes), making it superior over many others during the shortage of resources.Periplanone BLarch sawfly: The larch sawfly (Pristiphora erichsonii) is a species of sawfly. The adult sawfly resembles a black wasp, is about ½ inch in length with a thick waist and has brown to orangish markings on the abdomen.Biopesticide: Biopesticides, a contraction of 'biological pesticides', include several types of pest management intervention: through predatory, parasitic, or chemical relationships. The term has been associated historically with biological control - and by implication - the manipulation of living organisms.Acyrthosiphon pisum: Acyrthosiphon pisum, commonly known as the pea aphid (and colloquially known as the green dolphin, pea louse, and clover louse ), is a sap-sucking insect in the Aphididae family. It feeds on several species of legumes (plant family Fabaceae) worldwide, including forage crops, such as pea, clover, alfalfa, and broad bean, and ranks among the aphid species of major agronomical importance.Cynthia (Gaba girl): Cynthia was a plaster mannequin of the 1930s created by Lester Gaba.Teleogryllus oceanicus: Teleogryllus oceanicus, commonly known as the Australian, Pacific or oceanic field cricket, is a cricket found across Oceania and in coastal Australia from Carnarvon in Western Australia and Rockhampton in north-east Queensland Otte, D. & Alexander, R.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Camponotus vagus: Camponotus vagus is a species of large, black, West Palaearctic carpenter ant with a wide range that includes much of Europe, a large area of Asia, and part of Africa.Norwegian Journal of EntomologyEncyclopedia of Life: Camponotus vagus (Scopoli, 1763)Rhodnius nasutus: Rhodnius nasutus is a Chagas disease vector native to the northeast of Brazil. It is primarily associated with the Copernicia prunifera palm tree (Carnauba).Juvenile hormone: Juvenile hormones (JHs) are a group of acyclic sesquiterpenoids that regulate many aspects of insect physiology. JHs regulate development, reproduction, diapause, and polyphenisms.Rice weevilInsecticide: An insecticide is a substance used to kill insects. They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae, respectively.Eupholidoptera chabrieri: Eupholidoptera chabrieri is a species of 'katydids crickets' belonging to the family Tettigoniidae subfamily Tettigoniinae.Chemical defense: Chemical defense is the use of chemical compounds by plants and animals to deter herbivory and predation. Chemical defenses can also be used in competitive interactions to prevent overgrowth or maintain spatial dominance.Indy (gene): Indy, short for I'm not dead yet, is a gene of the model organism, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Mutant versions of this gene have doubled the average life span of fruit flies in at least one set of experiments, but this result has been subject to controversy.Symbiosis Center of Health Care: Symbiosis Center of Health Care (SCHC) is an organization under Symbiosis Society which takes care of health of symbiosis family be it student or staff.http://www.Photorhabdus: Photorhabdus is a genus of bioluminescent, gram-negative bacilli which lives symbiotically within entomopathogenic nematodes, hence the name photo (which means light-producing) and rhabdus (rod-shape)Chelicerata: Late Ordovician (but see text) – RecentEcdysis: Ecdysis is the moulting of the cuticle in many invertebrates. This process of moulting is the defining feature of the clade Ecdysozoa, comprising the arthropods, nematodes, velvet worms, horsehair worms, tardigrades, and Cephalorhyncha.Xenorhabdus: Xenorhabdus is a genus of motile, gram-negative bacteria from the family of the Enterobacteriaceae. It has the particularity that all the species of the genus live in symbiosis with soil entomopathogenic nematodes from the genus Steinernema.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Knockdown resistance: Knockdown resistance, also called kdr, describes cases of resistance to diphenylethane (e.g.Bert WheelerToroidal polyhedron: In geometry, a toroidal polyhedron is a polyhedron which is also a toroid (a g-holed torus), having a topological genus, g, of 1 or greater.Climax JumpMetarhizium acridum: Metarhizium acridumParasporal bodyBeauveria bassiana: Beauveria bassiana is a fungus that grows naturally in soils throughout the world and acts as a parasite on various arthropod species, causing white muscardine disease; it thus belongs to the entomopathogenic fungi. It is being used as a biological insecticide to control a number of pests such as termites, thrips, whiteflies, aphids and different beetles.Trombiculosis: (ILDS B88.010)Ukiah Ambulance: Ukiah Ambulance is now Medstar Ambulance of Mendocino County Inc., a private non-profit ground transport ambulance provider serving central and southern Mendocino County.Drosophila embryogenesis: Drosophila embryogenesis, the process by which Drosophila (fruit fly) embryos form, is a favorite model system for geneticists and developmental biologists studying embryogenesis. The small size, short generation time, and large brood size make it ideal for genetic studies.Eyestalk ablation: Eyestalk ablation is the removal of one (unilateral) or both (bilateral) eyestalks from a crustacean. It is routinely practiced on female shrimps (or prawns) in almost every marine shrimp maturation or reproduction facility in the world, both research and commercial.Aedes aegyptiLigation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.List of keratins expressed in the human integumentary system: There are many different keratin proteins normally expressed in the human integumentary system.Monarch Butterfly Biosphere ReserveBESS domain: In molecular biology, the BESS domain is a protein domain which has been named after the three proteins that originally defined the domain: BEAF (Boundary element associated factor 32), Suvar(3)7 and Stonewall ). The BESS domain is 40 amino acid residues long and is predicted to be composed of three alpha helices, as such it might be related to the myb/SANT HTH domain.Cytoplasmic incompatibility: Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is a phenomenon that results in sperm and eggs being unable to form viable offspring. The effect arises from changes in the gamete cells caused by intracellular parasites like Wolbachia, which infect a wide range of insect species.Wing walkingBactrocera tryoni: The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) is a species of tephritid fruit fly native to Australia.Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Intraguild predation: Intraguild predation, or IGP, is the killing and eating of potential competitors. This interaction represents a combination of predation and competition, because both species rely on the same prey resources and also benefit from preying upon one another.CS-BLASTDNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Huwentoxin: Huwentoxins (HWTX) are a group of neurotoxic peptides found in the venom of the Chinese bird spider Haplopelma huwena. While structural similarity can be found among several of these toxins, HWTX as a group possess high functional diversity.Psorophora howardiiCultural entomologyFormosan subterranean termite: The Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus) is an invasive species of termite. It has been transported worldwide from its native range in southern China to Formosa (Taiwan, where it gets its name) and Japan.Odorant-binding protein: Odorant-binding proteins are abundant small soluble proteins secreted in the nasal mucus of many animal species and in the sensillar lymph of chemosensory sensilla of insects.Haemolysin expression modulating protein family: In molecular biology, the haemolysin expression modulating protein family is a family of proteins. This family consists of haemolysin expression modulating protein (Hha) from Escherichia coli and its enterobacterial homologues, such as YmoA from Yersinia enterocolitica, and RmoA encoded on the R100 plasmid.

(1/3798) The developmental basis for allometry in insects.

Within all species of animals, the size of each organ bears a specific relationship to overall body size. These patterns of organ size relative to total body size are called static allometry and have enchanted biologists for centuries, yet the mechanisms generating these patterns have attracted little experimental study. We review recent and older work on holometabolous insect development that sheds light on these mechanisms. In insects, static allometry can be divided into at least two processes: (1) the autonomous specification of organ identity, perhaps including the approximate size of the organ, and (2) the determination of the final size of organs based on total body size. We present three models to explain the second process: (1) all organs autonomously absorb nutrients and grow at organ-specific rates, (2) a centralized system measures a close correlate of total body size and distributes this information to all organs, and (3) autonomous organ growth is combined with feedback between growing organs to modulate final sizes. We provide evidence supporting models 2 and 3 and also suggest that hormones are the messengers of size information. Advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of allometry will come through the integrated study of whole tissues using techniques from development, genetics, endocrinology and population biology.  (+info)

(2/3798) Novel regulation of the homeotic gene Scr associated with a crustacean leg-to-maxilliped appendage transformation.

Homeotic genes are known to be involved in patterning morphological structures along the antero-posterior axis of insects and vertebrates. Because of their important roles in development, changes in the function and expression patterns of homeotic genes may have played a major role in the evolution of different body plans. For example, it has been proposed that during the evolution of several crustacean lineages, changes in the expression patterns of the homeotic genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A have played a role in transformation of the anterior thoracic appendages into mouthparts termed maxillipeds. This homeotic-like transformation is recapitulated at the late stages of the direct embryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidea, Isopoda). Interestingly, this morphological change is associated with apparent novelties both in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Porcellio scaber ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr). Specifically, we find that Scr mRNA is present in the second maxillary segment and the first pair of thoracic legs (T1) in early embryos, whereas protein accumulates only in the second maxillae. In later stages, however, high levels of SCR appear in the T1 legs, which correlates temporally with the transformation of these appendages into maxillipeds. Our observations provide further insight into the process of the homeotic leg-to-maxilliped transformation in the evolution of crustaceans and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for this process in this group of arthropods.  (+info)

(3/3798) Why are there so few resistance-associated mutations in insecticide target genes?

The genes encoding the three major targets of conventional insecticides are: Rdl, which encodes a gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit (RDL); para, which encodes a voltage-gated sodium channel (PARA); and Ace, which encodes insect acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Interestingly, despite the complexity of the encoded receptors or enzymes, very few amino acid residues are replaced in different resistant insects: one within RDL, two within PARA and three or more within AChE. Here we examine the possible reasons underlying this extreme conservation by looking at the aspects of receptor and/or enzyme function that may constrain replacements to such a limited number of residues.  (+info)

(4/3798) Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and insecticide resistance in insects.

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are involved in many cases of resistance of insects to insecticides. Resistance has long been associated with an increase in monooxygenase activities and with an increase in cytochrome P450 content. However, this increase does not always account for all of the resistance. In Drosophila melanogaster, we have shown that the overproduction of cytochrome P450 can be lost by the fly without a corresponding complete loss of resistance. These results prompted the sequencing of a cytochrome P450 candidate for resistance in resistant and susceptible flies. Several mutations leading to amino-acid substitutions have been detected in the P450 gene CYP6A2 of a resistant strain. The location of these mutations in a model of the 3D structure of the CYP6A2 protein suggested that some of them may be important for enzyme activity of this molecule. This has been verified by heterologous expression of wild-type and mutated cDNA in Escherichia coli. When other resistance mechanisms are considered, relatively few genetic mutations are involved in insecticide resistance, and this has led to an optimistic view of the management of resistance. Our observations compel us to survey in more detail the genetic diversity of cytochrome P450 genes and alleles involved in resistance.  (+info)

(5/3798) High sequence turnover in the regulatory regions of the developmental gene hunchback in insects.

Extensive sequence analysis of the developmental gene hunchback and its 5' and 3' regulatory regions in Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila virilis, Musca domestica, and Tribolium castaneum, using a variety of computer algorithms, reveals regions of high sequence simplicity probably generated by slippage-like mechanisms of turnover. No regions are entirely refractory to the action of slippage, although the density and composition of simple sequence motifs varies from region to region. Interestingly, the 5' and 3' flanking regions share short repetitive motifs despite their separation by the gene itself, and the motifs are different in composition from those in the exons and introns. Furthermore, there are high levels of conservation of motifs in equivalent orthologous regions. Detailed sequence analysis of the P2 promoter and DNA footprinting assays reveal that the number, orientation, sequence, spacing, and protein-binding affinities of the BICOID-binding sites varies between species and that the 'P2' promoter, the nanos response element in the 3' untranslated region, and several conserved boxes of sequence in the gene (e.g., the two zinc-finger regions) are surrounded by cryptically-simple-sequence DNA. We argue that high sequence turnover and genetic redundancy permit both the general maintenance of promoter functions through the establishment of coevolutionary (compensatory) changes in cis- and trans-acting genetic elements and, at the same time, the possibility of subtle changes in the regulation of hunchback in the different species.  (+info)

(6/3798) Activities of citrate synthase, NAD+-linked and NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases, glutamate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in nervous tissues from vertebrates and invertebrates.

1. The activities of citrate synthase and NAD+-linked and NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases were measured in nervous tissue from different animals in an attempt to provide more information about the citric acid cycle in this tissue. In higher animals the activities of citrate synthase are greater than the sum of activities of the isocitrate dehydrogenases, whereas they are similar in nervous tissues from the lower animals. This suggests that in higher animals the isocitrate dehydrogenase reaction is far-removed from equilibrium. If it is assumed that isocitrate dehydrogenase activities provide an indication of the maximum flux through the citric acid cycle, the maximum glycolytic capacity in nervous tissue is considerably greater than that of the cycle. This suggest that glycolysis can provide energy in excess of the aerobic capacity of the tissue. 2. The activities of glutamate dehydrogenase are high in most nervous tissues and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase are high in all nervous tissue investigated. However, the activities of alanine aminotransferase are low in all tissues except the ganglia of the waterbug and cockroach. In these insect tissues, anaerobic glycolysis may result in the formation of alanine rather than lactate.  (+info)

(7/3798) Enhanced resistance to bacterial diseases of transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing sarcotoxin IA, a bactericidal peptide of insect.

Sarcotoxin IA is a bactericidal peptide of 39 amino acids found in the common flesh fly, Sarcophaga peregrina. Many agronomically important bacteria in Japan are killed by this peptide at sub-micro molar levels, and the growth of tobacco and rice suspension cultured cells is not inhibited with less than 25 microM. Transgenic tobacco plants which overexpress the peptide, i.e. over 250 pmol per gram of fresh leaf, under the control of a high expression constitutive promoter showed enhanced resistance to the pathogens for wild fire disease (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci) and bacterial soft rot disease (Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora).  (+info)

(8/3798) Two subunits of the insect 26/29-kDa proteinase are probably derived from a common precursor protein.

We previously identified the 26/29-kDa proteinase in the hemocytes of Sarcophaga peregrina (flesh fly) that appears to participate in elimination of foreign proteins in this insect [Eur. J. Biochem. 209, 939-944 (1992)]. Here, we report the cDNA cloning of this proteinase. The cDNA encodes a protein which includes both the 26- and 29-kDa subunit, strongly suggesting that the both subunits are derived from a single precursor protein. The 26- and 29-kDa subunit located at the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal of the precursor protein. The 29-kDa subunit itself appeared to be a proteinase, for this subunit had 52% sequence identity with Sarcophaga cathepsin L, while 26-kDa subunit had no significant similarity. We also showed that 26/29-kDa proteinase was insensitive to specific inhibitors of cathepsin L. These results indicate that this proteinase is a novel member of the papain family. We isolated similar cDNAs from Drosophila melanogaster and Periplaneta americana (cockroach), suggesting that this proteinase is conserved in a wide variety of insects and participates in their defense mechanisms.  (+info)