Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Pyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.DDT: A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Malathion: A wide spectrum aliphatic organophosphate insecticide widely used for both domestic and commercial agricultural purposes.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Dieldrin: An organochlorine insecticide whose use has been cancelled or suspended in the United States. It has been used to control locusts, tropical disease vectors, in termite control by direct soil injection, and non-food seed and plant treatment. (From HSDB)Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Chlorpyrifos: An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as an acaricide.Fenitrothion: An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.Houseflies: Flies of the species Musca domestica (family MUSCIDAE), which infest human habitations throughout the world and often act as carriers of pathogenic organisms.Nitro Compounds: Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.Pesticide Synergists: Chemicals that, while not possessing inherent pesticidal activity, nonetheless promote or enhance the effectiveness of other pesticides when combined.Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Propoxur: A carbamate insecticide.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Piperonyl Butoxide: An insecticide synergist, especially for pyrethroids and ROTENONE.Diazinon: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an organothiophosphorus insecticide.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Carbamates: Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.Organothiophosphorus Compounds: Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Fumigation: The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.Azinphosmethyl: An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor. It has been used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.Insecticide-Treated Bednets: Lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester, nylon (polyamides), or other material impregnated with insecticide, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby offering protection against insect bite and insect-borne diseases.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Chlordan: A highly poisonous organochlorine insecticide. The EPA has cancelled registrations of pesticides containing this compound with the exception of its use through subsurface ground insertion for termite control and the dipping of roots or tops of non-food plants. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Carbaryl: A carbamate insecticide and parasiticide. It is a potent anticholinesterase agent belonging to the carbamate group of reversible cholinesterase inhibitors. It has a particularly low toxicity from dermal absorption and is used for control of head lice in some countries.Endosulfan: A polychlorinated compound used for controlling a variety of insects. It is practically water-insoluble, but readily adheres to clay particles and persists in soil and water for several years. Its mode of action involves repetitive nerve-discharges positively correlated to increase in temperature. This compound is extremely toxic to most fish. (From Comp Biochem Physiol (C) 1993 Jul;105(3):347-61)Fenthion: Potent cholinesterase inhibitor used as an insecticide and acaricide.Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Methomyl: A carbamate insecticide with anticholinesterase activity.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Triatoma: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Lindane: An organochlorine insecticide that has been used as a pediculicide and a scabicide. It has been shown to cause cancer.Organophosphate Poisoning: Poisoning due to exposure to ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, such as ORGANOPHOSPHATES; ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATES; and ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHONATES.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Bedbugs: Bugs of the family CIMICIDAE, genus Cimex. They are flattened, oval, reddish insects which inhabit houses, wallpaper, furniture, and beds. C. lectularius, of temperate regions, is the common bedbug that attacks humans and is frequently a serious pest in houses, hotels, barracks, and other living quarters. Experiments have shown that bedbugs can transmit a variety of diseases, but they are not normal vectors under natural conditions. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p272)Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Organophosphates: Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Carbofuran: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic insecticide, an acaricide, and nematocide. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Benin: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.Dichlorvos: An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.Pralidoxime Compounds: Various salts of a quaternary ammonium oxime that reconstitute inactivated acetylcholinesterase, especially at the neuromuscular junction, and may cause neuromuscular blockade. They are used as antidotes to organophosphorus poisoning as chlorides, iodides, methanesulfonates (mesylates), or other salts.Temefos: An organothiophosphate insecticide.Phenylcarbamates: Phenyl esters of carbamic acid or of N-substituted carbamic acids. Structures are similar to PHENYLUREA COMPOUNDS with a carbamate in place of the urea.CholinesterasesParathion: A highly toxic cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.Methyl Parathion: The methyl homolog of parathion. An effective, but highly toxic, organothiophosphate insecticide and cholinesterase inhibitor.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Paraoxon: An organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a pesticide.Organothiophosphates: Carbon-containing thiophosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either SULFUR atom, or the OXYGEN atom of the SPO3 core structure.Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Dimethoate: An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic and contact insecticide.Housing: Living facilities for humans.EsterasesCarboxylesterase: Carboxylesterase is a serine-dependent esterase with wide substrate specificity. The enzyme is involved in the detoxification of XENOBIOTICS and the activation of ester and of amide PRODRUGS.SemicarbazonesMetabolic Detoxication, Drug: Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Equatorial Guinea: A republic in central Africa, bordering the Bay of Biafra, CAMEROON is to the north and GABON to the south. Its capital is Malabo.Cockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Martinique: An island in the Lesser Antilles, one of the Windward Islands. Its capital is Fort-de-France. It was discovered by Columbus in 1502 and from its settlement in 1635 by the French it passed into and out of Dutch and British hands. It was made a French overseas department in 1946. One account of the name tells of native women on the shore calling "Madinina" as Columbus approached the island. The meaning was never discovered but was entered on early charts as Martinique, influenced by the name of St. Martin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p734 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p339)Allethrin: Synthetic analogs of the naturally occurring insecticides cinerin, jasmolin, and pyrethrin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Heptachlor: A man-made compound previously used to control termites and other insects. Even though production of heptachlor was phased out of use in the United States during the late 1980's it remains in soil and hazardous waste sites. It is clearly toxic to animals and humans but, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that heptachlor is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (From ATSDR Public Heath Statement, April 1989)Mosquito Nets: Free-standing or supported lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester or other material, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby protecting against INSECT BITES; INSECT STINGS, and insect-borne diseases.Aldrin: A highly poisonous substance that was formerly used as an insecticide. The manufacture and use has been discontinued in the U.S. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Mekong Valley: The geographic area of the Mekong Valley in general or when the specific country or countries are not indicated. Usually includes Cambodia, Indochina, and Laos.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Poisoning: A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Beauveria: A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.Chlordecone: A highly chlorinated polycyclic hydrocarbon insecticide whose large number of chlorine atoms makes it resistant to degradation. It has been shown to be toxic to mammals and causes abnormal cellular changes in laboratory animals.Trichlorfon: An organochlorophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide for the control of flies and roaches. It is also used in anthelmintic compositions for animals. (From Merck, 11th ed)Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Diflubenzuron: An insect growth regulator which interferes with the formation of the insect cuticle. It is effective in the control of mosquitoes and flies.Pediculus: Lice of the genus Pediculus, family Pediculidae. Pediculus humanus corporus is the human body louse and Pediculus humanus capitis is the human head louse.Ectoparasitic Infestations: Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium: A plant species of the genus CHRYSANTHEMUM, family ASTERACEAE. The flowers contain PYRETHRINS, cinerolones, and chrysanthemines which are powerful contact insecticides. Most in the old Pyrethrum genus are reclassified to TANACETUM; some to other ASTERACEAE genera.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.ArgentinaIvermectin: A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.Weevils: BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.Methoprene: Juvenile hormone analog and insect growth regulator used to control insects by disrupting metamorphosis. Has been effective in controlling mosquito larvae.Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.Limonins: A group of degraded TRITERPENES in which the four terminal carbons of the C17 side chain have been removed, and the remaining portion often forming C17 furans.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Phosphoramides: Amide derivatives of phosphoric acid such as compounds that include the phosphoric triamide (P(=O)(N)(N)(N)) structure.Periplaneta: A genus in the family Blattidae containing several species, the most common being P. americana, the American cockroach.Chad: A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Muscidae: A family of the order DIPTERA with over 700 species. Important species that may be mechanical vectors of disease include Musca domesticus (HOUSEFLIES), Musca autumnalis (face fly), Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly), Haematobia irritans (horn fly) and Fannia spp.Sri LankaAcaricides: A pesticide or chemical agent that kills mites and ticks. This is a large class that includes carbamates, formamides, organochlorines, organophosphates, etc, that act as antibiotics or growth regulators.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Euglenozoa Infections: Infections with the protozoa of the phylum EUGLENOZOA.Tetranychidae: Family of spider MITES, in the superfamily Tetranychoidea, suborder Trombidiformes.ToluidinesEnvironmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.DEET: A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Metarhizium: A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Amphipoda: An order of mostly marine CRUSTACEA containing more than 5500 species in over 100 families. Like ISOPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Isopoda, they possess thoracic gills and their bodies are laterally compressed.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.BoliviaPhlebotomus: A genus of PSYCHODIDAE which functions as the vector of a number of pathogenic organisms, including LEISHMANIA DONOVANI; LEISHMANIA TROPICA; Bartonella bacilliformis, and the Pappataci fever virus (SANDFLY FEVER NAPLES VIRUS).Oviparity: The capability of producing eggs (OVA) from which young are hatched outside the body. While mostly referring to nonmammalian species, this does include MAMMALS of the order MONOTREMATA.Coumaphos: A organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an anthelmintic, insecticide, and as a nematocide.Cimicidae: A family of wingless, blood-sucking insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, including the bedbugs and related forms. Cimex (BEDBUGS), Heamatosiphon, and Oeciacus are medically important genera. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Endrin: An organochlorine compound that was formerly used as an insecticide. Its manufacture and use has been discontinued in the United States. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Aldicarb: Carbamate derivative used as an insecticide, acaricide, and nematocide.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Blattellidae: A family of insects in the order Dictyoptera (COCKROACHES), including genera Blattella, Parcoblatta, and Symploce.Oxazines: Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.Scalp DermatosesOccupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Anabasine: A piperidine botanical insecticide.Phosmet: An organothiophosphorus insecticide that has been used to control pig mange.

*  Herbicides,Insecticides,Fungicides,Plant Growth Regulators,Public Health Insecticides,Agricultural Organic Silicon Additives...

Profirst engages in research and development, production and sale of pesticides. From established, Profirst devoted into the study for pesticises application. As so far, chemical protection methods and related pesticides have been developed for crops, such as Rice, Wheat, Corn, Sybean And Tea.
profirst.cn/Enweb/

*  Laminated insecticide dispenser - FRANDSEN MIKKEL V.

A laminated insecticide dispenser where a central layer contains an insecticide that migrates through the outer layer to the ... A laminated insecticide dispenser where a central layer contains an insecticide that migrates through the outer layer to the ... 6. A laminated insecticide dispenser according to claim 1, wherein a HALS chemical is contained in at least one from the group ... 3. A laminated insecticide dispenser according to claim 1, wherein said inner layer is at least one from the group consisting ...
freepatentsonline.com/y2005/0089657.html

*  China Organic Insecticide, Organic Insecticide Manufacturers, Suppliers | Made-in-China.com

Select 2017 high quality Organic Insecticide products in best price from certified Chinese Chemicals manufacturers, China ... Insecticide Pesticide Household Insecticide Insecticide Fungicide Ant Insecticide Abamectin Insecticide ... Chemical Insecticide Agricultural Insecticide Diazinon Insecticide Organic Insecticide Factory Wholesale Organic Insecticide ... Insecticide Suppliers Chemical Insecticide Suppliers Agricultural Insecticide Suppliers Diazinon Insecticide Suppliers ...
made-in-china.com/products-search/hot-china-products/Organic_Insecticide.html

*  China Abamectin Insecticide, Abamectin Insecticide Manufacturers, Suppliers | Made-in-China.com

Select 2017 high quality Abamectin Insecticide products in best price from certified Chinese Pesticide manufacturers, ... China Botanical Insecticide China Mixture Insecticide Environmental Insecticide Pyrethroid Insecticide Abamectin 5%ec Abamectin ... Nerve Poison (15) Special Action Insecticide (6) Breathing Agents (10) Mode Contact Insecticide (14) Systemic Insecticide (19) ... Insecticide Abamectin 95%Tc, 1.8%Ec, 3.6% Ec, 5%Wp, 6%Wdg Pesticide FOB Price: US $1 / Liter Min. Order: 1000 Liter ...
made-in-china.com/products-search/hot-china-products/Abamectin_Insecticide.html

*  Plant-animal communication: Control agricultural pests with chemical signals.

Every year, we dump 1 billion tons of insecticides on them; every year, they eat up to a fifth of the crops we grow. It' ... ... Every year, we dump 1 billion tons of insecticides on them; every year, they eat up to a fifth of the crops we grow. It's a ... Insecticides are expensive to make and use: Apple trees, for example, must be sprayed 20 times a year. Poisons have side ...
slate.com/articles/health_and_science/feed_the_world/2014/04/plant_animal_communication_control_agricultural_pests_with_chemical_signals.html?wpisrc=burger_bar

*  Carbaryl | Article about carbaryl by The Free Dictionary

see insecticides insecticides, chemical, biological, or other agents used to destroy insect pests; the term commonly refers to ... Chemical Insecticides. The modern history of chemical insecticides in the United States dates from 1867, when Paris green ... kär`bärəl): see insecticidesinsecticides,. chemical, biological, or other agents used to destroy insect pests; the term ... C12H11NO2 A colorless, crystalline compound with a melting point of 142°C; used as an insecticide for crops, forests, lawns, ...
encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/carbaryl

*  Abt-led Malaria Project Helps Prevent Insecticide Resistance through Education | Abt Associates

IRS is a method of controlling malaria by applying insecticide on the walls, doors, and other indoor resting places of ... learned how to collect and analyze insecticide resistance data, and use this data to determine which classes of insecticide are ... Abt-led Malaria Project Helps Prevent Insecticide Resistance through Education Entomological technicians at a workshop on ... Home / Feature Stories / 2014 / Abt-led Malaria Project Helps Prevent Insecticide Resistance through Education ...
abtassociates.com/Impact/2014/Abt-led-Malaria-Project-Helps-Prevent-Insecticide-.aspx

*  Full text of "Preliminary tests of some N-substituted anisamides and esters of anisic acid as insecticides"

ACID AS INSECTICIDES By G. T. Bottger, A. P. Yerington.and S. I. Gertler, Division of Insecticide Investiga-tions Forty-three N ... Full text of "Preliminary tests of some N-substituted anisamides and esters of anisic acid as insecticides" See other formats ... The results of tests with three insecticides of known value against certain insects, made for ccsnparative purposes, are ... paring results with new compounds as insecticides Compound (figures indicate percent ) Insect Foliage Average deposit per ...
archive.org/stream/paniesani00unit/paniesani00unit_djvu.txt

*  Insecticide spray Manufacturers & Suppliers, China insecticide spray Manufacturers & Factories

China insecticide spray manufacturer & factory list, find qualified Chinese insecticide spray manufacturers, suppliers, ... Mosquito Insecticide Spray Factory Insect Killer Insecticide Spray Aerosol Insecticide Spray Fly Spray Insecticide Pest Killer ... Agricultural Insecticide Manufacturers Household Insecticide Manufacturers Insecticide Fungicide Manufacturers Ant Insecticide ... Botanical Insecticide Manufacturers Related Factories: Aerosol Insecticide Spray Factory Fly Spray Insecticide Factory Pest ...
made-in-china.com/manufacturers/insecticide-spray.html

*  Insecticides in Taiwan

... the health concerns and product safety issues surrounding insecticides have impacted sales. The hazards or side effects of ... Product coverage: Electric Insecticides, Insecticide Baits, Insecticide Coils, Other Insecticides, Spray/Aerosol Insecticides. ... Table 5 Insecticides Brand Shares 2007-2010. Table 6 Forecast Sales of Insecticides by Category: Value 2010-2015. Table 7 ... Table 3 Spray Insecticides by Type: % Value Breakdown 2007-2010. Table 4 Insecticides Company Shares 2006-2010. ...
https://marketpublishers.com/report/industry/chemicals_petrochemicals/insecticides_taiwan.html

*  Buzz Off Insecticide for Animal Use - Drugs.com

Learn about Buzz Off Insecticide for animal usage including: active ingredients, directions for use, precautions, and storage ... Buzz Off Insecticide. This page contains information on Buzz Off Insecticide for veterinary use.. The information provided ... Buzz Off Insecticide Caution. Precautionary Statements. HAZARDS TO HUMANS AND DOMESTIC ANIMALS ... Buzz Off Insecticide Caution. Harmful if absorbed through the skin. Avoid contact with skin, eyes, or clothing. Remove ...
https://drugs.com/vet/buzz-off-insecticide.html

*  The Buzz Auto Plug In Single Insecticide | Bunnings Warehouse

Find The Buzz Auto Plug In Single Insecticide at Bunnings Warehouse. Visit your local store for the widest range of garden ... The Buzz Plug In Insecticide Auto Single 73062. Model Number. 73062. Material. Plastic. Product Dimensions (mm). W:380 H:170 L: ...
https://bunnings.com.au/the-buzz-auto-plug-in-single-insecticide_p3010330

*  Sexual conflict and pesticide resistance | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences

Intralocus sexual conflict and insecticide resistance. M. F. Hawkes, C. E. Gamble, E. C. R. Turner, M. R. Carey, N. Wedell, D. ... Intralocus sexual conflict and insecticide resistance. M. F. Hawkes, C. E. Gamble, E. C. R. Turner, M. R. Carey, N. Wedell, D. ... The BA allele of the Drosophila cytochrome P450 gene Cyp6g1 confers resistance to a range of insecticides. It is also subject ... Intralocus sexual conflict and insecticide resistance Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Proceedings of ...
rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/283/1843/20161429

*  DMOZ - Health: Animal: Drugs and Medications

This section includes sites with information about specific drugs, medications, vaccines, insecticides, and herbal health ... insecticides, and herbal health products for animals. ...
dmoztools.net/Health/Animal/Drugs_and_Medications/

*  Are malaria mosquitoes starting to actively avoid insecticide treated bed nets? | IHI

arabiensis can avoid contact with insecticides by feeding on other animal species, biting and resting outdoors and/or earlier ... Home » Are malaria mosquitoes starting to actively avoid insecticide treated bed nets? ... Background: The mass distribution of Long lasting Insecticide Treated Nets (LLINs) and Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) ... Evaluating the potential for the development of mosquito behavioural avoidance to compromise Insecticide-Treated Nets in ...
ihi.or.tz/project/are-mosquitoes-starting-to-actively-avoid-insecticide-treated-bed-nets/

*  Stomach Poisoning Insecticide Indoxacarb Manufacturer 95%tc 150g/l Sc - Buy Stomach Poisoning Insecticide,Stomach Poisoning...

Stomach Poisoning Insecticide,Stomach Poisoning Insecticide,Stomach Poisoning Insecticide from Insecticide Supplier or ... Find Complete Details about Stomach Poisoning Insecticide Indoxacarb Manufacturer 95%tc 150g/l Sc, ... Stomach Poisoning Insecticide Indoxacarb Manufacturer 95%tc 150g/l Sc , ... 1. Insecticide Indoxacarb is a non-systemic insecticide and is considered reduced risk pesticide by the U.S.EPA (EPA Fact sheet ...
alibaba.com/product-detail/Stomach-poisoning-Insecticide-Indoxacarb-Manufacturer-95_1447297327.html

*  Dangers of Insecticide Chemicals | Garden Guides

There are many different insecticides and pesticides, but all of them are poisonous. Marketed for killing insects, these ... insecticide chemicals can also be harmful to humans, pets and other animals. Re... ... One of the biggest problems with insecticide chemicals is bioaccumulation. Many insecticides are stored in the bodies of ... Dangers of Insecticide Chemicals. Comments (. ) , , Text size: a A , Report Abuse , Print ...
gardenguides.com/90343-dangers-insecticide-chemicals.html

*  What are examples of insecticides? | Reference.com

... residual insecticides for crawling insects and systemic pesticides for chewing and sucking insects. Read the label on pesticide ... Some examples of insecticides include pyrethroids for chewing insects, ... These insecticides come in granular and spray form.. Residual insecticides leave a film on the surface of the plant onto which ... Contact insecticides, including horticultural oils and soaps, kill pests when directly sprayed onto them. Some insecticides in ...
https://reference.com/home-garden/examples-insecticides-b9b341d7ab1b5206

*  Wholesale Insecticide Supplier, Find Best Wholesale Insecticide Supplier on Alibaba.com

Source Top Quality Wholesale Insecticide Supplier, Wholesale Insecticide Companies, insecticide dinotefuran ,methyl insecticide ... Find Best Wholesale Insecticide Supplier on Alibaba Wholesale Insecticide Supplier Directory. ... baygon insecticide, china wholesale insecticide, odorless insecticide, china wholesale insecticide iso, aerosol insecticide, ... herbicides insecticides Suppliers ec insecticides Suppliers insecticides pesticides Suppliers 50% ec insecticide Suppliers ...
https://alibaba.com/wholesale-insecticide-suppliers.html

*  Honeybee Deaths Linked to Corn Insecticides

New research shows a link between an increase in the death of bees and insecticides, specifically the chemicals used to coat ... Pneumatic drilling machines suck the seeds in and spray them with the insecticide to create a coating before they are planted ... Researchers suspected the mass die-offs could have been caused by the particles of insecticide that were released into the air ... According to the new study, neonicotinoid insecticides "are among the most widely used in the world, popular because they kill ...
https://yahoo.com/news/honeybee-deaths-linked-corn-insecticides-221639948--abc-news.html?_esi=0&ugccmtnav=v1/comments/context/52a68343-08ff-37c9-a270-be8041e977a6/comments?count=20&sortBy=highestRated&isNext=true&offset=40&pageNumber=2&ref=gs

*  Beating insecticide resistance

Home Products & Industries Agriculture Urban & Rural Pest Control Public Health - Beating the threat of insecticide resistance ... a long-lasting insecticide-treated mosquito net to combat insecticide resistance. This is the first WHO recommendation for a ... was recommended for long-lasting insecticide treated nets. Continual use of the same insecticides enabled the highly-adaptable ... Chlorfenapyr is a completely new insecticide class for public health and Interceptor® G2 is the first bed net to contain non- ...
https://agriculture.basf.com/en/Pest-Control/Commitment-to-Public-Health/Beating-insecticide-resistance.html

*  How to Buy Organic Insecticides: 12 Steps (with Pictures)

How to Buy Organic Insecticides. Bugs and other creepy crawlers are a nuisance for many gardening enthusiasts, but not everyone ... Make sure the insecticide you choose is safe to use on your plants. While organic insecticides tend to be more gentle than ... wikiHow to Buy Organic Insecticides. Three Parts:Getting the Right ProductShopping around for Organic InsecticidesApplying ... When using an insecticide in powdered or granulated form, it will usually be necessary to distribute some over the soil at the ...
wikihow.com/Buy-Organic-Insecticides

*  Insecticides | Garden Guides

Use insecticide that is meant for thermal fogging. The insecticide can be bought at your nearest insecticide retailer store. ... The fogger heater coil preheats the fogging insecticide fluid to form insecticide fog. Press the 'Ignite' button or turn the ' ... Spray the plants with insecticides that are plant-based. Plant-based insecticides that contain pyrethrins or neem will kill any ... Spray an aerosol mist insecticide in your home. Aerosol mist sprays contain contact space insecticides that are designed to ...
gardenguides.com/article-insecticides.html

*  Resistance to Insecticides | The BMJ

Resistance to Insecticides. Br Med J 1956; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5008.1541 (Published 29 December 1956) Cite ...
bmj.com/content/2/5008/1541.1

Insecticide: An insecticide is a substance used to kill insects. They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae, respectively.Pyrethroid: A pyrethroid is an organic compound similar to the natural pyrethrins produced by the flowers of pyrethrums (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and C. coccineum).DDT in New Zealand: The use of DDT in New Zealand was banned in 1989 due to negative environmental impacts.MalathionAnopheles culicifacies: Anopheles culicifacies (sensu lato) is one of the major vectors of malaria on the Indian Subcontinent. It has been reported to be a species complex consisting of five sibling species which have been provisionally designated as species A, B, C, D, and E.DieldrinChlorpyrifosCyanophosKnockdown resistance: Knockdown resistance, also called kdr, describes cases of resistance to diphenylethane (e.g.Nitro compoundCulex quinquefasciatus: Culex quinquefasciatus (earlier known as Culex fatigans), the southern house mosquito, is a medium-sized mosquito found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is the vector of Wuchereria bancrofti, avian malaria, and arboviruses including St.PropoxurRoll Back Malaria Partnership: The Roll Back Malaria Partnership (RBM Partnership) is the global framework for coordinated action against malaria. It forges consensus among key actors in malaria control, harmonises action and mobilises resources to fight malaria in endemic countries.Sodium tert-butoxideDiazinonPesticide residues in New Zealand: Pesticide residues are of concern in New Zealand and foods are regularly checked to see if they are within set limits.FulvestrantM-Cumenyl methylcarbamatePirimiphos-methylPesticides in the United States: Pesticides in the United States are used predominantly by the agricultural sector,Kellogg RL, Nehring R, Grube A, Goss DW, and Plotkin S (February 2000), Environmental indicators of pesticide leaching and runoff from farm fields. United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service.Fumigation: Fumigation is a method of pest control that completely fills an area with gaseous pesticides—or fumigants—to suffocate or poison the pests within. It is used to control pests in buildings (structural fumigation), soil, grain, and produce, and is also used during processing of goods to be imported or exported to prevent transfer of exotic organisms.Vestergaard FrandsenPsorophora howardiiChloro(cyclopentadienyl)bis(triphenylphosphine)rutheniumChlordaneSevil: Sevil is a common feminine Turkish given name. "Sevil" derives from "Sev".EndosulfanMechanical pest control: Mechanical pest control is the management and control of pests using physical means such as fences, barriers or electronic wires. It includes also weeding and change of temperature to control pests.Median toxic dose: ==Introduction==Arenicin: Arenicin is the name used to classify a group of antimicrobial peptides, which have shown promise as a novel drug to combat Gram-negative bacteria.Ditch: A ditch is a small to moderate depression created to channel water. A ditch can be used for drainage, to drain water from low-lying areas, alongside roadways or fields, or to channel water from a more distant source for plant irrigation.Triatoma infestansLindaneOrganophosphate: An organophosphate (sometimes abbreviated OP) or phosphate ester is the general name for esters of phosphoric acid. Many of the most important biochemicals are organophosphates, including DNA and RNA as well as many cofactors that are essential for life.Aedes aegyptiBed bug infestation: A bed bug can individually and collectively cause a number of health effects including skin rashes, psychological effects and allergic symptoms. Bed bug bites or cimicosis may lead to a range of skin manifestations from no visible effects to prominent blisters.Andesobia jelskiiBiopesticide: Biopesticides, a contraction of 'biological pesticides', include several types of pest management intervention: through predatory, parasitic, or chemical relationships. The term has been associated historically with biological control - and by implication - the manipulation of living organisms.FosfluconazoleMineral industry of Benin: The mineral industry, which is limited to the production of cement, clay, gold, sand, and gravel, does not play a significant role in the Benin's economy.Omayra Bermúdez-Lugo.RID Insect Repellent: RID is an Australian brand of personal insect repellent sold and distributed in Australia, New Zealand, worldwide and online.AvizafoneTemefosCholinesteraseAvicide: An avicide is any substance (normally, a chemical) which can be used to kill birds.ParathionAgrochemical F.C.: James Omondi|National Healthy Homes Hero Award: National Healthy Homes Hero Award is an award presented by a consortium of agencies at the United States' National Healthy Homes Conference. The first year this award was presented was in 2011.Asymmetric ester hydrolysis with pig-liver esterase: Asymmetric ester hydrolysis with pig liver esterase is the enantioselective conversion of an ester to a carboxylic acid through the action of the enzyme pig liver esterase (EC 3.1.IprazochromeAcyrthosiphon pisum: Acyrthosiphon pisum, commonly known as the pea aphid (and colloquially known as the green dolphin, pea louse, and clover louse ), is a sap-sucking insect in the Aphididae family. It feeds on several species of legumes (plant family Fabaceae) worldwide, including forage crops, such as pea, clover, alfalfa, and broad bean, and ranks among the aphid species of major agronomical importance.Silverleaf whiteflyRakiura (genus): Rakiura is a genus of Trichoptera (caddisfly). The genus contains only one species, R.Embassy of Equatorial Guinea in Washington, D.C.: The Embassy of Equatorial Guinea in Washington, D.C.Depopulation of cockroaches in post-Soviet states: A mass depopulation of cockroaches has been observed since the beginning of the 21st century in Russia and other countries of the former USSR. Observers note quick disappearance of various types of cockroaches from cities and towns in Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Moldova, and Belarus.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Distillerie Dillon: The Distillerie Dillon is in Fort de France in Martinique. It distills many types of rum from the locally grown sugar cane.AllethrinsHeptachlorAldrin (disambiguation): Aldrin is a pesticide.Mekong Basin Disease SurveillanceList of poisonings: This is a list of poisonings in chronological order of victim. It also includes confirmed attempted and fictional poisonings.Chrysomya albiceps: Chrysomya albiceps is a species belonging to the blow fly family, Calliphoridae. It is of great medical and sanitary importance, being associated with myiasis in Africa and America although it plays a more significant role as a predator of other dipteran larvae.Antheraea pernyi: Antheraea pernyi, the Chinese (Oak) tussah moth (or "Chinese tasar moth"), also known as temperate tussah moth, is a large moth in the family Saturniidae. Antheraea roylei is an extremely close relative, and the present species might actually have evolved from ancestral A.Beauveria bassiana: Beauveria bassiana is a fungus that grows naturally in soils throughout the world and acts as a parasite on various arthropod species, causing white muscardine disease; it thus belongs to the entomopathogenic fungi. It is being used as a biological insecticide to control a number of pests such as termites, thrips, whiteflies, aphids and different beetles.KeponeMetrifonateUkiah Ambulance: Ukiah Ambulance is now Medstar Ambulance of Mendocino County Inc., a private non-profit ground transport ambulance provider serving central and southern Mendocino County.DiflubenzuronVectorBase: VectorBase is one of the five Bioinformatics Resource Centers (BRC) funded by the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIAID a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. VectorBase is focused on invertebrate vectors of human pathogens working with the sequencing centers and the research community to curate vector genomes (mainly genome annotation).Ectoparasitic infestationPyrethrin IICultural entomologyMarcos Paz, Buenos AiresATCvet code QP54: ==QP54A Macrocyclic lactones==Rice weevil

(1/3500) An overview of the evolution of overproduced esterases in the mosquito Culex pipiens.

Insecticide resistance genes have developed in a wide variety of insects in response to heavy chemical application. Few of these examples of adaptation in response to rapid environmental change have been studied both at the population level and at the gene level. One of these is the evolution of the overproduced esterases that are involved in resistance to organophosphate insecticides in the mosquito Culex pipiens. At the gene level, two genetic mechanisms are involved in esterase overproduction, namely gene amplification and gene regulation. At the population level, the co-occurrence of the same amplified allele in distinct geographic areas is best explained by the importance of passive transportation at the worldwide scale. The long-term monitoring of a population of mosquitoes in southern France has enabled a detailed study to be made of the evolution of resistance genes on a local scale, and has shown that a resistance gene with a lower cost has replaced a former resistance allele with a higher cost.  (+info)

(2/3500) The bystander effect in the HSVtk/ganciclovir system and its relationship to gap junctional communication.

The bystander effect (BSE) is an interesting and important property of the herpes thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (hTK/GCV) system of gene therapy for cancer. With the BSE, not only are the hTK expressing cells killed upon ganciclovir (GCV) exposure but also neighboring wild-type tumor cells. On testing a large number of tumor cell lines in vitro, a wide range of sensitivity to bystander killing was found. Since transfer of toxic GCV metabolites from hTK-modified to wild-type tumor cells via gap junctions (GJ) seemed to be a likely mechanism of the BSE, we tested GJ function in these various tumors with a dye transfer technique and pharmacological agents known to affect GJ communication. We confirmed that mixtures of tumor cell resistant to the BSE did not show dye transfer from cell to cell while bystander-sensitive tumor cells did. Dieldrin, a drug known to decrease GJ communication, diminished dye transfer and also inhibited the BSE. Forskolin, an upregulator of cAMP did increase GJ, but directly inhibited hTK and therefore its effect on BSE could not be determined. We conclude that these observations further support port the concept that functional GJ play an important role in the BSE and further suggest that pharmacological manipulation of GJ may influence the outcome of cancer therapy with hTK/GCV.  (+info)

(3/3500) A toxicokinetic model to assess the risk of azinphosmethyl exposure in humans through measures of urinary elimination of alkylphosphates.

Azinphosmethyl (APM) is one of the most common insecticides used in fruit farming. The object of this paper is to develop a quick and practical test for assessing the risk for humans coming into contact with APM. It has been shown that the principal component of occupational and/or accidental exposure is through the skin (C. A. Franklin et al., 1981, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 7, 715-731), but our approach is applicable to exposures via any route or a combination of routes. The method proposed in the present paper can accommodate a single-event exposure or repeated exposures over long periods. Urinary alkylphosphate (AP) metabolites are reliable bioindicators of the presence of APM in the body; they are easily accessible and can be used to estimate APM body burden. We developed a simple toxicokinetic model to link the time varying APM body burden to absorbed doses and to rates of elimination in the form of AP urinary metabolites. Using this model and data available in the literature, we are able to propose a "no observed adverse effect level" (NOAEL) for APM body levels and for corresponding absorbed doses. We have established that after a single exposure, the safe limit corresponding to the NOAEL is reached at a cumulative 0.215 mumoles AP/kg bw eliminated in urine in the first 24 hours following the beginning of exposure. For repeated daily exposures at steady state, the corresponding urinary AP metabolite level is equal to a cumulative 0.266 mumoles AP/kg bw eliminated per 24 hours.  (+info)

(4/3500) Involvement of two plasmids in the degradation of carbaryl by Arthrobacter sp. strain RC100.

A bacterium capable of utilizing carbaryl (1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate) as the sole carbon source was isolated from carbaryl-treated soil. This bacterium was characterized taxonomically as Arthrobacter and was designated strain RC100. RC100 hydrolyzes the N-methylcarbamate linkage to 1-naphthol, which was further metabolized via salicylate and gentisate. Strain RC100 harbored three plasmids (designated pRC1, pRC2, and pRC3). Mutants unable to degrade carbaryl arose at a high frequency after treating the culture with mitomycin C. All carbaryl-hydrolysis-deficient mutants (Cah-) lacked pRC1, and all 1-naphthol-utilization-deficient mutants (Nat-) lacked pRC2. The plasmid-free strain RC107 grew on gentisate as a carbon source. These two plasmids could be transferred to Cah- mutants or Nat- mutants by conjugation, resulting in the restoration of the Cah and Nah phenotypes.  (+info)

(5/3500) Altered properties of neuronal sodium channels associated with genetic resistance to pyrethroids.

Genetic resistance to pyrethroid insecticides involves nervous system insensitivity linked to regulatory and structural genes of voltage-sensitive sodium channels. We examined the properties and relative density of sodium channels in central neurons of susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant (Pyr-R) insects that were homozygous for the amino acid substitution V421M in the I-S6 transmembrane segment. Pyr-R sodium channels show approximately 21-fold lower sensitivity to the synthetic pyrethroid permethrin and a approximately 2-fold increased sensitivity to the alpha-scorpion toxin LqhalphaIT. Pyr-R channels also exhibit altered gating properties, including a approximately 13 mV positive shift in voltage-dependent activation and approximately 7 mV positive shift in steady-state inactivation. Consistent with these changes in gating behavior, Pyr-R central neurons are less excitable, as evidenced by an approximately 11 mV elevation of action potential threshold. No differences in sodium channel density are evident. The altered properties of Pyr-R sodium channels provide a plausible molecular basis for nervous system insensitivity associated with pyrethroid resistance.  (+info)

(6/3500) Estrogenic potential of certain pyrethroid compounds in the MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cell line.

Estrogens, whether natural or synthetic, clearly influence reproductive development, senescence, and carcinogenesis. Pyrethroid insecticides are now the most widely used agents for indoor pest control, providing potential for human exposure. Using the MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cell line, we studied the estrogenic potential of several synthetic pyrethroid compounds in vitro using pS2 mRNA levels as the end point. We tested sumithrin, fenvalerate, d-trans allethrin, and permethrin. Nanomolar concentrations of either sumithrin or fenvalerate were sufficient to increase pS2 expression slightly above basal levels. At micromolar concentrations, these two pyrethroid compounds induced pS2 expression to levels comparable to those elicited by 10 nM 17ss-estradiol (fivefold). The estrogenic activity of sumithrin was abolished with co-treatment with an antiestrogen (ICI 164,384), whereas estrogenic activity of fenvalerate was not significantly diminished with antiestrogen co-treatment. In addition, both sumithrin and fenvalerate were able to induce cell proliferation of MCF-7 cells in a dose-response fashion. Neither permethrin nor d-trans allethrin affected pS2 expression. Permethrin had a noticeable effect on cell proliferation at 100 microM, whereas d-trans allethrin slightly induced MCF-7 cell proliferation at 10 microM, but was toxic at higher concentrations. Overall, our studies imply that each pyrethroid compound is unique in its ability to influence several cellular pathways. These findings suggest that pyrethroids should be considered to be hormone disruptors, and their potential to affect endocrine function in humans and wildlife should be investigated.  (+info)

(7/3500) Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos.

Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes.  (+info)

(8/3500) Environmental contaminants and body fat distribution.

The effect of body mass index (BMI) and waist:hip ratio (WHR) on plasma levels of organochlorines [i.e., 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE)] was investigated in a sample of black and white women drawn from a population-based study in North Carolina. Organochlorine levels were determined in plasma samples from 99 women selected on the basis of race (black versus white) and quartile of the WHR (1st versus 4th). Of a panel of 20 organochlorine compounds tested, only DDE was detectable in most study subjects. Measurements of height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences were taken during an in-person interview. Information was elicited regarding dietary, residential, and breast-feeding histories. Results of multiple regression analyses indicate that black women had significantly higher plasma levels of DDE than white women. These levels were independent of BMI and WHR. BMI but not WHR was also found to be an independent predictor of DDE plasma level. These results suggest that black/white differences should be considered in studies that explore the relationship between environmental contaminants and various disease outcomes, such as breast cancer risk. In addition, BMI may affect circulating levels of contaminants and should also be considered a potentially important modifying factor for exposure to lipophilic substances.  (+info)



neonicotinoid insecticide


  • Highly sensitive and specific detection of neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid in environmental and food samples by a polyclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Photostability study of cis-configuration neonicotinoid insecticide cycloxaprid in water. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Cycloxaprid (CYC) is a new cis-configuration neonicotinoid insecticide, which is currently under development in China for agricultural pest control. (bioportfolio.com)

Imidacloprid


  • Imidacloprid is one of the main neonicotinoid insecticides widely used in agriculture owing its broad spectrum of activity and low bioaccumulation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • It can produce all of the 8 kinds of neonicotinoid insecticides at present, and it's the biggest supplier of imidacloprid and acetamiprid in the world. (pitchengine.com)
  • For the domestic application, as two old neonicotinoid insecticides products, imidacloprid and acetamiprid are widely used in many crops, whose total consumption volume was about 25,000-30,000 tonnes (calculated by formulation) in 2012-2014. (pitchengine.com)

organophosphate


  • It has been widely recognized since the early 1990s that chlorpyrifos is one of the most toxic organophosphate (OP) insecticides on the market. (hygeia-analytics.com)
  • They have replaced organophosphate insecticides to be the largest insecticide category by market value globally since 2010, whose market value accounts for about 25% of the global insecticides total. (pitchengine.com)

chlorpyrifos


  • The new EPA Administrator, Scott Pruitt, announced March 29, 2017 that the agency will retain the existing registrations of the high-risk insecticide chlorpyrifos (aka Lorsban). (hygeia-analytics.com)
  • If someone had predicted on August 4th of 1996 that chlorpyrifos would still be among the most widely used insecticides in the U.S. and worldwide in 2017, and that most Americans will have chlorpyrifos in their bodies on the day of Scott Pruitt's reprieve, their prediction would not have passed the laugh test. (hygeia-analytics.com)

Pesticide


  • As the biggest pesticide supplier globally, China has been playing an important role in the global neonicotinoid insecticides market. (pitchengine.com)

China


  • China Neonicotinoid Insecticides Market Report 2016 ​ is a new market research publication announced by Reportstack. (pitchengine.com)
  • China Neonicotinoid insecticides Market Report 2016 Edition is a professional and trusted study on the current state of the Chinese neonicotinoid insecticides industry. (pitchengine.com)
  • 1. Registration of China neonicotinoid insecticides by June 2016, segment by product, formulation type and registrant. (pitchengine.com)
  • 2. Supply situation of China neonicotinoid insecticides in 2008-H1 2016, segment by product, region and producer, including detailed data about capacity and output, major producers and their production information in 2013-H1 2016. (pitchengine.com)
  • 3. Qualitative analysis for China neonicotinoid insecticides export in the recent three years, including export specifications, destinations and exporters. (pitchengine.com)
  • 4. Consumption situation of China neonicotinoid insecticides, segment by product and crop. (pitchengine.com)

market


  • In 2014, the global neonicotinoid insecticides' market value reached USD3.9 billion, up by 7.1% compared with that in 2013. (pitchengine.com)
  • Thanks to their good control effect and the continuous market promotion, the consumption of other neonicotinoid insecticides products have been growing year by year. (pitchengine.com)
  • It helps them fully understand the current Chinese neonicotinoid insecticides market and their future trend. (pitchengine.com)

current


  • The present study is a summary of the current level of the insecticide resistance to selected organophosphates, pyrethroids, and neonicotinoids in seven Indian field populations of Bemisia tabaci gene. (bioportfolio.com)

Products


  • 6. Detailed introduction of 8 typical neonicotinoid insecticides products. (pitchengine.com)
  • 7. Profile of 8 key neonicotinoid insecticides players, including company introduction, major pesticides products in each company, company financial data, neonicotinoid insecticides production, sales data and information. (pitchengine.com)