Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.SqualeneVaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.Influenza A Virus, H2N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Reassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Mice, Inbred BALB CPapillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Oseltamivir: An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells: An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.Influenzavirus B: A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRUS causing HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. In contrast to INFLUENZAVIRUS A, no distinct antigenic subtypes of hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE are recognized.United StatesInfluenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle: Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Influenzavirus A: A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Vaccine Potency: The relationship between an elicited ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE and the dose of the vaccine administered.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Guillain-Barre Syndrome: An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Product Surveillance, Postmarketing: Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Alum Compounds: Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Influenza A Virus, H1N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay: A method of detection of the number of cells in a sample secreting a specific molecule. With this method, a population of cells are plated over top of the immunosorbent substrate that captures the secreted molecules.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Amantadine: An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Zanamivir: A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.DucksDengue Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Reverse Genetics: The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Tetanus ToxoidAntibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Yellow Fever Vaccine: Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Hemagglutination, Viral: Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Plague Vaccine: A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Influenzavirus C: A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.Rimantadine: An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Influenza A Virus, H7N3 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 3. It was first detected in turkeys in Britain in 1963 and there have been several outbreaks on poultry farms since that time. A couple cases of human infections have been reported.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Cloaca: A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.Rubella Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Vaccines, Acellular: Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Egg Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to eggs that is triggered by the immune system.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Pneumococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Salmonella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Ebola Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Administration, Mucosal: Delivery of a drug or other substance into the body through the epithelium lining of MUCOUS MEMBRANE involved with absorption and secretion.Hemadsorption Inhibition Tests: Serological tests that measure anti-hemadsorption agents such as antiviral ANTIBODIES that block VIRAL HEMAGGLUNININS from adhering to the surface of red blood cells.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Drug Storage: The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Mice, Inbred C57BLViral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Staphylococcal VaccinesSwine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Cytomegalovirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS.Licensure: The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Anseriformes: An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.GeorgiaEpitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.

*  Sarasota for Vaccination Choice (SVC): Live Attenuated Swine Influenza Vaccine for Children Safety in Question

5. Jefferson T, Rivett A, Harnden A, DiPietrantoni C, and Demicheli V. Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy children ( ... Current status of live attenuated influenza vaccine in the United States for seasonal and pandemic influenza. Influenza Other ... Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was originally derived by cold adaptation of an influenza type A strain by serial ... K.N.O.W. Vaccines: Kids Need Options w/ Vaccines. *Vaccine-A: The Covert Government Experiment that's Killing Our Soldiers and ...
svcsrq.blogspot.com/2009/09/live-attenuated-swine-influenza-vaccine.html

*  Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines, 2017-18 | Seasonal Influenza (Flu) | CDC

For the 2017-18 season, quadrivalent and trivalent influenza vaccines will be available. Inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs) ... TABLE 2. Contraindications and precautions to the use of influenza vaccines. *FIGURE. Influenza vaccine dosing algorithm for ... Algorithm: Interpreting Influenza Testing Results When Influenza is Circulating. *Algorithm: Interpreting Influenza Testing ... Quadrivalent influenza vaccines will contain these three viruses and an additional influenza B vaccine virus, a B/Phuket/3073/ ...
https://cdc.gov/flu/professionals/acip/index.htm

*  Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 6--23 Months --- United States, 2006--07 Influenza Season

Vaccination coverage for other newly recommended infant vaccines has reached approximately 75% within 7 years of introduction ( ... Peak influenza activity has occurred in January or later in ,80% of influenza seasons since 1976; in ,60% of seasons, the peak ... Influenza vaccination coverage among children aged 6--23 months---United States, 2005--06 influenza season. MMWR 2007;56:959-- ... Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 6--23 Months --- United States, 2006--07 Influenza Season. ...
https://cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5738a2.htm

*  Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccines in the United States during a season with circulation of all three vaccine strains.

Influenza vaccines may be reformulated annually because of antigenic drift in influenza viruses. However, the relationship ... Continued monitoring of influenza vaccines in all age groups is important, particularly as new vaccines are introduced.. ... Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage, immunology*. Influenza, Human / epidemiology*, prevention & control*. Male. ... BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccines may be reformulated annually because of antigenic drift in influenza viruses. However, the ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Effectiveness-Seasonal-Influenza-Vaccines-in/22843783.html

*  A Study of Inactivated Swine-Origin A/H1N1 Influenza Vaccines in Healthy European Subjects Aged 3 to 17 Years - Tabular View -...

A Study of Inactivated Swine-Origin A/H1N1 Influenza Vaccines in Healthy European Subjects Aged 3 to 17 Years. This study has ... Safety: To provide information concerning the safety of Swine A/H1N1 influenza vaccines [ Time Frame: 0-7 days post-vaccination ... A Study of Inactivated Swine-Origin A/H1N1 Influenza Vaccines in Healthy European Subjects Aged 3 to 17 Years. ... Immunogenicity: To provide information concerning the immunogenicity of Swine A/H1N1 influenza vaccines [ Time Frame: 21 days ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00956202

*  Study of Immune Responses in Healthy Adults Receiving Live Influenza Virus Vaccines - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Study of Immune Responses in Healthy Adults Receiving Live Influenza Virus Vaccines. This study has been completed. ... Influenza A viruses are widely distributed in nature and exist as many different subtypes. Pandemics of influenza can occur, ... For the inpatient arm, seropositive to the H2N3 influenza A virus or the H9N2 influenza A virus (serum HAI titer ,1:8). For the ... Previous enrollment in an H2 or H9 influenza vaccine trial or in any study of an avian influenza vaccine ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01674205?term=NIAID&recr=Open&no_unk=Y&sntx=

*  Prevention and Control of Influenza with Vaccines: Interim Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices ...

Available Influenza Vaccines for 2013-14 Influenza vaccines that are currently licensed and expected to be available for the ... The abbreviation TIV (trivalent influenza vaccine, previously used for inactivated influenza vaccines) has been replaced with ... The table lists four newly licensed influenza vaccines that are expected to be available during the 2013-14 influenza season. ... for the use of influenza vaccines. An expanded 2013 ACIP influenza vaccination recommendation statement is scheduled to be ...
https://cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6218a3.htm?s_cid=mm6218a3_e

*  CSL H1N1 Influenza Vaccine Administered at Two Dose Levels in Adult and Elderly Populations - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials...

This is inclusive of seasonal influenza vaccines.. *Have an acute or chronic medical condition that, in the opinion of the ... Data from several cohorts in different age groups that received licensed trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines suggest that ... Participated in a novel influenza H1N1 2009 vaccine study in the past two years or have a history of novel influenza H1N1 2009 ... Have a history of severe reactions following previous immunization with influenza virus vaccines. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00943488?term=H1N1&rank=9

*  Study of Inactivated, Split-Virion Influenza Vaccine Compared With Standard Fluzone Vaccine in Elderly Subjects - Tabular View ...

Concomitant participation in an observational trial (not involving drugs, vaccines, or medical devices) is acceptable. ... Study of Inactivated, Split-Virion Influenza Vaccine Compared With Standard Fluzone Vaccine in Elderly Subjects. This study has ... The serological determinations of total anti-influenza antibodies were performed using an Hemagglutinin inhibition (HAI) test. ... The serological determinations of total anti influenza antibodies were performed using an Hemagglutinin inhibition (HAI) test. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00388583

*  AstraZeneca's FluMist® Quadrivalent (Influenza Vaccine Live, Intranasal) nasal-spray flu vaccine begins shipping for 2015-2016...

... quadrivalent vaccines include a second B strain to help provide additional protection against influenza B strains that may ... helps protect against four influenza strains contained in the vaccine: two influenza A strains and two influenza B lineages.1,2 ... Since influenza strains change each year, past clinical trial results do not guarantee future flu season results. Data is ... 6 Not all influenza vaccines are approved for all persons. Individuals should check with their healthcare provider regarding ...
https://astrazeneca-us.com/media/press-releases/2015/astrazenecas-flumist-quadrivalent-now-shipping-20150903.html

*  Safety and Immunogenicity Study of Influenza Vaccines in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected Pregnant Women in Western Kenya - Full...

Experimental: Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine (QIV) 15µg of each of 2 influenza A strains (H1N1 and H3N2) and 2 influenza B ... Drug Information available for: Influenza Vaccines Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Tetanus Malaria ... Safety and Immunogenicity Study of Influenza Vaccines in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected Pregnant Women in Western Kenya. This ... Therefore, we propose to conduct a double-blind randomized controlled trial of influenza vaccines stratified by HIV status in ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01810731?order=26

*  H1N1 Influenza Vaccine Immunogenicity in HIV-1 Infected Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Has a known allergy to eggs or other components in the vaccines (these may include, but are not limited to: gelatin, ... Proven history, by RT-PCR, of novel influenza H1N1 infection, or, has a positive influenza diagnostic testing since June 2009 ( ... H1N1 Influenza Vaccine Immunogenicity in HIV-1 Infected Patients. This study has been completed. ... NOTE: Live or inactivated vaccines expected to be administered between study entry and the Day 21 visit should be excluded to ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01111162?term=" March 17, 2010":" April 16, 2010"[FIRST-RECEIVED-DATE]AND HIV[CONDITION]&rank=7

*  FDA Fast-Tracks Adjuvanted Influenza Vaccine - NVIC Newsletter

15, 2015 FDA advisors voted to fast-track MF59 adjuvanted influenza vaccine, despite safety concerns and the higher number of ... Briefing Document: Influenza Vaccine, Adjuvanted Fluad, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Inc, Applicant. Vaccines and Related ... Briefing Document: Influenza Vaccine, Adjuvanted Fluad, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Inc, Applicant. Vaccines and Related ... Briefing Document: Influenza Vaccine, Adjuvanted Fluad, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Inc, Applicant. Vaccines and Related ...
nvic.org/nvic-vaccine-news/september-2015/fda-fast-tracks-adjuvanted-influenza-vaccines.aspx

*  Evaluation of Seasonal Influenza Vaccine for 2010-2011 in Young Children - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

... within 4 weeks or inactivated vaccine within one week of study entry or planned administration of any non-study vaccines during ... The seasonal influenza vaccine for this fall will be a trivalent inactivated product (regular seasonal influenza vaccine)once ... Seasonal Influenza Vaccine. Influenza Vaccine. Vaccine Safety. Vaccine Immunogenicity. Fluviral 2010-2011. ... The seasonal influenza vaccination program for 2010-2011 will be the first to follow the H1N1 pandemic of 2009. Many children ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01180621

*  Zoetis Receives Conditional License from USDA for Avian Influenza Vaccine, H5N1 Subtype, Killed Virus | Press Releases | Zoetis

The vaccine is intended for use in chickens as an aid in the prevention of disease caused by avian influenza H5N1. ... has granted the company a conditional license for Avian Influenza Vaccine, H5N1 Subtype, Killed Virus*. ... Zoetis will pursue the current opportunity to supply vaccines to the USDA's National Veterinary Stockpile. For more information ... "In the meantime, we will continue to support the USDA and our customers in helping prevent future avian influenza outbreaks." ...
news.zoetis.com/press-release/avian-flu/zoetis-receives-conditional-license-usda-avian-influenza-vaccine-h5n1-subtyp

*  Practice Guidelines: ACIP Updates Influenza Vaccination Recommendations for 2016-2017 - American Family Physician

... has released its annual recommendations for routine influenza vaccination in the 2016-2017 season. ... Influenza Vaccines-United States, 2016-2017. Trade name. Dispensing method. Age indications. Route of administration. ... Updates this year include the antigenic composition of seasonal influenza vaccines available in the United States; information ... Food and Drug Administration-approved prescribing information for 2016-2017 influenza vaccines for the most complete and ...
aafp.org/afp/2016/1015/p668.html

*  Immunogenicity of Influenza Vaccines in HIV-infected Persons in Thailand - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Immunogenicity of Influenza Vaccines in HIV-infected Persons in Thailand. The recruitment status of this study is unknown. The ... Men who received influenza vaccine within 12 months prior to enrollment. *Men who are on steroid therapy or other ... Influenza, Human. Orthomyxoviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Respiratory Tract Infections. Respiratory ... This study will assess the efficacy of a new intradermal formulation of the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine compared to ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01538940?order=122

*  No tetravalent influenza vaccine

One will be a trivalent preparation comprising seasonal influenza H3N2 and H1N1 str ... Two different influenza vaccines will be available in the fall of 2009. ... Two different influenza vaccines will be available in the fall of 2009. One will be a trivalent preparation comprising seasonal ... Regulatory considerations: there have been no clinical trials with tetravalent influenza vaccines, and there is little time to ...
virology.ws/2009/08/26/no-tetravalent-influenza-vaccine/

*  Study of Inactivated, Split-Virion Influenza Vaccine and Standard Fluzone® Vaccine in Adult and Elderly Subjects - Full Text...

... intradermal and high-dose influenza vaccines in older adults ≥65 years of age: a randomized, controlled, phase II trial. ... Influenza Myxovirus Infection Biological: Split, Inactivated, Trivalent Influenza Vaccine (Intradermal Formulation 1) ... Experimental: Influenza Virus Vaccine Formulation 1 Influenza Virus Vaccine Formulation 1. Biological: Split, Inactivated, ... Experimental: Influenza Virus Vaccine Formulation 2 Influenza Virus Vaccine Formulation 2. Biological: Split, Inactivated, ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00551031

*  A Study of Inactivated Swine-Origin A/H1N1 Influenza Vaccines in Healthy European Subjects Aged 3 to 17 Years - Full Text View ...

Influenza Swine-origin A/H1N1 Influenza Biological: Swine A/H1N1 influenza vaccine (split virion, inactivated) Biological: ... A Study of Inactivated Swine-Origin A/H1N1 Influenza Vaccines in Healthy European Subjects Aged 3 to 17 Years. This study has ... Immunogenicity: To provide information concerning the immunogenicity of Swine A/H1N1 influenza vaccines [ Time Frame: 21 days ... Influenza. Pandemic Flu. Swine-origin A/H1N1 Influenza. Inactivated split-virion vaccine. Adjuvant. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00956202

*  Notice to Readers: Expansion of Eligibility for Influenza Vaccine Through the Vaccines for Children Program

Notice to Readers: Expansion of Eligibility for Influenza Vaccine Through the Vaccines for Children Program. ... ACIP is expanding VFC influenza coverage because children aged ,23 months are at substantially increased risk for influenza- ... For the upcoming 2002--03 influenza season, no changes are being made to groups of children eligible for influenza vaccine ... group of children eligible for influenza vaccine coverage under the Vaccines for Children (VFC) program. The resolution extends ...
https://cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5138a7.htm

*  Adjuvants in influenza vaccines.

... and the role of adjuvants in such vaccines is briefly reviewed in this paper. Inactivated whole virus vacci.. ... Abstract The effectiveness of influenza vaccines is still controversial, ... Abstract The effectiveness of influenza vaccines is still controversial, and the role of adjuvants in such vaccines is briefly ... 19th International Vaccines & B2B Congress. October 30-31, 2017 Chicago, USA. *23rd Global Vaccines & Vaccination Summit. ...
https://omicsonline.org/references/adjuvants-in-influenza-vaccines-819984.html

*  WHO | Workshop on International Regulatory Capacity Enhancement for Influenza Vaccines (WIRCEIV)

Workshop on International Regulatory Capacity Enhancement for Influenza Vaccines (WIRCEIV). June 8-10, 2011 Sao Paulo, Brazil ... Workshop in that it focused on regulatory issues and expanded the scope beyond influenza vaccines. The workshop brought ... WHO and HHS hosted the Workshop on International Regulatory Capacity Enhancement for Influenza Vaccines (WIRCEIV). ... The WIRCEIV informed the review and refinement of the implementation plan of the WHO Global Pandemic Influenza Action Plan to ...
who.int/influenza_vaccines_plan/objectives/workshop_WIRCEIV_8_10_June_2011/en/

*  term paper on Genetic Drift and Influenza Vaccines

Genetic Drift and Influenza Vaccines. This 3 page paper explains the reason flu vaccines must be current in order to be ...
https://planetpapers.com/buy-term-paper/Influenza-and-the-Need-for-Current-Vaccines-898612580.aspx

*  Effectiveness of Influenza Vaccines Still Need to be Proved in Elderly

... despite the fact that vaccination has been recommended for the prevention of influenza in older people. ... Evidence for the safety and efficacy of influenza vaccines in the over 65s is poor, ... Effectiveness of Influenza Vaccines Still Need to be Proved in Elderly. by Savitha C Muppala on February 17, 2010 at 5:24 PM ... Consolidated Status of Influenza A H1N1 as on 22nd December 2009. Consolidated Status of Influenza A H1N1 as on 22nd December ...
medindia.net/news/Effectiveness-of-Influenza-Vaccines-Still-Need-to-be-Proved-in-Elderly-65174-1.htm

Flu season: Flu season is an annually recurring time period characterized by the prevalence of outbreaks of influenza (flu). The season occurs during the cold half of the year in each hemisphere.Influenza A virus subtype H1N1: Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish Flu.Influenza Research Database: The Influenza Research Database (IRD)IRD Influenza Research Database BRCSquires, R.B.Influvac: Influvac is a sub-unit vaccine produced and marketed by Abbott Laboratories. It contains inactivated purified surface fragments (sub-units) from the three different strains of the influenza virus (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and Influenza B Virus) that are selected and distributed by the World Health Organization, on the basis of their latest recommendations.Influenza A virus subtype H5N1: Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. A bird-adapted strain of H5N1, called HPAI A(H5N1) for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1, is the highly pathogenic causative agent of H5N1 flu, commonly known as avian influenza ("bird flu").Global spread of H5N1 in 2006: The global spread of (highly pathogenic) H5N1 in birds is considered a significant pandemic threat.Reverse vaccinology: Reverse vaccinology is an improvement on vaccinology that employs bioinformatics, pioneered by Rino Rappuoli and first used against Serogroup B meningococcus.Pizza et al.VaccinationPandemic: A pandemic (from Greek πᾶν pan "all" and δῆμος demos "people") is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread through human populations across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide. A widespread endemic disease that is stable in terms of how many people are getting sick from it is not a pandemic.Polysorbate: Polysorbates are a class of emulsifiers used in some pharmaceuticals and food preparation. They are often used in cosmetics to solubilize essential oils into water-based products.TwinrixPeptide vaccine: A peptide vaccine is any peptide which serves to immunize an organism against a pathogen. Peptide vaccine are often synthetic and mimic naturally occurring proteins from pathogens.SqualaneNaked DNA: Naked DNA is histone-free DNA that is passed from cell to cell during a gene transfer process called transformation or transfection. In transformation, purified or naked DNA is taken up by the recipient cell which will give the recipient cell a new characteristic or phenotype.Global Vaccines: Global Vaccines, Inc is a mission-driven non-profit company applying state-of-the-art science and innovative business strategies to design and develop affordable vaccines for people in poor countries.Immunization during pregnancy: Immunization during pregnancy, that is the administration of a vaccine to a pregnant woman, is not a routine event as it is generally preferred to administer vaccines either prior to conception or in the postpartum period. When widespread vaccination is used, the risk for an unvaccinated pregnant patient to be exposed to a related infection is low, allowing for postponement, in general, of routine vaccinations to the postpartum period.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Immunologic adjuvant: In immunology, an adjuvant is a component that potentiates the immune responses to an antigen and/or modulates it towards the desired immune responses. The word “adjuvant” comes from the Latin word adiuvare, meaning to help or aid.Newmarket, Suffolk: Newmarket is a market town in the English county of Suffolk, approximately 65 miles (105 kilometres) north of London. It is generally considered the birthplace and global centre of thoroughbred horse racing and a potential World Heritage Site.Nasal administrationHIV Vaccine Trials Network: The HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) is a non-profit organization which connects physicians and scientists with activists and community educators for the purpose of conducting clinical trials seeking a safe and effective HIV vaccine. Collaboratively, research professionals and laypeople review potential vaccines for safety, immune response, and efficacy.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Neuraminidase inhibitor: Neuraminidase inhibitors are a class of drugs which block the neuraminidase enzyme. They are commonly used as antiviral drugs because they block the function of viral neuraminidases of the influenza virus, by preventing its reproduction by budding from the host cell.DPT vaccineInjection site reaction: Injection site reactions are allergic reactions that result in cutaneous necrosis that may occur at sites of medication injection, typically presenting in one of two forms, (1) those associated with intravenous infusion or (2) those related to intramuscular injection.James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).Conjugate vaccine: A conjugate vaccine is created by covalently attaching a poor (polysaccharide) antigen to a carrier protein (preferably from the same microorganism), thereby conferring the immunological attributes of the carrier to the attached antigen.Universal Immunization Programme: Universal Immunization Programme is a vaccination program launched by the Government of India in 1985. It became a part of Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Programme in 1992 and is currently one of the key areasWisconsin Alumni Research Foundation: The Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation is the independent nonprofit technology transfer organization serving the University of Wisconsin–Madison and Morgridge Institute for Research. It provides significant research support, granting tens of millions of dollars to the university each year and contributing to the university's "margin of excellence.ImmunizationCervarixU.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: The U.S.OseltamivirFerret: The ferret (Mustela putorius furo) is the domesticated form of the European polecat, a mammal belonging to the same genus as the weasel, Mustela of the family Mustelidae.Harris & Yalden 2008, pp.Meningococcal vaccineBird trapping: Bird trapping techniques to capture wild birds include a wide range of techniques that have their origins in the hunting of birds for food. While hunting for food does not require birds to be caught alive, some trapping techniques capture birds without harming them and are of use in ornithology research.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,AS04: AS04 (Aka. "Adjuvant System 04") is a trade name for combination of adjuvants used in various vaccine product by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), in particular the Fendrix Hepatitis B vaccine.Plaque reduction neutralization test: The Plaque reduction neutralization test is used to quantify the titre of neutralising antibody for a virus.Virus-like particle: Virus-like particles resemble viruses, but are non-infectious because they do not contain any viral genetic material. The expression of viral structural proteins, such as Envelope or Capsid, can result in the self-assembly of virus like particles (VLPs).Pertussis vaccineDenise Faustman: Denise L. Faustman, (born 1958) is a U.Idiosyncratic drug reactionAntiviral drug: Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. Like antibiotics for bacteria, specific antivirals are used for specific viruses.Cholera vaccineProportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Influenza virus matrix protein 2: Matrix protein 2 of Influenza virus is a single-spanning transmembrane protein. It is expressed on the infected cell surface and incorporated into virions where it is a minor component.Kennel clubCD4 immunoadhesin: CD4 immunoadhesin is a recombinant fusion protein consisting of a combination of CD4 and the fragment crystallizable region.Georges Guillain: Georges Charles Guillain () (3 March 1876 - 29 June 1961) was a French neurologist born in Rouen.Typhoid vaccinePostmarketing surveillance: Postmarketing surveillance (PMS) (also post market surveillance) is the practice of monitoring the safety of a pharmaceutical drug or medical device after it has been released on the market and is an important part of the science of pharmacovigilance. Since drugs are approved on the basis of clinical trials, which involve relatively small numbers of people who have been selected for this purpose - meaning that they normally do not have other medical conditions which may exist in the general population - postmarketing surveillance can further refine, or confirm or deny, the safety of a drug after it is used in the general population by large numbers of people who have a wide variety of medical conditions.Smallpox demon: or smallpox devil is a demon which was believed to be responsible for causing smallpox in medieval Japan. In those days, people tried to appease the smallpox demon by assuaging his anger, or they tried to attack the demon since they had no other effective treatment for smallpox.Kalinite: Kalinite is a mineral composed of hydrated potassium aluminium sulfate (a type of alum). It is a fibrous monoclinic alum, distinct from isometric potassium alum,American Mineralogist (1923) 8:15 named in 1868.MVA85A: MVA85A (modified vaccinia Ankara 85A) is a new-generation vaccine against tuberculosis developed by researchers at Oxford University. This vaccine produces higher levels of long-lasting cellular immunity when used together with the older TB vaccine BCG.Viral pneumoniaCell-mediated immunity: Cell mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies, but rather involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen. Historically, the immune system was separated into two branches: humoral immunity, for which the protective function of immunization could be found in the humor (cell-free bodily fluid or serum) and cellular immunity, for which the protective function of immunization was associated with cells.

(1/3234) Activity in saline of phthalylated or succinylated derivatives of mycobacterial water-soluble adjuvant.

A water-soluble fraction (WSA) of the cell wall can substitute for mycobacterial cells in Freund complete adjuvant. However, when WSA is administered in saline instead of in a water-in-oil emulsion, its adjuvant activity is very weak, and under certain experimental conditions it can even inhibit the humoral immune response. The data reported in the present study show that after treatment by phthalic or succinic anhydride the adjuvant activity of WSA was markedly changed, since high levels of circulating antibodies were produced when these derivatives were administered with an antigen in an aqueous medium. Moreover, the antigenic determinants of WSA were modified and acylated WSA had no tuberculin-like activity.  (+info)

(2/3234) Immunoglobulin-specific radioimmunoprecipitation assays for quantitation of nasal secretory antibodies to hemagglutinin of type A influenza viruses.

Radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP) assays were developed to selectively quantitate class-specific antibodies to purified hemagglutinins (HA) of type A influenza virus in nasal secretions. Rabbit anti-human secretory piece of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and rabbit anti-human IgG were used as second antibodies. A third antibody, goat anti-rabbit IgG, was incorporated into the system to separate immune complexes formed between iodinated HA, nasal wash test specimen, and second antibody. The utilization of this reagent avoided the need for large quantities of IgA and IgG antibody-negative carrier secretions. Nasal was specimens obtained from 14 adults immunized with an inactivated type A influenza virus vaccine were evaluated by RIP and viral neutralization assays. Significant homologous postvaccination secretory IgA and IgG antibody levels were demonstrable in 13 (93%) of individuals by RIP, whereas only 5 (36%) exhibited rises by viral neutralization tests. Moreover, the geometric mean IgA and IgG antibody levels were at least 20- and 37-fold greater than the neutralizing antibody titer. The pattern of heterologous immunoglobulin-specific antibody responses tended to be similar to those observed with the homologous HA subunit.  (+info)

(3/3234) Potential advantages of DNA immunization for influenza epidemic and pandemic planning.

Immunization with purified DNA is a powerful technique for inducing immune responses. The concept of DNA immunization involves insertion of the gene encoding the antigen of choice into a bacterial plasmid and injection of the plasmid into the host where the antigen is expressed and where it induces humoral and cellular immunity. The most effective routes and methods for DNA immunization are bombardment with particles coated with DNA ("gene gun" technique), followed by the intramuscular and intradermal routes. DNA immunization technology has the potential to induce immunity to all antigens that can be completely encoded in DNA, which therefore include all protein, but not carbohydrate, antigens. DNA immunization results in presentation of antigens to the host's immune system in a natural form, like that achieved with live-attenuated vaccines. The DNA immunization strategy has the potential to rapidly provide a new vaccine in the face of an emerging influenza pandemic.  (+info)

(4/3234) Mucosal immunity to influenza without IgA: an IgA knockout mouse model.

IgA knockout mice (IgA-/-) were generated by gene targeting and were used to determine the role of IgA in protection against mucosal infection by influenza and the value of immunization for preferential induction of secretory IgA. Aerosol challenge of naive IgA-/- mice and their wild-type IgA+/+ littermates with sublethal and lethal doses of influenza virus resulted in similar levels of pulmonary virus infection and mortality. Intranasal and i.p. immunization with influenza vaccine plus cholera toxin/cholera toxin B induced significant mucosal and serum influenza hemagglutinin-specific IgA Abs in IgA+/+ (but not IgA-/-) mice as well as IgG and IgM Abs in both IgA-/- and IgA+/+ mice; both exhibited similar levels of pulmonary and nasal virus replication and mortality following a lethal influenza virus challenge. Monoclonal anti-hemagglutinin IgG1, IgG2a, IgM, and polymeric IgA Abs were equally effective in preventing influenza virus infection in IgA-/- mice. These results indicate that IgA is not required for prevention of influenza virus infection and disease. Indeed, while mucosal immunization for selective induction of IgA against influenza may constitute a useful approach for control of influenza and other respiratory viral infections, strategies that stimulate other Igs in addition may be more desirable.  (+info)

(5/3234) Influenza vaccination among the elderly in Italy.

This article surveys the attitudes and perceptions of a random sample of the elderly population in three regions of Italy on the use and efficacy of influenza vaccine. The data were collected by direct interviews using a standard questionnaire. The results show that vaccination coverage against influenza is inadequate (26-48.6%). The major reasons for nonvaccination were lack of faith in the vaccine and disbelief that influenza is a dangerous illness. These data emphasize the need for a systematic education programme targeted at the elderly and the provision of influenza vaccination, with the increased cooperation of general practitioners.  (+info)

(6/3234) Protection of mice against a lethal influenza virus challenge after immunization with yeast-derived secreted influenza virus hemagglutinin.

The A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2-subtype) hemagglutinin (HA) gene was engineered for expression in Pichia pastoris as a soluble secreted molecule. The HA cDNA lacking the C-terminal transmembrane anchor-coding sequence was fused to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-mating factor secretion signal and placed under control of the methanol-inducible P. pastoris alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter. Growth of transformants on methanol-containing medium resulted in the secretion of recombinant non-cleaved soluble hemagglutinin (HA0s). Remarkably, the pH of the induction medium had an important effect on the expression level, the highest level being obtained at pH 8.0. The gel filtration profile and the reactivity against a panel of different HA-conformation specific monoclonal antibodies indicated that HA0s was monomeric. Analysis of the N-linked glycans revealed a typical P. pastoris type of glycosylation, consisting of glycans with 10-12 glycosyl residues. Mice immunized with purified soluble hemagglutinin (HA0s) showed complete protection against a challenge with 10 LD50 of mouse-adapted homologous virus (X47), whereas all control mice succumbed. Heterologous challenge with X31 virus [A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2-subtype)], resulted in significantly higher survival rates in the immunized group compared with the control group. These results, together with the safety, reliability and economic potential of P. pastoris, as well as the flexibility and fast adaptation of the expression system may allow development of an effective recombinant influenza vaccine.  (+info)

(7/3234) Measuring the effects of reminders for outpatient influenza immunizations at the point of clinical opportunity.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of computer-based reminders about influenza vaccination on the behavior of individual clinicians at each clinical opportunity. DESIGN: The authors conducted a prospective study of clinicians' influenza vaccination behavior over four years. Approximately one half of the clinicians in an internal medicine clinic used a computer-based patient record system (CPR users) that generated computer-based reminders. The other clinicians used traditional paper records (PR users). MEASUREMENTS: Each nonacute visit by a patient eligible for an influenza vaccination was considered an opportunity for intervention. Patients who had contraindications for vaccination were excluded. Compliance with the guideline was defined as documentation that a clinician ordered the vaccine, counseled the patient about the vaccine, offered the vaccine to a patient who declined it, or verified that the patient had received the vaccine elsewhere. The authors calculated the proportion of opportunities on which each clinician documented action in the CPR and PR user groups. RESULTS: The CPR and PR user groups had different baseline compliance rates (40.1 and 27.9 per cent, respectively; P<0.05). Both rates remained stable during a two-year baseline period (P = 0.34 and P = 0.47, respectively). The compliance rates in the CPR user group increased 78 per cent from baseline (P<0.001), whereas the rates for the PR user group did not change significantly (P = 0.18). CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians who used a CPR with reminders had higher rates of documentation of compliance with influenza-vaccination guidelines than did those who used a paper record. Measurements of individual clinician behavior at the point of each clinical opportunity can provide precise evaluation of interventions that are designed to improve compliance with guidelines.  (+info)

(8/3234) Detection of intracellular antigen-specific cytokines in human T cell populations.

Determination of antigen-specific cytokine responses of T lymphocytes after vaccination is made difficult by the low frequency of responder cells. In order to detect these responses, the profile of intracellular cytokines was analyzed using flow cytometry after antigenic expansion. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with antigens for 5 days, further expanded with interleukin (IL)-2, and then restimulated on day 10. Cytokine production was detected by intracellular staining with monoclonal antibodies after saponin-based permeabilization. Influenza expansion resulted in specific interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production of 6%-20%, with less IL-4 production (0%-2%). Tetanus toxoid resulted in even greater production. IL-4 and IFN-gamma were produced mainly by memory cells of the CD45RO+ phenotype. IFN-gamma production was contributed by both CD4 and CD8 populations. These methods were then applied to a clinical trial of a candidate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccine. Antigen-specific increases in IFN-gamma were measured, which corresponded to antibody production, lymphoproliferation, and skin testing.  (+info)



H1N1


  • The nasal spray vaccine against pandemic H1N1 influenza has been fast tracked for global distribution . (blogspot.com)
  • Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) is not recommended for use during the 2017-18 season due to concerns about its effectiveness against (H1N1)pdm09 viruses during the 2013-14 and 2015-16 seasons. (cdc.gov)
  • Vaccine viruses included in the 2017-18 U.S. trivalent influenza vaccines will be an A/Michigan/45/2015 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus, an A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2)-like virus, and a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus (Victoria lineage). (cdc.gov)
  • MedImmune, Gaithersburg, Maryland) should not be used during the 2017-18 season due to concerns about its effectiveness against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses in the United States during the 2013-14 and 2015-16 influenza seasons. (cdc.gov)
  • Of the sub-typed influenza A viruses , 422 (2.6%) were influenza A( H1N1 )pdm09 and 15893 ( 97.4% ) were influenza A( H3N2 ). (blogspot.com)
  • During the mid 20th century, a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus, which contains parts of swine, avian and human influenza was first identified in humans in Mexico. (altiusdirectory.com)
  • Influenza A H1N1 virus is just like another type of flu virus, with symptoms similar to the typical seasonal pandemic. (altiusdirectory.com)

annual influenza vaccination


  • Routine annual influenza vaccination is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months who do not have contraindications. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2002, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) encouraged annual influenza vaccination of children aged 6--23 months and then, in 2004, recommended vaccination for this group ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says the single best way to prevent influenza is to get an annual influenza vaccination," said Chris Ambrose, Vice President, US Medical Affairs, Infectious Disease at AstraZeneca. (astrazeneca-us.com)

prevention and control of influenza


  • This report focuses on the recommendations for use of vaccines for the prevention and control of influenza during the 2017-18 season in the United States. (cdc.gov)

vaccine


  • MedImmune sponsored a safety and efficacy trial of the nasal spray live- attenuated, cold adapted (see below) influenza vaccine compared with inactivated vaccine on infants and young children 6 to 59 months of age . (blogspot.com)
  • The results showed that there were 54.7 percent fewer cases of culture-confirmed influenza in the group that received live attenuated vaccine than in the group that received inactivated vaccine (153 cases, 3.9 percent vs 338 cases, 8.6 percent). (blogspot.com)
  • For all culture-confirmed symptomatic influenza (both vaccine and non-vaccine strains), the overall attack rates were 5 percent in the group that received live attenuated vaccine and 10.0 percent in the group that received inactivated vaccine, indicating that neither vaccine was particularly good at preventing illness from non-vaccine strains. (blogspot.com)
  • Recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV) will be available in trivalent (RIV3) and quadrivalent (RIV4) formulations. (cdc.gov)
  • No preferential recommendation is made for one influenza vaccine product over another for persons for whom more than one licensed, recommended product is available. (cdc.gov)
  • Quadrivalent influenza vaccines will contain these three viruses and an additional influenza B vaccine virus, a B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus (Yamagata lineage). (cdc.gov)
  • Pregnant women may receive any licensed, recommended, age-appropriate influenza vaccine. (cdc.gov)
  • Nationally, 31.8% of children received 1 or more doses of influenza vaccine, and 21.3% were fully vaccinated, with substantial variability among states. (cdc.gov)
  • Two measures of influenza vaccination coverage are reported for children who were aged 6--23 months during the entire span of September--December 2006: 1) receipt of 1 or more doses of influenza vaccine during September--December 2006, and 2) full vaccination. (cdc.gov)
  • Children were considered fully vaccinated if they had 1) received no doses of influenza vaccine before September 1, 2006, and received 2 doses from September 1, 2006, through the date of interview or January 31, 2007 (whichever was earlier), or 2) received 1 or more doses of influenza vaccine before September 1, 2006, and received 1 or more doses during September--December 2006. (cdc.gov)
  • Of these 9,710, 31.8% received 1 or more doses of influenza vaccine, and 21.3% were fully vaccinated ( Table ). (cdc.gov)
  • The first (or only) influenza vaccine dose was most often administered in weeks 43--46 (i.e. (cdc.gov)
  • The abbreviation TIV (trivalent influenza vaccine, previously used for inactivated influenza vaccines) has been replaced with the abbreviation IIV (inactivated influenza vaccine). (cdc.gov)
  • For 2013-14, IIVs as a class will include 1) egg-based and cell culture-based trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3), and 2) egg-based quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4). (cdc.gov)
  • RIV refers to recombinant hemagglutinin influenza vaccine, which will be available as a trivalent formulation (RIV3) for 2013-14. (cdc.gov)
  • LAIV refers to live, attenuated influenza vaccine, which will be available as a quadrivalent formulation (LAIV4) for 2013-14. (cdc.gov)
  • a numeric suffix specifies the number of influenza virus antigens contained in the vaccine. (cdc.gov)
  • ACIP is chartered as a federal advisory committee to provide expert external advice and guidance to the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on use of vaccines and related agents for the control of vaccine-preventable diseases in the civilian population of the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • AstraZeneca began shipping its first doses of FluMist ® Quadrivalent (Influenza Vaccine Live, Intranasal), developed by MedImmune, our global biologics research and development arm, for the 2015-2016 flu season today. (astrazeneca-us.com)
  • FluMist Quadrivalent, the first and only needle-free, nasal spray flu vaccine approved by the Food and Drug Administration, helps protect against four influenza strains contained in the vaccine: two influenza A strains and two influenza B lineages. (astrazeneca-us.com)
  • People who have a severe allergy to eggs or other vaccine ingredients, anyone who has had life-threatening reactions to flu vaccines, and children or teens taking aspirin or products containing aspirin should not receive FluMist Quadrivalent. (astrazeneca-us.com)
  • The 2015-2016 flu season will be the third year that a quadrivalent influenza vaccine will be available in the US as a nasal spray. (astrazeneca-us.com)
  • A study from a previous flu season found children ages 2 - 5 who received FluMist ® (Influenza Vaccine Live, Intranasal) were about half as likely to get the flu compared to those who received the traditional flu shot. (astrazeneca-us.com)
  • FluMist Quadrivalent is a vaccine that is sprayed into the nose to help protect against influenza. (astrazeneca-us.com)
  • FluMist Quadrivalent is similar to MedImmune's trivalent Influenza Vaccine Live, Intranasal (FluMist), except FluMist Quadrivalent provides protection against an additional influenza strain. (astrazeneca-us.com)
  • On June 20, 2002, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) adopted a resolution expanding the group of children eligible for influenza vaccine coverage under the Vaccines for Children (VFC) program. (cdc.gov)
  • The resolution becomes effective on March 1, 2003, for vaccine to be administered during the 2003--04 influenza vaccination season and subsequent seasons. (cdc.gov)
  • For the upcoming 2002--03 influenza season, no changes are being made to groups of children eligible for influenza vaccine under the VFC program. (cdc.gov)
  • Children aged 6 months--18 years who are eligible for the VFC program and who have a high-risk medical condition or are household members of a person at high risk for complications may receive influenza vaccine through the program. (cdc.gov)
  • The availability of additional supplies of influenza vaccine through the VFC program for the 2003--04 season will be based on anticipated need. (cdc.gov)
  • The VFC Resolution for Influenza Vaccine (10/98-4), effective during the 2002--03 season, is available at http://www.cdc.gov/nip/vfc/flu.pdf . (cdc.gov)

risk for influenza-related hospitalizations


  • 2 years are at the greatest risk for influenza-related hospitalizations ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • 23 months are at substantially increased risk for influenza-related hospitalizations. (cdc.gov)

Quadrivalent


  • For the 2017-18 season, quadrivalent and trivalent influenza vaccines will be available. (cdc.gov)
  • Inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs) will be available in trivalent (IIV3) and quadrivalent (IIV4) formulations. (cdc.gov)
  • A needle-free, nasal spray option for eligible individuals 2 to 49 years of age, FluMist Quadrivalent is administered as a mist sprayed into the nose, where the influenza virus usually enters the body. (astrazeneca-us.com)
  • 4 Unlike trivalent vaccines, quadrivalent vaccines include a second B strain to help provide additional protection against influenza B strains that may circulate. (astrazeneca-us.com)
  • AstraZeneca is planning to produce and deliver nearly 15 million doses of FluMist Quadrivalent this influenza season, with product initially becoming available at the point of service in early September, followed by regular shipments to distributors throughout the end of the influenza season, as opposed to prior seasons when supply has been largely allocated during the season's earlier months. (astrazeneca-us.com)
  • FluMist Quadrivalent may not prevent influenza in everyone who gets vaccinated. (astrazeneca-us.com)

ACIP


  • This report summarizes recommendations approved on February 21, 2013, by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for the use of influenza vaccines. (cdc.gov)
  • An expanded 2013 ACIP influenza vaccination recommendation statement is scheduled to be published in MMWR Recommendations and Reports before the start of the 2013-14 influenza season. (cdc.gov)
  • Providers should consult the expanded 2013 ACIP influenza vaccination statement for complete and updated information. (cdc.gov)
  • Immunization providers should consult Food and Drug Administration-approved prescribing information for 2013-14 influenza vaccines and the 2013-14 ACIP influenza recommendation statement for the most current information concerning indications, contraindications, and precautions. (cdc.gov)
  • Influenza vaccines that are currently licensed and expected to be available for the 2013-14 season and their approved age indications are summarized in a table available at http://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/acip/2013-interim-recommendations.htm#table1 . (cdc.gov)
  • Any changes in product availability or other information will be reflected in the expanded 2013-14 ACIP influenza recommendations statement. (cdc.gov)
  • Roster for July 2012-June 2013 available at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/committee/members-archive/members-07-2012-06-2013.html . (cdc.gov)
  • Recommendations for routine use of vaccines in children, adolescents and adults are developed by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). (cdc.gov)
  • ACIP recommendations for the 2002--03 influenza season are available at http://www.cdc.gov/nip/flu/target-groups.htm and http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5103a1.htm . (cdc.gov)

infection


  • Persons aged over 65 years were most frequently associated with severe disease from influenza infection. (blogspot.com)
  • Subclinical infection of vaccinated chickens with a highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N2) virus was identified through routine surveillance in China. (cdc.gov)
  • Persons with swine influenza symptoms having serious infection are considered as potentially communicable for up to 7 days from the onset of the illness. (altiusdirectory.com)
  • Patients with confirmed suspicion for influenza infection are required to take antiviral treatment along with additional supportive measures to reduce these symptoms severity and decrease the high risk of complications. (altiusdirectory.com)

antiviral


  • Here we show that 244/PR8 DI RNA is replicated by an influenza A challenge virus in human lung diploid fibroblasts, bronchial epithelial cells, and primary nasal basal cells, and that the yield of challenge virus is significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner indicating that DI influenza virus has potential as a human antiviral. (mdpi.com)

swine


  • The swine flu vaccines being prepared for release to combat the current pandemic will be fast tracked without the usual clinical trials to ensure their safety. (blogspot.com)
  • As the swine influenza virus is derived from animals, humans have very little or no immunity to prevent or control this disease. (altiusdirectory.com)
  • The main difference between these two is that the swine influenza virus is new which most of us don't have any resistance to it. (altiusdirectory.com)
  • Like normal seasonal flu, the swine influenza symptoms may include fever, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, shortness of breath, fatigue and headache etc. (altiusdirectory.com)
  • Depending upon the severity, the swine influenza symptoms may also include severe pneumonia and respiratory failure. (altiusdirectory.com)
  • If swine influenza symptoms are more predominantly seen in these groups then it is advised to seek medical attention immediately. (altiusdirectory.com)
  • It is very important to recognize the swine influenza symptoms at an early stage before it turns into a serious illness. (altiusdirectory.com)

Avian


  • Title : #Update: Increase in #Human #Infections with #Avian #Influenza #H7N9 Viruses During the 5th #Epidemic - #China, Oct. '16-Aug. 7 '17. (blogspot.com)

2016


  • The majority of influenza viruses characterized so far was similar antigenically to the reference viruses contained in vaccines for use in the 2016-2017 northern hemisphere influenza season. (blogspot.com)
  • National Influenza Centres (NICs) and other national influenza laboratories from 97 countries, areas or territories reported data to FluNet for the time period from 26 December 2016 to 08 January 2017 (data as of 2017-01-20 09:52:23 UTC). (blogspot.com)

vaccination coverage


  • This report, based on data from the 2007 National Immunization Survey (NIS), provides an assessment of influenza vaccination coverage among children aged 6--23 months during September--December of the 2006--07 influenza season. (cdc.gov)
  • Further study is needed to identify knowledge deficits or logistical barriers that might contribute to continued low influenza vaccination coverage among young children. (cdc.gov)
  • Substantial variability in influenza vaccination coverage was observed among states and local areas. (cdc.gov)
  • For all vaccines included in this report, t-tests were used to assess vaccination coverage differences by survey year (2014 compared with 2013), age, sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty status. (cdc.gov)

Recommendations


  • These recommendations apply to licensed influenza vaccines used within Food and Drug Administration-licensed indications, including those licensed after the publication date of this report. (cdc.gov)
  • See Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices - United States, 2017-18 Influenza Season for the full recommendations. (cdc.gov)
  • Recommendations for routine use of vaccines in children and adolescents are harmonized to the greatest extent possible with recommendations made by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), and the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG). (cdc.gov)
  • Recommendations for routine use of vaccines in adults are harmonized with recommendations of AAFP, ACOG, and the American College of Physicians (ACP). (cdc.gov)

seasonal


  • Influenza activity in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere continued to increase , with many countries especially in East Asia and Europe having passed their seasonal threshold early in comparison with previous years. (blogspot.com)
  • In the United States of America , influenza-like illness (ILI) levels were above the seasonal thresholds and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) activity continued to be reported. (blogspot.com)
  • In the temperate zone of the Southern Hemisphere , influenza activity was at inter-seasonal levels. (blogspot.com)

respiratory


  • In the Caribbean countries and Central America, influenza and other respiratory virus activity remained low in general. (blogspot.com)
  • In tropical South America , influenza and other respiratory viruses activity remained low. (blogspot.com)
  • However, evidence that DI influenza viruses are active in cells of the human respiratory tract is lacking. (mdpi.com)

strains


  • Since influenza strains change each year, past clinical trial results do not guarantee future flu season results. (astrazeneca-us.com)

persons


viruses


  • Human Influenza viruses, current global epidemiological situation. (blogspot.com)
  • In East Asia, high influenza activity continued to be reported with influenza A( H3N2 ) viruses predominant. (blogspot.com)
  • In West Africa , influenza continued to be detected in Ghana with B viruses dominating. (blogspot.com)
  • 40259 were positive for influenza viruses, of which 38809 (96.4%) were typed as influenza A and 1450 (3.6%) as influenza B. (blogspot.com)
  • Defective interfering (DI) viruses arise during the replication of influenza A virus and contain a non-infective version of the genome that is able to interfere with the production of infectious virus. (mdpi.com)

virus


  • Most of the vaccines will not contain live virus and will be delivered by injection. (blogspot.com)
  • In North America, influenza activity continued to increase with influenza A( H3N2 ) virus predominating. (blogspot.com)
  • In Europe, influenza activity was high , with influenza A ( H3N2 ) virus being the most prominent subtype. (blogspot.com)
  • In South East Asia, influenza activity remained low , with influenza A(H3N2) virus and influenza B predominating in the region. (blogspot.com)
  • In Northern Africa , influenza detections continued to be reported in Morocco and Tunisia with influenza A(H3N2) virus dominating. (blogspot.com)
  • Given intranasally, 244/PR8 DI virus protects mice and ferrets from clinical influenza caused by a number of different influenza A subtypes and interferes with production of infectious influenza A virus in cells in culture. (mdpi.com)

Season


  • Nationally, no statistically significant increase was observed in either influenza coverage measure, compared with the previous season (2005--06) ( 4 ) ( Figure 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The table lists four newly licensed influenza vaccines that are expected to be available during the 2013-14 influenza season. (cdc.gov)
  • and 5) are adolescent females in the second or third trimester of pregnancy during the influenza season (typically November--March). (cdc.gov)

indications


  • These vaccines are acceptable alternatives to other licensed products listed in the table, to the extent that their specific indications allow. (cdc.gov)

children


  • The findings underscore the need to increase interest in and access to influenza vaccination for more children in the United States. (cdc.gov)

Additional


  • Vaccination and health care providers should check CDC's influenza website periodically for additional information. (cdc.gov)

available


  • Updates and other information are available at CDC's influenza website ( Influenza (Flu) ). (cdc.gov)

worldwide


  • Five different companies were contracted to produce vaccines worldwide - Baxter International, GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis. (blogspot.com)

years


  • 9 years who are receiving influenza vaccination for the first time. (cdc.gov)

providers


  • Lifetime histories of influenza vaccination were obtained during the mail survey of children's vaccination providers. (cdc.gov)