Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Infertility, Male: The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Reproductive Techniques, Assisted: Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.Fallopian Tube Diseases: Diseases involving the FALLOPIAN TUBES including neoplasms (FALLOPIAN TUBE NEOPLASMS); SALPINGITIS; tubo-ovarian abscess; and blockage.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Azoospermia: A condition of having no sperm present in the ejaculate (SEMEN).Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Oligospermia: A condition of suboptimal concentration of SPERMATOZOA in the ejaculated SEMEN to ensure successful FERTILIZATION of an OVUM. In humans, oligospermia is defined as a sperm count below 20 million per milliliter semen.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Sperm Count: A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.Sperm Motility: Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.Endometriosis: A condition in which functional endometrial tissue is present outside the UTERUS. It is often confined to the PELVIS involving the OVARY, the ligaments, cul-de-sac, and the uterovesical peritoneum.Hysterosalpingography: Radiography of the uterus and fallopian tubes after the injection of a contrast medium.Varicocele: A condition characterized by the dilated tortuous veins of the SPERMATIC CORD with a marked left-sided predominance. Adverse effect on male fertility occurs when varicocele leads to an increased scrotal (and testicular) temperature and reduced testicular volume.Semen: The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.Semen Analysis: The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.Reproductive Techniques: Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Clomiphene: A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Anovulation: Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.Asthenozoospermia: A condition in which the percentage of progressively motile sperm is abnormally low. In men, it is defined as Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Reproductive Medicine: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Fertility Agents, Female: Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Insemination, Artificial, Homologous: Human artificial insemination in which the husband's semen is used.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Sex Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Some sex chromosome aberrations are associated with SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS and SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS OF SEX DEVELOPMENT.Orchitis: Inflammation of a TESTIS. It has many features of EPIDIDYMITIS, such as swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS and then the TESTIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Uterine Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the UTERUS.Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.Seminal Plasma Proteins: Proteins found in SEMEN. Major seminal plasma proteins are secretory proteins from the male sex accessory glands, such as the SEMINAL VESICLES and the PROSTATE. They include the seminal vesicle-specific antigen, an ejaculate clotting protein; and the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.Sex Chromosome Disorders of Sex Development: Congenital conditions of atypical sexual development associated with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions including MONOSOMY; TRISOMY; and MOSAICISM.Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Fallopian Tube Patency Tests: Methods for assessing the patency of the fallopian tubes.Abnormal Karyotype: A variation from the normal set of chromosomes characteristic of a species.Primary Ovarian Insufficiency: Cessation of ovarian function after MENARCHE but before the age of 40, without or with OVARIAN FOLLICLE depletion. It is characterized by the presence of OLIGOMENORRHEA or AMENORRHEA, elevated GONADOTROPINS, and low ESTRADIOL levels. It is a state of female HYPERGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM. Etiologies include genetic defects, autoimmune processes, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections.Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.Andrology: A scientific or medical discipline concerning the study of male reproductive biology, diseases of the male genital organs, and male infertility. Major areas of interest include ENDOCRINOLOGY; SPERMATOGENESIS; semen analysis; FERTILIZATION; CONTRACEPTION; and CRYOPRESERVATION.Testicular Diseases: Pathological processes of the TESTIS.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Fertility Agents: Drugs used to increase fertility or to treat infertility.Ovarian Diseases: Pathological processes of the OVARY.Epididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Pregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.Abortion, Habitual: Three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Tuberculosis, Female Genital: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Sperm Banks: Centers for acquiring and storing semen.Hysteroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the uterus.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Contraception, Immunologic: Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.Tissue Adhesions: Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.Gonadotropins: Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.Social Alienation: The state of estrangement individuals feel in cultural settings that they view as foreign, unpredictable, or unacceptable.Live Birth: The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Reproductive Behavior: Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.Klinefelter Syndrome: A form of male HYPOGONADISM, characterized by the presence of an extra X CHROMOSOME, small TESTES, seminiferous tubule dysgenesis, elevated levels of GONADOTROPINS, low serum TESTOSTERONE, underdeveloped secondary sex characteristics, and male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE). Patients tend to have long legs and a slim, tall stature. GYNECOMASTIA is present in many of the patients. The classic form has the karyotype 47,XXY. Several karyotype variants include 48,XXYY; 48,XXXY; 49,XXXXY, and mosaic patterns ( 46,XY/47,XXY; 47,XXY/48,XXXY, etc.).Ejaculation: The emission of SEMEN to the exterior, resulting from the contraction of muscles surrounding the male internal urogenital ducts.Spermatids: Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.Vasovasostomy: Surgical anastomosis or fistulization of the spermatic ducts to restore fertility in a previously vasectomized male.Seminiferous Tubules: The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.Sperm-Ovum Interactions: Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.Hypogonadism: Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).Menstruation Disturbances: Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.Cryptorchidism: A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.Menotropins: Extracts of urine from menopausal women that contain high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins, FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE. Menotropins are used to treat infertility. The FSH:LH ratio and degree of purity vary in different preparations.Sperm Tail: The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Oocyte Donation: Transfer of preovulatory oocytes from donor to a suitable host. Oocytes are collected, fertilized in vitro, and transferred to a host that can be human or animal.Time-to-Pregnancy: Time interval, or number of non-contraceptive menstrual cycles that it takes for a couple to conceive.Oceania: The islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia. (Random House Dictionary, 2d ed)Sertoli Cell-Only Syndrome: A type of male infertility in which no germ cells are visible in any of the biopsied SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES (type I) or in which germ cells are present in a minority of tubules (type II). Clinical features include AZOOSPERMIA, normal VIRILIZATION, and normal chromosomal complement.Diagnostic Techniques, Obstetrical and Gynecological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of conditions related to pregnancy, labor, and the puerperium and of diseases of the female genitalia. It includes also demonstration of genital and pregnancy physiology.Gonadal Disorders: Pathological processes of the OVARIES or the TESTES.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Oocyte Retrieval: Procedures to obtain viable OOCYTES from the host. Oocytes most often are collected by needle aspiration from OVARIAN FOLLICLES before OVULATION.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human: A major gonadotropin secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and the LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common in the three human pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Spiritual Therapies: Mystical, religious, or spiritual practices performed for health benefit.Insemination, Artificial, Heterologous: Human artificial insemination in which the semen used is that of a man other than the woman's husband.Zona Pellucida: A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.Salpingitis: Inflammation of the uterine salpinx, the trumpet-shaped FALLOPIAN TUBES, usually caused by ascending infections of organisms from the lower reproductive tract. Salpingitis can lead to tubal scarring, hydrosalpinx, tubal occlusion, INFERTILITY, and ectopic pregnancy (PREGNANCY, ECTOPIC)Insemination: The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer: A technique that came into use in the mid-1980's for assisted conception in infertile women with normal fallopian tubes. The protocol consists of hormonal stimulation of the ovaries, followed by laparoscopic follicular aspiration of oocytes, and then the transfer of sperm and oocytes by catheterization into the fallopian tubes.Sperm Retrieval: Procedures to obtain viable sperm from the male reproductive tract, including the TESTES, the EPIDIDYMIS, or the VAS DEFERENS.Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Protamines: A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)Sex Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Mycoplasma hominis: A common inhabitant of the vagina and cervix and a potential human pathogen, causing infections of the male and female reproductive tracts. It has also been associated with respiratory disease and pharyngitis. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Sperm Maturation: The maturing process of SPERMATOZOA after leaving the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. Maturation in SPERM MOTILITY and FERTILITY takes place in the EPIDIDYMIS as the sperm migrate from caput epididymis to cauda epididymis.Pregnancy, Ectopic: A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Superovulation: Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Adoption: Voluntary acceptance of a child of other parents to be as one's own child, usually with legal confirmation.Genital Diseases, Female: Pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Ejaculatory Ducts: Paired ducts in the human male through which semen is ejaculated into the urethra.Sperm Head: The anterior portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that contains mainly the nucleus with highly compact CHROMATIN material.Fertility Preservation: A method of providing future reproductive opportunities before a medical treatment with known risk of loss of fertility. Typically reproductive organs or tissues (e.g., sperm, egg, embryos and ovarian or testicular tissues) are cryopreserved for future use before the medical treatment (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation) begins.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Surrogate Mothers: Women who allow themselves to be impregnated with the understanding that the offspring are to be given over to the parents who have commissioned the surrogate.Vasectomy: Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)Spermatogonia: Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Myoma: A benign neoplasm of muscular tissue. (Stedman, 25th ed)Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Contraceptive Agents, Male: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Acrosome: The cap-like structure covering the anterior portion of SPERM HEAD. Acrosome, derived from LYSOSOMES, is a membrane-bound organelle that contains the required hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes necessary for sperm penetration of the egg in FERTILIZATION.Genital Diseases, Male: Pathological processes involving the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).Reproductive Tract Infections: Infections of the genital tract in females or males. They can be caused by endogenous, iatrogenic, or sexually transmitted organisms.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Leiomyoma: A benign tumor derived from smooth muscle tissue, also known as a fibroid tumor. They rarely occur outside of the UTERUS and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT but can occur in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE, probably arising from the smooth muscle of small blood vessels in these tissues.Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Oligomenorrhea: Abnormally infrequent menstruation.Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Africa, Central: The geographical area of Africa comprising CAMEROON; CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC; CHAD; CONGO; EQUATORIAL GUINEA; GABON; and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO.Luteal Phase: The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.Douglas' Pouch: A sac or recess formed by a fold of the peritoneum.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Urologic Surgical Procedures, Male: Surgery performed on the male genitalia.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Epididymitis: Inflammation of the EPIDIDYMIS. Its clinical features include enlarged epididymis, a swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.Semen Preservation: The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Mycoplasma genitalium: A species of gram-negative bacteria originally isolated from urethral specimens of patients with non-gonoccocal URETHRITIS. In primates it exists in parasitic association with ciliated EPITHELIAL CELLS in the genital and respiratory tracts.Feminine Hygiene Products: Personal care items for women.Kartagener Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a triad of DEXTROCARDIA; INFERTILITY; and SINUSITIS. The syndrome is caused by mutations of DYNEIN genes encoding motility proteins which are components of sperm tails, and CILIA in the respiratory and the reproductive tracts.Acrosome Reaction: Changes that occur to liberate the enzymes of the ACROSOME of a sperm (SPERMATOZOA). Acrosome reaction allows the sperm to penetrate the ZONA PELLUCIDA and enter the OVUM during FERTILIZATION.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Anti-Mullerian Hormone: A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.Extramarital Relations: Voluntary SEXUAL INTERCOURSE between a married person and someone other than the SPOUSE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Endometritis: Inflammation of the ENDOMETRIUM, usually caused by intrauterine infections. Endometritis is the most common cause of postpartum fever.Microsurgery: The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.Gynecology: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.Hyperprolactinemia: Increased levels of PROLACTIN in the BLOOD, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the PITUITARY GLAND, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Hirsutism: A condition observed in WOMEN and CHILDREN when there is excess coarse body hair of an adult male distribution pattern, such as facial and chest areas. It is the result of elevated ANDROGENS from the OVARIES, the ADRENAL GLANDS, or exogenous sources. The concept does not include HYPERTRICHOSIS, which is an androgen-independent excessive hair growth.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Peritoneal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PERITONEUM.Ornidazole: A nitroimidazole antiprotozoal agent used in ameba and trichomonas infections. It is partially plasma-bound and also has radiation-sensitizing action.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Reproductive History: An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Pelvic Pain: Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.Vaccines, Contraceptive: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Gynecologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the female genitalia.Sexuality: The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.Vas Deferens: The excretory duct of the testes that carries SPERMATOZOA. It rises from the SCROTUM and joins the SEMINAL VESICLES to form the ejaculatory duct.Salpingostomy: Formation of an artificial opening in a fallopian tube.Scrotum: A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Genitalia, Male: The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).DenmarkMenopause, Premature: The premature cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) when the last menstrual period occurs in a woman under the age of 40. It is due to the depletion of OVARIAN FOLLICLES. Premature MENOPAUSE can be caused by diseases; OVARIECTOMY; RADIATION; chemicals; and chromosomal abnormalities.Sterilization Reversal: Procedures to reverse the effect of REPRODUCTIVE STERILIZATION and to regain fertility. Reversal procedures include those used to restore the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE or the VAS DEFERENS.Embryo Disposition: Utilization or disposal of an embryo that is fertilized but not immediately transplanted and resulting course of action.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Genes, Y-Linked: Genes that are located on the Y CHROMOSOME.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.

*  Male Infertility | Article about Male Infertility by The Free Dictionary

Find out information about Male Infertility. inability to conceive or carry a child to delivery. The term is usually limited to ... situations where the couple has had intercourse regularly for one year... Explanation of Male Infertility ... infertility. (redirected from Male Infertility). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.. Related to Male Infertility: ... Medical and surgical management of male infertility.. Medical and surgical management of male infertility ...

*  Male Infertility Basics from a Los Angeles Fertility Clinic - Pacific Reproductive Center

Male factors contribute to 30% of infertility. In the past, men with infertility had few options. However, improvements in ... Infertility in Men. Infertility is the medical term for a couple's inability to become pregnant after one year of sexual ... Causes of Male Infertility. For a man to be fertile, he must have a normal functioning pituitary gland and hypothalamus ( ... The treatment of male infertility depends on the actual cause. Options include:. *Unblocking the reproductive tract - Men with ...

*  Male Infertility

It can affect a man, a woman, or both. Male infertility means that a man has a problem with his reproductive system. It means ... Infertility is a disease of the reproductive system. It makes a person unable to have children. ... Key points about male factor infertility. *Male infertility means a man is not able to start a pregnancy with his female ... Male Infertility. What is male infertility?. Infertility is a disease of the reproductive system. It makes a person unable to ...

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... which men conveniently turn onto women.Men suffer from it too. Here are 7 male infertility treatment which you can rely upon. ... The male infertility causes will help you identify the problem areas.If you are one of those men who consider infertility a ... However, infertility isn't a women only problem! Men too can be infertile and they suffer no lesser. Just like us, men too have ... Fortunately, male infertility is easier to treat than women infertility. Interestingly, the very same hormones that regulate ...

*  GUIDELINES ON MALE INFERTILITY European Association of Urology

Infertility affects both men and women. Male causes for infertility are found in 50% of involuntarily childless couples. If ... consensus group on male infertility consider that male infertility is an interdisciplinary subject in its own right, with ... Abstract IDIOPATHIC MALE INFERTILITY Many men presenting with infertility are found to have idiopathic oligo-astheno- ... This understanding of male infertility implies co-operation with non-urologists in all aspects of infertility in daily work, ...

*  Male Infertility

Men are considered infertile if they produce too few sperm cells, sperm cells of poor quality, or have chronic problems with ... Male Infertility Treatment. Treatment will depend on the cause of the infertility. Infertility treatments can be costly and ... Male Infertility Overview. Men are considered infertile if they produce too few sperm cells, sperm cells of poor quality, or ... Diagnosing Male Infertility. During the initial consult, both partners will be evaluated for infertility problems. The doctor ...

*  Surgery of Male Infertility - Google Books

... problem-oriented approach devoted exclusively to the surgery of male infertility. Step-by-step descriptions along with clearly ... Infertility.html?id=vHtsAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareSurgery of Male Infertility. ... infertility inguinal ring injection injury intraoperative laparoscopic layer ligation lumen magnification male infertility ... problem-oriented approach devoted exclusively to the surgery of male infertility. Step-by-step descriptions along with clearly ...

*  Male Infertility: 11 Sperm Hazards - ABC News

Which has been shown to actually reduce a man's sperm count and lead to infertility? We talked with experts in male fertility ... "This is another reason it's very important for men to be evaluated by a urologist who's specially trained in male infertility ... "The most common treatable cause of male factor infertility is called varicocele," said Dr. Dan Williams, director of male ... Most men who are obese, he said, have no trouble, although "there is some suggestive evidence that some men with obesity will ...

*  Ibuprofen linked to male infertility, study says - CNN

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*  Infertility | Men's Health Forum

10 things every man can do to improve fertility. Most men don't even think about it until they want kids. But, says Philippa ... One man in five dies before the age of 65.. TOGETHER we can change that. ... The risk of ED and infertility are not increased by cycling but prostate cancer may be. ...

*  Male Infertility | Memorial Hospital

Learn more about Male Infertility at Memorial Hospital Uses Related Terms Sperm Motility Principal Proposed Natural Treatments ... Male infertility, the inability of a man to produce a pregnancy in a woman, is often caused by measurable deficits in sperm ... 22 A total of 108 fertile men and 103 men with impaired fertility ("subfertile men") participated in the study. The two ... Proposed Treatments for Male Infertility. Carnitine. Growing, if not entirely consistent evidence, suggests that various forms ...

*  Male Infertility Treatment Boosts Sperm Count - MedNews

A hormone-antioxidant combination therapy appears to improve sperm count and motility in infertile men, according to an ... Male Infertility Treatment Boosts Sperm Count. Print this page MONDAY, April 6 -- A hormone-antioxidant combination therapy ... The research included 60 men eligible for infertility treatment. They were randomly selected to take either the combination ... The men in the treatment group also had a greater increase in sperm concentration and an improvement in sperm progression, the ...

*  Genetic Causes of Male Infertility - Full Text View -

CATSPER1-related nonsyndromic male infertility Y chromosome infertility sensorineural deafness and male infertility ... Infertile men: men referred to the Scandian Andrology Centre whose infertility is unexplained, whose partners are younger than ... If the nutritional intake or metabolism of this vitamin is related to male infertility, then this cause of infertility would be ... Ma K, Mallidis C, Bhasin S. The role of Y chromosome deletions in male infertility. Eur J Endocrinol. 2000 May;142(5):418-30. ...

*  Male infertility - Wikipedia

In humans it accounts for 40-50% of infertility. It affects approximately 7% of all men. Male infertility is commonly due to ... Factors relating to male infertility include: Antisperm antibodies (ASA) have been considered as infertility cause in around 10 ... Male infertility refers to a male's inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female. ... Female infertility Fertility preservation Fertility testing Infertility Male accessory gland infection (MAGI) Meiosis ...

*  What causes infertility in men? | Male Infertility - Sharecare

Infertility in men can be caused by a number of factors: Sperm deficiencies can include low sperm production (oligospermia) or ... Continue Learning about Male Infertility. Male Infertility Male infertility includes low sperm count (not enough sperm to reach ... Male Infertility. Male infertility includes low sperm count (not enough sperm to reach the egg), low motility (sperm don't move ... Infertility in men can be caused by a number of factors including: *Genetic: Male infertility can be inherited, especially when ...

*  Faulty genes one of the main reasons for male infertility | Daily Mail Online

... and in about 30 per cent of infertile males. ... Faulty genes one of the main reasons for male infertility. By ... A report has strongly called for genetic screening of infertility cases in males before referring childless couples for invitro ... Genetic anomalies have been identified as one of main reasons for male infertility in the country. ... "Different factors contribute to male infertility including various gene defects and chromosomal abnormalities," said Dr Kiran ...

*  Workplace Exertion, Hypertension, Multiple Medications may Contribute to Male Infertility

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*  Etiology of male infertility and Oligo-, Astheno-, Teratospermia (OAT)

Frequency: 1 in 500 males. It is the most common form of hypogonadism in men (1,6% of infertile men) and occurs due to meiotic ... no other causes of male infertility (prostatitis, autoimmunity etc). High surgical ligation (by laparoscopy !) and angiographic ... Infertile men do not present a special psychopathological profile and compared to a control group of fertile men they do not ... Nb : Mutation of the FSH receptor does not play a pathogenic role in male infertility (JCEM 84:751,1999) ...

*  Recent Articles | Male Infertility And Genetics & Genomics | The Scientist Magazine®

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*  New male infertility test could 'bring hope to millions'

Until now, there have been few accurate ways of measuring a man's fertility.' 'Traditionally, the diagnosis of male infertility ... New male infertility test could 'bring hope to millions'. Jun 9, 2011 - 3:24:14 PM ... RxPG] A groundbreaking new test for male infertility, which will save time, money and heartache for couples around the world, ... However, its clinical value in predicting male fertility or success with infertility treatment is limited, particularly if the ...

*  Should You Take Fertility Supplements for Male Infertility?

But do they really work? It's important to look at the ingredients of each male fertility supplement you are considering to see ... If you are struggling with male infertility you may have been tempted by advertisements for fertility supplements. ... Home - Male Infertility - Sperm & Fertility - Should You Take Fertility Supplements for Male Infertility? ... A more recent study of 52 men with unexplained infertility in the Urology Journal found that after receiving 25 mg/day of L- ...

*  Research Says Sperm Coat Protein may be Key to Male Infertility

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*  DNA methylation changes in whole blood is associated with exposure to the environmental contaminants, mercury, lead, cadmium...

In addition, our sample is heterogeneous with regard to infertility diagnosis with some women likely to be fertile (i.e. male ... and by male factor versus female factor infertility using the χ2 or Fisher exact test as appropriate. BeadStudio software, v. ... and aberrant CpG island hypermethylation of GSTM1 in non-obstructive infertility in Indian men. Mol Hum Reprod. 2007;13:213-222 ... The primary infertility diagnoses were 'unexplained' (34.9%), 'male factor' (23.3%), 'diminished ovarian reserve' (18.6%) and ' ...

Male infertilityUnexplained infertility: Unexplained infertility is infertility that is idiopathic in the sense that its cause remains unknown even after an infertility work-up, usually including semen analysis in the man and assessment of ovulation and fallopian tubes in the woman.merckmanuals > Unexplained Infertility Last full review/revision November 2008 by Robert W.Endosalpingiosis: In gynecology, endosalpingiosis is a condition in which fallopian tube-like epithelium is found outside of the fallopian tube. It is unknown what causes this condition.Spermiogenesis: Spermiogenesis is the final stage of spermatogenesis, which sees the maturation of spermatids into mature, motile spermatozoa. The spermatid is more or less circular cell containing a nucleus, Golgi apparatus, centriole and mitochondria.AzoospermiaLow Fertility Cohorts Study: The Low Fertility Cohorts Study, 1978: A Survey of White, Ever-Married Women Belonging to the 1901-1910 United States Birth Cohorts,Data Sharing For Demographic Research consists of personal interviews of white, ever-married women born between July 1, 1900, and June 30, 1910. In 1978, a national survey of 1,049 married women between the ages of 68 and 78 were interviewed between the months of March and July in order to investigate low fertility during the 1920s and 1930s and the women of childbearing age during those decades.Natural cycle in vitro fertilization: Natural Cycle IVF is in vitro fertilisation (IVF) using either of the following procedures:Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.FNA Mapping: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology has been used to examine pathological human tissue from various organs for over 100 years.,Posner C.Sperm: Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed"). In the types of sexual reproduction known as anisogamy and its subtype oogamy, there is a marked difference in the size of the gametes with the smaller one being termed the "male" or sperm cell.Hyperactivation: Hyperactivation is a type of sperm motility. Hyperactivated sperm motility is characterised by a high amplitude, asymmetrical beating pattern of the sperm tail (flagellum).EndometriosisHysterosalpingographyVaricoceleSemen quality: Semen quality is a measure of the ability of semen to accomplish fertilization. Thus, it is a measure of fertility in a man.Pregnancy rate: Pregnancy rate is the success rate for getting pregnant. It is the percentage of all attempts that leads to pregnancy, with attempts generally referring to menstrual cycles where insemination or any artificial equivalent is used, which may be simple artificial insemination (AI) or AI with additional in vitro fertilization.Blood–testis barrier: The blood–testis barrier is a physical barrier between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules of the animal testes. The name "blood-testis barrier" is misleading in that it is not a blood-organ barrier in a strict sense, but is formed between Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubule and as such isolates the further developed stages of germ cells from the blood.AnovulationReproductive technology: Reproductive technology (RT) encompasses all current and anticipated uses of technology in human and animal reproduction, including assisted reproductive technology, contraception and others.Embryo transfer: Embryo transfer refers to a step in the process of assisted reproduction in which embryos are placed into the uterus of a female with the intent to establish a pregnancy. This technique (which is often used in connection with in vitro fertilization (IVF)), may be used in humans or in animals, in which situations the goals may vary.Fallopian tube obstructionOrchitisFitz-Hugh–Curtis syndromeCAP protein family: In molecular biology, the CAP protein family (cysteine-rich secretory proteins, antigen 5, and pathogenesis-related 1 proteins (CAP)) is a large family of proteins that are found in a wide range of organisms, including prokaryotes and non-vertebrate eukaryotes. The nine subfamilies of the mammalian CAP 'super'family include: the human glioma pathogenesis-related 1 (GLIPR1), Golgi associated pathogenesis related-1 (GAPR1) proteins, peptidase inhibitor 15 (PI15), peptidase inhibitor 16 (PI16), cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), CRISP LCCL domain containing 1 (CRISPLD1), CRISP LCCL domain containing 2 (CRISPLD2), mannose receptor like and the R3H domain containing like proteins.PCDHY: PCDH11Y is a gene unique to human males which competes with FOXP2 for the title of the "language gene." PCDH11Y is the gene for making Protocadherin 11Y, a protein that guides the development of nerve cells.Primary ovarian insufficiency: Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI), formerly known as premature ovarian failure, is defined as the cessation of normal ovarian function before age 40 years. It is the scientifically accurate term for the condition that was previously referred to as premature menopause or premature ovarian failure.Infertility in polycystic ovary syndrome: Polycystic ovary disease (PCOS) is a hormonal imbalance in women that is thought to be one of the leading causes of female infertility.Palacio JR et,al.Genitourinary medicine: Genitourinary medicine is a portmanteau that includes aspects of andrology, gynecology and urology. It is primarily related to medicine dealing with sexually transmitted diseases.Orchialgia: Orchialgia is long-term pain of the testes. It is considered chronic if it has persisted for more than 3 months.Endometrium: The endometrium is the inner mucous membrane of the mammalian uterus.Chlamydia antibodies: Chlamydia antibodies are antibodies targeting bacteria of the Chlamydia genus, but it generally refers specifically to antibodies targeting Chlamydia trachomatis, which is the cause of Chlamydia infection in humans.Ovarian diseaseEpididymis: The epididymis (; plural: epididymides or ) is a tube that connects a testicle to a vas deferens in the male reproductive system. It is present in all male reptiles, birds, and mammals.Chlamydia trachomatisOocyte selection: Oocyte selection is a procedure that is performed prior to in vitro fertilization, in order to use oocytes with maximal chances of resulting in pregnancy. In contrast, embryo selection takes place after fertilization.Uterus transplantation: The uterine transplant is the surgical procedure whereby a healthy uterus is transplanted into a female organism of which the uterus is absent or diseased. As part of normal mammalian sexual reproduction, a diseased or absent uterus does not allow normal embryonic implantation, effectively rendering the female infertile.Canga's bead symptom: In radiology, Canga's bead symptom is the irregular appearance of uterus and nodular structures in tuba uterina observed in patients with genital tuberculosis.Canga, S: Kadýn Hastalýklarý Jinekoloji.Screening of potential sperm bank donors: In sperm banks, screening of potential sperm donors typically includes genetic diseases, chromosomal abnormalities and sexually transmitted infections that may be transmitted through sperm. The screening procedure generally also includes a quarantine period, in which the samples are frozen and stored for at least 6 months after which the donor will be re-tested for the STIs.Hyalobarrier: Hyalobarrier is a substance to keep tissue apart post surgery and therefore prevent adhesions. It contains autocross-linked hyaluronan.Gursaran Talwar: Gursaran Prasad Talwar is a medical researcher working in the area of vaccines and immunocontraception. In a 1994 paper, his group demonstrated that women could be vaccinated to prevent pregnancy.Sertoli cell nodule: A Sertoli cell nodule, also Pick's adenoma, testicular tubular adenoma and tubular adenoma of the testis, is a benign proliferation of Sertoli cells that arises in association with cryptorchidism (undescended testis). They are not composed of a clonal cell population, i.Jean-Baptiste-Maximien Parchappe de Vinay: Jean-Baptiste-Maximien Parchappe de Vinay (October 21, 1800 – March 12, 1866) was a French psychiatrist who was a native of Épernay, Marne.Ovarian tissue cryopreservation: Ovarian tissue cryopreservation is cryopreservation of tissue of the ovary of a female.Polysomy: Polysomy is a condition found in many species, including fungi, plants, insects, and mammals, in which an organism has at least one more chromosome than normal, i.e.Retrograde ejaculationSpermatid: The spermatid is the haploid male gametid that results from division of secondary spermatocytes. As a result of meiosis, each spermatid contains only half of the genetic material present in the original primary spermatocyte.VasovasostomySeminiferous tubule: Seminiferous tubules are located within the testes, and are the specific location of meiosis, and the subsequent creation of male gametes, namely spermatozoa.Postcoital test: The postcoital test (PCT) (also known as Sims test, Huhner test or Sims-Huhner test) is a test in the evaluation of infertility. The test examines interaction between sperm and mucus of the cervix.ClomifeneMercian Way: The Mercian Way is a long cycle path that runs from Salisbury in Wiltshire to Chester in Cheshire. Operated by Sustrans, it is part of National Cycle Route 45, but is also well used by walkers.CryptorchidismNested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.The Society of Elite Laparoscopic Surgeons: The Society of Elite Laparoscopic Surgeons is a non-profit organization based in Chandler, AZ, existing for the purpose of promoting access to minimally invasive surgery in the United States, and to lobby and promote the transition of the US medical system to adopt minimally invasive hysterectomy as standard of care.Society of Elite Laparoscopic Surgeons The organization is made up of member gynecologic surgeons, and holds annual meetings in various locales.January 2007 in Oceania: __NOTOC__Female education: Female education is a catch-all term for a complex set of issues and debates surrounding education (primary education, secondary education, tertiary education, and health education in particular) for girls and women. It includes areas of gender equality and access to education, and its connection to the alleviation of poverty.

(1/2696) Sonographic evidence for the involvement of the utero-ovarian counter-current system in the ovarian control of directed uterine sperm transport.

Sperm transport from the cervix into the tube is an important uterine function within the process of reproduction. This function is exerted by uterine peristalsis and is controlled by the dominant ovarian structure via a cascade of endocrine events. The uterine peristaltic activity involves only the stratum subvasculare of the myometrium, which exhibits a predominantly circular arrangement of muscular fibres that separate at the fundal level into the fibres of the cornua and continue into the circular muscles of the respective tubes. Since spermatozoa are transported preferentially into the tube ipsilateral to the dominant follicle, this asymmetric uterine function may be controlled by the ovary via direct effects utilizing the utero-ovarian counter-current system, in addition to the systemic circulation. To test this possibility the sonographic characteristics of the uterine vascular bed were studied during different phases of the menstrual cycle. Vaginal sonography with the measurement of Doppler flow characteristics of both uterine arteries and of the arterial anastomoses of the uterine and ovarian arteries (junctional vessels) in the cornual region of both sides of the uterus during the menstrual phase of regular-cycling women demonstrated significant lower resistance indices of the junctional vessels ipsilateral to the side of the dominant ovarian structure as compared with the corresponding arteries contralaterally. By the use of the perfusion mode technique, it could be observed that vascular perfusion of the fundal myometrium was significantly increased ipsilateral to the dominant follicle during the late follicular phase of the cycle. These results show that the endocrine control of the dominant ovarian structure over uterine function is not only exerted via the systemic circulation but also directly, most probably utilizing the utero-ovarian counter-current system.  (+info)

(2/2696) Risk of testicular cancer in subfertile men: case-control study.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between subfertility in men and the subsequent risk of testicular cancer. DESIGN: Population based case-control study. SETTING: The Danish population. PARTICIPANTS: Cases were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry; controls were randomly selected from the Danish population with the computerised Danish Central Population Register. Men were interviewed by telephone; 514 men with cancer and 720 controls participated. OUTCOME MEASURE: Occurrence of testicular cancer. RESULTS: A reduced risk of testicular cancer was associated with paternity (relative risk 0.63; 95% confidence interval 0.47 to 0.85). In men who before the diagnosis of testicular cancer had a lower number of children than expected on the basis of their age, the relative risk was 1.98 (1.43 to 2.75). There was no corresponding protective effect associated with a higher number of children than expected. The associations were similar for seminoma and non-seminoma and were not influenced by adjustment for potential confounding factors. CONCLUSION: These data are consistent with the hypothesis that male subfertility and testicular cancer share important aetiological factors.  (+info)

(3/2696) Molecular analysis of the cystic fibrosis gene reveals a high frequency of the intron 8 splice variant 5T in Egyptian males with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens.

It has previously been shown that defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene are largely responsible for the condition of congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD), without associated renal abnormalities, in Caucasian populations. To assess the involvement of the CFTR in CBAVD in a population with presumed low cystic fibrosis (CF) frequency, we have analysed 20 CBAVD males from Egypt for the presence of 12 common Caucasian CFTR mutations and the intron 8 5T splice variant, IVS-5T, known to be a major cause of CBAVD in Caucasian patients. In 16 of the males without associated renal abnormalities only one deltaF508 carrier was identified, but an exceptionally high frequency of the IVS-5T variant was found (14 of 32 alleles or 43.7%), confirming that this variant is involved in many cases of CBAVD, even in populations where CF is rare. CFTR mutations or the IVS-5T variant were found neither in the remaining four patients with associated renal abnormalities nor in the spouses of the 20 CBAVD patients. However, one patient was homozygous for a leucine to proline substitution at amino acid position 541 (L541P) of the CFTR. It is as yet not clear whether this change is involved in CBAVD in this male.  (+info)

(4/2696) Expression of CD44 in human cumulus and mural granulosa cells of individual patients in in-vitro fertilization programmes.

CD44 is a polymorphic and polyfunctional transmembrane glycoprotein widely expressed in many types of cells. Here, the expression of this protein on human membrana granulosa was studied by two techniques. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) with the mouse monoclonal antibody to human CD44 (clone G44-26), cells immunoreactive for CD44 were observed in both cumulus and mural granulosa cell masses. On the other hand, using monoclonal antibody to human CD44v9, goat polyclonal antibody to human CD44v3-10 and the clone G44-26, no immunoreactivity for CD44v9 and/or CD44v3-10 was observed in either cell group by flow cytometry. In the flow cytometric analysis of 32 patients, the incidence of CD44 expression in cumulus cells (62.6+/-1.3%) was significantly higher than that in mural granulosa cells (38.5+/-3.2%) (P<0.0001). In the comparison of CD44 expression by flow cytometry according to the maturation of each cumulus-oocyte complex, the incidence of CD44 expression of cumulus cells was significantly higher in the mature group than in the immature group (P<0.05). In a flow cytometric analysis, patients with endometriosis showed a significantly lower incidence of CD44 expression in cumulus cells compared to the infertility of unknown origin group (P<0.05), and compared to both the male infertility group and the unknown origin group in mural granulosa cells (P<0.01). These findings suggest that the standard form of CD44 is expressed in human membrana granulosa with polarity and may play an important role in oocyte maturation.  (+info)

(5/2696) Y chromosome and male infertility.

Recent genome analysis of the Y chromosome has increased the number of genes found on this chromosome markedly. Many of these genes in the part of the Y chromosome that does not undergo recombination with the X chromosome are members of gene families. Evolutionary considerations imply that genes on the Y chromosome will degenerate unless they have male advantageous or female deleterious functions. Spermatogenesis is an example of a male advantageous function and genes in three regions of the human Y chromosome have been promoted as candidate male fertility factors.  (+info)

(6/2696) Origin of DNA damage in ejaculated human spermatozoa.

The molecular basis of many forms of male infertility is poorly defined. One area of research that has been studied intensely is the integrity of the DNA in the nucleus of mature ejaculated spermatozoa. It has been shown that, in men with abnormal sperm parameters, the DNA is more likely to possess strand breaks. However, how and why this DNA damage originates in certain males and how it may influence the genetic project of a mature spermatozoon is unknown. Two theories have been proposed to describe the origin of this DNA damage in mature spermatozoa. The first arises from studies performed in animal models and is linked to the unique manner in which mammalian sperm chromatin is packaged, while the second attributes the nuclear DNA damage in mature spermatozoa to apoptosis. One of the factors implicated in sperm apoptosis is the cell surface protein, Fas. In this review, we discuss the possible origins of DNA damage in ejaculated human spermatozoa, how these spermatozoa arrive in the ejaculate of some men, and what consequences they may have if they succeed in their genetic project.  (+info)

(7/2696) Mouse MutS-like protein Msh5 is required for proper chromosome synapsis in male and female meiosis.

Members of the mammalian mismatch repair protein family of MutS and MutL homologs have been implicated in postreplicative mismatch correction and chromosome interactions during meiotic recombination. Here we demonstrate that mice carrying a disruption in MutS homolog Msh5 show a meiotic defect, leading to male and female sterility. Histological and cytological examination of prophase I stages in both sexes revealed an extended zygotene stage, characterized by impaired and aberrant chromosome synapsis, that was followed by apoptotic cell death. Thus, murine Msh5 promotes synapsis of homologous chromosomes in meiotic prophase I.  (+info)

(8/2696) Varicocele and infertility in men.

Varicocele is an important cause of infertility in men. The exact mechanism by which varicocele depresses spermatogenesis is unknown but probably the retrograde flow of blood rich in catecholamines into the testes plays a major role. Because subfertile semen qualities are present in a large percentage of men with varicocele and because the response to surgical procedures is very good, high ligation of the left internal spermatic vein is recommended in men with varicocele and infertility.  (+info)


  • Fertility really is a couples thing not just a male or a female thing. (
  • As reported in the issue of the British Medical Journal (BMJ), the study found a strong association between men with infertility problems and the subsequent risk of testicular cancer, with men in couples with fertility problems being over 1.5 times more likely to develop testicular cancer than other men. (
  • This one-year program (minimum) focuses on the development of clinical excellence in all aspects of male fertility management and basic science techniques in andrology. (
  • Our new, state-of-the-art Andrology Center offers evaluation, preservation and other services for male fertility. (
  • In other words, infertility is often only low fertility in disguise. (
  • 22 A total of 108 fertile men and 103 men with impaired fertility ("subfertile men") participated in the study. (
  • Thus vitamin B 12 supplementation has been tried for improving fertility in men with abnormal sperm production. (
  • According to one small double-blind study, the antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin might enhance male fertility. (
  • Clomiphene citrate (Clomid or Serophene) is an anti-estrogen drug designed as a fertility medicine for women but sometimes used to boost sperm production in men with low sperm counts and poor sperm motility. (
  • those that decrease sperm motility such as sulfasalazine and nitrofurantoin Genetic abnormalities such as a Robertsonian translocation There is increasing evidence that the harmful products of tobacco smoking may damage the testicles and kill sperm, but their effect on male fertility is not clear. (
  • A new study has revealed that workplace exertion, having high blood pressure, and taking multiple medications are some of the health risks that may reduce male fertility. (
  • Michael L. Eisenberg said, "As men are having children later in life, the importance of diseases people once thought as separate from fertility must be re-explored. (
  • NIH's Buck Louis said, "The good news is that these factors, if they are confirmed to have negative effects on male fertility, can potentially be modified by medical care or changing job-related behaviors. (
  • Scientists at the Queen's University have revealed a unique fertility treatment that could improve male infertility. (
  • Feelings about fertility and sexual adequacy are interconnected for many men, especially through male factor infertility. (
  • Mesterolone is used in the treatment of androgen deficiency in male hypogonadism, anemia, and to support male fertility among other indications. (
  • He wrote several books of his own: such as Counselling in Male Infertility, and was also a contributor/consultant in such books: The Miraculous World of The Unborn Baby (Quadrillion, Godalming, Surrey 1998) ISBN 1-85833-966-9, Natural Fertility (Hamlyn 2002) ISBN 0-600-60396-2 and Inconceivable Conceptions. (
  • Naz, Rajesh K. Immune Infertility: Impact of Immune Reactions on Human Fertility (2nd Edition ed. (
  • Dr. Goldstein's research has shown that there is a direct link between varicocele and low testosterone and varicocele and loss of fertility in men. (


  • The most common treatable cause of male factor infertility is called varicocele," said Dr. Dan Williams, director of male reproductive medicine and surgery at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health. (
  • Risk factors for the formation of antisperm antibodies in men include the breakdown of the blood‑testis barrier, trauma and surgery, orchitis, varicocele, infections, prostatitis, testicular cancer, failure of immunosuppression and unprotected receptive anal or oral sex with men. (
  • In a number of situations direct medical or surgical intervention can improve the sperm concentration, examples are use of FSH in men with pituitary hypogonadism, antibiotics in case of infections, or operative corrections of a hydrocele, varicocele, or vas deferens obstruction. (
  • Dr. Goldstein's current research focuses on the relationship between high sperm DNA fragmentation and varicocele, mapping sperm DNA fragmentation in the male genital tract to determine the best surgically retrieved sperm specimen to use for IVF/ICSI and the association between DNA fragmentation and semen parameters. (
  • Varicocele and Male Infertility II. (
  • male infertility is associated with reduced bitesticular volume, varicocele, retractile testes, low ejaculate volume, male accessory gland infections (MAGI), and mumps orchitis. (


  • The study will try to identify genetic causes of impaired sperm production and male infertility. (
  • It is evident that genetic variation plays a substantial role in the etiology of male infertility. (
  • Age (see also: Paternal age effect) Genetic defects on the Y chromosome Y chromosome microdeletions Abnormal set of chromosomes Klinefelter syndrome Centriole Neoplasm, e.g. seminoma Idiopathic failure Cryptorchidism Trauma Hydrocele Mumps Malaria Testicular cancer Defects in USP26 in some cases Acrosomal defects affecting egg penetration Idiopathic oligospermia - unexplained sperm deficiencies account for 30% of male infertility. (
  • Genetic anomalies have been identified as one of main reasons for male infertility in the country. (
  • A report documented by the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), in collaboration with the Banaras Hindu University (BHU), has strongly called for genetic screening of infertility cases in males before referring childless couples for invitro fertilisation (IVF). (
  • The incidence of chromosomal aberrations in population is approximately 0.6 per cent whereas infertile men have an eight to 10-fold higher frequency of chromosomal anomalies than fertile men," she said strongly recommending genetic karyotyping (chromosome analyses). (
  • All patients with chromosomal anomalies were azoospermic (when mature sperm are not found in the semen because of sperm production failure at various stages) and they posed one or the other feature of Klinefelter syndrome, a male genetic disorder. (
  • Spermatocytogenesis is the male form of gametocytogenesis and results in the formation of spermatocytes possessing half the normal complement of genetic material. (
  • It is recommended that men primary hypopituitarism may be linked to a genetic cause, a genetic evaluation is indicated in men with azoospermia due to primary hypopituitarism. (
  • As such, the insensitivity to androgens is only clinically significant when it occurs in genetic males (i.e. individuals with a Y chromosome, or more specifically, an SRY gene). (
  • The unresponsiveness of the cell to the presence of androgenic hormones prevents the masculinization of male genitalia in the developing fetus, as well as the development of male secondary sexual characteristics at puberty, but does allow, without significant impairment, female genital and sexual development in genetic males with the condition. (
  • Although all human fetuses, whether genetic males or females, begin fetal development looking similar, with both the Müllerian duct system (female) and the Wolffian duct system (male) developing. (
  • It is at the seventh week of gestation that the bodies of unaffected genetic males begin their masculinization: i.e, the Wolffian duct system is promoted and the Müllerian duct system is suppressed (the reverse happens with normal females). (
  • This process is triggered by androgens produced by the gonads, which in genetic females had earlier become ovaries, but in genetic males had become testicles due to the presence of the Y Chromosome. (
  • The cells of unaffected genetic males then masculinize by, among other things, enlarging the genital tubercle into a penis but in females it becomes the clitoris, while what in females becomes the labia fuses to become the scrotum of males (where the testicles will later descend). (
  • This results not only in infertility for a genetic male with CAIS, but also presents a high risk of testicular cancer later on in life. (
  • Genetic factors including aneuploidies and single-gene mutations are also contributed to the male infertility. (

Management of Male Infertility

  • Medical Specialization and Research Dr. Goldstein is a specialist in male infertility and scrotal disorders and is internationally renowned for his pioneering work on microsurgical management of male infertility such as vasectomy reversals, varicocelectomy, Hydrocele, Inguinal hernia repair and testis-sparing testicular tumor excision. (
  • He co-edited the updated edition Surgical and Medical Management of Male Infertility with Dr. Peter Schlegel, the Chairman of the Department of Urology at Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital. (


  • Studies of children fathered through intracytoplasmic sperm injection or ICSI have revealed mutations on the AZF region of the Y chromosome linked to male infertility. (
  • Mutations in mitochondrial DNA have been linked to poor sperm motility and raise the possibility that some types of male subfertility may be inherited only through the female line. (
  • Doctors say that genetics plays an important role in maintenance of normal spermatogenesis (sperm production) and in about 30 per cent of infertile males, chromosomal abnormalities and gene mutations have been associated with infertility. (
  • It is estimated that 2-3% of infertile men have AR gene mutations. (
  • A large percentage of human male infertility is estimated to be caused by mutations in genes involved in primary or secondary spermatogenesis and sperm quality and function. (
  • NR5A1 mutations are associated with male infertility, suggesting the possibility that these mutations cause the infertility. (
  • However, it is possible that these mutations individually have no major effect and only contribute to the male infertility by collaboration with other contributors such as environmental factors and other genomics variants. (
  • Recently, NR5A1 mutations have been related to human male infertility (MIM 613957). (
  • These findings substantially increase the number of NR5A1 mutations reported in humans and show that mutations in NR5A1 can be found in patients with a wide range of phenotypic features, ranging from 46,XY sex reversal with primary adrenal failure to male infertility. (
  • 2010) conducted a study on the nonobstructive infertile men (a non-Caucasian mixed ancestry n = 315), which resulted in the report of all missense mutations in the NR5A1 gene with 4% frequency. (
  • Subsequently, three missense mutations were identified as associated with and most likely the cause of the male infertility, according to computational analyses. (


  • neither supplement alone produced this effect, and there was little effect of the combined therapy on fertile men. (
  • Fertile and infertile men between 20 and 45 years of age may be eligible for this study. (
  • We propose to assess the role of folate/homocysteine status and MTHFR and CBS gene variants in infertile men in Sweden with no known cause for their infertility and whose wives/partners appear to be fertile. (
  • Male infertility refers to a male's inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female. (
  • Prostatitis: present in 25 to 30% of infertile compared to 10-15 % of fertile men. (
  • for example, in a study exploring the views of fertile individuals towards infertile men and women, Miall (1994) found that male infertility was frequently seen as arising from sexual dysfunction and was thus associated with higher levels of stigma than female infertility. (
  • For many decades sperm concentrations of less than 20 million sperm/ml were considered low or oligospermic, recently, however, the WHO reassessed sperm criteria and established a lower reference point, less than 15 million sperm/ml, consistent with the 5th percentile for fertile men. (
  • the presence of ASA in the fertile population suggests that not all ASA cause infertility. (
  • In another study the coding sequence of NR5A1 has been analysed in a cohort of 90 well-characterised idiopathic Iranian azoospermic infertile men versus 112 fertile men. (


  • In addition to infertility management, the fellowship will include weekly experiences in a variety of men's health evaluations and procedures to include medical and surgical management of erectile dysfunction, Peyronie's disease, prostatitis syndromes, hypogonadism, and orchialgia. (
  • In men, CD can reduce semen quality and cause immature secondary sex characteristics, hypogonadism and hyperprolactinaemia, which causes impotence and loss of libido. (
  • Hyperprolactinaemia may cause galactorrhea (production and spontaneous flow of breast milk) and disruptions in the normal menstrual period in women and hypogonadism, infertility and erectile dysfunction in men. (


  • In his own clinic at the University of Wisconsin, Williams notes, couples are screened together, with the woman seeing an OB/GYN and the man seeing a urologist. (
  • Couples are evaluated for male and female factor infertility issues simultaneously," he said. (
  • Infertility is a condition wherein couples fail to achieve pregnancy or if the woman has been unable to carry a pregnancy that results in a live birth. (
  • Factors relating to male infertility include: Antisperm antibodies (ASA) have been considered as infertility cause in around 10-30% of infertile couples. (
  • Some infertile couples have more than one factor contributing to their infertility. (
  • Infertility is a multi-factorial disorder effecting eight per cent of couples worldwide and among them about half could be traced to the male partner. (
  • Paradoxically, the male partner is either the sole cause or a contributing cause of infertility in 49% of couples. (
  • Couples with long term infertility, who have faced much treatment failure, report higher levels of depression, low satisfaction with their sex lives, and low levels of well being. (
  • ASA have been considered as infertility cause in around 10-30% of infertile couples, and in males, about 12-13% (20,4% in meta-analysis) of all diagnosed infertility is related to an immunological reason. (

forms of infertility

  • In addition, a 2-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of 100 men with various forms of infertility found probable benefits with 2 g daily of L-carnitine. (
  • A lot of men believe that there are numerous disincentives to psychological treatment despite its potential benefits, especially for those forms of infertility most linked to psychological and behavioral factors. (

region of the Y chromosome

  • In men, two spontaneously recurring deletions along a complex region of the Y chromosome are responsible for approximately 8% of cases of failed sperm production. (


  • Azoospermia is the medical condition of a man whose semen contains no sperm. (
  • In humans, azoospermia affects about 1% of the male population and may be seen in up to 20% of male infertility situations. (
  • The condition is seen in 49-93% of men with azoospermia. (
  • Generally, men with unexplained hypergonadotropic azoospermia need to undergo a chromosomal evaluation. (
  • In posttesticular azoospermia sperm are produced but not ejaculated, a condition that affects 7-51% of azoospermic men. (
  • Thus men with azoospermia due to hyperprolactinemia may resume sperm production after treatment of hyperprolactinemia or men whose sperm production is suppressed by exogenous androgens are expected to produce sperm after cessation of androgen intake. (
  • Examples of MAIS phenotypes include isolated infertility (oligospermia or azoospermia), mild gynecomastia in young adulthood, decreased secondary terminal hair, high pitched voice, or minor hypospadias repair in childhood. (
  • Symptoms of androgen insensitivity experienced by men with SBMA are also progressive and include testicular atrophy, severe oligospermia or azoospermia, gynecomastia, and feminized skin changes despite elevated androgen levels. (


  • Terms oligospermia and oligozoospermia refer to semen with a low concentration of sperm and is a common finding in male infertility. (
  • Sources usually classify oligospermia in 3 classes: Mild: concentrations 10 million - 15 million sperm/mL Moderate: concentrations 5 million - 10 million sperm/mL Severe: concentrations less than 5 million sperm/mL The diagnosis of oligozoospermia requires a work-up via semen analysis (listed in Male infertility). (
  • Men with mild oligospermia (semen concentration of 15 million to 20 million sperm/ml) were studied for an association of sperm DNA damage with life style factors. (


  • Different factors contribute to male infertility including various gene defects and chromosomal abnormalities," said Dr Kiran Singh, assistant professor, department of molecular and human genetics, BHU. (

overcome infertility

  • It is hoped these will be used to overcome infertility. (
  • As of 2017 research was also ongoing as to how to overcome infertility caused by ASA for people who want children. (


  • and Director of the Center of Male Reproductive Medicine and Microsurgery at the New York Presbyterian Hospital Weill Cornell Medical Center. (


  • In case of treatment failure, depending on the severity of male infertility, insemination, IVF or microfertilisation (ICSI) can be tried regardless of the etiology. (


  • The incidence can well be higher as the contribution to idiopathic infertility (31% of all cases) still remains elusive. (


  • Vice versa, existence of the other alleles could reduce the phenotypic effects of impaired NR5A1 proteins and attenuate the expression of abnormal phenotypes and manifest male infertility solely. (


  • Today attempts are made to specifically identify causes of male infertility such as immunological, infectious or hormonal factors in order to prescribe a specific treatment. (


  • Artificial Insemination is a medical procedure usually used to treat infertility. (


  • A study from the State University of New York at Stony Brook was published in the Journal of Urology in 1998 where 97 men with infertility were examined to see if their underwear choice made a difference. (


  • During the physical exam, the doctor will look for varicoceles and any abnormalities that might cause infertility. (
  • Researchers said the risk remained constant over time, suggesting that sperm abnormalities had been present many years before the diagnosis of cancer, they conclude there may be common risk factors for poor sperm quality and testicular cancer and suggest these factors may be present in the developing male foetus. (


  • Treatment will depend on the cause of the infertility. (
  • Slight increase of prolactin due to stress or medication probably does not cause infertility. (
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome is the most common hormonal disorder among women of reproductive age and can cause infertility. (
  • If the nutritional intake or metabolism of this vitamin is related to male infertility, then this cause of infertility would be potentially curable. (
  • Disorders of both the male and female reproductive systems cause infertility with almost equal frequency. (
  • Other factors that cause a man to make too few sperm or none at all. (
  • A standard set of diagnostic exams are typically sufficient to identify the cause of an individual's male infertility. (
  • Liver or kidney disease, or treatment for seizure disorders are examples of problems that can cause infertility. (
  • Your healthcare provider will test both you and your partner to find the cause of infertility. (
  • Your provider does these tests to find the cause of sperm defects or health problems of the male reproductive system. (
  • Controversial cause of asthenospermia and male infertility. (
  • Feelings of stress, depression, guilt, or anxiety in infertile men can cause psychogenic impotence, which heightens the feelings of inadequacy that already accompany infertility. (
  • In approximately in half of these cases, the underlying cause is related to the male. (


  • The underlying causative factors in the male infertility can be attributed to environmental toxins, systemic disorders such as, hypothalamic-pituitary disease, testicular cancers and germ-cell aplasia. (


  • The diagnosis of infertility causes many males to question their masculinity. (
  • Lunenfeld B, Insler V, Glezerman M. Diagnosis and treatment of functional infertility. (


  • Researhers from Britain examining the relationship between increasing rates of testicular cancer and decreasing sperm quality, have concluded men who have infertility problems have an increased risk of developing cancer. (
  • Though there are no specific feature was linked to increased risk of testicular cancer, men with poor semen quality overall were between twice and three times as likely to develop testicular cancer. (
  • Men with a low sperm count who had fathered children in the past had a lower risk of developing testicular cancer than men who had been unable to father children at all. (
  • We also offer cryopreservation of male gametes (prior to cancer treatment), testicular tissue and epididymal aspirates. (
  • Azoospermic men with testicular failure are advised to undergo karyotype and Y-micro-deletion testing. (

semen parameters

  • An increasing amount of recent evidence has been recorded documenting abnormal sperm DNA methylation in association with abnormal semen parameters and male infertility. (


  • this category of androgen insensitivity is diagnosed when the degree of androgen insensitivity in an individual with a 46,XY karyotype is great enough to impair virilization or spermatogenesis, but is not great enough to impair normal male genital development. (
  • All forms of androgen insensitivity are associated with infertility, though exceptions have been reported for both the mild and partial forms. (
  • CAIS is one of the three categories of androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) since AIS is differentiated according to the degree of genital masculinization: complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) when the external genitalia is that of a normal female, mild androgen insensitivity syndrome (MAIS) when the external genitalia is that of a normal male, and partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) when the external genitalia is partially, but not fully masculinized. (
  • The prostate, like the external male genitalia, cannot masculinize in the absence of androgen receptor function, and thus remains in the female form. (

external male genitalia

  • The external male genitalia (penis, scrotum, and urethra) are otherwise normal in individuals with MAIS. (


  • This is another reason it's very important for men to be evaluated by a urologist who's specially trained in male infertility," said Williams, noting that the common route of the man being evaluated by his primary care doctor or his partner's OB/GYN is often not enough. (
  • By the end of the study, their partner's pregnancy rate was about 37 percent among men who'd taken the combination therapy, compared with 13 percent for those in the placebo group. (
  • the clearest correlations are that women whose male partners have ASA in their semen are more likely to have ASA, and women with ASA tend to react only to their partner's sperm and not to other men's sperm. (


  • - Expertly authored, this text provides a practical, problem-oriented approach devoted exclusively to the surgery of male infertility. (
  • He is the author of Surgery of Male Infertility, the first textbook on the subject. (


  • Patents Dr. Goldstein has been at the forefront of male infertility surgical innovation. (
  • Appearances in the Media On December 9, 2014 Dr. Goldstein appeared on HuffPost Live to discuss male factor infertility. (


  • Male infertility is commonly due to deficiencies in the semen, and semen quality is used as a surrogate measure of male fecundity. (
  • Treatment takes place within the context of infertility management and needs also to consider the fecundity of the female partner. (


  • The degree of impairment is sufficient to impair spermatogenesis and / or the development of secondary sexual characteristics at puberty in males, but does not affect genital differentiation or development. (


  • Genetically male individuals affected by CAIS, however, will develop a normal external female habitus, despite the presence of a Y chromosome, but internally, they will lack a uterus, and the vaginal cavity will be shallow, while the gonads, having been turned into testicles rather than ovaries in the earlier separate process also triggered by their Y chromosome, will remain undescended in the place where the ovaries would have been. (


  • It will focus on the possible role of the MTHFR and CBS genes, which regulate absorption and metabolism of the vitamin, folate in infertility. (

healthy sperm

  • Problems with making healthy sperm are the most common causes of male infertility. (


  • What are the symptoms of male infertility? (
  • medical citation needed] In men, the most common symptoms of hyperprolactinaemia are decreased libido, sexual dysfunction (in both men and women), erectile dysfunction, infertility, and gynecomastia. (
  • Other signs and symptoms may include sinus infections, poor growth, fatty stool, clubbing of the fingers and toes, and infertility in most males. (


  • Researchers found an average difference of less than half of a degree Fahrenheit in temperature of the scrotum between men who wore one underwear type or the other, with a margin of error larger than the difference. (


  • In addition, infertile men will undergo a physical examination and review of their medical records. (
  • Men undergo various battles when facing personal infertility. (


  • Coeliac men may have reversible infertility. (
  • This means that the diagnosed infertility may be temporary and/or reversible. (


  • Common inherited variants in genes that encode enzymes employed in DNA mismatch repair are associated with increased risk of sperm DNA damage and male infertility. (
  • This receptor is a pivotal transcriptional regulator of an array of genes involved in reproduction, steroidogenesis and male sexual differentiation and also plays a crucial role in adrenal gland formation in both sexes. (


  • It has also been used to treat male infertility, although this use is controversial. (


  • Male infertility, the inability of a man to produce a pregnancy in a woman, is often caused by measurable deficits in sperm function or sperm count. (
  • The good news is that, without any treatment at all, about 25% of supposedly infertile men bring about a pregnancy within a year of the time they first visit a physician for treatment. (
  • In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 110 men whose sperm showed subnormal activity, daily treatment with 100 IU of vitamin E resulted in improved sperm activity and increased rate of pregnancy in their partners. (
  • Infertile men: men referred to the Scandian Andrology Centre whose infertility is unexplained, whose partners are younger than age 40 and who have had regular sexual intercourse without contraception for at least 12 months without achieving a pregnancy. (


  • Men are considered infertile if they produce too few sperm cells, sperm cells of poor quality, or have chronic problems with ejaculation. (


  • It starts at puberty and usually continues uninterrupted until death, although a slight decrease can be discerned in the quantity of produced sperm with increase in age (see Male infertility). (
  • In women, a high blood level of prolactin often causes hypoestrogenism with anovulatory infertility and a decrease in menstruation. (

reproductive system

  • Infertility is a disease of the reproductive system. (
  • Male infertility means that a man has a problem with his reproductive system. (
  • Spermatogenesis takes place within several structures of the male reproductive system. (


  • Growing, if not entirely consistent evidence, suggests that various forms of the supplement L-carnitine may improve sperm function and thereby provide benefit in male infertility. (
  • Research suggests that men and women differ in their psychological responses to infertility Samaira Malik, from the Institute of Work, Health, and Organizations at the University of Nottingham, UK, said, "men are in fact equally affected by the unfulfilled desire for a child but are less open about their feelings. (


  • HMG + HCG is not better than placebo in cases of infertility with normal levels of gonadotrophins (Knuth, JCEM 65:1081,1987). (
  • It is present in up to 35% of cases of primary infertility and 69-81% of secondary infertility. (
  • With infertility cases recording a speedy increase in north India, there are people who are minting money out of the people's problems. (
  • The use of carnitine showed some promise in a controlled trial in selected cases of male infertility improving sperm quality and further studies are needed. (
  • Cases of phenotypically normal males with isolated spermatogenic defect due to AR mutation were first detected as the result of male infertility evaluations. (


  • MONDAY, April 6 -- A hormone-antioxidant combination therapy appears to improve sperm count and motility in infertile men, according to an Egyptian study. (
  • Hormone treatment may help you if you have a hormone disorder causing your infertility. (


  • For example, in one double-blind study, 60 men with abnormal sperm function were given either carnitine (as L-carnitine 2 g/day and acetyl-L-carnitine 1 g/day) or placebo for 6 months. (
  • A similarly sized 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, which involved men with low sperm counts, found benefits with carnitine (again as L-carnitine 2 g/day and acetyl-L-carnitine at 1 g/day) taken alone or carnitine combined with the anti-inflammatory drug cinnoxicam. (


  • Infertility treatments can be costly and lengthy. (


  • The results of this study will be encouraging to male factor patients and their doctors," Dr. R. Dale McClure, president of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, said in a society news release. (
  • These findings suggest that DNA damage is an important factor in male infertility. (
  • Laura A. Peronace, from the School of Psychology at Cardiff University, said, "Male factor infertility is proposed to have such a social stigma that it produces stress, and a culture of secrecy and protectiveness to the extent that women sometimes even take the blame for the couple's childlessness. (
  • The stigma of male factor infertility described earlier has huge effects on the man. (


  • The clinical fellow will spend the majority of his/her time in the clinic and in the operating room, evaluating and managing patients with infertility problems. (


  • Low sperm count is an uncomfortable subject for some men to discuss, which may be why so many urban legends have sprung up about its causes. (
  • What causes infertility in men? (
  • There are several causes of male infertility. (
  • For example, cystic fibrosis often causes infertility in men. (
  • What causes male infertility? (
  • Below are some of the main causes of male infertility. (
  • Psychological causes of impotency may include: Clinical depression Medications Fatigue Stress Relationship issues social interaction All of the listed issues above can arise as a result of psychological effects of infertility in men. (

sperm counts

  • Of the men who reported taking two or more medications per day, 15 percent had sperm counts below 39 million. (
  • Men who acknowledge infertility, articulate the sources of their anxiety, express their loss of confidence in sexual adequacy, deal openly with their wives' disappointment and anger, and consciously redefine their male and marital roles show improved sperm counts and may even be more successful at impregnating their wives. (


  • emotional reactions to the infertility may alter or even undermine a previous consolidation of a sense of self as sexually adequate. (


  • Which has been shown to actually reduce a man's sperm count and lead to infertility ? (
  • Dr. Rheta Keylor of the Massachusetts Institute for Psychoanalysis stated that, male infertility is an "assault on a man's sense of self revives feelings of competition, castration, and experiences of developmental trauma. (


  • Spermatozoa are the mature male gametes in many sexually reproducing organisms. (
  • Spermatogenesis produces mature male gametes, commonly called sperm but more specifically known as spermatozoa, which are able to fertilize the counterpart female gamete, the oocyte, during conception to produce a single-celled individual known as a zygote. (


  • The research included 60 men eligible for infertility treatment. (
  • The men in the treatment group also had a greater increase in sperm concentration and an improvement in sperm progression, the Cairo University researchers found. (
  • Treatment depends on what is causing your infertility. (
  • Only after treatment do some men realize they had a problem with sexual function. (
  • It is associated with infertility, but many forms are amenable to medical treatment. (


  • You may have male infertility if your female partner has not become pregnant after you have tried for 1 year. (
  • In both men and women, ASA production are directed against surface antigens on sperm, which can interfere with sperm motility and transport through the female reproductive tract, inhibiting capacitation and acrosome reaction, impaired fertilization, influence on the implantation process, and impaired growth and development of the embryo. (
  • Thus, spermatogenesis is the male version of gametogenesis, of which the female equivalent is oogenesis. (


  • Women are often held responsible for not conceiving and men shy away from tests. (
  • Often, males do not show emotional stress in attempts to be the emotional stability within the relationship. (


  • In mammals it occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the male testes in a stepwise fashion. (