Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Infertility, Male: The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Reproductive Techniques, Assisted: Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.Fallopian Tube Diseases: Diseases involving the FALLOPIAN TUBES including neoplasms (FALLOPIAN TUBE NEOPLASMS); SALPINGITIS; tubo-ovarian abscess; and blockage.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Azoospermia: A condition of having no sperm present in the ejaculate (SEMEN).Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Oligospermia: A condition of suboptimal concentration of SPERMATOZOA in the ejaculated SEMEN to ensure successful FERTILIZATION of an OVUM. In humans, oligospermia is defined as a sperm count below 20 million per milliliter semen.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Sperm Count: A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.Sperm Motility: Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.Endometriosis: A condition in which functional endometrial tissue is present outside the UTERUS. It is often confined to the PELVIS involving the OVARY, the ligaments, cul-de-sac, and the uterovesical peritoneum.Hysterosalpingography: Radiography of the uterus and fallopian tubes after the injection of a contrast medium.Varicocele: A condition characterized by the dilated tortuous veins of the SPERMATIC CORD with a marked left-sided predominance. Adverse effect on male fertility occurs when varicocele leads to an increased scrotal (and testicular) temperature and reduced testicular volume.Semen: The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.Semen Analysis: The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.Reproductive Techniques: Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Clomiphene: A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Anovulation: Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.Asthenozoospermia: A condition in which the percentage of progressively motile sperm is abnormally low. In men, it is defined as Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Reproductive Medicine: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Fertility Agents, Female: Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Insemination, Artificial, Homologous: Human artificial insemination in which the husband's semen is used.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Sex Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Some sex chromosome aberrations are associated with SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS and SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS OF SEX DEVELOPMENT.Orchitis: Inflammation of a TESTIS. It has many features of EPIDIDYMITIS, such as swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS and then the TESTIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Uterine Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the UTERUS.Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.Seminal Plasma Proteins: Proteins found in SEMEN. Major seminal plasma proteins are secretory proteins from the male sex accessory glands, such as the SEMINAL VESICLES and the PROSTATE. They include the seminal vesicle-specific antigen, an ejaculate clotting protein; and the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.Sex Chromosome Disorders of Sex Development: Congenital conditions of atypical sexual development associated with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions including MONOSOMY; TRISOMY; and MOSAICISM.Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Fallopian Tube Patency Tests: Methods for assessing the patency of the fallopian tubes.Abnormal Karyotype: A variation from the normal set of chromosomes characteristic of a species.Primary Ovarian Insufficiency: Cessation of ovarian function after MENARCHE but before the age of 40, without or with OVARIAN FOLLICLE depletion. It is characterized by the presence of OLIGOMENORRHEA or AMENORRHEA, elevated GONADOTROPINS, and low ESTRADIOL levels. It is a state of female HYPERGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM. Etiologies include genetic defects, autoimmune processes, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections.Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.Andrology: A scientific or medical discipline concerning the study of male reproductive biology, diseases of the male genital organs, and male infertility. Major areas of interest include ENDOCRINOLOGY; SPERMATOGENESIS; semen analysis; FERTILIZATION; CONTRACEPTION; and CRYOPRESERVATION.Testicular Diseases: Pathological processes of the TESTIS.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Fertility Agents: Drugs used to increase fertility or to treat infertility.Ovarian Diseases: Pathological processes of the OVARY.Epididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Pregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.Abortion, Habitual: Three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Tuberculosis, Female Genital: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Sperm Banks: Centers for acquiring and storing semen.Hysteroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the uterus.Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.Contraception, Immunologic: Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.Tissue Adhesions: Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.Gonadotropins: Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.Social Alienation: The state of estrangement individuals feel in cultural settings that they view as foreign, unpredictable, or unacceptable.Live Birth: The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Reproductive Behavior: Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.Klinefelter Syndrome: A form of male HYPOGONADISM, characterized by the presence of an extra X CHROMOSOME, small TESTES, seminiferous tubule dysgenesis, elevated levels of GONADOTROPINS, low serum TESTOSTERONE, underdeveloped secondary sex characteristics, and male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE). Patients tend to have long legs and a slim, tall stature. GYNECOMASTIA is present in many of the patients. The classic form has the karyotype 47,XXY. Several karyotype variants include 48,XXYY; 48,XXXY; 49,XXXXY, and mosaic patterns ( 46,XY/47,XXY; 47,XXY/48,XXXY, etc.).Ejaculation: The emission of SEMEN to the exterior, resulting from the contraction of muscles surrounding the male internal urogenital ducts.Spermatids: Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.Vasovasostomy: Surgical anastomosis or fistulization of the spermatic ducts to restore fertility in a previously vasectomized male.Seminiferous Tubules: The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.Sperm-Ovum Interactions: Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.Hypogonadism: Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).Menstruation Disturbances: Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.Cryptorchidism: A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.Menotropins: Extracts of urine from menopausal women that contain high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins, FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE. Menotropins are used to treat infertility. The FSH:LH ratio and degree of purity vary in different preparations.Sperm Tail: The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Oocyte Donation: Transfer of preovulatory oocytes from donor to a suitable host. Oocytes are collected, fertilized in vitro, and transferred to a host that can be human or animal.Time-to-Pregnancy: Time interval, or number of non-contraceptive menstrual cycles that it takes for a couple to conceive.Oceania: The islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia. (Random House Dictionary, 2d ed)Sertoli Cell-Only Syndrome: A type of male infertility in which no germ cells are visible in any of the biopsied SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES (type I) or in which germ cells are present in a minority of tubules (type II). Clinical features include AZOOSPERMIA, normal VIRILIZATION, and normal chromosomal complement.Diagnostic Techniques, Obstetrical and Gynecological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of conditions related to pregnancy, labor, and the puerperium and of diseases of the female genitalia. It includes also demonstration of genital and pregnancy physiology.Gonadal Disorders: Pathological processes of the OVARIES or the TESTES.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Oocyte Retrieval: Procedures to obtain viable OOCYTES from the host. Oocytes most often are collected by needle aspiration from OVARIAN FOLLICLES before OVULATION.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human: A major gonadotropin secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and the LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common in the three human pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Spiritual Therapies: Mystical, religious, or spiritual practices performed for health benefit.Insemination, Artificial, Heterologous: Human artificial insemination in which the semen used is that of a man other than the woman's husband.Zona Pellucida: A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.Salpingitis: Inflammation of the uterine salpinx, the trumpet-shaped FALLOPIAN TUBES, usually caused by ascending infections of organisms from the lower reproductive tract. Salpingitis can lead to tubal scarring, hydrosalpinx, tubal occlusion, INFERTILITY, and ectopic pregnancy (PREGNANCY, ECTOPIC)Insemination: The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer: A technique that came into use in the mid-1980's for assisted conception in infertile women with normal fallopian tubes. The protocol consists of hormonal stimulation of the ovaries, followed by laparoscopic follicular aspiration of oocytes, and then the transfer of sperm and oocytes by catheterization into the fallopian tubes.Sperm Retrieval: Procedures to obtain viable sperm from the male reproductive tract, including the TESTES, the EPIDIDYMIS, or the VAS DEFERENS.Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Protamines: A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)Sex Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Mycoplasma hominis: A common inhabitant of the vagina and cervix and a potential human pathogen, causing infections of the male and female reproductive tracts. It has also been associated with respiratory disease and pharyngitis. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Sperm Maturation: The maturing process of SPERMATOZOA after leaving the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. Maturation in SPERM MOTILITY and FERTILITY takes place in the EPIDIDYMIS as the sperm migrate from caput epididymis to cauda epididymis.Pregnancy, Ectopic: A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Superovulation: Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Adoption: Voluntary acceptance of a child of other parents to be as one's own child, usually with legal confirmation.Genital Diseases, Female: Pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Ejaculatory Ducts: Paired ducts in the human male through which semen is ejaculated into the urethra.Sperm Head: The anterior portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that contains mainly the nucleus with highly compact CHROMATIN material.Fertility Preservation: A method of providing future reproductive opportunities before a medical treatment with known risk of loss of fertility. Typically reproductive organs or tissues (e.g., sperm, egg, embryos and ovarian or testicular tissues) are cryopreserved for future use before the medical treatment (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation) begins.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Surrogate Mothers: Women who allow themselves to be impregnated with the understanding that the offspring are to be given over to the parents who have commissioned the surrogate.Vasectomy: Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)Spermatogonia: Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Myoma: A benign neoplasm of muscular tissue. (Stedman, 25th ed)Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Contraceptive Agents, Male: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Acrosome: The cap-like structure covering the anterior portion of SPERM HEAD. Acrosome, derived from LYSOSOMES, is a membrane-bound organelle that contains the required hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes necessary for sperm penetration of the egg in FERTILIZATION.Genital Diseases, Male: Pathological processes involving the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).Reproductive Tract Infections: Infections of the genital tract in females or males. They can be caused by endogenous, iatrogenic, or sexually transmitted organisms.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Leiomyoma: A benign tumor derived from smooth muscle tissue, also known as a fibroid tumor. They rarely occur outside of the UTERUS and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT but can occur in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE, probably arising from the smooth muscle of small blood vessels in these tissues.Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Oligomenorrhea: Abnormally infrequent menstruation.Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Africa, Central: The geographical area of Africa comprising CAMEROON; CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC; CHAD; CONGO; EQUATORIAL GUINEA; GABON; and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO.Luteal Phase: The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.Douglas' Pouch: A sac or recess formed by a fold of the peritoneum.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Urologic Surgical Procedures, Male: Surgery performed on the male genitalia.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Epididymitis: Inflammation of the EPIDIDYMIS. Its clinical features include enlarged epididymis, a swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.Semen Preservation: The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Mycoplasma genitalium: A species of gram-negative bacteria originally isolated from urethral specimens of patients with non-gonoccocal URETHRITIS. In primates it exists in parasitic association with ciliated EPITHELIAL CELLS in the genital and respiratory tracts.Feminine Hygiene Products: Personal care items for women.Kartagener Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a triad of DEXTROCARDIA; INFERTILITY; and SINUSITIS. The syndrome is caused by mutations of DYNEIN genes encoding motility proteins which are components of sperm tails, and CILIA in the respiratory and the reproductive tracts.Acrosome Reaction: Changes that occur to liberate the enzymes of the ACROSOME of a sperm (SPERMATOZOA). Acrosome reaction allows the sperm to penetrate the ZONA PELLUCIDA and enter the OVUM during FERTILIZATION.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Anti-Mullerian Hormone: A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.Extramarital Relations: Voluntary SEXUAL INTERCOURSE between a married person and someone other than the SPOUSE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Endometritis: Inflammation of the ENDOMETRIUM, usually caused by intrauterine infections. Endometritis is the most common cause of postpartum fever.Microsurgery: The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.Gynecology: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.Hyperprolactinemia: Increased levels of PROLACTIN in the BLOOD, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the PITUITARY GLAND, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Hirsutism: A condition observed in WOMEN and CHILDREN when there is excess coarse body hair of an adult male distribution pattern, such as facial and chest areas. It is the result of elevated ANDROGENS from the OVARIES, the ADRENAL GLANDS, or exogenous sources. The concept does not include HYPERTRICHOSIS, which is an androgen-independent excessive hair growth.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Peritoneal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PERITONEUM.Ornidazole: A nitroimidazole antiprotozoal agent used in ameba and trichomonas infections. It is partially plasma-bound and also has radiation-sensitizing action.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Reproductive History: An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Pelvic Pain: Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.Vaccines, Contraceptive: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Gynecologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the female genitalia.Sexuality: The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.Vas Deferens: The excretory duct of the testes that carries SPERMATOZOA. It rises from the SCROTUM and joins the SEMINAL VESICLES to form the ejaculatory duct.Salpingostomy: Formation of an artificial opening in a fallopian tube.Scrotum: A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Genitalia, Male: The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).DenmarkMenopause, Premature: The premature cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) when the last menstrual period occurs in a woman under the age of 40. It is due to the depletion of OVARIAN FOLLICLES. Premature MENOPAUSE can be caused by diseases; OVARIECTOMY; RADIATION; chemicals; and chromosomal abnormalities.Sterilization Reversal: Procedures to reverse the effect of REPRODUCTIVE STERILIZATION and to regain fertility. Reversal procedures include those used to restore the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE or the VAS DEFERENS.Embryo Disposition: Utilization or disposal of an embryo that is fertilized but not immediately transplanted and resulting course of action.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Genes, Y-Linked: Genes that are located on the Y CHROMOSOME.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.

*  Small RNAs Can Play Crucial Role In Male Infertility/Contraception - Redorbit

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Male infertilityUnexplained infertility: Unexplained infertility is infertility that is idiopathic in the sense that its cause remains unknown even after an infertility work-up, usually including semen analysis in the man and assessment of ovulation and fallopian tubes in the woman.merckmanuals > Unexplained Infertility Last full review/revision November 2008 by Robert W.Endosalpingiosis: In gynecology, endosalpingiosis is a condition in which fallopian tube-like epithelium is found outside of the fallopian tube. It is unknown what causes this condition.Spermiogenesis: Spermiogenesis is the final stage of spermatogenesis, which sees the maturation of spermatids into mature, motile spermatozoa. The spermatid is more or less circular cell containing a nucleus, Golgi apparatus, centriole and mitochondria.AzoospermiaLow Fertility Cohorts Study: The Low Fertility Cohorts Study, 1978: A Survey of White, Ever-Married Women Belonging to the 1901-1910 United States Birth Cohorts,Data Sharing For Demographic Research consists of personal interviews of white, ever-married women born between July 1, 1900, and June 30, 1910. In 1978, a national survey of 1,049 married women between the ages of 68 and 78 were interviewed between the months of March and July in order to investigate low fertility during the 1920s and 1930s and the women of childbearing age during those decades.Natural cycle in vitro fertilization: Natural Cycle IVF is in vitro fertilisation (IVF) using either of the following procedures:Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.FNA Mapping: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology has been used to examine pathological human tissue from various organs for over 100 years.,Posner C.Sperm: Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed"). In the types of sexual reproduction known as anisogamy and its subtype oogamy, there is a marked difference in the size of the gametes with the smaller one being termed the "male" or sperm cell.Hyperactivation: Hyperactivation is a type of sperm motility. Hyperactivated sperm motility is characterised by a high amplitude, asymmetrical beating pattern of the sperm tail (flagellum).EndometriosisHysterosalpingographyVaricoceleSemen quality: Semen quality is a measure of the ability of semen to accomplish fertilization. Thus, it is a measure of fertility in a man.Pregnancy rate: Pregnancy rate is the success rate for getting pregnant. It is the percentage of all attempts that leads to pregnancy, with attempts generally referring to menstrual cycles where insemination or any artificial equivalent is used, which may be simple artificial insemination (AI) or AI with additional in vitro fertilization.Blood–testis barrier: The blood–testis barrier is a physical barrier between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules of the animal testes. The name "blood-testis barrier" is misleading in that it is not a blood-organ barrier in a strict sense, but is formed between Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubule and as such isolates the further developed stages of germ cells from the blood.AnovulationReproductive technology: Reproductive technology (RT) encompasses all current and anticipated uses of technology in human and animal reproduction, including assisted reproductive technology, contraception and others.Embryo transfer: Embryo transfer refers to a step in the process of assisted reproduction in which embryos are placed into the uterus of a female with the intent to establish a pregnancy. This technique (which is often used in connection with in vitro fertilization (IVF)), may be used in humans or in animals, in which situations the goals may vary.Fallopian tube obstructionOrchitisFitz-Hugh–Curtis syndromeCAP protein family: In molecular biology, the CAP protein family (cysteine-rich secretory proteins, antigen 5, and pathogenesis-related 1 proteins (CAP)) is a large family of proteins that are found in a wide range of organisms, including prokaryotes and non-vertebrate eukaryotes. The nine subfamilies of the mammalian CAP 'super'family include: the human glioma pathogenesis-related 1 (GLIPR1), Golgi associated pathogenesis related-1 (GAPR1) proteins, peptidase inhibitor 15 (PI15), peptidase inhibitor 16 (PI16), cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), CRISP LCCL domain containing 1 (CRISPLD1), CRISP LCCL domain containing 2 (CRISPLD2), mannose receptor like and the R3H domain containing like proteins.PCDHY: PCDH11Y is a gene unique to human males which competes with FOXP2 for the title of the "language gene." PCDH11Y is the gene for making Protocadherin 11Y, a protein that guides the development of nerve cells.Primary ovarian insufficiency: Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI), formerly known as premature ovarian failure, is defined as the cessation of normal ovarian function before age 40 years. It is the scientifically accurate term for the condition that was previously referred to as premature menopause or premature ovarian failure.Infertility in polycystic ovary syndrome: Polycystic ovary disease (PCOS) is a hormonal imbalance in women that is thought to be one of the leading causes of female infertility.Palacio JR et,al.Genitourinary medicine: Genitourinary medicine is a portmanteau that includes aspects of andrology, gynecology and urology. It is primarily related to medicine dealing with sexually transmitted diseases.Orchialgia: Orchialgia is long-term pain of the testes. It is considered chronic if it has persisted for more than 3 months.Endometrium: The endometrium is the inner mucous membrane of the mammalian uterus.Chlamydia antibodies: Chlamydia antibodies are antibodies targeting bacteria of the Chlamydia genus, but it generally refers specifically to antibodies targeting Chlamydia trachomatis, which is the cause of Chlamydia infection in humans.Ovarian diseaseEpididymis: The epididymis (; plural: epididymides or ) is a tube that connects a testicle to a vas deferens in the male reproductive system. It is present in all male reptiles, birds, and mammals.Chlamydia trachomatisOocyte selection: Oocyte selection is a procedure that is performed prior to in vitro fertilization, in order to use oocytes with maximal chances of resulting in pregnancy. In contrast, embryo selection takes place after fertilization.Uterus transplantation: The uterine transplant is the surgical procedure whereby a healthy uterus is transplanted into a female organism of which the uterus is absent or diseased. As part of normal mammalian sexual reproduction, a diseased or absent uterus does not allow normal embryonic implantation, effectively rendering the female infertile.Canga's bead symptom: In radiology, Canga's bead symptom is the irregular appearance of uterus and nodular structures in tuba uterina observed in patients with genital tuberculosis.Canga, S: Kadýn Hastalýklarý Jinekoloji.Screening of potential sperm bank donors: In sperm banks, screening of potential sperm donors typically includes genetic diseases, chromosomal abnormalities and sexually transmitted infections that may be transmitted through sperm. The screening procedure generally also includes a quarantine period, in which the samples are frozen and stored for at least 6 months after which the donor will be re-tested for the STIs.Hyalobarrier: Hyalobarrier is a substance to keep tissue apart post surgery and therefore prevent adhesions. It contains autocross-linked hyaluronan.Gursaran Talwar: Gursaran Prasad Talwar is a medical researcher working in the area of vaccines and immunocontraception. In a 1994 paper, his group demonstrated that women could be vaccinated to prevent pregnancy.Sertoli cell nodule: A Sertoli cell nodule, also Pick's adenoma, testicular tubular adenoma and tubular adenoma of the testis, is a benign proliferation of Sertoli cells that arises in association with cryptorchidism (undescended testis). They are not composed of a clonal cell population, i.Jean-Baptiste-Maximien Parchappe de Vinay: Jean-Baptiste-Maximien Parchappe de Vinay (October 21, 1800 – March 12, 1866) was a French psychiatrist who was a native of Épernay, Marne.Ovarian tissue cryopreservation: Ovarian tissue cryopreservation is cryopreservation of tissue of the ovary of a female.Polysomy: Polysomy is a condition found in many species, including fungi, plants, insects, and mammals, in which an organism has at least one more chromosome than normal, i.e.Retrograde ejaculationSpermatid: The spermatid is the haploid male gametid that results from division of secondary spermatocytes. As a result of meiosis, each spermatid contains only half of the genetic material present in the original primary spermatocyte.VasovasostomySeminiferous tubule: Seminiferous tubules are located within the testes, and are the specific location of meiosis, and the subsequent creation of male gametes, namely spermatozoa.Postcoital test: The postcoital test (PCT) (also known as Sims test, Huhner test or Sims-Huhner test) is a test in the evaluation of infertility. The test examines interaction between sperm and mucus of the cervix.ClomifeneMercian Way: The Mercian Way is a long cycle path that runs from Salisbury in Wiltshire to Chester in Cheshire. Operated by Sustrans, it is part of National Cycle Route 45, but is also well used by walkers.CryptorchidismNested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.The Society of Elite Laparoscopic Surgeons: The Society of Elite Laparoscopic Surgeons is a non-profit organization based in Chandler, AZ, existing for the purpose of promoting access to minimally invasive surgery in the United States, and to lobby and promote the transition of the US medical system to adopt minimally invasive hysterectomy as standard of care.Society of Elite Laparoscopic Surgeons The organization is made up of member gynecologic surgeons, and holds annual meetings in various locales.January 2007 in Oceania: __NOTOC__Female education: Female education is a catch-all term for a complex set of issues and debates surrounding education (primary education, secondary education, tertiary education, and health education in particular) for girls and women. It includes areas of gender equality and access to education, and its connection to the alleviation of poverty.

(1/2696) Sonographic evidence for the involvement of the utero-ovarian counter-current system in the ovarian control of directed uterine sperm transport.

Sperm transport from the cervix into the tube is an important uterine function within the process of reproduction. This function is exerted by uterine peristalsis and is controlled by the dominant ovarian structure via a cascade of endocrine events. The uterine peristaltic activity involves only the stratum subvasculare of the myometrium, which exhibits a predominantly circular arrangement of muscular fibres that separate at the fundal level into the fibres of the cornua and continue into the circular muscles of the respective tubes. Since spermatozoa are transported preferentially into the tube ipsilateral to the dominant follicle, this asymmetric uterine function may be controlled by the ovary via direct effects utilizing the utero-ovarian counter-current system, in addition to the systemic circulation. To test this possibility the sonographic characteristics of the uterine vascular bed were studied during different phases of the menstrual cycle. Vaginal sonography with the measurement of Doppler flow characteristics of both uterine arteries and of the arterial anastomoses of the uterine and ovarian arteries (junctional vessels) in the cornual region of both sides of the uterus during the menstrual phase of regular-cycling women demonstrated significant lower resistance indices of the junctional vessels ipsilateral to the side of the dominant ovarian structure as compared with the corresponding arteries contralaterally. By the use of the perfusion mode technique, it could be observed that vascular perfusion of the fundal myometrium was significantly increased ipsilateral to the dominant follicle during the late follicular phase of the cycle. These results show that the endocrine control of the dominant ovarian structure over uterine function is not only exerted via the systemic circulation but also directly, most probably utilizing the utero-ovarian counter-current system.  (+info)

(2/2696) Risk of testicular cancer in subfertile men: case-control study.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between subfertility in men and the subsequent risk of testicular cancer. DESIGN: Population based case-control study. SETTING: The Danish population. PARTICIPANTS: Cases were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry; controls were randomly selected from the Danish population with the computerised Danish Central Population Register. Men were interviewed by telephone; 514 men with cancer and 720 controls participated. OUTCOME MEASURE: Occurrence of testicular cancer. RESULTS: A reduced risk of testicular cancer was associated with paternity (relative risk 0.63; 95% confidence interval 0.47 to 0.85). In men who before the diagnosis of testicular cancer had a lower number of children than expected on the basis of their age, the relative risk was 1.98 (1.43 to 2.75). There was no corresponding protective effect associated with a higher number of children than expected. The associations were similar for seminoma and non-seminoma and were not influenced by adjustment for potential confounding factors. CONCLUSION: These data are consistent with the hypothesis that male subfertility and testicular cancer share important aetiological factors.  (+info)

(3/2696) Molecular analysis of the cystic fibrosis gene reveals a high frequency of the intron 8 splice variant 5T in Egyptian males with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens.

It has previously been shown that defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene are largely responsible for the condition of congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD), without associated renal abnormalities, in Caucasian populations. To assess the involvement of the CFTR in CBAVD in a population with presumed low cystic fibrosis (CF) frequency, we have analysed 20 CBAVD males from Egypt for the presence of 12 common Caucasian CFTR mutations and the intron 8 5T splice variant, IVS-5T, known to be a major cause of CBAVD in Caucasian patients. In 16 of the males without associated renal abnormalities only one deltaF508 carrier was identified, but an exceptionally high frequency of the IVS-5T variant was found (14 of 32 alleles or 43.7%), confirming that this variant is involved in many cases of CBAVD, even in populations where CF is rare. CFTR mutations or the IVS-5T variant were found neither in the remaining four patients with associated renal abnormalities nor in the spouses of the 20 CBAVD patients. However, one patient was homozygous for a leucine to proline substitution at amino acid position 541 (L541P) of the CFTR. It is as yet not clear whether this change is involved in CBAVD in this male.  (+info)

(4/2696) Expression of CD44 in human cumulus and mural granulosa cells of individual patients in in-vitro fertilization programmes.

CD44 is a polymorphic and polyfunctional transmembrane glycoprotein widely expressed in many types of cells. Here, the expression of this protein on human membrana granulosa was studied by two techniques. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) with the mouse monoclonal antibody to human CD44 (clone G44-26), cells immunoreactive for CD44 were observed in both cumulus and mural granulosa cell masses. On the other hand, using monoclonal antibody to human CD44v9, goat polyclonal antibody to human CD44v3-10 and the clone G44-26, no immunoreactivity for CD44v9 and/or CD44v3-10 was observed in either cell group by flow cytometry. In the flow cytometric analysis of 32 patients, the incidence of CD44 expression in cumulus cells (62.6+/-1.3%) was significantly higher than that in mural granulosa cells (38.5+/-3.2%) (P<0.0001). In the comparison of CD44 expression by flow cytometry according to the maturation of each cumulus-oocyte complex, the incidence of CD44 expression of cumulus cells was significantly higher in the mature group than in the immature group (P<0.05). In a flow cytometric analysis, patients with endometriosis showed a significantly lower incidence of CD44 expression in cumulus cells compared to the infertility of unknown origin group (P<0.05), and compared to both the male infertility group and the unknown origin group in mural granulosa cells (P<0.01). These findings suggest that the standard form of CD44 is expressed in human membrana granulosa with polarity and may play an important role in oocyte maturation.  (+info)

(5/2696) Y chromosome and male infertility.

Recent genome analysis of the Y chromosome has increased the number of genes found on this chromosome markedly. Many of these genes in the part of the Y chromosome that does not undergo recombination with the X chromosome are members of gene families. Evolutionary considerations imply that genes on the Y chromosome will degenerate unless they have male advantageous or female deleterious functions. Spermatogenesis is an example of a male advantageous function and genes in three regions of the human Y chromosome have been promoted as candidate male fertility factors.  (+info)

(6/2696) Origin of DNA damage in ejaculated human spermatozoa.

The molecular basis of many forms of male infertility is poorly defined. One area of research that has been studied intensely is the integrity of the DNA in the nucleus of mature ejaculated spermatozoa. It has been shown that, in men with abnormal sperm parameters, the DNA is more likely to possess strand breaks. However, how and why this DNA damage originates in certain males and how it may influence the genetic project of a mature spermatozoon is unknown. Two theories have been proposed to describe the origin of this DNA damage in mature spermatozoa. The first arises from studies performed in animal models and is linked to the unique manner in which mammalian sperm chromatin is packaged, while the second attributes the nuclear DNA damage in mature spermatozoa to apoptosis. One of the factors implicated in sperm apoptosis is the cell surface protein, Fas. In this review, we discuss the possible origins of DNA damage in ejaculated human spermatozoa, how these spermatozoa arrive in the ejaculate of some men, and what consequences they may have if they succeed in their genetic project.  (+info)

(7/2696) Mouse MutS-like protein Msh5 is required for proper chromosome synapsis in male and female meiosis.

Members of the mammalian mismatch repair protein family of MutS and MutL homologs have been implicated in postreplicative mismatch correction and chromosome interactions during meiotic recombination. Here we demonstrate that mice carrying a disruption in MutS homolog Msh5 show a meiotic defect, leading to male and female sterility. Histological and cytological examination of prophase I stages in both sexes revealed an extended zygotene stage, characterized by impaired and aberrant chromosome synapsis, that was followed by apoptotic cell death. Thus, murine Msh5 promotes synapsis of homologous chromosomes in meiotic prophase I.  (+info)

(8/2696) Varicocele and infertility in men.

Varicocele is an important cause of infertility in men. The exact mechanism by which varicocele depresses spermatogenesis is unknown but probably the retrograde flow of blood rich in catecholamines into the testes plays a major role. Because subfertile semen qualities are present in a large percentage of men with varicocele and because the response to surgical procedures is very good, high ligation of the left internal spermatic vein is recommended in men with varicocele and infertility.  (+info)


  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Considering the persistent controversy concerning the impact of varicocele repair on fertility, we decided to perform an update of the review of the literature with the aim to evaluate whether the most recent research in this field gives us more evidence about the indications to treat or not to treat varicocele in dyspermic or infertile men. (
  • There is little evidence that varicocele reduces male fertility, although it is found in 12% of male partners of couples presenting with infertility, and in 25% of men with abnormal semen analysis. (


  • I visited three different urologists, each simply saying that I had a slightly larger varicocele than most men (who have them), and since I am in my 20's I should not have any other types of pains. (
  • In other words, if a couple will need inseminations with male partner's sperm , or possibly in vitro fertilization anyway, why waste time, money, etc. on surgery for a varicocele. (
  • In our opinion, varicocele surgery is probably not a viable option for men with such low numbers. (
  • Men with counts that are just slightly low (15-20 million) may be more reasonable candidates for varicocele surgery. (
  • The jury is still out on how effective varicocele surgery is as a treatment of male infertility. (
  • Couples considering varicocele surgery should see a well trained urologist as well as an infertility specialist for education about all of their options before proceeding. (
  • Varicocele repair for infertility: what is the evidence? (
  • CONCLUSION: Varicocele repair must be proposed in young adult men with impairment of seminal parameters and not yet interested in pregnancy. (
  • Men of infertile couples should be adequately counselled concerning the high possibility of attaining a significant improvement in seminal parameters after varicocele repair. (
  • INTRODUCTION: Varicocele is estimated to affect 10-15% of men and adolescent boys. (
  • METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments in men with varicocele? (


  • There are many manifestations of this disease (infertility, pelvic pain) and the anatomo-clinical correlation is not good. (


  • These couples should consider seeing an infertility specialist for a discussion of their options. (
  • Couples with a male partner's sperm count of less than about 5 million per cc, or the motility below about 30% will most likely need IVF with ICSI in order to conceive. (


  • If the standard examination and tests do not reveal any cause of infertility, the woman may undergo a laparoscopic exploration which reveals endometriosis in more than 50% of cases. (
  • A woman with endometriosis is 20 times more at risk of infertility. (
  • Treatment for endometriosis-related infertility is not consensual. (
  • A prospective cohort study would give access to clinical data of patients followed in our center, so as to identify clinical factors predicting pregnancy and to help treatment decision for women with endometriosis suffering from infertility. (
  • Assessment of the quality of life relating to infertility and endometriosis in the 3 years following laparoscopic exploration making the diagnosis of endometriosis. (


  • However, the female should also be evaluated prior to the surgery - if her tubes are blocked or she has anovulation (no ovulation), or an ovarian reserve problem , surgery on the male is not indicated. (
  • This problem affects men by causing veins to grow abnormally large and is one of the main culprits for infertility . (
  • Me and my wife are suffering from Infertility problem since last 5 years. (


  • Between 10-20% of men from the ages of 13-30 years tend to be affected. (


  • About 25% of all infertility is caused by a sperm defect and 40-50% of infertility cases have a sperm defect as the main cause, or a contributing cause. (


  • I have high testosterone and infertility. (