Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Germ Theory of Disease: The fundamental tenet of modern medicine that certain diseases are caused by microorganisms. It was confirmed by the work of Pasteur, Lister, and Koch.Communicable DiseasesInfectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from health professional or health care worker to patients. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from patients to health professionals or health care workers. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Infectious Disease Medicine: A branch of internal medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of INFECTIOUS DISEASES.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Contact Tracing: Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Triatominae: A subfamily of assassin bugs (REDUVIIDAE) that are obligate blood-suckers of vertebrates. Included are the genera TRIATOMA; RHODNIUS; and PANSTRONGYLUS, which are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, the agent of CHAGAS DISEASE in humans.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Arthropod Vectors: Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Triatoma: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports basic and applied research to better understand, treat, and ultimately prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases. It was established in 1948.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Geographic Mapping: Creating a representation of areas of the earth or other celestial bodies, for the purpose of visualizing spatial distributions of various information.Vertical Dimension: The length of the face determined by the distance of separation of jaws. Occlusal vertical dimension (OVD or VDO) or contact vertical dimension is the lower face height with the teeth in centric occlusion. Rest vertical dimension (VDR) is the lower face height measured from a chin point to a point just below the nose, with the mandible in rest position. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p250)Primate Diseases: Diseases of animals within the order PRIMATES. This term includes diseases of Haplorhini and Strepsirhini.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Mustelidae: A family of terrestrial carnivores with long, slender bodies, long tails, and anal scent glands. They include badgers, weasels, martens, FERRETS; MINKS; wolverines, polecats, and OTTERS.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Rhodnius: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Prion Diseases: A group of genetic, infectious, or sporadic degenerative human and animal nervous system disorders associated with abnormal PRIONS. These diseases are characterized by conversion of the normal prion protein to an abnormal configuration via a post-translational process. In humans, these conditions generally feature DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; and a fatal outcome. Pathologic features include a spongiform encephalopathy without evidence of inflammation. The older literature occasionally refers to these as unconventional SLOW VIRUS DISEASES. (From Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998 Nov 10;95(23):13363-83)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.EcuadorRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Organ Transplantation: Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.VenezuelaHygiene: The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Foot-and-Mouth DiseaseMass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.PeruAnimal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Stochastic Processes: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Prions: Small proteinaceous infectious particles which resist inactivation by procedures that modify NUCLEIC ACIDS and contain an abnormal isoform of a cellular protein which is a major and necessary component. The abnormal (scrapie) isoform is PrPSc (PRPSC PROTEINS) and the cellular isoform PrPC (PRPC PROTEINS). The primary amino acid sequence of the two isoforms is identical. Human diseases caused by prions include CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME; GERSTMANN-STRAUSSLER SYNDROME; and INSOMNIA, FATAL FAMILIAL.Wasting Disease, Chronic: A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (prion disease) of DEER and elk characterized by chronic weight loss leading to death. It is thought to spread by direct contact between animals or through environmental contamination with the prion protein (PRIONS).Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Phlebotomus: A genus of PSYCHODIDAE which functions as the vector of a number of pathogenic organisms, including LEISHMANIA DONOVANI; LEISHMANIA TROPICA; Bartonella bacilliformis, and the Pappataci fever virus (SANDFLY FEVER NAPLES VIRUS).United StatesVaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.BrazilCulex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Animal DiseasesWater Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Ticks: Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Cryptosporidiosis: Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.

*  Clinical Study of an Aluvia-based HAART Regimen for Prevention of Mother-to-child HIV Transmission in Africa - Full Text View -...
Prevention of mother to child transmission. HAART. Aluvia. Lopinavir. Africa. Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical. ... Therapeutic options to prevent vertical transmission of HIV remain limited. Combination antiretroviral therapy in the form of ... Dr Michael Silverman, Chair of Infectious Diseases, St.Joseph's Hospital, London, Ontario, Canada, University of Zambia. ... Clinical Study of an Aluvia-based HAART Regimen for Prevention of Mother-to-child HIV Transmission in Africa. The safety and ...
*  Evaluation of procalcitonin for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis of vertical transmission.
38 with vertical clinical sepsis (group 2B) and 79 in the group of non-infectious diseases (group 2C). Non-infectious diseases ... vertical clinical sepsis), or group 2C (non-infectious disease). Criteria for confirmed vertical neonatal sepsis and vertical ... Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical*. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Protein Precursors / blood*. Sepsis* / blood, ... vertical clinical sepsis: 38, non-infectious diseases: 79) were studied. In asymptomatic neonates, PCT values at 12-24 h were ...
*  Dynamics and constraints of early infant diagnosis of HIV infection in Rural Kenya.
Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical / prevention & control*. Interviews as Topic. Kenya. Male. Maternal Age. Polymerase ... Keywords: Keywords Infant diagnosis, PCR, Prevention of mother to child transmission, Vertical transmission, Retention in care. ... However, seven caregivers thought it was impossible for vertical transmission to occur during pregnancy, mostly because the ... Service providers and caregivers were all aware of vertical transmission through birth and breastfeeding. ...
*  Saúde Pública - Geographic distribution of human T-lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 among mothers of newborns tested during...
... infectious disease transmission, vertical; Brazil. ... incidence of vertical transmission and HTLV-related diseases (2 ... Short-term breast-feeding may reduce the risk of vertical transmission of HTLV-I. Leukemia. 1997; 11(suppl 3):60 2. ... Virus markers associated with vertical transmission of human T lymphotropic virus type 1 in Jamaica. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34( ... to be implemented expeditiously to reduce vertical transmission. Key words: Human T-lymphotropic virus 1; human T-lymphotropic ...
*  "Pediatric HIV-1 infection: advances and remaining challenges" by Katherine Luzuriaga and John L. Sullivan
HIV-1 infection is one of the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality globally and mother-to-child transmission ( ... Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Complications, Infectious; Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors ... HIV-1 infection is one of the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality globally and mother-to-child transmission ( ... Immunology/Infectious Disease. 70. https://escholarship.umassmed.edu/peds_immunology/70 ...
*  Rooted maximum-likelihood trees illustrating the epidem | Open-i
HIV Infections/epidemiology/transmission/virology*. *HIV-1/genetics*. *Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical* ... Background: Mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 remains a significant problem in the resource-constrained settings where anti ... Background: Mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 remains a significant problem in the resource-constrained settings where anti ... In this study, we analyzed the viral env quasispecies of six mother-infant transmission pairs (MIPs) and characterized the ...
*  HIV-1 Env-reactive monoclonal antibodies isolated from | Open-i
Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical. *Mutation Rate. *Phenotype. *Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin. *Viral Load ... A successful HIV-1 vaccine must elicit immune responses that impede mucosal virus transmission, though functional roles of ... A successful HIV-1 vaccine must elicit immune responses that impede mucosal virus transmission, though functional roles of ... mucosal B cells that may help define the mucosal antibody response contributing to prevention of postnatal HIV-1 transmission. ...
*  DI-fusion Comparison of polymerase chain reaction methods for reliable...
Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical Polymerase Chain Reaction -- methods Sensitivity and Specificity Trypanosoma cruzi ... Congenital Chagas disease in Bolivia is not associated with DNA polymorphism of Trypanosoma cruzi. par Virreira Bermudez, Myrna ...
*  OPUS at UTS: Neospora abortions in dairy cattle: diagnosis, mode of transmission and control - Open Publications of UTS Scholars
Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Disease Transmission, Infectious. en_US. ... Neospora abortions in dairy cattle: diagnosis, mode of transmission and control. Hall, CA Reichel, MP Ellis, JT ... Neospora abortions in dairy cattle: diagnosis, mode of transmission and control. en_US. ... determine the mode of transmission and develop and trial a control option for infection. en_US. ...
*  DI-fusion Are maternal re-infections with Trypanosoma cruzi associated...
Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical Morbidity Mothers Population Density Pregnancy Residence Characteristics Trypanosoma ... Congenital Chagas disease in Bolivia is not associated with DNA polymorphism of Trypanosoma cruzi. par Virreira Bermudez, Myrna ... Are maternal re-infections with Trypanosoma cruzi associated with higher morbidity and mortality of congenital Chagas disease? ... Are maternal re-infections with Trypanosoma cruzi associated with higher morbidity and mortality of congenital Chagas disease? ...
*  RMMG - Revista Médica de Minas Gerais
Keywords Human T-lymphotropic Virus 1; HTLV-I Infection/transmission; Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical; Virus Disease/ ... Worldwide there are decreasing mortality rates from infectious diseases and increasing rates due to noncomunicable diseases ( ... INTRODUCTION: Leprosy is a disease of worldwide impact. In Brazil, the Information System of Notifiable Diseases (SINAN) ... HTLV-1/2 transmission in family groups: possible routes of contamination Cláudia Leal Ferreira Horiguchi; Mariana Amaranto de ...
*  Intercurrent disease in pregnancy - Wikipedia
Many infectious diseases have a risk of vertical transmission to the fetus. Examples include: Chickenpox Chlamydia Herpes ... ISBN 0-521-88115-3. Yu J, Wu S, Li F, Hu L (January 2009). "Vertical transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis in Chongqing China ... Lee MJ, Hallmark RJ, Frenkel LM, Del Priore G (1998). "Maternal syphilis and vertical perinatal transmission of human ... An intercurrent (or concurrent, concomitant or, in most cases, pre-existing) disease in pregnancy is a disease that is not ...
*  Vertical Transmission - Explaining Medicine
Perinatal Transmission)The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. PubMed Health ... Vertical Transmission. Vertical Transmission (Perinatal Transmission). The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from ... Vertical Transmission was last modified: June 24th, 2016 by explainingmedicine. Related. infectious diseasepathogens ...
*  November 2012 - Volume 20 - Issue 6 : Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice
Vertical Transmission of Babesiosis From a Pregnant, Splenectomized Mother to Her Neonate. Cornett, Julia Kang; Malhotra, ... An Overview of Social Media in the Practice of Infectious Diseases. Oehler, Richard L. ... Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice.. ... Pyomyositis Caused by Disseminated Nocardia brasiliensis in a Patient With Goodpasture Disease. Kraft, Colleen S.; Aldrete, Sol ...
*  Items where Author is "KIT, LAM SAI" - UM Repository
KIT, LAM SAI (1997) Vertical transmission of dengue Clinical Infectious Diseases. KIT, LAM SAI (1996) Dengue encephalitis - A ... KIT, LAM SAI (1998) Emerging Infectious Diseases-Southeast Asia. KIT, LAM SAI (1998) Neurogenic pulmonary oedema and ... Journal of Infectious Diseases, 189. KIT, LAM SAI (2004) Mapping of domains responsible for nucleocapsid protein-phosphoprotein ... KIT, LAM SAI (2001) Chikungunya infection - an emerging disease in Malaysia. KIT, LAM SAI (2001) Chikungunya infection- An ...
*  Evolution of Infectious Disease - Paperback - Paul W. Ewald - Oxford University Press
... especially those involved in the fight against infectious diseases. This book is the first in-depth presentation of these ... 3. Vectors, Vertical Transmission, and the Evolution of Virulence. 4. How to be Severe without Vectors. 5. When Water Moves ... You are here: Home Page , Science & Mathematics , Biological Sciences , Evolutionary Biology , Evolution of Infectious Disease ... By presenting the first detailed explanation of an evolutionary perspective on infectious disease, the author has achieved a ...
*  PubMed - International Physicians - Resources and Information - LibGuides at University of California San Diego
Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical -- a related term that can be combined with either the HIV or AIDS mesh terms ... The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or ...
*  Infectious Disease | Health Information | MedCentral Health System
In the US, nearly all HIV infections in children under the age of 13 are from vertical transmission, which means the ... ... Pets and Infectious Diseases in Children Pets and Infectious Diseases in Children Pets and infectious diseases: Proper care of ... Infectious Diseases Infectious Diseases There are many different infectious diseases that require clinical care by a physician ... Topic Index - Infectious Diseases in Children Topic Index - Infectious Diseases in Children Infectious Diseases Home All About ...
*  Ines Garcia-Garcia, Lourdes Garcia-Fragoso, Melanie Rodriguez and Leticia Gely | University of Puerto Rico, USA | Infectious...
USA is a speaker at Infectious Diseases 2016 conference ... Title: Perinatal vertical viral transmission in the tropics: ... new febrile viral diseases which impact susceptible women in childbearing age and with a high rate of vertical transmission, ... 2nd World Congress on Infectious Diseases August 24 - 26, 2016 (14 Keynotes, 1 Workshop, 3 Days, 1 Event) Pennsylvania, ... Both diseases are caused by viruses transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes, found throughout much of the tropical and ...
*  Liver disease - Wikipedia
"Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus: systematic review and meta-analysis". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 59 (6): 765-73 ... Liver disease (also called hepatic disease) is a type of damage to or disease of the liver. There are more than a hundred ... Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a spectrum of disease associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Hereditary diseases ... Alcoholic liver disease is a hepatic manifestation of alcohol overconsumption, including fatty liver disease, alcoholic ...
*  American Institue of Mathematical Sciences
Pulse vaccination is an important and effective strategy for the elimination of infectious diseases. In this paper, a delayed ... Pulse vaccination strategy in a delayed sir epidemic model with vertical transmission. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems ... Pulse vaccination strategy in a delayed sir epidemic model with vertical transmission ... SIR epidemic model with pulse vaccination and vertical transmission is proposed. Using the discrete dynamical system determined ...
*  Family Medicine Educational Page
5. Vertical transmission of infectious disease from mother to baby has been recognized to occur in which of the following ... 2. Rare presentations of a common disease.. 3. Common presentations of a rare disease.. 4. Rare presentations of a rare disease ... D. He acquired hepatitis B from vertical transmission.. E. He should be advised for booster dose of hepatitis. 2. A 30 year-old ... It is important to know what sort of person has a disease rather than what sort of disease a person has!!!...Sir William Osler ...
*  Hemovigilance Update - Summer 2017
... a process known as vertical transmission - according to new data published in "Emerging Infectious Diseases." The findings ... Vertical Transmission of Zika Virus Observed in Mosquitoes. AABB to Host Hemovigilance Events at 2017 AABB Annual Meeting. NHSN ... The researchers noted that the pattern of vertical transmission observed in ZIKV was similar to that previously seen in West ... They added that previous studies have demonstrated that vertical transmission is "generally relatively inefficient" for other ...
*  Canada needs viral hepatitis action plan
Preventing Vertical Hepatitis C Virus Transmission. Schackman, Bruce R.; Oneda, Kawai // Clinical Infectious Diseases;9/15/2007 ... A letter to the editor is presented in response to the article "Impact of maternal HIV coinfection on the vertical transmission ... Berenguer J et al (Clin Infect Dis 2011; 52:728â€"36). // Clinical Infectious Diseases;Dec2012, Vol. 55 Issue 12, p1748 A ... Journal of Infectious Diseases;5/1/2012, Vol. 205 Issue 9, p1472 A letter to the editor is presented in response to the article ...
*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
Vertical transmission is an area of interest among researchers studying infectious diseases, including prion disease, and these ... and are currently being investigated as a potential model of prion disease transmission and pathogenesis. ... Candidate diseases for the application of short-term prenatal therapy could be the transient neonatal deficiency of surfactant ... When studying the potential of fetal gene therapy for genetic diseases such as CF, the mouse model is very useful as a first ...

Miasma theoryGlobal Infectious Disease Epidemiology Network: Global Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Network (GIDEON) is a web-based program for decision support and informatics in the fields of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine. As of 2005, more than 300 generic infectious diseases occur haphazardly in time and space and are challenged by over 250 drugs and vaccines.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Ditch: A ditch is a small to moderate depression created to channel water. A ditch can be used for drainage, to drain water from low-lying areas, alongside roadways or fields, or to channel water from a more distant source for plant irrigation.Ballarat Base HospitalHuman mortality from H5N1: Human mortality from H5N1 or the human fatality ratio from H5N1 or the case-fatality rate of H5N1 refer to the ratio of the number of confirmed human deaths resulting from confirmed cases of transmission and infection of H5N1 to the number of those confirmed cases. For example, if there are 100 confirmed cases of humans infected with H5N1 and 10 die, then there is a 10% human fatality ratio (or mortality rate).Contact tracing: In epidemiology, contact tracing is the identification and diagnosis of persons who may have come into contact with an infected person. For sexually transmitted diseases, this is generally limited to sexual partners and can fall under the heading of partner services.Dipetalogaster: Dipetalogaster, a genus of Triatominae, the kissing bugs, has only a single species, Dipetalogaster maxima, which is found in the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. The blood-sucking Dipetalogaster live in crevices in the rocks and feed on lizards.Psorophora howardiiChagas: Time to Treat campaign: The Chagas: Time to Treat Campaign is an international campaign started by the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative to advocate for increased research and development of treatments for Chagas disease. Chagas is a potentially fatal neglected disease that affects between 8 and 13 million people worldwide.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Insect sting allergy: Insect sting allergy is the term commonly given to the allergic response of an animal in response to the bite or sting of an insect. Typically, insects which generate allergic responses are either stinging insects (wasps, bees, hornets and ants) or biting insects (mosquitoes, ticks).Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.List of geographic information systems software: GIS software encompasses a broad range of applications which involve the use of a combination of digital maps and georeferenced data. GIS software can be sorted into different categories.Triatoma infestansMatrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Bioinformatics Resource Centers: The Bioinformatics Resource Centers (BRCs) are a group of five Internet-based research centers established in 2004 and funded by NIAID (the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.) Overview, Bioinformatics Resource Centers, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), January 10, 2008.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Carte Jaune: The Carte Jaune or Yellow Card is an international certificate of vaccination (ICV). It is issued by the World Health Organisation.Roll Back Malaria Partnership: The Roll Back Malaria Partnership (RBM Partnership) is the global framework for coordinated action against malaria. It forges consensus among key actors in malaria control, harmonises action and mobilises resources to fight malaria in endemic countries.Vertical dimension of occlusionProportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Interbreeding of dingoes with other domestic dogs: The interbreeding of dingoes with other domestic dogs is an ongoing process affecting the population of free ranging domestic dogs in Australia. The current population of free ranging domestic dogs in Australia is now probably higher than in the past.Aedes aegyptiPathogenesis: The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that lead to the diseased state. The term can also describe the origin and development of the disease, and whether it is acute, chronic, or recurrent.Dactylogyrus: Dactylogyrus is a genus of the Dactylogyridae family. They are commonly known as gill flukesInfluenza A virus subtype H1N1: Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish Flu.Anopheles culicifacies: Anopheles culicifacies (sensu lato) is one of the major vectors of malaria on the Indian Subcontinent. It has been reported to be a species complex consisting of five sibling species which have been provisionally designated as species A, B, C, D, and E.Colt Crag Reservoir: Colt Crag Reservoir is a relatively shallow reservoir in Northumberland, England adjacent to the A68 road, and north of Corbridge. The A68 road at this point runs along the course of Dere Street, a Roman road.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Theodor Bilharz Research Institute: The Theodor Bilharz Research Institute is located in Giza, Egypt.Wolverine and the X-Men (toyline): The Wolverine and the X-Men toyline is a 3¾" action figure line manufactured by Hasbro. It is a tie-in to the Wolverine and the X-Men animated series and was released alongside the Marvel Universe toyline and X-Men Origins: Wolverine toyline as part of Hasbro's new 3¾" figure initiative for Marvel Comics characters, although this line has a much more animated style than the other two lines.Isolation (health care): In health care facilities, isolation represents one of several measures that can be taken to implement infection control: the prevention of contagious diseases from being spread from a patient to other patients, health care workers, and visitors, or from outsiders to a particular patient (reverse isolation). Various forms of isolation exist, in some of which contact procedures are modified, and others in which the patient is kept away from all others.Lamellar granule: Lamellar granules (otherwise known as membrane-coating granules (MCGs), lamellar bodies, keratinosomes or Odland bodies) are secretory organelles found in type II pneumocytes and keratinocytes. They are oblong structures, appearing about 300-400 nm in width and 100-150 nm in length in transmission electron microscopy images.Rhodnius nasutus: Rhodnius nasutus is a Chagas disease vector native to the northeast of Brazil. It is primarily associated with the Copernicia prunifera palm tree (Carnauba).EcosystemTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingThreshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
Trypanosoma: Trypanosoma is a genus of kinetoplastids (class Kinetoplastida), a monophyletic group of unicellular parasitic flagellate protozoa. The name is derived from the Greek trypano- (borer) and soma (body) because of their corkscrew-like motion.The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down: "The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down" is a narrative song from the Walt Disney musical film featurette, Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day. The song is also incorporated into the 1977 musical film The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh which is an amalgamation of three Winnie-the-Pooh featurettes including "Blustery Day".SchistosomiasisPublic Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.PrionInverse probability weighting: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.Smoking in Ecuador: Smoking in Ecuador is more common among men and younger people. More than half of Ecuadorian smokers desire to quit.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Milan criteria: In transplantation medicine, the Milan criteria are applied as a basis for selecting patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma for liver transplantation.Illegal drug trade in Venezuela: Illegal drug trade in Venezuela refers to the practice of illegal drug trade in Venezuela. Historically Venezuela has been a path to the United States for illegal drugs originating in Colombia, through Central America and Mexico and Caribbean countries such as Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico.Hygiene: Hygiene is a set of practices performed for the preservation of health.Evolution in Variable EnvironmentNational Healthy Homes Hero Award: National Healthy Homes Hero Award is an award presented by a consortium of agencies at the United States' National Healthy Homes Conference. The first year this award was presented was in 2011.Foot-and-mouth disease: (ILDS B08.820)Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Deer farm: A deer farm is a fenced piece of land suitable for grazing that is populated with deer such as elk, moose, and even reindeer raised for the purpose of hunting tourism or as livestock. This practice is very different from the way such Arctic communities like the Laplanders migrate in open country with their herds of reindeer.High-speed door: High-speed doors are door systems, mainly used in industrial applications. They are technical enhancements of the generally known sectional doors, PVC fabric doors or roller shutters.Illegal drug trade in Peru: The illegal drug trade in Peru includes the growing of coca and the shipment of cocaine to the United States. In an example of the balloon effect, dramatic falls in coca cultivation in the late 1990s saw cultivation move to Colombia.College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand: The College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand was founded in 1964. It is a part of AAU, Anand, Gujarat, India.Seroprevalence: Seroprevalence is the number of persons in a population who test positive for a specific disease based on serology (blood serum) specimens; often presented as a percent of the total specimens tested or as a proportion per 100,000 persons tested. As positively identifying the occurrence of disease is usually based upon the presence of antibodies for that disease (especially with viral infections such as Herpes Simplex and HIV), this number is not significant if the specificity of the antibody is low.Doob decomposition theorem: In the theory of stochastic processes in discrete time, a part of the mathematical theory of probability, the Doob decomposition theorem gives a unique decomposition of every adapted and integrable stochastic process as the sum of a martingale and a predictable process (or "drift") starting at zero. The theorem was proved by and is named for Joseph L.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightSelf-propagating high-temperature synthesis: Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) is a method for producing inorganic compounds by exothermic reactions, usually involving salts. A variant of this method is known as solid state metathesis (SSM).Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification: Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCA) is an amplification technique (conceptually like PCR but not involving nucleotides) to multiply misfolded prions originally developed by Soto and colleagues.Saborio,G.Public water systemNemapogon granella: The European Grain Worm or European Grain Moth (Nemapogon granella) is a species of tineoid moth. It belongs to the fungus moth family (Tineidae), and therein to the subfamily Nemapogoninae.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,VaccinationDengue fever outbreaksUniversity of CampinasCulex quinquefasciatus: Culex quinquefasciatus (earlier known as Culex fatigans), the southern house mosquito, is a medium-sized mosquito found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is the vector of Wuchereria bancrofti, avian malaria, and arboviruses including St.Thermal cyclerSterilization (microbiology): Sterilization (or sterilisation) is a term referring to any process that eliminates (removes) or kills (deactivates) all forms of life and other biological agents (such as prions, as well as viruses which some do not consider to be alive but are biological pathogens nonetheless), including transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, prions, spore forms, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc.) present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media.Andesobia jelskiiGenetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Spatial ecology: Spatial ecology is a specialization in ecology and geography that is concerned with the identification of spatial patterns and their relationships to ecological phenomena. Ecological events can be explained through the detection of patterns at a given spatial scale: local, regional, or global.

(1/2315) A review of statistical methods for estimating the risk of vertical human immunodeficiency virus transmission.

BACKGROUND: Estimation of the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been complicated by the lack of a reliable diagnostic test for paediatric HIV infection. METHODS: A literature search was conducted to identify all statistical methods that have been used to estimate HIV vertical transmission risk. Although the focus of this article is the analysis of birth cohort studies, ad hoc studies are also reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: The standard method for estimating HIV vertical transmission risk is biased and inefficient. Various alternative analytical approaches have been proposed but all involve simplifying assumptions and some are difficult to implement. However, early diagnosis/exclusion of infection is now possible because of improvements in polymerase chain reaction technology and complex estimation methods should no longer be required. The best way to analyse studies conducted in breastfeeding populations is still unclear and deserves attention in view of the many intervention studies being planned or conducted in developing countries.  (+info)

(2/2315) Short course antiretroviral regimens to reduce maternal transmission of HIV.


(3/2315) Congenital transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in pigs.

Congenital transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in pigs was investigated by experimentally infecting sows at four weeks gestation (n = 3), 10 weeks gestation (n = 3), or a few weeks prior to insemination (n = 2). None of the piglets born to sows infected prior to insemination or in early pregnancy were found to be infected. However, all of the piglets (n = 26) born to sows infected at 10 weeks gestation were found to harbor schistosomes with S. japonicum eggs recovered from both their feces and livers. The findings show that congenital S. japonicum infection of pigs can occur if sows are infected during mid-to-late pregnancy and may have important implications not only for pigs but also for other mammalian hosts of schistosomes, including humans.  (+info)

(4/2315) Variation of hepatitis C virus following serial transmission: multiple mechanisms of diversification of the hypervariable region and evidence for convergent genome evolution.

We have studied the evolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) from a common source following serial transmission from contaminated batches of anti-D immunoglobulin. Six secondary recipients were each infected with virus from identifiable primary recipients of HCV-contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin. Phylogenetic analysis of virus E1/E2 gene sequences [including the hypervariable region (HVR)] and part of NS5B confirmed their common origin, but failed to reproduce the known epidemiological relationships between pairs of viruses, probably because of the frequent occurrence of convergent substitutions at both synonymous and nonsynonymous sites. There was no evidence that the rate at which the HCV genome evolves is affected by transmission events. Three different mechanisms appear to have been involved in generating variation of the hypervariable region; nucleotide substitution, insertion/deletion of nucleotide triplets at the E1/E2 boundary and insertion of a duplicated segment replacing almost the entire HVR. These observations have important implications for the phylogenetic analysis of HCV sequences from epidemiologically linked isolates.  (+info)

(5/2315) Virulence evolution in a virus obeys a trade-off.

The evolution of virulence was studied in a virus subjected to alternating episodes of vertical and horizontal transmission. Bacteriophage f1 was used as the parasite because it establishes a debilitating but non-fatal infection that can be transmitted vertically (from a host to its progeny) as well as horizontally (infection of new hosts). Horizontal transmission was required of all phage at specific intervals, but was prevented otherwise. Each episode of horizontal transmission was followed by an interval of obligate vertical transmission, followed by an interval of obligate horizontal transmission etc. The duration of vertical transmission was eight times longer per episode in one treatment than in the other, thus varying the relative intensity of selection against virulence while maintaining selection for some level of virus production. Viral lines with the higher enforced rate of infectious transmission evolved higher virulence and higher rates of virus production. These results support the trade-off model for the evolution of virulence.  (+info)

(6/2315) Studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mucosal viral shedding and transmission in Kenya.

If human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccines are to be highly effective, it is essential to understand the virologic factors that contribute to HIV-1 transmission. It is likely that transmission is determined, in part, by the genotype or phenotype (or both) of infectious virus present in the index case, which in turn will influence the quantity of virus that may be exchanged during sexual contact. Transmission may also depend on the fitness of the virus for replication in the exposed individual, which may be influenced by whether a virus encounters a target cell that is susceptible to infection by that specific variant. Of interest, our data suggest that the complexity of the virus that is transmitted may be different in female and male sexual exposures.  (+info)

(7/2315) Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 through breast-feeding: how can it be prevented?

One-third to two-thirds of maternal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection to breast-fed infants can be attributed to ingestion of breast milk. The presence of HIV-1 as cell-free and as cell-associated virus in milk has been documented. Several substances in breast milk may be protective against transmission, including maternal anti-HIV antibodies, vitamin A, lactoferrin, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. The portal of virus entry in the infant's gastrointestinal tract is unknown but may involve breaches in mucosal surfaces, transport across M cells, or direct infection of other epithelial cells, such as enterocytes. Timing of transmission of HIV-1 during lactation should be further clarified. An early rebound of plasma viremia after withdrawal of antiretrovirals was recently detected. This rebound may reduce the benefit of antiretroviral prophylaxis when women breast-feed their infants. Interventions should be viewed from the public health perspective of risks of infant morbidity and mortality associated with breast-feeding versus risks from formula-feeding.  (+info)

(8/2315) The mode of delivery and the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1--a meta-analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies. The International Perinatal HIV Group.

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the relation between elective cesarean section and vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we performed a meta-analysis using data on individual patients from 15 prospective cohort studies. METHODS: North American and European studies of at least 100 mother-child pairs were included in the meta-analysis. Uniform definitions of modes of delivery were used. Elective cesarean sections were defined as those performed before onset of labor and rupture of membranes. Multivariate logistic-regression analysis was used to adjust for other factors known to be associated with vertical transmission. RESULTS: The primary analysis included data on 8533 mother-child pairs. After adjustment for receipt of antiretroviral therapy, maternal stage of disease, and infant birth weight, the likelihood of vertical transmission of HIV-1 was decreased by approximately 50 percent with elective cesarean section, as compared with other modes of delivery (adjusted odds ratio, 0.43; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.33 to 0.56). The results were similar when the study population was limited to those with rupture of membranes shortly before delivery. The likelihood of transmission was reduced by approximately 87 percent with both elective cesarean section and receipt of antiretroviral therapy during the prenatal, intrapartum, and neonatal periods, as compared with other modes of delivery and the absence of therapy (adjusted odds ratio, 0.13; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.09 to 0.19). Among mother-child pairs receiving antiretroviral therapy during the prenatal, intrapartum, and neonatal periods, rates of vertical transmission were 2.0 percent among the 196 mothers who underwent elective cesarean section and 7.3 percent among the 1255 mothers with other modes of delivery. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that elective cesarean section reduces the risk of transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child independently of the effects of treatment with zidovudine.  (+info)

  • 2002
  • The viral disease first appeared in Southern China in November 2002 and spread to more than 24 countries in Asia, Europe, North America, and South America. (medcentral.org)
  • prevention
  • Combination antiretroviral therapy in the form of HAART (Highly Active Anti Retroviral Therapy) is generally recommended in the developed world, both for its ability to reduce maternal viral load, and thus the likelihood of transmission, as well as for its prevention of drug resistance mutations, which might otherwise reduce future options for therapy in the mother, infant, or both. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Colostrum is a rich source of readily accessible mucosal B cells that may help define the mucosal antibody response contributing to prevention of postnatal HIV-1 transmission. (nih.gov)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), SARS was recognized as a global threat in March 2003. (medcentral.org)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Lyme disease continues to be a rapidly emerging infectious disease, and is the lea. (medcentral.org)
  • The history of HIV/AIDS in Australia is distinctive, as Australian government bodies recognised and responded to the AIDS pandemic relatively swiftly, with the implementation of successful disease prevention and public health programs, such as needle and syringe programs (NSPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Flag icons denote the first announcements of confirmed cases by the respective nation-states, their first deaths (and other major events such as their first intergenerational cases, cases of zoonosis, and the start of national vaccination campaigns), and relevant sessions and announcements of the World Health Organization (WHO), the European Union (and its agency the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Prevention involves decreasing mosquito bites in areas where the disease occurs and proper use of condoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • When viewed from a Darwinian perspective, a pathogen is not simply a disease-causing agent, it is a self-replicating organism driven by evolutionary pressures to pass on as many copies of itself as possible. (oup.com)
  • The pathogenicity of an organism - its ability to cause disease - is determined by its virulence factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term infectivity describes the ability of an organism to enter, survive and multiply in the host, while the infectiousness of a disease agent indicates the comparative ease with which the disease agent is transmitted to other hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically the term is used to describe an infectious agent such as a virus, bacterium, protozoa, prion, a fungus, or other micro-organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Centers
  • United States The U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) is advised of a ten-year-old boy with a respiratory illness in San Diego County, California. (wikipedia.org)
  • disorders
  • Often reproductive disorders are the only manifestation of undiagnosed celiac disease and most cases are not recognized. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gluten-free diet avoids or reduces the risk of developing reproductive disorders in pregnant women with celiac disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammatory and Infectious Musculoskeletal Disorders There are many inflammatory and infectious disorders that affect the body's musculoskeletal system that require clinical care by a physician oar other healthcare professional. (medcentral.org)
  • Analogous terms such as "drug-induced" or "toxic" liver disease are also used to refer to disorders caused by various drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also known as: Mycoplasma air sacculitis − Mycoplasma infectious stunting − Mycoplasmosis Mycoplasma meleagridis is a small bacteria responsible for air sacculitis and disorders of the musculoskeletal and reproductive systems in turkeys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lyme
  • The disease takes its name from Lyme, Connecticut, where the illness was first identified in the United States in 1975. (medcentral.org)
  • epidemiology
  • By presenting the first detailed explanation of an evolutionary perspective on infectious disease, the author has achieved a genuine milestone in the synthesis of health science, epidemiology, and evolutionary biology. (oup.com)
  • bacteria
  • The ability of bacteria to cause disease is described in terms of the number of infecting bacteria, the route of entry into the body, the effects of host defense mechanisms, and intrinsic characteristics of the bacteria called virulence factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Africa
  • The disease originated in Africa, from where it spread to South America through the slave trade in the 17th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the 17th century, several major outbreaks of the disease have occurred in the Americas, Africa, and Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus that causes the disease was first isolated in Africa in 1947. (wikipedia.org)
  • intrapartum
  • Hypothesis: Maternal use of HAART containing Zidovudine, 3TC and Aluvia (Lopinavir/Ritonavir) can prevent antepartum, and intrapartum transmission of HIV, as well as allow exclusive and then subsequent complementary feeding to be carried out with minimum risk to the mother and infant. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding. (libguides.com)
  • cause
  • Untreated celiac disease can cause spontaneous abortion (miscarriage), intrauterine growth restriction, small for gestational age, low birthweight and preterm birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hereditary diseases that cause damage to the liver include hemochromatosis, involving accumulation of iron in the body, and Wilson's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epigenetic alterations and mutations affect the cellular machinery that may cause the cell to replicate at a higher rate and/or result in the cell avoiding apoptosis, and thus contribute to liver disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungi are the most common cause of diseases in crops and other plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some eukaryotic organisms, such as protists and helminths, cause disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease spreads from mother to child in the womb and can cause multiple problems, most notably microcephaly, in the baby. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolutionary
  • To examine the evolutionary relationship of mother and infant sequences, maximum likelihood trees for each transmission pair were reconstructed. (nih.gov)
  • Findings from the field of evolutionary biology are yielding dramatic insights for health scientists, especially those involved in the fight against infectious diseases. (oup.com)
  • In fact, the union of health science with evolutionary biology offers an entirely new dimension to policy making, as the possibility of determining the future course of many diseases becomes a reality. (oup.com)
  • Ewald's use and command of the historical literature on infectious diseases is without parallel among evolutionary biologists. (oup.com)
  • Evolutionary medicine has found that under horizontal transmission, the host population might never develop tolerance to the pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • adequate
  • Exclusive formula-feeding is also recommended in the developed world (where clean water sources & adequate hygiene is reliably available) to prevent HIV transmission through breastmilk, however, this is not yet a feasible option in many developing world settings due to economic, infrastructure, social and infant-health reasons. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Adequate nutrition and a stress-free environment should decrease the amount of clinical disease seen in flocks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virus
  • Understanding the earliest events during HIV-1 transmission and characterizing the newly transmitted or founder virus is central to intervention efforts. (nih.gov)
  • A successful HIV-1 vaccine must elicit immune responses that impede mucosal virus transmission, though functional roles of protective HIV-1 Envelope (Env)-specific mucosal antibodies remain unclear. (nih.gov)
  • The disease is caused by the yellow fever virus and is spread by the bite of an infected female mosquito. (wikipedia.org)
  • A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • AIDS
  • Spurred to action both by the emergence of the disease amongst their social networks and by public hysteria and vilification, gay, lesbian and sex worker communities and organisations were instrumental in the rapid creation of AIDS councils (though their names varied), sex worker organisations, drug user organisations and positive people's groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • maternal
  • This tree shape was consistent with the putative transmission events (Figure 2) where the infant population forms a distinct well-supported monophyletic cluster and is genetically less diverse than the maternal population. (nih.gov)
  • All but one infant's sequences are derived from a single branch of the maternal tree, suggesting a single variant being transmitted from the mother in 5 of the 6 transmission pairs. (nih.gov)
  • Transmission is also possible by breaks in the maternal-fetal barrier such by amniocentesis or major trauma. (wikipedia.org)
  • control
  • Hygiene measures such as the use of an "all-in-all-out" policy and thorough disinfection of housing between batches should be employed to control disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • A quote from a USDA fact sheet, "The high individual animal prevalence of BLV reported in the Dairy 1996 study suggests that testing and culling seropositive animals may not be a cost effective method to control the disease. (wikipedia.org)