Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Germ Theory of Disease: The fundamental tenet of modern medicine that certain diseases are caused by microorganisms. It was confirmed by the work of Pasteur, Lister, and Koch.Communicable DiseasesInfectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from health professional or health care worker to patients. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from patients to health professionals or health care workers. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Infectious Disease Medicine: A branch of internal medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of INFECTIOUS DISEASES.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Contact Tracing: Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Triatominae: A subfamily of assassin bugs (REDUVIIDAE) that are obligate blood-suckers of vertebrates. Included are the genera TRIATOMA; RHODNIUS; and PANSTRONGYLUS, which are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, the agent of CHAGAS DISEASE in humans.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Arthropod Vectors: Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Triatoma: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports basic and applied research to better understand, treat, and ultimately prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases. It was established in 1948.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Geographic Mapping: Creating a representation of areas of the earth or other celestial bodies, for the purpose of visualizing spatial distributions of various information.Vertical Dimension: The length of the face determined by the distance of separation of jaws. Occlusal vertical dimension (OVD or VDO) or contact vertical dimension is the lower face height with the teeth in centric occlusion. Rest vertical dimension (VDR) is the lower face height measured from a chin point to a point just below the nose, with the mandible in rest position. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p250)Primate Diseases: Diseases of animals within the order PRIMATES. This term includes diseases of Haplorhini and Strepsirhini.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Mustelidae: A family of terrestrial carnivores with long, slender bodies, long tails, and anal scent glands. They include badgers, weasels, martens, FERRETS; MINKS; wolverines, polecats, and OTTERS.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Rhodnius: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Prion Diseases: A group of genetic, infectious, or sporadic degenerative human and animal nervous system disorders associated with abnormal PRIONS. These diseases are characterized by conversion of the normal prion protein to an abnormal configuration via a post-translational process. In humans, these conditions generally feature DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; and a fatal outcome. Pathologic features include a spongiform encephalopathy without evidence of inflammation. The older literature occasionally refers to these as unconventional SLOW VIRUS DISEASES. (From Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998 Nov 10;95(23):13363-83)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.EcuadorRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Organ Transplantation: Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.VenezuelaHygiene: The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Foot-and-Mouth DiseaseMass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.PeruAnimal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Stochastic Processes: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Prions: Small proteinaceous infectious particles which resist inactivation by procedures that modify NUCLEIC ACIDS and contain an abnormal isoform of a cellular protein which is a major and necessary component. The abnormal (scrapie) isoform is PrPSc (PRPSC PROTEINS) and the cellular isoform PrPC (PRPC PROTEINS). The primary amino acid sequence of the two isoforms is identical. Human diseases caused by prions include CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME; GERSTMANN-STRAUSSLER SYNDROME; and INSOMNIA, FATAL FAMILIAL.Wasting Disease, Chronic: A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (prion disease) of DEER and elk characterized by chronic weight loss leading to death. It is thought to spread by direct contact between animals or through environmental contamination with the prion protein (PRIONS).Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Phlebotomus: A genus of PSYCHODIDAE which functions as the vector of a number of pathogenic organisms, including LEISHMANIA DONOVANI; LEISHMANIA TROPICA; Bartonella bacilliformis, and the Pappataci fever virus (SANDFLY FEVER NAPLES VIRUS).United StatesVaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.BrazilCulex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Animal DiseasesWater Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Ticks: Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Cryptosporidiosis: Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.

*  Earlier initiation of ART and further decline in mother-to-c... : AIDS

To analyze mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) rates over time in light of changes i ... antiretroviral agents; antiretroviral therapy; highly active; HIV; infectious disease transmission; pregnancy; vertical; viral ... antiretroviral agents, antiretroviral therapy, highly active, HIV, infectious disease transmission, pregnancy, vertical, viral ... Duong T, Ades AE, Gibb DM, Tookey PA, Masters J. Vertical transmission rates for HIV in the British Isles: estimates based on ...
journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2014/04240/Earlier_initiation_of_ART_and_further_decline_in.14.aspx

*  Study to Improve Survival Among HIV-Exposed Infants in Botswana - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Infectious disease transmission, vertical. adverse drug event. Additional relevant MeSH terms: HIV Infections. Neutropenia. ... Virus Diseases. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes. Immune ... Hematologic Diseases. Trimethoprim. Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination. Sulfamethoxazole. Anti-Infective Agents, ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01229761?order=189

*  Duration of allergic susceptibility in maternal transmission of asthma risk.

Disease Models, Animal. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease*. Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical*. Mice. Mice, ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Duration-allergic-susceptibility-in-maternal/17631005.html

*  Evidence for efficient vertical transfer of maternal HIV-1 envelope-specific neutralizing antibodies but no association of such...

Antibody levels in plasma from 60 mother-infant pairs near the time of birth, including 14 breast-feeding transmission pairs, ... Little is known about the efficiency of vertical transfer of HIV-1-specific antibodies. ... Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical* / prevention & control. Kenya. Neutralization Tests. Pregnancy. Pregnancy ... Evidence for efficient vertical transfer of maternal HIV-1 envelope-specific neutralizing antibodies but no association of such ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Evidence-Efficient-Vertical-Transfer-Maternal/23774880.html

*  Rapid HIV Tests for Women Late in Pregnancy and During Labor - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Pregnancy Complications, Infectious. Anti-HIV Agents. Disease Transmission, Vertical. Additional relevant MeSH terms: ... Virus Diseases. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes. Immune ... Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID): AIDS Serodiagnosis. ... Further study details as provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID): ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00046436?order=465

*  Sandra Burchett, MD, MSc | Boston Children's Hospital

Sandra Burchett is a specialist in Infectious Diseases at Boston Children's Hospital and can be reached at 617-355-6832 ... National institute of allergy and infectious diseases and infectious diseases collaborative antiviral study group. Journal ... Samelson R, Shapiro D, Tuomala R, Burchett S, Ciupak G, McNamara J, Pollack H, Read J . HIV vertical transmission rates ... Infectious Diseases Collaborative Antiviral Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1991 Feb 14; 324(7):444-9. ...
childrenshospital.org/doctors/sandra-burchett

*  Safety and Effectiveness of Ritonavir Plus Lamivudine Plus Zidovudine in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Their Babies - Full...

Disease Transmission, Vertical. Anti-HIV Agents. Fetal Blood. Additional relevant MeSH terms: ... Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID): Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, ... Virus Diseases. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes. Immune ... National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000888?order=45

*  Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in HIV-Infected Children - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Disease Transmission, Vertical. Hepacivirus. Enzyme Immunoassay. GB virus C. Additional relevant MeSH terms: ... Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID): HIV Seropositivity. Hepatitis C. Polymerase ... A review of hepatitis C virus (HCV) vertical transmission: risks of transmission to infants born to mothers with and without ... Liver Diseases. Digestive System Diseases. Hepatitis, Viral, Human. Virus Diseases. Enterovirus Infections. Picornaviridae ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT00037076?show_locs=Y

*  "A multicenter randomized controlled trial of nevirapine versus a combi" by Dhayendre Moodley, Jagidesa Moodley et al.

... regimens for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 during labor ... Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical; Labor, Obstetric; Lamivudine; Nevirapine; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Complications, ... regimens for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 during labor ... Immunology/Infectious Disease. 28. http://escholarship.umassmed.edu/peds_immunology/28 ...
escholarship.umassmed.edu/peds_immunology/28/

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Vertical transmission is an area of interest among researchers studying infectious diseases, including prion disease, and these ... However, de novo mutations have not been reported in most common diseases. Mutations in genes leading to severe diseases where ... Medicine, Issue 77, Infection, Virology, Infectious Diseases, Anatomy, Physiology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, ... Invasive methods of drug delivery are often needed to treat these diseases. Chronic retinal diseases such as retinal oedema or ...
https://jove.com/visualize/abstract/25025761/association-between-reproductive-factors-age-related-macular

*  Two-drug Regimen Effective in Reducing Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission During Delivery

A two-drug regimen is safe and effective in reducing mother-to-child HIV transmission during delivery, according to a recent study.
medindia.net/news/healthinfocus/two-drug-regimen-effective-in-reducing-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-during-delivery-103319-1.htm

*  Reducing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV among Women who Breastfeed - HIV/AIDS - Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding -...

The purpose of this issue of Spotlight is to provide decision makers, program managers, and health workers with guidance on how to support HIV-positive mothers who choose to breastfeed so that they can minimize the risk of transmission and protect their own health and the health of their infant. For many HIV-positive mothers in resource-limited settings, breastfeeding is the only or the safest infant feeding strategy available.
breastcrawl.org/breastfeeding-hiv-pmtct.shtml

Miasma theoryGlobal Infectious Disease Epidemiology Network: Global Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Network (GIDEON) is a web-based program for decision support and informatics in the fields of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine. As of 2005, more than 300 generic infectious diseases occur haphazardly in time and space and are challenged by over 250 drugs and vaccines.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Ditch: A ditch is a small to moderate depression created to channel water. A ditch can be used for drainage, to drain water from low-lying areas, alongside roadways or fields, or to channel water from a more distant source for plant irrigation.Ballarat Base HospitalHuman mortality from H5N1: Human mortality from H5N1 or the human fatality ratio from H5N1 or the case-fatality rate of H5N1 refer to the ratio of the number of confirmed human deaths resulting from confirmed cases of transmission and infection of H5N1 to the number of those confirmed cases. For example, if there are 100 confirmed cases of humans infected with H5N1 and 10 die, then there is a 10% human fatality ratio (or mortality rate).Contact tracing: In epidemiology, contact tracing is the identification and diagnosis of persons who may have come into contact with an infected person. For sexually transmitted diseases, this is generally limited to sexual partners and can fall under the heading of partner services.Dipetalogaster: Dipetalogaster, a genus of Triatominae, the kissing bugs, has only a single species, Dipetalogaster maxima, which is found in the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. The blood-sucking Dipetalogaster live in crevices in the rocks and feed on lizards.Psorophora howardiiChagas: Time to Treat campaign: The Chagas: Time to Treat Campaign is an international campaign started by the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative to advocate for increased research and development of treatments for Chagas disease. Chagas is a potentially fatal neglected disease that affects between 8 and 13 million people worldwide.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Insect sting allergy: Insect sting allergy is the term commonly given to the allergic response of an animal in response to the bite or sting of an insect. Typically, insects which generate allergic responses are either stinging insects (wasps, bees, hornets and ants) or biting insects (mosquitoes, ticks).Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.List of geographic information systems software: GIS software encompasses a broad range of applications which involve the use of a combination of digital maps and georeferenced data. GIS software can be sorted into different categories.Triatoma infestansMatrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Bioinformatics Resource Centers: The Bioinformatics Resource Centers (BRCs) are a group of five Internet-based research centers established in 2004 and funded by NIAID (the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.) Overview, Bioinformatics Resource Centers, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), January 10, 2008.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Carte Jaune: The Carte Jaune or Yellow Card is an international certificate of vaccination (ICV). It is issued by the World Health Organisation.Roll Back Malaria Partnership: The Roll Back Malaria Partnership (RBM Partnership) is the global framework for coordinated action against malaria. It forges consensus among key actors in malaria control, harmonises action and mobilises resources to fight malaria in endemic countries.Vertical dimension of occlusionProportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Interbreeding of dingoes with other domestic dogs: The interbreeding of dingoes with other domestic dogs is an ongoing process affecting the population of free ranging domestic dogs in Australia. The current population of free ranging domestic dogs in Australia is now probably higher than in the past.Aedes aegyptiPathogenesis: The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that lead to the diseased state. The term can also describe the origin and development of the disease, and whether it is acute, chronic, or recurrent.Dactylogyrus: Dactylogyrus is a genus of the Dactylogyridae family. They are commonly known as gill flukesInfluenza A virus subtype H1N1: Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish Flu.Anopheles culicifacies: Anopheles culicifacies (sensu lato) is one of the major vectors of malaria on the Indian Subcontinent. It has been reported to be a species complex consisting of five sibling species which have been provisionally designated as species A, B, C, D, and E.Colt Crag Reservoir: Colt Crag Reservoir is a relatively shallow reservoir in Northumberland, England adjacent to the A68 road, and north of Corbridge. The A68 road at this point runs along the course of Dere Street, a Roman road.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Theodor Bilharz Research Institute: The Theodor Bilharz Research Institute is located in Giza, Egypt.Wolverine and the X-Men (toyline): The Wolverine and the X-Men toyline is a 3¾" action figure line manufactured by Hasbro. It is a tie-in to the Wolverine and the X-Men animated series and was released alongside the Marvel Universe toyline and X-Men Origins: Wolverine toyline as part of Hasbro's new 3¾" figure initiative for Marvel Comics characters, although this line has a much more animated style than the other two lines.Isolation (health care): In health care facilities, isolation represents one of several measures that can be taken to implement infection control: the prevention of contagious diseases from being spread from a patient to other patients, health care workers, and visitors, or from outsiders to a particular patient (reverse isolation). Various forms of isolation exist, in some of which contact procedures are modified, and others in which the patient is kept away from all others.Lamellar granule: Lamellar granules (otherwise known as membrane-coating granules (MCGs), lamellar bodies, keratinosomes or Odland bodies) are secretory organelles found in type II pneumocytes and keratinocytes. They are oblong structures, appearing about 300-400 nm in width and 100-150 nm in length in transmission electron microscopy images.Rhodnius nasutus: Rhodnius nasutus is a Chagas disease vector native to the northeast of Brazil. It is primarily associated with the Copernicia prunifera palm tree (Carnauba).EcosystemTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingThreshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
Trypanosoma: Trypanosoma is a genus of kinetoplastids (class Kinetoplastida), a monophyletic group of unicellular parasitic flagellate protozoa. The name is derived from the Greek trypano- (borer) and soma (body) because of their corkscrew-like motion.The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down: "The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down" is a narrative song from the Walt Disney musical film featurette, Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day. The song is also incorporated into the 1977 musical film The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh which is an amalgamation of three Winnie-the-Pooh featurettes including "Blustery Day".SchistosomiasisPublic Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.PrionInverse probability weighting: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.Smoking in Ecuador: Smoking in Ecuador is more common among men and younger people. More than half of Ecuadorian smokers desire to quit.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Milan criteria: In transplantation medicine, the Milan criteria are applied as a basis for selecting patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma for liver transplantation.Illegal drug trade in Venezuela: Illegal drug trade in Venezuela refers to the practice of illegal drug trade in Venezuela. Historically Venezuela has been a path to the United States for illegal drugs originating in Colombia, through Central America and Mexico and Caribbean countries such as Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico.Hygiene: Hygiene is a set of practices performed for the preservation of health.Evolution in Variable EnvironmentNational Healthy Homes Hero Award: National Healthy Homes Hero Award is an award presented by a consortium of agencies at the United States' National Healthy Homes Conference. The first year this award was presented was in 2011.Foot-and-mouth disease: (ILDS B08.820)Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Deer farm: A deer farm is a fenced piece of land suitable for grazing that is populated with deer such as elk, moose, and even reindeer raised for the purpose of hunting tourism or as livestock. This practice is very different from the way such Arctic communities like the Laplanders migrate in open country with their herds of reindeer.High-speed door: High-speed doors are door systems, mainly used in industrial applications. They are technical enhancements of the generally known sectional doors, PVC fabric doors or roller shutters.Illegal drug trade in Peru: The illegal drug trade in Peru includes the growing of coca and the shipment of cocaine to the United States. In an example of the balloon effect, dramatic falls in coca cultivation in the late 1990s saw cultivation move to Colombia.College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand: The College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand was founded in 1964. It is a part of AAU, Anand, Gujarat, India.Seroprevalence: Seroprevalence is the number of persons in a population who test positive for a specific disease based on serology (blood serum) specimens; often presented as a percent of the total specimens tested or as a proportion per 100,000 persons tested. As positively identifying the occurrence of disease is usually based upon the presence of antibodies for that disease (especially with viral infections such as Herpes Simplex and HIV), this number is not significant if the specificity of the antibody is low.Doob decomposition theorem: In the theory of stochastic processes in discrete time, a part of the mathematical theory of probability, the Doob decomposition theorem gives a unique decomposition of every adapted and integrable stochastic process as the sum of a martingale and a predictable process (or "drift") starting at zero. The theorem was proved by and is named for Joseph L.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightSelf-propagating high-temperature synthesis: Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) is a method for producing inorganic compounds by exothermic reactions, usually involving salts. A variant of this method is known as solid state metathesis (SSM).Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification: Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCA) is an amplification technique (conceptually like PCR but not involving nucleotides) to multiply misfolded prions originally developed by Soto and colleagues.Saborio,G.Public water systemNemapogon granella: The European Grain Worm or European Grain Moth (Nemapogon granella) is a species of tineoid moth. It belongs to the fungus moth family (Tineidae), and therein to the subfamily Nemapogoninae.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,VaccinationDengue fever outbreaksUniversity of CampinasCulex quinquefasciatus: Culex quinquefasciatus (earlier known as Culex fatigans), the southern house mosquito, is a medium-sized mosquito found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is the vector of Wuchereria bancrofti, avian malaria, and arboviruses including St.Thermal cyclerSterilization (microbiology): Sterilization (or sterilisation) is a term referring to any process that eliminates (removes) or kills (deactivates) all forms of life and other biological agents (such as prions, as well as viruses which some do not consider to be alive but are biological pathogens nonetheless), including transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, prions, spore forms, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc.) present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media.Andesobia jelskiiGenetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Spatial ecology: Spatial ecology is a specialization in ecology and geography that is concerned with the identification of spatial patterns and their relationships to ecological phenomena. Ecological events can be explained through the detection of patterns at a given spatial scale: local, regional, or global.

(1/2315) A review of statistical methods for estimating the risk of vertical human immunodeficiency virus transmission.

BACKGROUND: Estimation of the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been complicated by the lack of a reliable diagnostic test for paediatric HIV infection. METHODS: A literature search was conducted to identify all statistical methods that have been used to estimate HIV vertical transmission risk. Although the focus of this article is the analysis of birth cohort studies, ad hoc studies are also reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: The standard method for estimating HIV vertical transmission risk is biased and inefficient. Various alternative analytical approaches have been proposed but all involve simplifying assumptions and some are difficult to implement. However, early diagnosis/exclusion of infection is now possible because of improvements in polymerase chain reaction technology and complex estimation methods should no longer be required. The best way to analyse studies conducted in breastfeeding populations is still unclear and deserves attention in view of the many intervention studies being planned or conducted in developing countries.  (+info)

(2/2315) Short course antiretroviral regimens to reduce maternal transmission of HIV.

 (+info)

(3/2315) Congenital transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in pigs.

Congenital transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in pigs was investigated by experimentally infecting sows at four weeks gestation (n = 3), 10 weeks gestation (n = 3), or a few weeks prior to insemination (n = 2). None of the piglets born to sows infected prior to insemination or in early pregnancy were found to be infected. However, all of the piglets (n = 26) born to sows infected at 10 weeks gestation were found to harbor schistosomes with S. japonicum eggs recovered from both their feces and livers. The findings show that congenital S. japonicum infection of pigs can occur if sows are infected during mid-to-late pregnancy and may have important implications not only for pigs but also for other mammalian hosts of schistosomes, including humans.  (+info)

(4/2315) Variation of hepatitis C virus following serial transmission: multiple mechanisms of diversification of the hypervariable region and evidence for convergent genome evolution.

We have studied the evolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) from a common source following serial transmission from contaminated batches of anti-D immunoglobulin. Six secondary recipients were each infected with virus from identifiable primary recipients of HCV-contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin. Phylogenetic analysis of virus E1/E2 gene sequences [including the hypervariable region (HVR)] and part of NS5B confirmed their common origin, but failed to reproduce the known epidemiological relationships between pairs of viruses, probably because of the frequent occurrence of convergent substitutions at both synonymous and nonsynonymous sites. There was no evidence that the rate at which the HCV genome evolves is affected by transmission events. Three different mechanisms appear to have been involved in generating variation of the hypervariable region; nucleotide substitution, insertion/deletion of nucleotide triplets at the E1/E2 boundary and insertion of a duplicated segment replacing almost the entire HVR. These observations have important implications for the phylogenetic analysis of HCV sequences from epidemiologically linked isolates.  (+info)

(5/2315) Virulence evolution in a virus obeys a trade-off.

The evolution of virulence was studied in a virus subjected to alternating episodes of vertical and horizontal transmission. Bacteriophage f1 was used as the parasite because it establishes a debilitating but non-fatal infection that can be transmitted vertically (from a host to its progeny) as well as horizontally (infection of new hosts). Horizontal transmission was required of all phage at specific intervals, but was prevented otherwise. Each episode of horizontal transmission was followed by an interval of obligate vertical transmission, followed by an interval of obligate horizontal transmission etc. The duration of vertical transmission was eight times longer per episode in one treatment than in the other, thus varying the relative intensity of selection against virulence while maintaining selection for some level of virus production. Viral lines with the higher enforced rate of infectious transmission evolved higher virulence and higher rates of virus production. These results support the trade-off model for the evolution of virulence.  (+info)

(6/2315) Studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mucosal viral shedding and transmission in Kenya.

If human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccines are to be highly effective, it is essential to understand the virologic factors that contribute to HIV-1 transmission. It is likely that transmission is determined, in part, by the genotype or phenotype (or both) of infectious virus present in the index case, which in turn will influence the quantity of virus that may be exchanged during sexual contact. Transmission may also depend on the fitness of the virus for replication in the exposed individual, which may be influenced by whether a virus encounters a target cell that is susceptible to infection by that specific variant. Of interest, our data suggest that the complexity of the virus that is transmitted may be different in female and male sexual exposures.  (+info)

(7/2315) Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 through breast-feeding: how can it be prevented?

One-third to two-thirds of maternal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection to breast-fed infants can be attributed to ingestion of breast milk. The presence of HIV-1 as cell-free and as cell-associated virus in milk has been documented. Several substances in breast milk may be protective against transmission, including maternal anti-HIV antibodies, vitamin A, lactoferrin, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. The portal of virus entry in the infant's gastrointestinal tract is unknown but may involve breaches in mucosal surfaces, transport across M cells, or direct infection of other epithelial cells, such as enterocytes. Timing of transmission of HIV-1 during lactation should be further clarified. An early rebound of plasma viremia after withdrawal of antiretrovirals was recently detected. This rebound may reduce the benefit of antiretroviral prophylaxis when women breast-feed their infants. Interventions should be viewed from the public health perspective of risks of infant morbidity and mortality associated with breast-feeding versus risks from formula-feeding.  (+info)

(8/2315) The mode of delivery and the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1--a meta-analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies. The International Perinatal HIV Group.

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the relation between elective cesarean section and vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we performed a meta-analysis using data on individual patients from 15 prospective cohort studies. METHODS: North American and European studies of at least 100 mother-child pairs were included in the meta-analysis. Uniform definitions of modes of delivery were used. Elective cesarean sections were defined as those performed before onset of labor and rupture of membranes. Multivariate logistic-regression analysis was used to adjust for other factors known to be associated with vertical transmission. RESULTS: The primary analysis included data on 8533 mother-child pairs. After adjustment for receipt of antiretroviral therapy, maternal stage of disease, and infant birth weight, the likelihood of vertical transmission of HIV-1 was decreased by approximately 50 percent with elective cesarean section, as compared with other modes of delivery (adjusted odds ratio, 0.43; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.33 to 0.56). The results were similar when the study population was limited to those with rupture of membranes shortly before delivery. The likelihood of transmission was reduced by approximately 87 percent with both elective cesarean section and receipt of antiretroviral therapy during the prenatal, intrapartum, and neonatal periods, as compared with other modes of delivery and the absence of therapy (adjusted odds ratio, 0.13; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.09 to 0.19). Among mother-child pairs receiving antiretroviral therapy during the prenatal, intrapartum, and neonatal periods, rates of vertical transmission were 2.0 percent among the 196 mothers who underwent elective cesarean section and 7.3 percent among the 1255 mothers with other modes of delivery. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that elective cesarean section reduces the risk of transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child independently of the effects of treatment with zidovudine.  (+info)



Infections


  • They conclude: "This study has shown the capacity for human vertical transmission of the H5N1 virus…[this] warrants careful investigation, since maternal infections with common human influenza virus are generally thought not to infect the fetus. (innovations-report.com)

Infant


  • Evidence for efficient vertical transfer of maternal HIV-1 envelope-specific neutralizing antibodies but no association of such antibodies with reduced infant infection. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Antibody levels in plasma from 60 mother-infant pairs near the time of birth, including 14 breast-feeding transmission pairs, were compared. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, because of the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV from an HIV infected mother to her infant, there is considerable concern over the practice, especially in developing countries. (clinicaltrials.gov)

prevention


  • Controlled studies of the pharmacokinetics and safety of new drugs are critical to the development of alternative therapies for the prevention of perinatal transmission of HIV-1. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Canadian recommendations for the prevention and management of ZIKV-disease have been developed by the Committee to Advise on Tropical Medicine and Travel. (canada.ca)
  • Each year, more than 3,400 people drown in the U.S., according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and more than 1 in 5 fatal drowning victims are children younger than 14. (cantonrep.com)

Humans


  • Not all animal species that are susceptible to WNV infection, including humans, and not all bird species develop sufficient viral levels to transmit the disease to uninfected mosquitoes, and are thus not considered major factors in WNV transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to the mid-1990s, WNV disease occurred only sporadically and was considered a minor risk for humans, until an outbreak in Algeria in 1994, with cases of WNV-caused encephalitis, and the first large outbreak in Romania in 1996, with a high number of cases with neuroinvasive disease . (wikipedia.org)

Pregnancy


  • Objectives: To analyze mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) rates over time in light of changes in management, demographic, and pregnancy characteristics. (lww.com)
  • However, perinatal HIV transmission is almost entirely preventable through a multipronged approach involving universal antenatal HIV screening, careful management of pregnancy including appropriate antiretroviral therapy (ART) and mode of delivery, neonatal antiretroviral prophylaxis, and avoidance of breastfeeding. (lww.com)
  • This way, the IMPAACT can achieve the aims of evaluating management of HIV-infected women during pregnancy and determining the safety and effectiveness of ART and other interventions intended to prevent vertical transmission and/or improve maternal health. (clinicaltrials.gov)

maternal


  • Duration of allergic susceptibility in maternal transmission of asthma risk. (biomedsearch.com)

unusual


  • Social distancing interventions can be implemented during unusual infectious-disease outbreaks and can include school closings, closure of movie theaters and restaurants and the cancellation of large public gatherings. (cantonrep.com)

perinatal


  • Protease inhibitors in combination with other antiretroviral drugs may help reduce the rate of perinatal transmission of HIV-1. (clinicaltrials.gov)

reduction


  • This was primarily because of a reduction in transmissions associated with late initiation or nonreceipt of antenatal cART, and an increase in the proportion of women on cART at conception. (lww.com)
  • Eighteen-day periods of mandatory school closures and other social distancing measures were associated with a 29 to 37 percent reduction in influenza transmission rates in Mexico during the 2009 pandemic. (cantonrep.com)

mosquitoes


  • Risk of establishment of ZIKV in Canada is considered negligible, because the species of mosquitoes associated with transmission are not found here ( Very Low likelihood, with high confidence). (canada.ca)

progression


  • HIV-infected adults who are co-infected with HCV appear to have more rapid HIV disease progression. (clinicaltrials.gov)

symptoms


  • They investigated how H5N1 - an emerging infectious disease which causes respiratory symptoms and a high fatality rate - affects different organs in the body. (innovations-report.com)
  • [1] In the cases where symptoms do occur-termed West Nile fever in cases without neurological disease-the time from infection to the appearance of symptoms is typically between 2 and 15 days. (wikipedia.org)

horizontal


  • 2012. Evidence for horizontal and vertical transmission in Campylobacter passage from hen to her progeny. (uga.edu)
  • It's important that the console slants at a more vertical than horizontal level, keeping your body in an upright position. (cantonrep.com)

causes


  • [ 9 ] A meaning of "agent that causes infectious disease" is first recorded in 1728, [ 8 ] before the discovery of viruses by Dmitry Ivanovsky in 1892. (thefullwiki.org)

progeny


  • Experiments attempting to demonstrate vertical transmission where progeny from known Anaplasma carrier cows were utilised, as well as where cows were acutely infected with Anaplasma during gestation, did not produce clinically ill progeny 13,27,31 . (scielo.org.za)

Evidence


  • serological evidence has been demonstrated in rodents Reference 4 , but their role (if any) in transmission is unknown. (canada.ca)

infection


  • We consider the likelihood of infection for (i) Canadians remaining in Canada (by assessing the likelihood of local mosquito-associated or sexual transmission), and (ii) Canadians travelling to countries with ongoing ZIKV activity. (canada.ca)

agent


  • A virus (from the Latin virus meaning toxin or poison ) is a small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the cells of other organisms. (thefullwiki.org)

vectors


severe


  • The severity of clinical disease is directly related to the age of the animal: in animals less than 1 year old it is usually subclinical, in yearlings and 2-year-olds it is moderately severe while in older cattle it is severe and often fatal 9 . (scielo.org.za)
  • There are, however, 4 cases reported where calves less than a week old were naturally infected in utero and after birth manifested severe, fatal forms of the disease 1,17,18,30 . (scielo.org.za)
  • Less than 1% of the cases are severe and result in neurological disease when the central nervous system is affected. (wikipedia.org)

Female


  • an asymptomatic sexual transmission (likely male-to-female), a likely female-to-male transmission, and a person-to-person transmission without sexual contact. (canada.ca)
  • Sexual transmission, usually from symptomatic male travellers to a sexual partner (female or male) who has not travelled, has been reported. (canada.ca)

risk


  • Among the former (viral load 50-399 copies/ml), the risk of MTCT was 0.26% (two of 777) following elective cesarean section and 1.1% (two of 188) following planned vaginal delivery ( P = 0.17), excluding in-utero transmissions. (lww.com)
  • The risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) increases in post-menopausal women, yet, the role of exercise, as a preventative measure for CVD risk in post-menopausal women has not been adequately studied. (jove.com)
  • The current low rate of vertical transmission of HIV in the U.S. limits the number and types of questions concerning transmission risk and pathogenesis that can be addressed by a single clinical trial. (clinicaltrials.gov)

thought


  • [ 12 ] At the time it was thought that all infectious agents could be retained by filters and grown on a nutrient medium-this was part of the germ theory of disease. (thefullwiki.org)
  • All of these are thought to be rare modes of transmission, requiring particular circumstances to be realized, but these events demonstrate that they are possible. (canada.ca)

known


  • Little is known about the efficiency of vertical transfer of HIV-1-specific antibodies. (biomedsearch.com)

rate


  • The rate of transmission of HIV from mothers to their infants has gone down. (clinicaltrials.gov)

spread


  • Vertical transmission of anaplasmosis has been documented, although its significance in the spread of the diseases is unclear 13,27,28,31 . (scielo.org.za)

blood


  • In utero transmission has either been demonstrated by inoculating the blood of calves born from infected mothers into susceptible animals or by the presence of circulating complement fixating antibodies 13,27,28,31 . (scielo.org.za)

studies


  • Clinical disease resulting from the vertical transmission of Anaplasma marginale has only been reported on 5 occasions despite studies demonstrating successful in utero transmission. (scielo.org.za)

changes


  • This changes if a man does become infected and is symptomatic with ZIKV, the likelihood of transmission to his sexual partner is assessed as Medium (low confidence). (canada.ca)