Infant Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in infants ages 1 month to 24 months.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Fetal Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, in the FETUS in utero.Infant Formula: Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.Milk, HumanInfant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Child Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Parenteral Nutrition: The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Parenteral Nutrition, Total: The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.Enteral Nutrition: Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Infant, Premature, DiseasesInfant Care: Care of infants in the home or institution.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Nutrition Therapy: Improving health status of an individual by adjusting the quantities, qualities, and methods of nutrient intake.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Sudden Infant Death: The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Infant, Very Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.Parenteral Nutrition, Home: The at-home administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered via a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.

*  Infant Colic and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Is... : Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Is infant colic a disorder? Is it related to the intestine, as the term colic implies? Is any treatment other than reassurance ... Di Lorenzo (9) and Heine (10) provide an overview of functional GI disorders and allergic manifestations that put infant colic ... Infant Colic and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Is There More Than a "Gut Feeling"?. Shamir, Raanan ... Home , December 2013 - Volume 57 - Issue , Infant Colic and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Is... ...
*  Safety During Use of Paediatric Triple Chamber Bag Formulas - Full Text View -
Nutrition Disorders. Infant, Premature, Diseases. Infant Nutrition Disorders. Digestive System Diseases. Gastrointestinal ... Infant Nutrition Disorders Infant, Premature, Diseases Digestive System Disorders Drug: Ped3CB Phase 3 ... Hospitalized preterm newborn infants, term infants and toddlers, and children and adolescents requiring parenteral nutrition ( ... uncorrected metabolic disorders, severe sepsis, severe liver disease including cholestasis icterus, blood coagulation disorders ...
*  Supplementing Maternal and Infant Diet With High-energy, Micronutrient Fortified Lipid-based Nutrient Supplements (LNS) - Full...
Infant Nutrition Disorders. Nutrition Disorders. Micronutrients. Trace Elements. Growth Substances. Physiological Effects of ... Infant Malnutrition Malnutrition in Pregnancy Dietary Supplement: IFA Dietary Supplement: MMN Dietary Supplement: LNS Phase 3 ... Infant anaemia and iron status (Hb, ZPP), micronutrient (vitamin A, B-vitamins) and essential fatty acids status, evidence of ... The main hypothesis to be tested suggests that the mean length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) of 18-month-old infants who received LNS ...
*  Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) and Superior Mesenteric Artery (SMA) Doppler Patterns as Predictor of Feeding Tolerance in...
Feeding and Eating Disorders. Infant Nutrition Disorders. Signs and Symptoms. Nutrition Disorders. Mental Disorders. ... Infant, Very Low Birth Weight Infant Malnutrition Feeding Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood Splanchnic Oximetry Splanchnic ... changes in the intestinal perfusion determined by feeding in VLBW infants fed by 3 hours nasogastric nutrition (CN) or by bolus ... Active Comparator: bolus nutrition Other: comparison of different feeding regimens compare intermittent versus bolus nutrition ...
*  Safety and Dosing Study of Glucagon-like Peptide 2 (GLP-2) in Infants and Children With Intestinal Failure - Full Text View -...
Infant Nutrition Disorders. Childhood nutrition disorders. malnutrition. post surgical syndromes. necrotising enterocolitis. ... Infants with intestinal resection or repaired gastroschisis who have demonstrated dependence on parenteral nutrition at 45 days ... Infants (, 1 year corrected gestational age) Infants with congenital anomalies, or intestinal resection, leaving them with ... Experimental: GLP-2 in Infants (,1 year of age) Infants under one year of age with congenital anomalies, or intestinal ...
*  Early Nutrition and Neurological Development of Very Preterm Infants - Full Text View -
Premature infant. Additional relevant MeSH terms: Nutrition Disorders. Infant, Premature, Diseases. Infant Nutrition Disorders ... Early Nutrition and Neurological Development of Very Preterm Infants (EPINUTRI). The safety and scientific validity of this ... Subsample of infants born very preterm (before 32 weeks of gestation) otherwise included in the French national cohort EPIPAGE ... the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron during hospitalization and the development of preterm infants born with a GA ...
*  Diet, Physical Activity and Breastfeeding Intervention on Maternal Nutrition, Offspring Growth and Development - Full Text View...
Obesity Weight Gain Metabolic Diseases Birth Weight Infant Nutrition Disorders Behavioral: Normative Intervention ... on maternal nutrition and offspring growth: the Chilean maternal and infant nutrition cohort study (CHiMINCs). BMC Pregnancy ... pregnancy as well as adequate infant growth & development as a result of improved nutrition and health care practices. The ... enhanced nutrition and health care (intervention group) or routine nutrition and health care (control group).We will recruit ...
*  Janina Galler | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
JR Galler (ed.) Nutrition and Behavior. The role of the mother-infant interaction in nutrition disorders. 1984; 269-304. ... White LG and Selvey N (eds.). Nutrition in Transition. Nutrition and the development of mother-infant synchrony. 1978; 248-253. ... JR Galler (ed.), Nutrition and Behavior. Introduction: The challenge of nutrition and environment as determinants of behavioral ... J Dobbing (ed.), Early Nutrition and Later Achievement. The interaction of nutrition and environment in behavioral development ...
*  Vitamin D Supplementation for Extremely Preterm Infants - Full Text View -
Nutrition Disorders. Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury. Lung Injury. Lung Diseases. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Infant, Premature ... if infant NPO for greater than 24 hours. If infant made briefly NPO (,24h) for feeding intolerance, suspected sepsis, ... Premature infants will be randomized to receive one of the 3 fixed doses of vitamin D: either placebo (zero dose), 200 IU/day, ... Infants admitted to the Regional Newborn ICU of the University of Alabama with gestational age between 23-27 completed weeks ...
*  Breast Milk Composition and HIV-exposed/Unexposed Early Infant Growth and Infectious Disease Events - Full Text View -...
Nutrition Disorders. Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic. Parasitic Diseases. Protozoan Infections, Animal. Parasitic Diseases, ... Infant anthropometric measures [ Time Frame: Up to 6 months of age ]. *Infant infectious disease events [ Time Frame: Up to 6 ... By following mothers and their infants, we will evaluate the important interactions between infant immune responses and ... mothers and their infants attending a semi-rural clinic and/or rural dispensaries from birth to 6 months of infant age in north ...
*  Maternal Determinants of HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed Fetal Growth, Birth Outcomes and Early Infant Growth - Full Text View -...
Nutrition Disorders. Emaciation. Weight Loss. Body Weight Changes. Body Weight. Signs and Symptoms. ... Pregnant women and infants HIV+ and HIV- pregnant women, HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants, ARV-exposed and ARV-unexposed ... Early infant anthropometrics [ Time Frame: Up to 1 month post-partum ]. weight, length, head circumference, mid-upper arm ... Maternal Determinants of HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed Fetal Growth, Birth Outcomes and Early Infant Growth. This study has ...
*  Impact of Behavior Change Communications and Market-based Approach to Delivering Micronutrient Powders on Stunting, Infant...
Growth Disorders. Child Nutrition Disorders. Hematologic Diseases. Nutrition Disorders. Pathologic Processes. Micronutrients. ... A nationwide mass media campaign of TV and radio spots on infant and young child feeding practices will be aired in 2011, 2012 ... A nationwide mass media campaign of TV and radio spots on infant and young child feeding practices will be aired in 2011, 2012 ... A nationwide mass media campaign of TV and radio spots on infant and young child feeding practices will be aired in 2011, 2012 ...
*  Fraction of all hospital admissions and deaths attributable to malnutrition among children in rural Kenya. - Department of...
Child Nutrition Disorders, Child, Preschool, Female, Hospital Mortality, Hospitalization, Humans, Infant, Infant Nutrition ... Disorders, Kenya, Kwashiorkor, Logistic Models, Male, Rural Health, Rural Population, Wasting Syndrome ...
*  Effects of Vitamin D Dose and Genotype of the Binding Protein in Infants and Children - Full Text View -
Nutrition Disorders. Vitamins. Vitamin D. Ergocalciferols. Micronutrients. Growth Substances. Physiological Effects of Drugs. ... Effects of Vitamin D Dose and Genotype of the Binding Protein in Infants and Children (VitaD). This study has been completed. ... A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Vitamin D Supplementation in Infants and Children: Effects of Vitamin D Dose and Genotype of ... a call for reexamining the role of dietary calcium intake in North American infants. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Aug;88(8): ...
*  ω3 LCPUFAs for Healthy Growth and Development of Infants and Young Children in Southwest Ethiopia - Full Text View -...
... nutrition intervention studies have focused on micronutrient and energy content of complementary foods and have yielded only ... Current supplement use or medical treatment of infant and/or mother. *Infants developing severe anemia (,70 g/L) or edema are ... Infant morbidity at weekly intervals. [ Time Frame: weekly until 12 months after inclusion ]. Infant morbidity (acute ... To test the combined effect (dose response) of supplementing ω3 LCPUFAs to lactating mothers and infant on infant growth, ...
*  Acceptability of a Cereal for Complementary Feeding of Infants and Young Children Made From Caterpillars - Full Text View -...
MedlinePlus related topics: Growth Disorders U.S. FDA Resources Further study details as provided by Carl Bose, University of ... infant nutrition. complementary feeding. malnutrition. stunting of growth. Additional relevant MeSH terms: ... Any mother-infant dyad living within each a study community in the Equateur Province. Infants must be 8-10 months of age at the ... Infant acceptability will be defined as the consumption of greater than 75% of the total cereal allotment by all infants during ...
*  Health Article - Nutrition and Metabolism Disorders - AARP
However, it's estimated that IEM collectively affects 1 in every 1,000 infants. Many of these disorders can only be treated by ... What causes metabolic disorders?. You can develop a metabolic disorder if certain organs - for instance, the pancreas or the ... What is a metabolic disorder?. A metabolic disorder occurs when the metabolism process fails and causes the body to have either ... Types of metabolic disorders. Diabetes is the most common metabolic disease. There are two types of diabetes:. *Type 1, the ...
*  Rocco Jemma - Wikipedia
... and nutrition (infant nutrition disorders). In 1929 new Pediatric Clinic in Naples was inaugurated under his direction. (in ...
*  Stephen Pasquini - PA-C - VisualCV
... infant care and nutrition, disorders of the bladder and bowel, the effective management of ADHD, eating disorders, and ...
*  Books - Medicine - Terkko Navigator
Nutrition in infancy. Volume 1. Infants, Malnutrition in infants, Disease, Hygiene, Infant Nutrition Disorders, Infant, Needs ... Infants, Mothers, Nutrition policy, Pregnancy, Risk assessment, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Child Nutrition, Infant Nutrition, Nutrition, ... Bright futures : nutrition : pocket guide. Children, Infants, Nutrition disorders in children, Child Nutritional Physiological ... Activities of Daily Living, Aged, Dietary Services, Eating, Food Services, Nutrition Disorders, Nutrition Surveys, laatu, ...
*  Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: Prevention and nutrition | Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are preventable, but continue to be manifest nearly four decades after the first article on ... asked 4,088 randomly selected control women (who delivered live born infants without birth defects) from the National Birth ... ... Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Alcohol consumption during pregnancy - the leading cause of birth defects - can have ...
*  Thiamine (Vitamin B1) Dosing - Mayo Clinic
... metabolic disorders caused by feeding after starvation or poor nutrition), stomach disorders, stress, sudden infant death ... Total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Thiamine has been added to total parenteral nutrition (TPN, nutrition given through the veins ... Temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJ). TMJ is a disorder of the chewing muscles and joints. A combination of indomethacin and ... Mitochondrial disorders. Thiamine has been studied as a treatment for mitochondrial disorders, which occur when there are ...
Chiropractic Care For Infants And Children There Is No Evidence For It And It Is Dangerous? A Selective Review Of The ... Literature And Commentary ... developmental disorders, nutrition, pain assessment, and specific chiropractic approaches to the paediatric patient. Pediatric ... for Infants and Children: A Review of the Literature J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2015 (Nov); 38 (9): 699 712 *. Doyle M. Is ...
*  English - Кафедра дитячих хвороб з дитячою хірургією
"Clinical and Pathogenetic Grounds of Complex Treatment of Chronic Nutrition Disorders in Infants" (specialty 14.01.10 - ... Monograph by Fedortsiv O. Y. 'Chronic nutrition disorders in children of early age' was published.. Diagnosis criteria of ... A new concept of etiopathogenesis of chronic nutrition disorders in children is developed, a new approach for prevention and ... Research and correction of physical development in children nutrition, child nutrition study and improvement of new diagnostic ...
*  Growth faltering: how to catch up? - Department of Paediatrics
Child Nutrition Disorders, Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Child, Preschool, Failure to Thrive, Humans, Infant ...

Formula: π r3}}. On the right is the compound isobutane, which has chemical formula (CH3)3CH.CholineInternational Baby Food Action Network: The International Baby Food Action Network, IBFAN, consists of public interest groups working around the world to reduce infant and young child morbidity and mortality. IBFAN aims to improve the health and well-being of babies and young children, their mothers and their families through the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding and optimal infant feeding practices.Breastfeeding promotionPowdered milk: Powdered milk or dried milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer shelf life than liquid milk and does not need to be refrigerated, due to its low moisture content.Parenteral nutrition: Parenteral nutrition (PN) is feeding a person intravenously, bypassing the usual process of eating and digestion. The person receives nutritional formulae that contain nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, lipids and added vitamins and dietary minerals.United States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs: The United States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs was a select committee of the United States Senate between 1968 and 1977. It was sometimes referred to as the McGovern committee, after its only chairperson, Senator George McGovern of South Dakota.Diane Kress: Diane Kress (born February 27, 1959) is a Registered Dietitian and Certified Diabetes Educator. She has spent her career specializing in medical nutrition therapy for overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes.Bipolar disorderNeonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale: The Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS),also known as the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale (BNAS),Kaplan, R. M.Healthy eating pyramid: The healthy eating pyramid is a nutrition guide developed by the Harvard School of Public Health, suggesting quantities of each food category that a human should eat each day. The healthy eating pyramid is intended to provide a superior eating guide than the widespread food guide pyramid created by the USDA.Mental disorderSocial anxiety disorderSudden unexpected death syndromeWilson–Mikity syndromeTaurolidineLow birth-weight paradox: The low birth-weight paradox is an apparently paradoxical observation relating to the birth weights and mortality rate of children born to tobacco smoking mothers. Low birth-weight children born to smoking mothers have a lower infant mortality rate than the low birth weight children of non-smokers.SchizophreniaPrenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.

(1/175) Long-term morbidity and mortality following hypoxaemic lower respiratory tract infection in Gambian children.

Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) are the main cause of death in young children worldwide. We report here the results of a study to determine the long-term survival of children admitted to hospital with severe pneumonia. The study was conducted on 190 Gambian children admitted to hospital in 1992-94 for ALRI who survived to discharge. Of these, 83 children were hypoxaemic and were treated with oxygen, and 107 were not. On follow-up in 1996-97, 62% were traced. Of the children with hypoxaemia, 8 had died, compared with 4 of those without. The mortality rates were 4.8 and, 2.2 deaths per 100 child-years of follow-up for hypoxaemic and non-hypoxaemic children, respectively (P = 0.2). Mortality was higher for children who had been malnourished (Z-score < -2) when seen in hospital (rate ratio = 3.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-10.29; P = 0.045). Children with younger siblings experienced less frequent subsequent respiratory infections (rate ratio for further hospitalization with respiratory illness = 0.15; 95% CI = 0.04-0.50; P = 0.002). Children in Gambia who survive hospital admission with hypoxaemic pneumonia have a good prognosis. Survival depends more on nutritional status than on having been hypoxaemic. Investment in oxygen therapy appears justified, and efforts should be made to improve nutrition in malnourished children with pneumonia.  (+info)

(2/175) Failure to thrive and death in early infancy associated with raised urinary homovanillic and vanillylmandelic acids.

A case of failure to thrive in an infant with persistently raised urinary levels of homovanillic and vanillylmandelic acids is descirbed. No neural crest tumour was discovered at surgical exploration or at necropsy. The relation of this biochemical abnormality and failure to thrive is unclear.  (+info)

(3/175) Malnutrition in infants receiving cult diets: a form of child abuse.

Severe nutritional disorders, including kwashiorkor, marasmus, and rickets, were seen in four children and were due to parental food faddism, which should perhaps be regarded as a form of child abuse. All disorders were corrected with more normal diets and vitamin supplements. In view of the potentially serious consequences of restricted diets being fed to children, families at risk should be identified and acceptable nutritional advice given. When children are found to be suffering from undernutrition due to parental food faddism a court order will normally be a necessary step in providing adequate treatment and supervision.  (+info)

(4/175) Jejunal microflora in malnourished Gambian children.

Growth of bacteria greater than 10-5 organisms/ml was found in 22 children, of whom 17 gave a histroy of chronic diarrhoea. The other 8 children had either no diarrhoea or where having an acute attack lasting for a few days. In those with chronic diarrhoea, Esch. coli, bacteroides, and enterococci tended to occur more frequently, whereas streptococci occurred more frequently in those with acute diarrhoea. Bacilli, staphylococci, micrococci, klebsiellas, pseudomonads, and candidas often occurred in both groups and in large numbers in those with chronic diarrhoea. This confirms previous reports in other parts of the world that some children with malnutrition have considerable bacterial contamination of the jejunum, and that this may be of aetiological significance as a cause of much of the diarrhoea seen in malnourished children. It is possible too that this may be important in the pathogenesis of malnutrition. The presence of intestinal parasites in these malnourished children is also noted. A double-blind trial in the use of antibiotics in this condition is advocated to determine whether it is possible to break the diarrhoea-malabsorption-malnutrition cycle. At the same time the effect of simply removing the child to a more sanitary environment, together with an estimate of the natural clearance of bacteria from the upper intestine, should be evaluated.  (+info)

(5/175) Prenatal and postnatal risk factors for mental retardation among children in Bangladesh.

This study evaluated the contribution of prenatal, perinatal, neonatal, and postnatal factors to the prevalence of cognitive disabilities among children aged 2-9 years in Bangladesh. A two-phase survey was implemented in 1987-1988 in which 10,299 children were screened for disability. In multivariate analyses, significant independent predictors of serious mental retardation in rural and urban areas included maternal goiter (rural odds ratio (OR) = 5.14, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23, 21.57; urban OR = 4.82, 95% CI: 2.73, 8.50) and postnatal brain infections (rural OR = 29.24, 95% CI: 7.17, 119.18; urban OR = 13.65, 95% CI: 4.69, 39.76). In rural areas, consanguinity (OR = 15.13, 95% CI: 3.08, 74.30) and landless agriculture (OR = 6.02, 95% CI: 1.16, 31.19) were also independently associated with the prevalence of serious mental retardation. In both rural and urban areas, independent risk factors for mild cognitive disabilities included maternal illiteracy (OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 0.86, 7.12), landlessness (OR = 4.27, 95% CI: 1.77, 10.29), maternal history of pregnancy loss (OR = 2.61, 95% CI: 0.95, 7.12), and small for gestational age at birth (OR = 3.86, 95% CI: 1.56, 9.55). Interventions likely to have the greatest impact on preventing cognitive disabilities among children in Bangladesh include expansion of existing iodine supplementation, maternal literacy, and poverty alleviation programs as well as prevention of intracranial infections and their consequences. Further population-based studies are needed to confirm and understand the association between consanguinity and serious cognitive disability.  (+info)

(6/175) Nutritional status and mortality: a prospective validation of the QUAC stick.

In December 1970, 8,292 rural Bengali children the ages of 1 and 9 had their height and arm circumference measured. Eighteen months later the fate of 98.8% of these children was ascertained. Overall, 2.3% of the children had died. Those the 9th and between the 10th and 50th percentiles of arm circumference for height were at 3.4 1.5 times greater risk of dying, respectively, than those above the 5oth percentiles. A gradient was present at every age, although it was greatest for the bulnerable 1- to 4-year age group, for whom the relative risks were 4.5, 1.6, and 1.0, respectively. The discriminant efficiency of these categories was greatest immediately following measurement and decreased with time. During the first postmeasurement month the risk of dying the poorest nutritional category was 19.8 times that of the best, and for the first 3 months, 12.2 times. By the last 3 months of followup it was only twice that of the best. Females in all three categories fared slightly worse than males, being at 1.1 times the risk of dying. This same vulnerable group of 1. to 4-year olds could be identified without knowing their age. Limiting the analysis to children whose heights were between 65 and 89 cm resulted in relative risks, for the three categories, of 4.1, 1.6, and 1.0, respectively. These arm circumference to height categories and the QUAC stick survey technique for which they were devised appear to be valid tools for identifying nutritionally disadvantaged individuals and populations at high risk of death.  (+info)

(7/175) Early nutrition and later adiposity.

The objective was to review whether nutrition during pregnancy and the first 3 y of life predisposes individuals to be fatter as adults. The roles of undernutrition, overnutrition and breastfeeding were considered. The evidence that poor nutrition in early life is a risk factor for increased fatness later in life is inconclusive. Overnutrition, as proxied by high birthweight or gestational diabetes, on the other hand, is associated with subsequent fatness. Two large, well-conducted studies in developed countries suggest that breastfeeding has a protective effect. Nutrition in early life has a demonstrable but small impact on adult obesity.  (+info)

(8/175) Food supplementation with encouragement to feed it to infants from 4 to 12 months of age has a small impact on weight gain.

It is unclear whether a substantial decline in malnutrition among infants in developing countries can be achieved by increasing food availability and nutrition counseling without concurrent morbidity-reducing interventions. The study was designed to determine whether provision of generous amounts of a micronutrient-fortified food supplement supported by counseling or nutritional counseling alone would significantly improve physical growth between 4 and 12 mo of age. In a controlled trial, 418 infants 4 mo of age were individually randomized to one of the four groups and followed until 12 mo of age. The first group received a milk-based cereal and nutritional counseling; the second group monthly nutritional counseling alone. To control for the effect of twice-weekly home visits for morbidity ascertainment, similar visits were made in one of the control groups (visitation group); the fourth group received no intervention. The median energy intake from nonbreast milk sources was higher in the food supplementation group than in the visitation group by 1212 kJ at 26 wk (P < 0.001), 1739 kJ at 38 wk (P < 0.001) and 2257 kJ at 52 wk (P < 0.001). The food supplementation infants gained 250 g (95% confidence interval: 20--480 g) more weight than did the visitation group. The difference in the mean increment in length during the study was 0.4 cm (95% confidence interval: -0.1--0.9 cm). The nutritional counseling group had higher energy intakes ranging from 280 to 752 kJ at different ages (P < 0.05 at all ages) but no significant benefit on weight and length increments. Methods to enhance the impact of these interventions need to be identified.  (+info)

  • Malnutrition
  • The hypothesis of the OME³Jim study is that an increased intake of ω3 LCPUFAs through complementary foods and human milk has an effect on infant growth and development in a context of high malnutrition rates and low ω3 LCPUFAs intake. (
  • Secretin and autistic spectrum disorders", The National Autistic Society Thiamine deficiency and its prevention and control in major emergencies, World Health Organization, 1999 "Child Violence-Is Malnutrition the Cause? (
  • intestinal
  • Indrio et al focus on the non-nutritive pathophysiology of colic, looking at the relation of colic to gastroesophageal reflux (GER), GI motility disorders, the role of gut hormones, and intestinal microflora (2) . (
  • Much of the available data refers to the possible link among infectious, inflammatory, and psychological noxious events that may cause changes in enteric nerve reactivity, as well as immune responses or alterations in intestinal microbiota composition that can then lead to functional GI disorders later in life. (
  • The aim of this subproject is to study the development of the infants' intestinal microbiota, its predictors and its association to child growth and other health outcomes. (
  • PRIMARY ENDPOINT:To evaluate the changes in the intestinal perfusion determined by feeding in VLBW infants fed by 3 hours nasogastric nutrition (CN) or by bolus (BN). (
  • After birth, in the first 24 hours of life, and in the transitional period, between the 48th and 72nd hours of life, all infants' intestinal perfusion will be evaluated with NIRS and a doppler of the superior mesenteric artery will be executed. (
  • changes in the intestinal perfusion determined by feeding in VLBW infants fed by 3 hours nasogastric nutrition (CN) or by bolus (BN). (
  • This protocol outlines a randomized,open label trial examining the safety, pharmacology and efficacy of Glucagon like peptide 2 (GLP-2) in infants and children with intestinal failure. (
  • This proposal outlines a Phase 1 and 2 trial using subcutaneous administration, twice daily of GLP-2 in human infants and children with Intestinal Failure, typically from Short Bowel Syndrome, using varying doses, assigned in a prospective, randomized protocol, with open label monitoring. (
  • newborn
  • Vital signs and adverse events were recorded daily for the 5 days of the study in all patients and during the optional treatment period (an additional 5 days) in preterm newborn infants. (
  • As a birth defect in newborn infants, it has an incidence of one in 10,000-15,000 live births in the United States, and a prevalence of one in 16,700 in the British Isles. (
  • Supplementation
  • The authors correctly conclude that "little evidence supports a substantial role of GER or GERD in the majority of infants with colic," and observations for the role of hormones such as ghrelin and motilin as well as the positive effect shown for probiotic supplementation should be studied further. (
  • To test the effect of ω3 LCPUFAs supplementation on ω3 LCPUFA status in infants and human milk. (
  • symptoms
  • By the time their child is 4 months old, up to 20% of parents have reported colicky symptoms in their infants. (
  • Thiamine is used as part of a treatment for metabolic disorders and thiamine deficiency symptoms, as well as in alcoholics. (
  • Play media Initially, the symptoms of biliary atresia are indistinguishable from those of neonatal jaundice, a usually harmless condition commonly seen in infants. (
  • Little comprehensive data regarding rumination syndrome in otherwise healthy individuals exists because most sufferers are private about their illness and are often misdiagnosed due to the number of symptoms and the clinical similarities between rumination syndrome and other disorders of the stomach and esophagus, such as gastroparesis and bulimia nervosa. (
  • Weight loss is often observed (42.2%) at an average loss of 9.6 kilograms, and is more common in cases where the disorder has gone undiagnosed for a longer period of time, though this may be expected of the nutrition deficiencies that often accompany the disorder as a consequence of its symptoms. (
  • mothers
  • By following mothers and their infants, we will evaluate the important interactions between infant immune responses and infectious disease events in relation to breast milk composition and feeding patterns. (
  • HIV+ and HIV- mothers and their infants attending a semi-rural clinic and/or rural dispensaries from birth to 6 months of infant age in north western Tanzania. (
  • The investigators hypothesize that this cereal will be accepted by both mothers and infants: acceptability will be based on a priori definitions. (
  • A 30 gram portion of a cereal containing one part dried, ground caterpillar, one part corn flour and small quantities of sugar and palm oil will be evaluated by the mothers and then fed daily for seven days to infants. (
  • An inadequate or excessive amount of some nutrients may cause malformations or medical problems in the fetus, and neurological disorders and handicaps are a risk that is run by mothers who are malnourished. (
  • Although more research is needed into the longer term effects on the mothers' and infants' health, the short term effects look promising. (
  • children
  • STRATIFICATION:Population will be stratified in two groups: IUGR infants (approximately 10 children) and NON-IUGR infants (approximately 10 children). (
  • The investigational plan is to begin with the Phase 1 trial, administering GLP 2 at varying doses (infants assigned to doses of 5,10, or 20 μg/kg/day, children greater than 1 year dosed at 20 μg/kg/day, given via twice daily subcutaneous injection). (
  • ω3 Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids for Healthy Growth and Development of Infants and Young Children in the Gilgel Gibe Hydroelectric Dam Area, Ethiopia. (
  • Infants and children with biliary atresia develop progressive cholestasis, a condition in which bile is unable to leave the liver and builds up inside of it. (
  • Autoimmune enteropathy (AIE) is a rare disorder of the immune system condition that affects infants, young children and (rarely) adults causing severe diarrhea, vomiting, and other morbidities of the digestive tract. (
  • Catassi and his co-workers recently have provided new insights into the age of gluten introduction for infants, along with the finding that breastfeeding does not appear to influence the risk of developing celiac disease in children. (
  • Child health and nutrition in Africa is concerned with the health care of children through adolescents in the various countries of Africa. (
  • citation needed] Early high doses of vitamin E in infants and children has shown to be effective. (
  • One typical immune reaction in infants and children is PANDAS, or Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infection. (
  • The disorder has been historically documented as affecting only infants, young children, and people with cognitive disabilities (the prevalence is as high as 10% in institutionalized patients with various mental disabilities). (
  • Sudden Infant D
  • The World Health Organisation have cited three of Lonsdale's papers on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Lonsdale D. Thiamine deficiency and sudden deaths. (
  • In addition to FAS, pFAS, ARND, and ARBD, any other conditions believed to be related to prenatal alcohol exposure, such as spontaneous abortion and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), are also considered to be on the spectrum of related disorders. (
  • diseases
  • Indrio and colleagues also elaborate on the role of probiotics in the management of infant colic and provide recent and exciting data on the clinical benefit of the administration of probiotics in treating functional disorders and organic diseases (3) . (
  • Taking thiamine by mouth may help some complications of metabolic disorders associated with genetic diseases. (
  • affects
  • However, it's estimated that IEM collectively affects 1 in every 1,000 infants. (
  • A narrower use of the term refers to a disorder of brain function which affects emotion, learning ability, self-control and memory and which unfolds as the individual grows. (
  • Rumination syndrome is a condition which affects the functioning of the stomach and esophagus, also known as a functional gastroduodenal disorder. (
  • gastrointestinal
  • Infant Colic and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Is. (
  • This supplement on infant crying, colic, and gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances in early childhood provides theoretical and clinical observations on this and other intriguing functional GI topics. (
  • Nutricia manufactures products used in the management of severe allergic and gastrointestinal disorders, metabolic conditions as well as other conditions requiring nutritional therapy, including autism and intractable epilepsy. (
  • Like related gastrointestinal disorders, rumination can adversely affect normal functioning and the social lives of individuals. (
  • doses
  • For Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (a brain disorder caused by thiamine deficiency), 5-200 milligrams of thiamine have been injected into the muscle or vein, sometimes in divided doses for over two days, or at least 100 milligrams of thiamine has been injected into the vein or muscle. (
  • genetic
  • There are hundreds of genetic metabolic disorders caused by mutations of single genes. (
  • Notably, in people who do not have the genetic disorder hypobetalipoproteinemia, a low cholesterol level may be a marker for poor nutrition, wasting disease, cancer, hyperthyroidism, and liver disease. (
  • This disorder usually results from an extra chromosome 21, although in uncommon instances it is related to other chromosomal abnormalities such as translocation of the genetic material. (
  • pediatric
  • Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. (
  • and 2013-2016 President of the Italian Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (SIGENP). (
  • parenteral
  • Safety During Use of Paediatric Triple Chamber Bag Formulas, Administered IV at a Weight Dependant Dose During 5 Consecutive Days, in Paediatric Patients up to 18 Years Requiring Parenteral Nutrition. (
  • AIE causes malabsorption of food, vitamins, and minerals often necessitating replacement fluids and total parenteral nutrition. (
  • A intravenous nutrition such as total parenteral nutrition and/or a special diet may be necessary. (
  • thiamine
  • For thiamine deficiency caused by nutrition delivered through the vein, 100 milligrams of thiamine has been injected into the vein. (
  • rare disorder
  • These include: Leigh's disease (a nervous system disorder causing movement problems), maple syrup urine disease (protein breakdown disorder in which urine smells like maple syrup), pyruvate carboxylase deficiency (rare disorder causing developmental problems in babies), and high blood levels of alanine, an amino acid. (
  • motility
  • Their review raises the old debate of whether colic is a functional disorder (eg, troubling GER or "immature" motility) or should be regarded as a normal developmental occurrence. (
  • Rumination syndrome, or Merycism, is an under-diagnosed chronic motility disorder characterized by effortless regurgitation of most meals following consumption, due to the involuntary contraction of the muscles around the abdomen. (
  • In most healthy adolescents and adults who have no mental disability, Rumination syndrome is considered a motility disorder instead of an eating disorder, because the patients tend to have had no control over its occurrence and have had no history of eating disorders. (
  • Mental
  • Neurodevelopmental disorder is a mental disorder. (
  • Rumination syndrome presents itself in a variety of ways, with especially high contrast existing between the presentation of the typical adult sufferer without a mental disability and the presentation of an infant and/or mentally impaired sufferer. (
  • In patients that have a history of eating disorders, Rumination syndrome is grouped alongside eating disorders such as bulimia and pica, which are themselves grouped under non-psychotic mental disorder. (
  • Prevention
  • The Heart Center also emphasizes heart disease prevention by educating patients about lifestyle factors, including proper nutrition and exercise. (
  • dietary
  • Many of these disorders can only be treated by limiting dietary intake of the substance or substances the body cannot process. (
  • unclear
  • There is considerable overlap in these disorders, and it is often unclear how to properly distinguish between them as the responsible genes are generally poorly understood at this time. (
  • group
  • Infants will be allocated sequentially to a group (n = 6 per group) treated with GLP-2 at 5,10, or 20 μg/kg/day. (
  • Combating Iodine Deficiency Disorder In China A May 1996 report from U.S. Embassy Beijing An Analysis of Combating Iodine Deficiency: Case Studies of China, Indonesia and Madagascar Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) of the World Bank China fights fall in IQ due to iodine deficiency News - British Medical Journal (BMJ) 1995;310:148 (21 January) China moves to tackle iodine deficiency BMJ. (
  • Advisor on CNAG (Cell of Nutrition Advisory Group) on line service on Nutrition queries. (
  • include
  • Some disorders, such as IPEX Syndrome, include autoimmune enteropathy as well as autoimmune "pathies" of the skin, thyroid, other glands, or kidneys. (