Infant Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in infants ages 1 month to 24 months.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Fetal Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, in the FETUS in utero.Infant Formula: Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.Milk, HumanInfant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Child Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Parenteral Nutrition: The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Parenteral Nutrition, Total: The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.Enteral Nutrition: Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Infant, Premature, DiseasesInfant Care: Care of infants in the home or institution.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Nutrition Therapy: Improving health status of an individual by adjusting the quantities, qualities, and methods of nutrient intake.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Sudden Infant Death: The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Infant, Very Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.Parenteral Nutrition, Home: The at-home administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered via a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Formula: π r3}}. On the right is the compound isobutane, which has chemical formula (CH3)3CH.CholineInternational Baby Food Action Network: The International Baby Food Action Network, IBFAN, consists of public interest groups working around the world to reduce infant and young child morbidity and mortality. IBFAN aims to improve the health and well-being of babies and young children, their mothers and their families through the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding and optimal infant feeding practices.Breastfeeding promotionPowdered milk: Powdered milk or dried milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer shelf life than liquid milk and does not need to be refrigerated, due to its low moisture content.Parenteral nutrition: Parenteral nutrition (PN) is feeding a person intravenously, bypassing the usual process of eating and digestion. The person receives nutritional formulae that contain nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, lipids and added vitamins and dietary minerals.United States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs: The United States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs was a select committee of the United States Senate between 1968 and 1977. It was sometimes referred to as the McGovern committee, after its only chairperson, Senator George McGovern of South Dakota.Diane Kress: Diane Kress (born February 27, 1959) is a Registered Dietitian and Certified Diabetes Educator. She has spent her career specializing in medical nutrition therapy for overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes.Bipolar disorderNeonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale: The Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS),also known as the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale (BNAS),Kaplan, R. M.Healthy eating pyramid: The healthy eating pyramid is a nutrition guide developed by the Harvard School of Public Health, suggesting quantities of each food category that a human should eat each day. The healthy eating pyramid is intended to provide a superior eating guide than the widespread food guide pyramid created by the USDA.Mental disorderSocial anxiety disorderSudden unexpected death syndromeWilson–Mikity syndromeTaurolidineLow birth-weight paradox: The low birth-weight paradox is an apparently paradoxical observation relating to the birth weights and mortality rate of children born to tobacco smoking mothers. Low birth-weight children born to smoking mothers have a lower infant mortality rate than the low birth weight children of non-smokers.SchizophreniaPrenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.
(1/175) Long-term morbidity and mortality following hypoxaemic lower respiratory tract infection in Gambian children.
Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) are the main cause of death in young children worldwide. We report here the results of a study to determine the long-term survival of children admitted to hospital with severe pneumonia. The study was conducted on 190 Gambian children admitted to hospital in 1992-94 for ALRI who survived to discharge. Of these, 83 children were hypoxaemic and were treated with oxygen, and 107 were not. On follow-up in 1996-97, 62% were traced. Of the children with hypoxaemia, 8 had died, compared with 4 of those without. The mortality rates were 4.8 and, 2.2 deaths per 100 child-years of follow-up for hypoxaemic and non-hypoxaemic children, respectively (P = 0.2). Mortality was higher for children who had been malnourished (Z-score < -2) when seen in hospital (rate ratio = 3.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-10.29; P = 0.045). Children with younger siblings experienced less frequent subsequent respiratory infections (rate ratio for further hospitalization with respiratory illness = 0.15; 95% CI = 0.04-0.50; P = 0.002). Children in Gambia who survive hospital admission with hypoxaemic pneumonia have a good prognosis. Survival depends more on nutritional status than on having been hypoxaemic. Investment in oxygen therapy appears justified, and efforts should be made to improve nutrition in malnourished children with pneumonia. (+info)
(2/175) Failure to thrive and death in early infancy associated with raised urinary homovanillic and vanillylmandelic acids.
A case of failure to thrive in an infant with persistently raised urinary levels of homovanillic and vanillylmandelic acids is descirbed. No neural crest tumour was discovered at surgical exploration or at necropsy. The relation of this biochemical abnormality and failure to thrive is unclear. (+info)
(3/175) Malnutrition in infants receiving cult diets: a form of child abuse.
Severe nutritional disorders, including kwashiorkor, marasmus, and rickets, were seen in four children and were due to parental food faddism, which should perhaps be regarded as a form of child abuse. All disorders were corrected with more normal diets and vitamin supplements. In view of the potentially serious consequences of restricted diets being fed to children, families at risk should be identified and acceptable nutritional advice given. When children are found to be suffering from undernutrition due to parental food faddism a court order will normally be a necessary step in providing adequate treatment and supervision. (+info)
(4/175) Jejunal microflora in malnourished Gambian children.
Growth of bacteria greater than 10-5 organisms/ml was found in 22 children, of whom 17 gave a histroy of chronic diarrhoea. The other 8 children had either no diarrhoea or where having an acute attack lasting for a few days. In those with chronic diarrhoea, Esch. coli, bacteroides, and enterococci tended to occur more frequently, whereas streptococci occurred more frequently in those with acute diarrhoea. Bacilli, staphylococci, micrococci, klebsiellas, pseudomonads, and candidas often occurred in both groups and in large numbers in those with chronic diarrhoea. This confirms previous reports in other parts of the world that some children with malnutrition have considerable bacterial contamination of the jejunum, and that this may be of aetiological significance as a cause of much of the diarrhoea seen in malnourished children. It is possible too that this may be important in the pathogenesis of malnutrition. The presence of intestinal parasites in these malnourished children is also noted. A double-blind trial in the use of antibiotics in this condition is advocated to determine whether it is possible to break the diarrhoea-malabsorption-malnutrition cycle. At the same time the effect of simply removing the child to a more sanitary environment, together with an estimate of the natural clearance of bacteria from the upper intestine, should be evaluated. (+info)
(5/175) Prenatal and postnatal risk factors for mental retardation among children in Bangladesh.
This study evaluated the contribution of prenatal, perinatal, neonatal, and postnatal factors to the prevalence of cognitive disabilities among children aged 2-9 years in Bangladesh. A two-phase survey was implemented in 1987-1988 in which 10,299 children were screened for disability. In multivariate analyses, significant independent predictors of serious mental retardation in rural and urban areas included maternal goiter (rural odds ratio (OR) = 5.14, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23, 21.57; urban OR = 4.82, 95% CI: 2.73, 8.50) and postnatal brain infections (rural OR = 29.24, 95% CI: 7.17, 119.18; urban OR = 13.65, 95% CI: 4.69, 39.76). In rural areas, consanguinity (OR = 15.13, 95% CI: 3.08, 74.30) and landless agriculture (OR = 6.02, 95% CI: 1.16, 31.19) were also independently associated with the prevalence of serious mental retardation. In both rural and urban areas, independent risk factors for mild cognitive disabilities included maternal illiteracy (OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 0.86, 7.12), landlessness (OR = 4.27, 95% CI: 1.77, 10.29), maternal history of pregnancy loss (OR = 2.61, 95% CI: 0.95, 7.12), and small for gestational age at birth (OR = 3.86, 95% CI: 1.56, 9.55). Interventions likely to have the greatest impact on preventing cognitive disabilities among children in Bangladesh include expansion of existing iodine supplementation, maternal literacy, and poverty alleviation programs as well as prevention of intracranial infections and their consequences. Further population-based studies are needed to confirm and understand the association between consanguinity and serious cognitive disability. (+info)
(6/175) Nutritional status and mortality: a prospective validation of the QUAC stick.
In December 1970, 8,292 rural Bengali children the ages of 1 and 9 had their height and arm circumference measured. Eighteen months later the fate of 98.8% of these children was ascertained. Overall, 2.3% of the children had died. Those the 9th and between the 10th and 50th percentiles of arm circumference for height were at 3.4 1.5 times greater risk of dying, respectively, than those above the 5oth percentiles. A gradient was present at every age, although it was greatest for the bulnerable 1- to 4-year age group, for whom the relative risks were 4.5, 1.6, and 1.0, respectively. The discriminant efficiency of these categories was greatest immediately following measurement and decreased with time. During the first postmeasurement month the risk of dying the poorest nutritional category was 19.8 times that of the best, and for the first 3 months, 12.2 times. By the last 3 months of followup it was only twice that of the best. Females in all three categories fared slightly worse than males, being at 1.1 times the risk of dying. This same vulnerable group of 1. to 4-year olds could be identified without knowing their age. Limiting the analysis to children whose heights were between 65 and 89 cm resulted in relative risks, for the three categories, of 4.1, 1.6, and 1.0, respectively. These arm circumference to height categories and the QUAC stick survey technique for which they were devised appear to be valid tools for identifying nutritionally disadvantaged individuals and populations at high risk of death. (+info)
(7/175) Early nutrition and later adiposity.
The objective was to review whether nutrition during pregnancy and the first 3 y of life predisposes individuals to be fatter as adults. The roles of undernutrition, overnutrition and breastfeeding were considered. The evidence that poor nutrition in early life is a risk factor for increased fatness later in life is inconclusive. Overnutrition, as proxied by high birthweight or gestational diabetes, on the other hand, is associated with subsequent fatness. Two large, well-conducted studies in developed countries suggest that breastfeeding has a protective effect. Nutrition in early life has a demonstrable but small impact on adult obesity. (+info)
(8/175) Food supplementation with encouragement to feed it to infants from 4 to 12 months of age has a small impact on weight gain.
It is unclear whether a substantial decline in malnutrition among infants in developing countries can be achieved by increasing food availability and nutrition counseling without concurrent morbidity-reducing interventions. The study was designed to determine whether provision of generous amounts of a micronutrient-fortified food supplement supported by counseling or nutritional counseling alone would significantly improve physical growth between 4 and 12 mo of age. In a controlled trial, 418 infants 4 mo of age were individually randomized to one of the four groups and followed until 12 mo of age. The first group received a milk-based cereal and nutritional counseling; the second group monthly nutritional counseling alone. To control for the effect of twice-weekly home visits for morbidity ascertainment, similar visits were made in one of the control groups (visitation group); the fourth group received no intervention. The median energy intake from nonbreast milk sources was higher in the food supplementation group than in the visitation group by 1212 kJ at 26 wk (P < 0.001), 1739 kJ at 38 wk (P < 0.001) and 2257 kJ at 52 wk (P < 0.001). The food supplementation infants gained 250 g (95% confidence interval: 20--480 g) more weight than did the visitation group. The difference in the mean increment in length during the study was 0.4 cm (95% confidence interval: -0.1--0.9 cm). The nutritional counseling group had higher energy intakes ranging from 280 to 752 kJ at different ages (P < 0.05 at all ages) but no significant benefit on weight and length increments. Methods to enhance the impact of these interventions need to be identified. (+info)