Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Lobbying: A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Textile Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of manufacturing textiles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Conflict of Interest: A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Public Relations: Relations of an individual, association, organization, hospital, or corporation with the publics which it must take into consideration in carrying out its functions. Publics may include consumers, patients, pressure groups, departments, etc.Propaganda: The deliberate attempt to influence attitudes and beliefs for furthering one's cause or damaging an opponent's cause.Rubber: A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Meat-Packing Industry: The aggregate enterprise of technically producing packaged meat.Gift Giving: The bestowing of tangible or intangible benefits, voluntarily and usually without expectation of anything in return. However, gift giving may be motivated by feelings of ALTRUISM or gratitude, by a sense of obligation, or by the hope of receiving something in return.Consumer Product SafetyAccidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Deception: The act of deceiving or the fact of being deceived.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Financial Support: The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Construction Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of building.United StatesHealth Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Labor Unions: Organizations comprising wage and salary workers in health-related fields for the purpose of improving their status and conditions. The concept includes labor union activities toward providing health services to members.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Consumer Advocacy: The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Tanning: A process of preserving animal hides by chemical treatment (using vegetable tannins, metallic sulfates, and sulfurized phenol compounds, or syntans) to make them immune to bacterial attack, and subsequent treatments with fats and greases to make them pliable. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Construction Materials: Supplies used in building.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Scientific Misconduct: Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.Manufactured Materials: Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.Occupational Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Persuasive Communication: A mode of communication concerned with inducing or urging the adoption of certain beliefs, theories, or lines of action by others.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.Plastics: Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration: An office in the Department of Labor responsible for developing and establishing occupational safety and health standards.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Book Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing books. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Documentation: Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.PrintingPublic Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Product Packaging: Form in which product is processed or wrapped and labeled. PRODUCT LABELING is also available.Styrene: A colorless, toxic liquid with a strong aromatic odor. It is used to make rubbers, polymers and copolymers, and polystyrene plastics.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Codes of Ethics: Systematic statements of principles or rules of appropriate professional conduct, usually established by professional societies.Styrenes: Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Carbon Compounds, Inorganic: Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.United States Government Agencies: Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Threshold Limit Values: Standards for limiting worker exposure to airborne contaminants. They are the maximum concentration in air at which it is believed that a particular substance will not produce adverse health effects with repeated daily exposure. It can be a time-weighted average (TLV-TWA), a short-term value (TLV-STEL), or an instantaneous value (TLV-Ceiling). They are expressed either as parts per million (ppm) or milligram per cubic meter (mg/m3).Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Ethics, Business: The moral obligations governing the conduct of commercial or industrial enterprises.Expert Testimony: Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Steel: A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Interior Design and Furnishings: The planning of the furnishings and decorations of an architectural interior.Dermatitis, Occupational: A recurrent contact dermatitis caused by substances found in the work place.Noise, Occupational: Noise present in occupational, industrial, and factory situations.PaperVentilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.MiningPaintGuidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Silicon Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Product Line Management: Management control systems for structuring health care delivery strategies around case types, as in DRGs, or specific clinical services.TextilesSilicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Perfume: A substance, extract, or preparation for diffusing or imparting an agreeable or attractive smell, especially a fluid containing fragrant natural oils extracted from flowers, woods, etc., or similar synthetic oils. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Engineering: The practical application of physical, mechanical, and mathematical principles. (Stedman, 25th ed)Equipment and Supplies: Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.Workers' Compensation: Insurance coverage providing compensation and medical benefits to individuals because of work-connected injuries or disease.Liability, Legal: Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Isocyanates: Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Entrepreneurship: The organization, management, and assumption of risks of a business or enterprise, usually implying an element of change or challenge and a new opportunity.Pneumoconiosis: A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.RestaurantsCoal MiningProduct Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.Consumer Organizations: Organized groups of users of goods and services.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Motion Pictures as Topic: The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.Commonwealth of Independent StatesFacility Design and Construction: Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.Great BritainConsultants: Individuals referred to for expert or professional advice or services.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Asbestos: Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.Disclosure: Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.Human Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Aviation: Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.Healthy Worker Effect: Phenomenon of workers' usually exhibiting overall death rates lower than those of the general population due to the fact that the severely ill and disabled are ordinarily excluded from employment.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Organizations: Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.Capital Expenditures: Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.Quartz: Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Respiratory Tract DiseasesPolyvinyl Chloride: A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.Alcoholic Beverages: Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Facility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Biomedical Technology: The application of technology to the solution of medical problems.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Technology, Industry, and AgricultureMedical Tourism: Travel to another country for the purpose of medical treatment.Health Facility Merger: The combining of administrative and organizational resources of two or more health care facilities.Safety Management: The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.Social Control, Formal: Control which is exerted by the more stable organizations of society, such as established institutions and the law. They are ordinarily embodied in definite codes, usually written.Ceramics: Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Charities: Social welfare organizations with programs designed to assist individuals in need.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.): An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Silicosis: A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of dust containing crystalline form of SILICON DIOXIDE, usually in the form of quartz. Amorphous silica is relatively nontoxic.Public-Private Sector Partnerships: An organizational enterprise between a public sector agency, federal, state or local, and a private sector entity. Skills and assets of each sector are shared to deliver a service or facility for the benefit or use of the general public.Insurance Carriers: Organizations which assume the financial responsibility for the risks of policyholders.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Occupational Injuries: Injuries sustained from incidents in the course of work-related activities.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Cotton Fiber: A TEXTILE fiber obtained from the pappus (outside the SEEDS) of cotton plant (GOSSYPIUM). Inhalation of cotton fiber dust over a prolonged period can result in BYSSINOSIS.Organizations, Nonprofit: Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.Tobacco Products: Substances and products derived from NICOTIANA TABACUM.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Industrial Oils: Oils which are used in industrial or commercial applications.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Mineral Fibers: Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Financial Management: The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Automobiles: A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)Diatomaceous Earth: A form of SILICON DIOXIDE composed of skeletons of prehistoric aquatic plants which is used for its ABSORPTION quality, taking up 1.5-4 times its weight in water. The microscopic sharp edges are useful for insect control but can also be an inhalation hazard. It has been used in baked goods and animal feed. Kieselguhr is German for flint + earthy sediment.Naval Medicine: The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

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... the turnover in the manufacturing industry fell back (−0.4%) after a sharp increase in August (+3.0%). The export turnover rose ... Indexes of turnover in industry and construction. Change in %. Industries:. Weight*. Sept. 2016. Sept./ Aug.. Aug./ July. q-o-q ... In September 2016, the turnover fell back in the manufacturing industry (−0.4%)Turnover in industry and construction - ... Variation of the turnover in industry and construction. Change in %. NA : A 10, (A 17). Weight*. Sept./ Aug.. Aug./ July. q-o-q ...

*  Agriculture, Food, and the Environment - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

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... meatpacking industry, hospitality industry, food industry, fish industry, software industry, paper industry, entertainment ... construction industry, chemical industry, petroleum industry, automotive industry, electronic industry, power engineering and ... See also military-industrial complex, arms industries, military industry and modern warfare. Industry information North ... industry, semiconductor industry, cultural industry, and poverty industry. Market-based classification systems such as the ...

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The computer or information technology, or IT industry is the range of businesses involved in designing computer hardware and ... and Computer Industries, IEEE, 363pp Chandler, Alfred DuPont (2001) Inventing the Electronic Century: The Epic Story of the ... Consumer Electronics and Computer Industry, Free Press, 2001, 321pp Gilder, George (2002). "Computer Industry". In David R. ... Software developer Software industry Aspray, William - editor (1993) Technological Competitiveness: Contemporary and Historical ...

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According to industry analyst Gartner, the size of the worldwide software industry in 2013 was US$407.3 billion, an increase of ... The software industry has been subject to a high degree of consolidation over the past couple of decades. From 1988 to 2010, ... The industry expanded greatly with the rise of the personal computer ("PC") in the mid-1970s, which brought desktop computing ... The software industry expanded in the early 1960s, almost immediately after computers were first sold in mass-produced ...

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In Germany, the cosmetic industry generated €12.6 billion of retail sales in 2008, which makes the German cosmetic industry the ... the French federation for the perfume industry). France is another country in which the cosmetic industry plays an important ... The Italian cosmetic industry is also an important player in the European cosmetic market. Although not as large as in other ... The Italian cosmetic industry is however dominated by hair and body products and not makeup as in many other European countries ...

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Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers Automotive industry by country Automotive industry crisis of 2008-2010 Automotive industry ... The automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end- ... General Motors holds a 20% stake in Industries Mécaniques Maghrébines. Isuzu owns 10% of Industries Mécaniques Maghrébines. MAN ... In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the ...

*  Industry 2.0 - Wikipedia

Industry 2.0 is a monthly science and technology magazine published by 9.9 Media in New Delhi. Industry 2.0 was started in 2001 ... Industry 2.0 engagesin industry and technology leaders to provide a comprehensive overview of the manufacturing sector. The ... "Industry 2.0 Contact Details". Customer Care. 15 October 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2016. Official website. ...

*  Industry Standard - Wikipedia

Industry Standard is a 1982 album by The Dregs. It is their only album featuring vocals (by Alex Ligertwood of Santana and ... "Industry Standard - The Dregs , AllMusic". allmusic.com. Retrieved 25 June 2011. Swenson, J. (Editor) (1985). The Rolling Stone ...

*  Content industry - Wikipedia

In the Information Age, the content industry comprises an enormous market. Information industry Information technology. ... The content industry is an umbrella term that encompasses companies owning and providing mass media and media metadata. This ...

*  Industry Giant - Wikipedia

Industry Giant is a business simulation game for Windows. In 2002 a sequel, Industry Giant II was released. Industry Giant at ...

*  Industry City - Wikipedia

Bush Terminal was renamed Industry City in the mid-1980s. Owned by Industry City Associates, the complex is home to a diverse ... Bush Terminal/Industry City Industry City (formerly Bush Terminal) is a historic intermodal shipping, warehousing, and ... Today, Industry City has grown with the redevelopment of the Bay Ridge and Sunset Park areas by renovating the complex to serve ... 9, 1929) Time Industry City Aerial view of Bush Terminal, Brooklyn, in 1920 at the New York Public Library Digital Gallery ...

*  Floral industry - Wikipedia

The floral industry is one of the higher industries in many developing and underdeveloped countries. Floriculture as an ... The present day floral industry is a dynamic, global, fast-growing industry, which has achieved significant growth rates during ... The floral industry essentially consists of three major components: the growers, the wholesalers and the retailers whose ... "Australian Cut Flower Industry". Archived from the original on May 10, 2008. Retrieved October 27, 2016. Gardening (2007-07-13 ...

*  Space industry - Wikipedia

The industry and related sectors employ about 120,000 people in the OECD countries, while the space industry of Russia employs ... some sources use the term satellite industry interchangeably with the term space industry. The term space business has also ... Space industry refers to economic activities related to manufacturing components that go into Earth's orbit or beyond, ... Thus more broadly, space industry can be described as the companies involved in the space economy, and providing goods and ...

*  Tobacco industry - Wikipedia

ISBN 1-56751-172-4. UCSF Tobacco Industry Videos Collection UCSF Tobacco Industry Audio Recordings Collection. ... of cases were won by the tobacco industry either outright or on appeal in the US, but the continued success of the industry's ... The tobacco industry has had a long relationship with the entertainment industry. In silent era movies, back-lit smoke was ... it is debatable if the industry has a money-producing long term outlook.[citation needed] The tobacco industry has historically ...

*  Infant industry - Wikipedia

In economics, an infant industry is a new industry, which in its early stages experiences relative difficulty or is absolutely ... Governments are sometimes urged to support the development of infant industries, protecting home industries in their early ... regarding infant industries. Basically, his arguments dictated that new or "infant" industries in the US could not become ... in an effort to protect the American textile industry. Economists argue that state support for infant industries is justified ...

*  Healthcare industry - Wikipedia

The Global Industry Classification Standard and the Industry Classification Benchmark further distinguish the industry as two ... The healthcare industry is one of the world's largest and fastest-growing industries. Consuming over 10 percent of gross ... The healthcare industry (also called the medical industry or health economy) is an aggregation and integration of sectors ... "Yahoo Industry Browser - Healthcare Sector - Industry List". Biz.yahoo.com. Retrieved 17 February 2015. Hernandez P et al., " ...

*  Sunrise industry - Wikipedia

Examples of sunrise industries include hydrogen fuel production, petrochemical industry, food processing industry, space ... A sunrise industry is one that is new or relatively new, is growing fast and is expected to become important in the future. ... "What is a sunrise industry? - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2017-12-23. Balaji, R (2016-07-24). " ... "Petrochemicals will be the next sunrise industry: Pradhan". The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 2017-12-23. Rajasekharan, Ram ( ...

*  Industry, Missouri - Wikipedia

Industry is an extinct town in Henry County, in the U.S. state of Missouri. Industry was platted in 1883. A post office called ... U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Industry (historical) "Henry County Place Names, 1928-1945 ( ... Industry was established in 1881, and remained in operation until 1887. ...

*  Cultural industry - Wikipedia

Entertainment industry Music industry Film industry Television industry Sport industry Publishing industry Tourism industry ... cultural industries (sometimes also known as "creative industries") combine the creation, production, and distribution of goods ... Cultural industries worldwide have adapted To The New digital technologies and to the arrival of national, regional and ... Canada's Cultural Industries: Broadcasting, Publishing, Records, and Film. Toronto: J. Lorimer & Co., in Association with the ...

Pocket petList of tobacco-related topics: Nicotiana is the genus of herbs and shrubs which is cultivated to produce tobacco products.Pharmaceutical manufacturing: Drug manufacturing is the process of industrial-scale synthesis of pharmaceutical drugs by pharmaceutical companies. The process of drug manufacturing can be broken down into a series of unit operations, such as milling, granulation, coating, tablet pressing, and others.Castleberry's Food Company: Castleberry's Food Company was an Augusta, Georgia-based canned food company founded in the 1920s by Clement Stewart Castleberry with the help of his father Clement Lamar Castleberry and closed permanently in March 2008 by the United States Food and Drug Administration.Tidewater (marine services)Advanced Chemical Industries (ACI): ৳ 238 Million http://www.aci-bd.Treaty of the Bogue: The Treaty of the Bogue () was an unequal treaty between China and the United Kingdom, concluded in October 1843 to supplement the previous Treaty of Nanking. The treaty's key provisions granted extraterritoriality and most favored nation status to Britain.Doffer: A doffer is someone who removes ("doffs") bobbins, pirns or spindles holding spun fiber such as cotton or wool from a spinning frame and replaces them with empty ones. Historically, spinners, doffers, and sweepers each had separate tasks that were required in the manufacture of spun textiles.Health marketing: Health marketing is a new approach to public health that applies traditional marketing principles and theories alongside science-based strategies to prevention, health promotion and health protection. 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An elastomer is a material with the mechanical (or material) property that it can undergo much more elastic deformation under stress than most materials and still return to its previous size without permanent deformation.Advertising Standards Canada: Advertising Standards Canada (ASC) is the advertising industry's non-profit self-regulating body created in 1957 to ensure the integrity and viability of advertising in Canada. The organization includes over 160 advertisers, advertising agencies, media organizations, and suppliers to the advertising sector.Meat Industry Association of New ZealandGift registry: A gift registry is a particular type of wish list.Consumer Product Safety Act: The Consumer Product Safety Act (CPSA) was enacted in 1972 by the United States Congress. The act established the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) as an independent agency of the United States federal government and defined its basic authority.Occupational fatality: An occupational fatality is a death that occurs while a person is at work or performing work related tasks. Occupational fatalities are also commonly called “occupational deaths” or “work-related deaths/fatalities” and can occur in any industry or occupation.Mineral dust: Mineral dust is a term used to indicate atmospheric aerosols originated from the suspension of minerals constituting the soil, being composed of various oxides and carbonates. 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(1/1312) Hierarchical cluster analysis applied to workers' exposures in fiberglass insulation manufacturing.

The objectives of this study were to explore the application of cluster analysis to the characterization of multiple exposures in industrial hygiene practice and to compare exposure groupings based on the result from cluster analysis with that based on non-measurement-based approaches commonly used in epidemiology. Cluster analysis was performed for 37 workers simultaneously exposed to three agents (endotoxin, phenolic compounds and formaldehyde) in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. Different clustering algorithms, including complete-linkage (or farthest-neighbor), single-linkage (or nearest-neighbor), group-average and model-based clustering approaches, were used to construct the tree structures from which clusters can be formed. Differences were observed between the exposure clusters constructed by these different clustering algorithms. When contrasting the exposure classification based on tree structures with that based on non-measurement-based information, the results indicate that the exposure clusters identified from the tree structures had little in common with the classification results from either the traditional exposure zone or the work group classification approach. In terms of the defining homogeneous exposure groups or from the standpoint of health risk, some toxicological normalization in the components of the exposure vector appears to be required in order to form meaningful exposure groupings from cluster analysis. Finally, it remains important to see if the lack of correspondence between exposure groups based on epidemiological classification and measurement data is a peculiarity of the data or a more general problem in multivariate exposure analysis.  (+info)

(2/1312) Decolorization and detoxification of extraction-stage effluent from chlorine bleaching of kraft pulp by Rhizopus oryzae.

Rhizopus oryzae, a zygomycete, was found to decolorize, dechlorinate, and detoxify bleach plant effluent at lower cosubstrate concentrations than the basidiomycetes previously investigated. With glucose at 1 g/liter, this fungus removed 92 to 95% of the color, 50% of the chemical oxygen demand, 72% of the adsorbable organic halide, and 37% of the extractable organic halide in 24 h at temperatures of 25 to 45 degrees C and a pH of 3 to 5. Even without added cosubstrate the fungus removed up to 78% of the color. Monomeric chlorinated aromatic compounds were removed almost completely, and toxicity to zebra fish was eliminated. The fungal mycelium could be immobilized in polyurethane foam and used repeatedly to treat batches of effluent. The residue after treatment was not further improved by exposure to fresh R. oryzae mycelium.  (+info)

(3/1312) An epidemiological study on the association between the total leukocyte and neutrophil counts, and risk factors of ischemic heart disease by smoking status in Japanese factory workers.

Several epidemiologic studies have shown the association between total leukocyte count and the risk of developing myocardial infarction. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between the total leukocyte and neutrophil counts and risk factors of ischemic heart disease in 1,384 Japanese factory workers. Total leukocyte and neutrophil counts were significantly higher in current smokers than in non-smokers. Among current smokers, the total leukocyte and neutrophil counts were positively associated with the number of cigarettes smoked daily and the duration of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. Being independent of smoking habit, the total leukocyte and neutrophil counts were also related to several characteristics recorded at the physical examinations. The total leukocyte and neutrophil counts were positively associated with serum total cholesterol, serum triglyceride and hematocrit levels, and inversely associated with the serum HDL-cholesterol level. No significant associations of the total leukocyte or neutrophil counts were found with the red blood cell count and hemoglobin level. These results suggest that the total leukocyte and neutrophil counts may represent the metabolic condition with a high coronary risk among apparently healthy people.  (+info)

(4/1312) The contribution of acute toxicity in animals to occupational exposure limits of chemical substances.

The correlations of lethal doses of various industrial chemicals for rats and mice with occupational exposure limit values were investigated. 50% lethal dose (LD50) values obtained by oral (p.o.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection and 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values obtained by inhalation exposure were collected from Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS). Threshold Limit Value (Time-Weighted Average) (TLVs-TWA) and Threshold Limit Value (Short Term Exposure Limit) (TLVs-STEL) recommended by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) were used as exposure limits. TLVs-TWA or TLVs-STEL and LD50 or LC50 values obtained for the rats were plotted on logarithmic scales on the ordinate and abscissa, respectively. High correlations were obtained between these parameters. The order of correlations was: TLVs-STEL vs. LC50s > TLVs-TWA vs. LC50s > TLVs-TWA vs. LD50s i.p. > TLVs vs. LD50s p.o. The same calculations for the relationship between TLVs and lethal doses in mice were also performed. The order of the three types of correlations was same as that of the rats; however, correlation coefficients for TLVs-STEL vs. LC50s and for TLVs-TWA vs. LC50s obtained in mice were smaller than those in rats. TLVs-TWA are, therefore, well correlated with LC50 values rather than LD50 values, particularly with those in rats. High correlations between TLVs-STEL vs. LC50s were also obtained, as had been expected before calculation. The equation: TLV-TWA = 10b x (LC50)a can be obtained from these plottings, where the values a and b are taken from each linear regression line. TLV-TWA for each chemical can be calculated by using LC50 and the equation. The upper and lower 95% confidence limits for calculated TLV-TWA were TLV-TWA (calculated from LC50) x 22.9 and TLV-TWA (calculated)/22.9, respectively, where LC50 for rats expressed in ppm x hr was used.  (+info)

(5/1312) Effect of working hours on cardiovascular-autonomic nervous functions in engineers in an electronics manufacturing company.

A field survey of 147 engineers (23-49 years) in an electronics manufacturing company was conducted to investigate the effect of working hours on cardiovascular-autonomic nervous functions (urinary catecholamines, heart rate variability and blood pressure). The subjects were divided into 3 groups by age: 23-29 (n = 49), 30-39 (n = 74) and 40-49 (n = 24) year groups. Subjects in each age group were further divided into shorter (SWH) and longer (LWH) working hour subgroups according to the median of weekly working hours. In the 30-39 year group, urinary noradrenaline in the afternoon for LWH was significantly lower than that for SWH and a similar tendency was found in the LF/HF ratio of heart rate variability at rest. Because these two autonomic nervous indices are related to sympathetic nervous activity, the findings suggested that sympathetic nervous activity for LWH was lower than that for SWH in the 30-39 year group. Furthermore, there were significant relationships both between long working hours and short sleeping hours, and between short sleeping hours and high complaint rates of "drowsiness and dullness" in the morning in this age group. Summarizing these results, it appeared that long working hours might lower sympathetic nervous activity due to chronic sleep deprivation.  (+info)

(6/1312) The present state and future prospects of occupational health in Bangladesh.

Bangladesh is a relatively young and developing country. At the present time, like in most developing countries, a clear demarcation between occupational health care and general medical care is difficult to be recognized in Bangladesh. Occupational health is a fairly new field, as the country is undergoing industrialization and occupational health activities are operated by several ministries, such as Labour, Health, Industry and Transport. Legal foundations of the occupational health-care system based on British India and Pakistani era, were adopted and amended by the Government of Bangladesh after the liberation of the country in 1971. Most of the Labour laws have been rectified by the Government of Bangladesh according to the ILO Conventions. Reconsideration of the occupational health service system avoiding duplication for the 'occupational health' component in several ministries might be helpful to achieve the successful provision of an occupational health service in the developing Bangladesh.  (+info)

(7/1312) Water pollution and human health in China.

China's extraordinary economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization, coupled with inadequate investment in basic water supply and treatment infrastructure, have resulted in widespread water pollution. In China today approximately 700 million people--over half the population--consume drinking water contaminated with levels of animal and human excreta that exceed maximum permissible levels by as much as 86% in rural areas and 28% in urban areas. By the year 2000, the volume of wastewater produced could double from 1990 levels to almost 78 billion tons. These are alarming trends with potentially serious consequences for human health. This paper reviews and analyzes recent Chinese reports on public health and water resources to shed light on what recent trends imply for China's environmental risk transition. This paper has two major conclusions. First, the critical deficits in basic water supply and sewage treatment infrastructure have increased the risk of exposure to infectious and parasitic disease and to a growing volume of industrial chemicals, heavy metals, and algal toxins. Second, the lack of coordination between environmental and public health objectives, a complex and fragmented system to manage water resources, and the general treatment of water as a common property resource mean that the water quality and quantity problems observed as well as the health threats identified are likely to become more acute.  (+info)

(8/1312) La roca magica: uses of natural zeolites in agriculture and industry.

For nearly 200 years since their discovery in 1756, geologists considered the zeolite minerals to occur as fairly large crystals in the vugs and cavities of basalts and other traprock formations. Here, they were prized by mineral collectors, but their small abundance and polymineralic nature defied commercial exploitation. As the synthetic zeolite (molecular sieve) business began to take hold in the late 1950s, huge beds of zeolite-rich sediments, formed by the alteration of volcanic ash (glass) in lake and marine waters, were discovered in the western United States and elsewhere in the world. These beds were found to contain as much as 95% of a single zeolite; they were generally flat-lying and easily mined by surface methods. The properties of these low-cost natural materials mimicked those of many of their synthetic counterparts, and considerable effort has made since that time to develop applications for them based on their unique adsorption, cation-exchange, dehydration-rehydration, and catalytic properties. Natural zeolites (i.e., those found in volcanogenic sedimentary rocks) have been and are being used as building stone, as lightweight aggregate and pozzolans in cements and concretes, as filler in paper, in the take-up of Cs and Sr from nuclear waste and fallout, as soil amendments in agronomy and horticulture, in the removal of ammonia from municipal, industrial, and agricultural waste and drinking waters, as energy exchangers in solar refrigerators, as dietary supplements in animal diets, as consumer deodorizers, in pet litters, in taking up ammonia from animal manures, and as ammonia filters in kidney-dialysis units. From their use in construction during Roman times, to their role as hydroponic (zeoponic) substrate for growing plants on space missions, to their recent success in the healing of cuts and wounds, natural zeolites are now considered to be full-fledged mineral commodities, the use of which promise to expand even more in the future.  (+info)



petrochemical industry

  • Examples of sunrise industries include hydrogen fuel production, petrochemical industry, food processing industry, space tourism, and online encyclopedias. (wikipedia.org)
  • Significant direct uses of HF include pickling (cleaning) of steel, cracking of alkanes in the petrochemical industry, and etching of glass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, industries such as petrochemical industry and shipbuilding would fall under heavy industry. (wikipedia.org)

2002

  • In 2002 a sequel, Industry Giant II was released. (wikipedia.org)
  • With regards to the worldwide satellite industry revenues, in the period 2002 to 2005 those remained at the 35-36 billion USD level. (wikipedia.org)

world's

  • Following the Industrial Revolution, possibly a third of the world's economic output are derived that is from manufacturing industries. (wikipedia.org)
  • The healthcare industry is one of the world's largest and fastest-growing industries. (wikipedia.org)

comprises

  • In the Information Age, the content industry comprises an enormous market. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, Industry City comprises roughly 40 acres (16 ha) of the former Bush Terminal, including 16 original buildings. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tobacco industry comprises those persons and companies engaged in the growth, preparation for sale, shipment, advertisement, and distribution of tobacco and tobacco-related products. (wikipedia.org)

19th century

  • Floriculture as an industry began in the late 19th century in the United Kingdom, where flowers were grown on a large scale on the vast estates. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the late 19th century through the mid-20th, as the chemical industry and electrical industry developed, they involved components of both heavy industry and light industry, which was soon also true for the automotive industry and the aircraft industry. (wikipedia.org)

2001

ISIC

  • While ISIC Rev.4 continues to use criteria such as input, output and use of the products produced, more emphasis has been given to the character of the production process in defining and delineating ISIC classes.Industry is very important. (wikipedia.org)

broadly

  • Thus more broadly, space industry can be described as the companies involved in the space economy, and providing goods and services related to space. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Bicycle Industry or Cycling Industry can broadly be defined as the industry concerned with bicycles and cycling. (wikipedia.org)

poverty

  • The terms poverty industry or poverty business refer to a wide range of money-making activities that attract a large portion of their business from the poor because they are poor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The poverty industry makes roughly US$33 billion a year in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • page needed] In 2010, elected American federal officials received more than $1.5 million in campaign contributions from poverty-industry donors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The poverty industry has given huge contributions to lawmakers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Poverty Industry: The Exploitation of America's Most Vulnerable Citizens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bicycle Technologies International Quality Bicycle Products Interbike Frostbike Eurobike Besides advocating for greater safety, comfort, and convenience for bicyclists, many members of the industry promote bicycles for poverty alleviation. (wikipedia.org)

21st century

  • Large systems are often characteristic of heavy industry such as the construction of skyscrapers and large dams during the post-World War II era, and the manufacture/deployment of large rockets and giant wind turbines through the 21st century. (wikipedia.org)

2000

  • Asteroid mining Commercialization of space Space colonization Space industry of Russia Space law Outer Space Treaty Space manufacturing Joan Lisa Bromberg (October 2000). (wikipedia.org)

sectors

  • At the top level, industry is often classified according to the three-sector theory into sectors: primary (extractive), secondary (manufacturing), and tertiary (services). (wikipedia.org)
  • Below the economic sectors there are many other more detailed industry classifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three major sectors of the space industry are: satellite manufacturing, support ground equipment manufacturing, and the launch industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The industry and related sectors employ about 120,000 people in the OECD countries, while the space industry of Russia employs around 250,000 people. (wikipedia.org)
  • The healthcare industry (also called the medical industry or health economy) is an aggregation and integration of sectors within the economic system that provides goods and services to treat patients with curative, preventive, rehabilitative, and palliative care. (wikipedia.org)
  • The modern healthcare industry is divided into many sectors and depends on interdisciplinary teams of trained professionals and paraprofessionals to meet health needs of individuals and populations. (wikipedia.org)

Tourism

  • Some future developments of the space industry that are increasingly being considered include new services such as space tourism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tourism business frontiers: consumers, products and industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Entertainment industry Music industry Film industry Television industry Sport industry Publishing industry Tourism industry Creative industries Cognitive-cultural economy Audley, Paul. (wikipedia.org)

exports

  • German exports in this industry reached €5.8 billion in 2008, whereas imports of cosmetics totaled €3 billion. (wikipedia.org)
  • After about 100 years of protectionism of this wool industry, the country finally decided that duties on exports would be lifted. (wikipedia.org)

typically

  • For purpose of finance and management, the healthcare industry is typically divided into several areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Light industry facilities typically have less environmental impact than those associated with heavy industry, and zoning laws are more likely to permit light industry near residential areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • While light industry typically causes little pollution, particularly when compared to heavy industries, some light industry can cause significant pollution or risk of contamination. (wikipedia.org)

historically

  • Historically certain manufacturing industries have gone into a decline due to various economic factors, including the development of replacement technology or the loss of competitive advantage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measurements of manufacturing industries outputs and economic effect are not historically stable. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The tobacco industry has historically been largely successful in this litigation process, with the majority of cases being won by the industry. (wikipedia.org)

citation needed

  • Tobacco advertising is becoming increasingly restricted by the governments of countries around the world citing health issues as a reason to restrict tobaccos appeal[citation needed] The tobacco industry in the United States has suffered greatly since the mid-1990s, when it was successfully sued by several U.S. states. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Since the settlement is a heavy tax on the profits of the tobacco industry in the US, regressive against smokers, and further settlements being made only add to the financial burden of these companies, it is debatable if the industry has a money-producing long term outlook. (wikipedia.org)

capital-intensive

  • Transportation and construction along with their upstream manufacturing supply businesses have been the bulk of heavy industry throughout the industrial age, along with some capital-intensive manufacturing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Light industry is industry that is usually less capital-intensive than heavy industry, and is more consumer-oriented than business-oriented (i.e., most light industry products are produced for end users rather than as intermediates for use by other industries). (wikipedia.org)

refers

  • Space industry refers to economic activities related to manufacturing components that go into Earth's orbit or beyond, delivering them to those regions, and related services. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phrase "tobacco industry" generally refers to the companies involved in the manufacture of cigarettes, cigars, snuff, chewing tobacco and pipe tobacco. (wikipedia.org)

formerly

  • Bush Terminal/Industry City Industry City (formerly Bush Terminal) is a historic intermodal shipping, warehousing, and manufacturing complex on the waterfront in the Sunset Park neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York City. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thought Industry (formerly named "Desecrater") was an American progressive metal band It was founded in Kalamazoo, Michigan in 1989 by vocalist/bassist Brent Oberlin, drummer Dustin Donaldson (who formed I Am Spoonbender in 1997), guitarist Christopher Lee Simmonds (aka Christopher Lee), and guitarist Steve Spaeth who replaced original Desecrater guitarist, Dan Roe. (wikipedia.org)

include

  • The automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and motor fuel filling stations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the country, the industry minister may have a wide range of responsibilities that could include making decisions regarding utilities and electricity production, presiding over business mergers, and lobbying corporations to build facilities in his or her respective country. (wikipedia.org)

grown

  • According to data from 2008, the cosmetic industry has grown constantly in France for 40 consecutive years. (wikipedia.org)
  • In recent years, the floral industry has grown six percent annually, while the global trade volume in 2003 was US$101.84 billion. (wikipedia.org)

Census

  • According to the 2010 census, Industry has a total area of 0.461 square miles (1.19 km2), of which 0.46 square miles (1.19 km2) (or 99.78%) is land and 0.001 square miles (0.00 km2) (or 0.22%) is water. (wikipedia.org)

definition

  • Other approaches to defining the scope of the healthcare industry tend to adopt a broader definition, also including other key actions related to health, such as education and training of health professionals, regulation and management of health services delivery, provision of traditional and complementary medicines, and administration of health insurance. (wikipedia.org)

India

  • Many developed countries and many developing/semi-developed countries (China, India etc.) depend significantly on manufacturing industry. (wikipedia.org)

economies

  • Manufacturing industry became a key sector of production and labour in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution, upsetting previous mercantile and feudal economies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Industries, the countries they reside in, and the economies of those countries are interlinked in a complex web of interdependence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many East Asian countries rely on heavy industry as key parts of their overall economies. (wikipedia.org)

countries

  • Although not as large as in other European countries, the cosmetic industry in Italy was estimated to reach €9 billion in 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Italian cosmetic industry is however dominated by hair and body products and not makeup as in many other European countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed down. (wikipedia.org)
  • namely that the automotive industry was slowing down even in BRIC countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • The floral industry is one of the higher industries in many developing and underdeveloped countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • These factors have radically altered the context in which cultural goods, services, and investments flow between countries and, consequently, these industries have undergone a process of internationalization and progressive concentration, resulting in the formation of a few big conglomerates: a new global oligopoly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the end use of these materials is banned in most countries, this industry has shrunk dramatically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among Japanese and Korean firms with "heavy industry" in their names, many are also manufacturers of aerospace products and defense contractors to their respective countries' governments such as Japan's Fuji Heavy Industries and Korea's Hyundai Rotem, a joint project of Hyundai Heavy Industries and Daewoo Heavy Industries. (wikipedia.org)

worldwide

  • According to industry analyst Gartner, the size of the worldwide software industry in 2013 was US$407.3 billion, an increase of 4.8% over 2012. (wikipedia.org)
  • The worldwide cosmetics and perfume industry currently generates an estimated annual turnover of US$170 billion (according to Eurostaf - May 2007). (wikipedia.org)
  • The cosmetic industry worldwide seems to be continuously developing, now more than ever with the advent of the Internet companies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Health Organization estimates there are 9.2 million physicians, 19.4 million nurses and midwives, 1.9 million dentists and other dentistry personnel, 2.6 million pharmacists and other pharmaceutical personnel, and over 1.3 million community health workers worldwide, making the health care industry one of the largest segments of the workforce. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cultural industries worldwide have adapted To The New digital technologies and to the arrival of national, regional and international (de)regulatory policies. (wikipedia.org)

greatly

  • The industry expanded greatly with the rise of the personal computer ("PC") in the mid-1970s, which brought desktop computing to the office worker for the first time. (wikipedia.org)

organizations

  • Play media The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles, some of them are called automakers. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to international organizations such as UNESCO and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), cultural industries (sometimes also known as "creative industries") combine the creation, production, and distribution of goods and services that are cultural in nature and usually protected by intellectual property rights. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are proud that the See the Light® program is recognized by top industry training certification organizations. (corning.com)

businesses

  • These classification systems commonly divide industries according to similar functions and markets and identify businesses producing related products. (wikipedia.org)
  • The computer or information technology, or IT industry is the range of businesses involved in designing computer hardware and computer networking infrastructures, developing computer software, manufacturing computer components, and providing information technology (IT) services. (wikipedia.org)
  • The software industry includes businesses for development, maintenance and publication of software that are using different business models, mainly either "license/maintenance based" (on-premises) or "Cloud based" (such as SaaS, PaaS, IaaS, MaaS, AaaS, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cosmetic industry is dominated by a small number of multinational corporations that originated in the early 20th century, but the distribution and sale of cosmetics is spread among a wide range of different businesses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The floral industry essentially consists of three major components: the growers, the wholesalers and the retailers whose businesses are quite intermingled. (wikipedia.org)

Electrical

  • The electrical training ALLIANCE (previously called NJATC) was created over 70 years ago as a joint training program between the National Electrical Contractors Association (NECA) and the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW) aimed at training the best electrical workers the industry has to offer. (corning.com)

automotive industry

  • The automotive industry began in the 1890s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Safety in the automotive industry is particularly important and therefore highly regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Product and operation tests and inspections at different stages of the value chain are made to avoid these product recalls by ensuring end-user security and safety and compliance with the automotive industry requirements. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the automotive industry is still particularly concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences. (wikipedia.org)

cultural

  • The notion of cultural industries generally includes textual, music, television, and film production and publishing, as well as crafts and design. (wikipedia.org)

includes

  • The industry also includes software services, such as training, documentation, consulting and data recovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The latter listed industry group includes companies that produce biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, and miscellaneous scientific services. (wikipedia.org)

products

  • Designer perfumes are, like any other designer products, the most expensive in the industry as the consumer pays not only for the product but also for the brand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electronics manufacturing, itself often a light industry, can create potentially harmful levels of lead or chemical wastes in soil due to improper handling of solder and waste products (such as cleaning and degreasing agents used in manufacture). (wikipedia.org)

companies

  • IBM industry experts discuss the surprising ways cognitive helps companies adapt quickly and better connect with customers. (ibm.com)
  • The largest cosmetic companies are The L'Oréal Group, The Procter & Gamble Company, Unilever, Shiseido Company, Limited and Estée Lauder Companies, Inc. The market volume of the cosmetics industry in the United States, Europe, and Japan is about EUR €70b per year, according to a 2005 publication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The content industry is an umbrella term that encompasses companies owning and providing mass media and media metadata. (wikipedia.org)
  • The suits claimed that tobacco causes cancer, that companies in the industry knew this, and that they deliberately understated the significance of their findings, contributing to the illness and death of many citizens in those states. (wikipedia.org)

chemical

  • Sodium and potassium bifluorides are significant to the chemical industry. (wikipedia.org)

billion

  • Cosmetic sales in France reached €6.5 billion in 2006, according to FIPAR (Fédération des Industries de la Parfumerie - the French federation for the perfume industry). (wikipedia.org)
  • In Germany, the cosmetic industry generated €12.6 billion of retail sales in 2008, which makes the German cosmetic industry the third largest in the world, after Japan and the United States. (wikipedia.org)

large

  • As Chemists we believe that practical application and interaction with industry are an inherent part of what we do, therefore we are always keen to talk to industries, both large and small to explore how we might collaborate. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • When a large group has multiple sources of revenue generation, it is considered to be working in different industries. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Africa, Kenya is the largest exporter, supplying a large percentage of Europe's flowers, the industry there is represented by the Kenya Flower Council. (wikipedia.org)

often

  • Basically, his arguments dictated that new or "infant" industries in the US could not become competitive with others in the international market unless the government offered them subsidies or allowances (often called bounties previously) at least for some initial time period. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of those factors, heavy industry involves higher capital intensity than light industry does, and it is also often more heavily cyclical in investment and employment. (wikipedia.org)

production

  • Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material. (wikipedia.org)

significant

  • The present day floral industry is a dynamic, global, fast-growing industry, which has achieved significant growth rates during the past few decades. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, the launch industry features a significant government involvement, with some launch platforms (like the space shuttle) being operated by governments. (wikipedia.org)

important

  • France is another country in which the cosmetic industry plays an important role, both nationally and internationally. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Italian cosmetic industry is also an important player in the European cosmetic market. (wikipedia.org)
  • A sunrise industry is one that is new or relatively new, is growing fast and is expected to become important in the future. (wikipedia.org)

governments

  • Governments are sometimes urged to support the development of infant industries, protecting home industries in their early stages, usually through subsidies or tariffs. (wikipedia.org)

infrastructure

  • This allows industries with heavy impacts (on environment, infrastructure, and employment) to be sited with forethought. (wikipedia.org)

Light Industry

  • Morris Teubal, "Heavy and Light Industry in Economic Development" The American Economic Review, Vol. 63, No. 4. (wikipedia.org)

global industry

  • Market-based classification systems such as the Global Industry Classification Standard and the Industry Classification Benchmark are used in finance and market research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other players in this global industry are Israel, South Africa, Australia, Thailand and Malaysia. (wikipedia.org)

internationally

  • BICSI professional designations are valued internationally and are recognized throughout the ITS industry. (corning.com)

software industry

  • The software industry expanded in the early 1960s, almost immediately after computers were first sold in mass-produced quantities. (wikipedia.org)
  • The software industry has been subject to a high degree of consolidation over the past couple of decades. (wikipedia.org)
  • From Airline Reservations to Sonic the Hedgehog: A History of the Software Industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mergers and Acquisitions in the Software Industry - foundations of due diligence. (wikipedia.org)

heavy

  • Modern shipbuilding (since steel replaced wood) is considered heavy industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the Soviet Union's manic industrialization in the 1930s, with heavy industry as the favored emphasis, sought to bring its ability to produce trucks, tanks, artillery, aircraft, and warships up to a level that would make the country a great power. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heavy industry is also sometimes a special designation in local zoning laws. (wikipedia.org)

technology

  • Industry 2.0 is a monthly science and technology magazine published by 9.9 Media in New Delhi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Industry 2.0 engagesin industry and technology leaders to provide a comprehensive overview of the manufacturing sector. (wikipedia.org)
  • BICSI established its credential programs to provide a level of assurance to the industry and to consumers that an individual has knowledge in a designated area of information technology systems (ITS) design or installation. (corning.com)

process

  • The broiler industry is the process by which broiler chickens are reared and prepared for meat consumption. (wikipedia.org)

ways

  • Industries can be classified in a variety of ways. (wikipedia.org)

small

  • Light industries require only a small amount of raw materials, area and power. (wikipedia.org)

different

  • Due to the popularity of cosmetics, especially fragrances and perfumes, many designers who are not necessarily involved in the cosmetic industry came up with different perfumes carrying their names. (wikipedia.org)

market

  • Industry is a town in Austin County, Texas, United States, at the junction of State Highway 159 (SH 159) and Farm to Market Road 109 (FM 109). (wikipedia.org)

percent

  • It has been shown that in Germany this industry grew nearly 5 percent in one year, from 2007 to 2008. (wikipedia.org)

high

  • Industry students are zoned to West End Elementary School, Bellville Junior High School, and Bellville High School. (wikipedia.org)
  • The need for high levels of R&D spending prompted consolidation within the primary breeder industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the high levels of variation in the chicken genome, the industry has not yet reached biological limits to improved performance. (wikipedia.org)