North AmericaIndians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.IndiaNorth CarolinaIndian Ocean: A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)Indians, South American: Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.United StatesAsian Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.North SeaUnited States Indian Health Service: A division of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that is responsible for the public health and the provision of medical services to NATIVE AMERICANS in the United States, primarily those residing on reservation lands.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.AlaskaMexican Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican descent.North DakotaEuropean Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.South AmericaGeography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)ArizonaGenetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.EuropeIndian Ocean Islands: Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).Inuits: Inuktitut-speakers generally associated with the northern polar region.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Indians, Central American: Individual members of Central American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia. Mexican Indians are not included.Bison: A genus of the family Bovidae having two species: B. bison and B. bonasus. This concept is differentiated from BUFFALOES, which refers to Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer.New MexicoRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)South DakotaEthnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Central AmericaMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.American Samoa: A group of islands of SAMOA, in the southwest central Pacific. Its capital is Pago Pago. The islands were ruled by native chiefs until about 1869. An object of American interest beginning in 1839, Pago Pago and trading and extraterritorial rights were granted to the United States in 1878. The United States, Germany, and England administered the islands jointly 1889-99, but in 1899 they were granted to the United States by treaty. The Department of the Interior has administered American Samoa since 1951. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p44)Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by outbreaks of late term abortions, high numbers of stillbirths and mummified or weak newborn piglets, and respiratory disease in young unweaned and weaned pigs. It is caused by PORCINE RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE SYNDROME VIRUS. (Radostits et al., Veterinary Medicine, 8th ed, p1048)Southwestern United States: The geographic area of the southwestern region of the United States. The states usually included in this region are Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah.Atlantic OceanAmerican Heart Association: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Carya: A plant genus of the family JUGLANDACEAE that bears edible nuts.OklahomaAnimal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.New Brunswick: A province of eastern Canada, one of the Maritime Provinces with NOVA SCOTIA; PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND; and sometimes NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR. Its capital is Fredericton. It was named in honor of King George III, of the House of Hanover, also called Brunswick. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p828 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p375)Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Lentiviruses, Ovine-Caprine: A subgenus of LENTIVIRUS comprising viruses that produce multi-organ disease with long incubation periods in sheep and goats.Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus: A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)MexicoEvolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.MontanaMicrosatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Panax: An araliaceous genus of plants that contains a number of pharmacologically active agents used as stimulants, sedatives, and tonics, especially in traditional medicine. Sometimes confused with Siberian ginseng (ELEUTHEROCOCCUS).Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Encephalomyelitis, Eastern Equine: A form of arboviral encephalitis (primarily affecting equines) endemic to eastern regions of North America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, EASTERN EQUINE) may be transmitted to humans via the bite of AEDES mosquitoes. Clinical manifestations include the acute onset of fever, HEADACHE, altered mentation, and SEIZURES followed by coma. The condition is fatal in up to 50% of cases. Recovery may be marked by residual neurologic deficits and EPILEPSY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.Coyotes: The species Canis latrans in the family CANIDAE, a smaller relative of WOLVES. It is found in the Western hemisphere from Costa Rica to Alaska.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Northwestern United States: The geographic area of the northwestern region of the United States. The states usually included in this region are Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming.Crows: Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Porcupines: Common name for large, quilled rodents (RODENTIA) comprised of two families: Old World porcupines (Hystricidae) and New World porcupines (Erethizontidae).Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Animals, ZooHistory, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.CaliforniaTrees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Orobanchaceae: The broom-rape plant family of the order Lamiales.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Founder Effect: A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.WyomingRhabdoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by RHABDOVIRIDAE. Important infections include RABIES; EPHEMERAL FEVER; and vesicular stomatitis.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Malignant Hyperthermia: Rapid and excessive rise of temperature accompanied by muscular rigidity following general anesthesia.Antivenins: Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.AfricaFishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Licensure, Pharmacy: The granting of a license to practice pharmacy.Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Siberia: A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Didelphis: A genus of large OPOSSUMS in the family Didelphidae, found in the Americas. The species Didelphis virginiana is prominent in North America.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sciuridae: A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.Novirhabdovirus: A genus in the family RHABDOVIRIDAE, infecting numerous species of fish with broad geographic distribution. The type species is INFECTIOUS HEMATOPOIETIC NECROSIS VIRUS.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.West Indies: Islands lying between southeastern North America and northern South America, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. They comprise the Greater Antilles (CUBA; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; HAITI; JAMAICA; and PUERTO RICO), the Lesser Antilles (ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA and the other Leeward Islands, BARBADOS; MARTINIQUE and the other Windward Islands, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES; VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES, BRITISH VIRGINI ISLANDS, and the islands north of Venezuela which include TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO), and the BAHAMAS. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1330)West Nile Fever: A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Midwestern United States: The geographic area of the midwestern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not indicated. The states usually included in this region are Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Great Lakes Region: The geographic area of the Great Lakes in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. It usually includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Blastomycosis: A fungal infection that may appear in two forms: 1, a primary lesion characterized by the formation of a small cutaneous nodule and small nodules along the lymphatics that may heal within several months; and 2, chronic granulomatous lesions characterized by thick crusts, warty growths, and unusual vascularity and infection in the middle or upper lobes of the lung.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Smilax: A plant genus of the family SMILACACEAE. Members contain smiglasides (phenylpropanoid glycosides) and steroidal saponins. Commercially it is sometimes adulterated with HEMIDESMUS, which would affect experimental results.Paragonimiasis: Infection with TREMATODA of the genus PARAGONIMUS.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Cultural Characteristics: Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.Reassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.American Medical Association: Professional society representing the field of medicine.Snake Bites: Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Wolves: Any of several large carnivorous mammals of the family CANIDAE that usually hunt in packs.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Campanulaceae: A plant family of the order Campanulales, subclass Asteridae, class MagnoliopsidaReindeer: A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)Russia (Pre-1917)Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Dentition: The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Raptors: BIRDS that hunt and kill other animals, especially higher vertebrates, for food. They include the FALCONIFORMES order, or diurnal birds of prey, comprised of EAGLES, falcons, HAWKS, and others, as well as the STRIGIFORMES order, or nocturnal birds of prey, which includes OWLS.Hawaii: A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330)TexasConservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Southeastern United States: The geographic area of the southeastern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not included. The states usually included in this region are Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, West Virginia, and Virginia.American Cancer Society: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of cancer through education and research.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)ChileChiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Raccoons: Carnivores of the genus Procyon of the family PROCYONIDAE. Two subgenera and seven species are currently recognized. They range from southern Canada to Panama and are found in several of the Caribbean Islands.Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Acculturation: Process of cultural change in which one group or members of a group assimilate various cultural patterns from another.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Ranidae: The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Greenland

*  'Wounded Knee' tops all Emmy nominees - UPI...

An account of the displacement of American Indians as the United States pushed westward paced all shows nominated for primetime ... NORTH HOLLYWOOD, Calif., July 19 (UPI) -- An account of the displacement of American Indians as the United States pushed ... Robert Plant announces North American tour, releases new single 4 hours ago ago Sept. 26 (UPI) -- Robert Plant is ready to hit ... Topics: America Ferrera, Anna Paquin, Edie Falco, James Gandolfini, Lorraine Bracco, Michael Imperioli, Robert Duvall, Vanessa ...
upi.com/Entertainment_News/2007/07/19/Wounded-Knee-tops-all-Emmy-nominees/UPI-75971184859094/

*  What are some Native American Indian words? | Reference.com

Some Native American words are 'vo'kome,' which is the Cheyenne word for white. Some other Cheyenne words are 'enesta,' which ... A: The Indians of the North American Arctic, or Inuit, were the last of the native people to settle in North America and ... What do Indian men wear?. A: According to Asian Info, many Indian men across all regions in India wear conventional Western ... Why are Indian elephants decorated?. A: Indian elephants are decorated for religious and ceremonial reasons. Elephants are a ...
https://reference.com/world-view/native-american-indian-words-71d7b0c568a27bfe

*  The last American Indian warrior surrenders - Sep 04, 1886 - HISTORY.com

The last American Indian warrior surrenders on Sep 04, 1886. Learn more about what happened today on History. ... The speech focused on Truman's acceptance of a treaty that officially ended America's post-World War... ... On September 4, 1886, Geronimo turned himself over to Miles, becoming the last American Indian warrior in history to formally ... www.history.com/this-day-in-history/the-last-american-indian-warrior-surrenders ...
history.com/this-day-in-history/the-last-american-indian-warrior-surrenders

*  AIM - American Indian Movement T-Shirt | Spreadshirt

Buy your own T-Shirt with a AIM - American Indian Movement design at Spreadshirt, your custom t-shirt printing platform! ... American Indian Movement T-Shirt is printed on a T-Shirt and designed by Dejavu777. Available in many sizes and colours. ... American Indian Indian American Movement American Indian Movement Spiritual Leadership Witty Trending Top Selling ... american indian movement. Tags: trending, top, selling, spirituality, movement, leadership, indian, american, indian, movement ...
https://spreadshirt.com/aim american indian movement-A107624444

*  Indian-American Spells to Win

All five of the most recent winners of the Scripps National Spelling Bee were of Indian heritage and participated in the North ... an organization devoted to helping Indian-American youth prepare for college.. "I've been interested in spelling bees since ... Perhaps 14-year-old Snigdha Nandipati, a second generation American, was destined to win this year's Scripps National Spelling ... The second involved enrolling her in a series of spelling contests run by the North South Foundation, ...
https://voanews.com/a/indian-american-spells-to-win/1213169.html

*  Most Popular 'American Indian' Titles - IMDb

33. C.S.A.: The Confederate States of America (2004) Unrated , 89 min , Comedy, Drama, War ... American Indian Native American (429) Horse (130) Murder (91) Death (79) Violence (79) Husband Wife Relationship (75) Based On ... Indian Attack (53) Indian Chief (52) Kidnapping (52) Bare Chested Male (49) Knife (49) Native American White Relationships (47) ... White Indian (35) Boy (34) Campfire (34) Cowboys And Indians (34) Flashback (34) Mother Daughter Relationship (34) Wagon Train ...
imdb.com/search/keyword?keywords=american-indian

*  American Indians Forum » Topix

Swine Flu Death Rate High for Native Americans (Dec '09) Dec '09 NW Hominid 2 ... Topix › American IndiansAmerican Indians Forum American Indians Forum. Forums and message boards for American Indians. ... American Indians News. * 1 movies Documentary - Rumble' spotlights to ro... * @collegefund New York Flame of Hope Gala with I ... American Indians Fight for Their Rights (Oct '08) May '09 alice 65 ...
topix.com/forum/who/american-indians

*  UMD: American Indians-MN

North Dakota, and has been occupied in the fields of Indian Health Service and Indian Education for twenty years. Co-sponsored ... American Indian Studies, UMD and Linda Grover, faculty, American Indian Studies, UMD presented human rights issue. Download ... American Indian Studies Department, Political Science Department, Center for American Indian and Minority Health, Royal D ... American Indian Learning Resource Center; Linda Grover, Assistant Professor, American Indian Studies; Alexis Pogorelskin, ...
d.umn.edu/external-affairs/homepage/07/amindmn.html

*  American indians - Pixdaus

Chiracahua Apache Children at Carlisle Indian S.... By: 7. Tags:. american indiansapachesnative americans ...
pixdaus.com/american-indians/items/tag/american indians/

*  Sauganash | American Indian leader | Britannica.com

Potawatomi Indian chief whose friendship with the white settlers in Chicago was important in the development of that city. ... 10 Fascinating Facts About the First Americans. Europeans had ventured westward to the New World long before the Taino Indians ... His negotiations forestalled a Winnebago Indian uprising in 1827, and in 1832 he worked to prevent Indians in the Chicago area ... 28, 1841, near Council Bluffs, Iowa Territory, U.S.), Potawatomi Indian chief whose friendship with the white settlers in ...
https://britannica.com/biography/Sauganash

*  Four-Year Plan | American Indian Studies

AIS/Hist 263 - North American Indian History Since 1887. 3. L&S Natural Science. 3-5. ... Meet with us in-person, over the phone, or via Skype to learn more about the American Indian Studies program. We can even ... The sample below shows one possible pathway to earning a Bachelor of Arts degree in American Indian Studies in four years. This ... Western Great Lakes American Indian Community Life of the Past (SS). 3. ...
uwm.edu/american-indian-studies/undergraduate/four-year-plan/

*  American Indian Census Rolls Genealogy - FamilySearch Wiki

American Indian Census Rolls. From FamilySearch Wiki. Revision as of 06:43, 21 April 2010 by Jbparker (talk , contribs) (added ... L, 98) required the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) to begin recording an annual census on most Indian reservations in the ... These annual Indian Census Rolls, 1885-1940, were gathered into a collection by the Commissioner's Office of the Bureau of ... Some earlier Indian census rolls were compiled, particularly of the Five Civilized Tribes. However, there was no consistency ...
https://familysearch.org/wiki/en/index.php?title=American_Indian_Census_Rolls&oldid=326149

*  The American Indian | work by Wissler | Britannica.com

In The American Indian (1917), a classic in North American ethnology, he explored the regional clustering of cultural traits ... He published the results in The American Indian (1917), an ethnology in which he systematically described the material and ... At the American Museum, Wissler arranged collections and exhibits according to area and group. ...
https://britannica.com/topic/The-American-Indian

*  American Indians by Corbin Franklin on Prezi

American Indians. SOL USI.3a-c. How did they get here?. Today, the Bering Strait separates Asia from North America. When the ... The First Americans were unable to return to Asia. They migrated throughout the North and South American continents. Igloos ... Kwakiutl Indians. Great Plains. rolling grasslands. The Kwakiutl built totem poles out of cedar logs.. The painted carvings ... http://www.history.com/videos/the-buffalo-and-native-americans#the-buffalo-and-native-americans. Southwest U.S. desert area. ...
https://prezi.com/jfxgzve9xnuc/american-indians/

*  National heritage day honors American Indians

... to honor the contributions American Indians have made to the United States. ... The measure notes that more Americans Indians than any other group, per capita, serve in the U.S. military. It also cites ... The organization took on the cause of a commemorative day, as did the National Congress of American Indians and other groups. ... National heritage day honors American Indians. Posted: Fri 3:25 PM, Nov 28, 2008 , ...
wibw.com/home/headlines/35228469.html

*  Stokely Carmichael | West Indian-American activist | Britannica.com

West-Indian-born civil-rights activist, leader of black nationalism in the United States in the 1960s and originator of its ... African American history (in African Americans: Urban upheaval) *American civil rights movement (in American civil rights ... African Americans: Urban upheaval. ...and Marxist-oriented African American organizations were created, among them the ... 15, 1998, Conakry, Guinea), West-Indian-born civil-rights activist, leader of black nationalism in the United States in the ...
https://britannica.com/biography/Stokely-Carmichael

*  Smithsonian Education - American Indian Heritage Teaching Resources

Office webpage features educational activities and links to information about Native Americans including Native American ... Each year, the Smithsonian honors American Indian Heritage Month with a calendar full of activities. Visit the American Indian ... Visitors can browse the "History and Culture" section, or narrow their results by using "American Indian" or "Native American" ... For American Indian Heritage Month, Global Sound offers free audio tracks and videos featuring Native communities from the ...
smithsonianeducation.org/educators/resource_library/american_indian_resources.html

*  National Museum of the American Indian| Smithsonian Institution

South America, Northwest Coast, Meso America, and the Great Plains. ...
https://si.edu/GroupSales/AmericanIndianMuseum

*  IHB: Leading Questions for Researching American Indian Topics

Hoxie, Frederick E., ed., Encyclopedia of North American Indians.. *Jones, James R., III and Amy L. Johnson, Early Peoples of ... Current: Leading Questions for Researching American Indian Topics. Leading Questions for Researching American Indian Topics. ... Leading Questions for Researching American Indian Topics. American Indian topics encompass other issues of Leading Questions - ... Lee, Francis, Native Time: A Historical Time Line of Native America.. *Prucha, Francis Paul, Atlas of American Indian Affairs. ...
in.gov/history/4210.htm

*  Literary Encyclopedia | American Indians, American Justice

The Literary Encyclopedia. Volume 3.2.6: Indigenous Writing and Culture of North America - United States. ... 28851 American Indians, American Justice 3 Historical context notes are intended to give basic and preliminary information on a ...
https://litencyc.com/php/sworks.php?rec=true&UID=28851

*  American Indians : Esipermi - Comanche

First People of America and Canada. ... More American Indian Photographs from Gallery A. *Page 01. * ... First People :: American Indian Photographs :: Gallery A Page 11. Esipermi - Comanche. Click on the main picture below to ... Other American Indian Pictures from Gallery A - Page 11. If you decide to use this list below as navigation, then please avoid ... We have a small shop selling Bear Claw Jewelry as well as American Indian Jewelry. So if you get time, please check it out. ...
firstpeople.us/photos/Esipermi_-_Comanche.html

*  Central American and northern Andean Indian | people | Britannica.com

Member of any of the aboriginal peoples inhabiting Central America (south from Guatemala) and the northern coast of South ... America, including the northern drainage of the Orinoco... ... In American Indian studies, Central America and the Northern ... Central American and northern Andean Indian, member of any of the aboriginal peoples inhabiting Central America (south from ... association with Spaniards (in history of Latin America: Indians among Spaniards) *contribution to Native American music (in ...
https://britannica.com/topic/Central-American-Indian

*  American Indians enlist for war in Korea - Timeline - Native Voices

Like thousands of Native Americans, Ben Nighthorse Campbell served in the U.S. military during the Korean War. Campbell was ... American Indians enlist for war in Korea The Korean War begins. U.S. military records fail to completely account for American ... Timeline / Citizenship, Services, and Sovereignty / 1950-53: American Indians enlist for war in Korea ... Ben Nighthorse Campbell's contributions to the Korean War effort are part of a long legacy of Native American military service ...
https://nlm.nih.gov/nativevoices/timeline/648.html

*  Obama names Indian-American as federal judge | world | Hindustan Times

Chandigarh-born Indian-American legal liminary Srikanth 'Sri' Srinivasan has been nominated by President Barack Obama to what ... Lighting up America: Diwali festivals grow in US, from Disney to Times Square ... Obama names Indian-American as federal judge Chandigarh-born Indian-American legal liminary Srikanth 'Sri' Srinivasan has been ... Chandigarh-born Indian-American legal liminary Srikanth 'Sri' Srinivasan has been nominated by President Barack Obama to what ...
hindustantimes.com/world/obama-names-indian-american-as-federal-judge/story-QX5ckNxTt4g2HQ4rsXaQ5J.html

*  JARS v57n1 - American Rhododendron Society Plant Registry

American Rhododendron Society Plant Registry. The following rhododendron and azalea names, submitted through the North American ... a) 'Calusa Indian': Evergreen azalea: R. scabrum f. coccineum (s) X 'Fascination' (Harris)*. H (1988): Jonathan A. Shaw, Lake ... Journal American Rhododendron Society. Current Editor:. Dr. Glen Jamieson ars.editor@gmail.com ...
scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JARS/v57n1/v57n1-registry.htm

American Medical Student AssociationRobinson Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California: The Robinson Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California is a federally recognized tribe of Eastern Pomo people in Lake County, California.California Indians and Their Reservations.African-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversitySteven Zeisel: Steven H. Zeisel, M.South Brother (Chagos Bank): South Brother, also known as Île du Sud, is a 23 ha coral island on the Great Chagos Bank atoll of the Chagos Archipelago in the British Indian Ocean Territory. It is one of the three islands in the Three Brothers group on the western side of the atoll, and forms part of the Chagos Archipelago strict nature reserve.Lampreado: thumb | 250px | right | LampreadoList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Middle North Sea Group: The Middle North Sea Group (abbreviation: NM) is a group of geologic formations in the Dutch subsurface, part of the North Sea Supergroup. The three formations of this group form a thick sequence of sediments in the Dutch subsurface, they crop out in parts of the southern Netherlands.Northwest Portland Area Indian Health Board: The Northwest Portland Area Indian Health Board (NPAIHB) is a non-profit tribal advisory organization in Portland, Oregon, run and organized by participating tribes. It was established in 1972 to focus on four areas as they pertain to the health of Native people: health promotion and disease prevention, legislative and policy analysis, training and technical assistance, and surveillance and research.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.List of nature centers in Alaska: This is a list of nature centers and environmental education centers in the state of Alaska.Maple River (North Dakota): The Maple River is a tributary of the Sheyenne River, about long,U.S.Canadian Organ Replacement Registry: The Canadian Organ Replacement Registry CORR is a health organisation was started by Canadian nephrologists and kidney transplant surgeons in 1985 in order to develop the care of patients with renal failure. In the early 1990s data on liver and heart transplantation were added to the registry.Utiaritichthys: Utiaritichthys is a genus of serrasalmid found in the Amazon and Orinoco basins in tropical South America.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Arizona State Prison Complex – Perryville: Arizona State Prison Complex – Perryville is one of 13 prison facilities operated by the Arizona Department of Corrections (ADC)."Arizona State Prison Complex- Perryville.Genetic variation: right|thumbGA²LENAustrian colonization of Nicobar Islands: Austrian colonization of Nicobar Islands was a short-lived and unsuccessful attempt of Habsburg Monarchy to make Nicobar Islands (an island chain in the eastern Indian Ocean) their colony. The colony was established in 1778.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Kuna people: The Guna, also known as Kuna or Cuna, are an indigenous people of Panama and Colombia. The current preferred and legally recognized spelling is Guna.National Bison Range herd: The National Bison Range herd of American bison at the National Bison Range Wildlife Refuge in Flathead Valley of the U.S.Albuquerque IsotopesQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Phylogeography: Phylogeography is the study of the historical processes that may be responsible for the contemporary geographic distributions of individuals. This is accomplished by considering the geographic distribution of individuals in light of the patterns associated with a gene genealogy.South Dakota Department of Corrections: The South Dakota Department of Corrections is the agency that operates state prisons in South Dakota. It has its headquarters in Pierre.Athletics at the 2002 Central American and Caribbean GamesColes PhillipsList of Superfund sites in American Samoa: This is a list of Superfund sites in American Samoa designated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) environmental law:Bird trapping: Bird trapping techniques to capture wild birds include a wide range of techniques that have their origins in the hunting of birds for food. While hunting for food does not require birds to be caught alive, some trapping techniques capture birds without harming them and are of use in ornithology research.Southwestern United States: The Southwestern United States (also known as the American Southwest) is the United States portion of the Southwest (which is situated in both the United States and Mexico). It is a region of the United States defined in different ways by different sources.In Memory of Celtic Frost: In Memory of... Celtic Frost is a Celtic Frost tribute album released in 1996.Aultman Hospital: Aultman Hospital is a non-profit hospital located in Canton, Ohio, United States. It is the largest hospital and the largest employer, with over 5000 employees, in Stark County.Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossil: Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossils (LOEMs) are microscopic acritarchs, usually over 100 μm in diameter, which are common in sediments of the Ediacaran period, . They largely disappear from the Ediacaran fossil record before , roughly coeval with the origin of the Ediacara biota.Donald Guthrie (physician)Carya glabraOklahoma City Oil Field: The Oklahoma City Oil Field is one of the world's giant petroleum fields and is located in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma in the United States of America. The field was opened just south of the city limits on December 4, 1928, and first entered Oklahoma City limits on May 27, 1930.Geolocation software: In computing, geolocation software is used to deduce the geolocation (geographic location) of another party. For example, on the Internet, one geolocation approach is to identify the subject party's IP address, then determine what country (including down to the city and post/ZIP code level), organization, or user the IP address has been assigned to, and finally, determine that party's location.Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA)New Brunswick Route 127: Route 127 is an East/West provincial highway in the Canadian province of New Brunswick. The Highway starts out in Lawrence Station, New Brunswick at the intersection of Route 3 The road travels mainly south for almost 60 km through mostly rural communities.Panmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.WGAViewer: WGAViewer is a bioinformatics software tool which is designed to visualize, annotate, and help interpret the results generated from a genome wide association study (GWAS). Alongside the P values of association, WGAViewer allows a researcher to visualize and consider other supporting evidence, such as the genomic context of the SNP, linkage disequilibrium (LD) with ungenotyped SNPs, gene expression database, and the evidence from other GWAS projects, when determining the potential importance of an individual SNP.Biological agentEcosystemOld Portal de Mercaderes (Mexico City): Old Portal de Mercaderes in the historic center of Mexico City was and is the west side of the main plaza (otherwise known as the "Zócalo"). This side of the plaza has been occupied by commercial structures since the Spanish Conquest of Mexico in 1521.Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Miss Asia Pacific 2005Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingWaterfalls of Montana: There are at least 120 named waterfalls in Montana.Microsatellite: A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 2–5 base pairs) are repeated, typically 5-50 times. Microsatellites occur at thousands of locations in the human genome and they are notable for their high mutation rate and high diversity in the population.Gene polymorphismAge adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightThermal cyclerClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Caninia (genus)List of rivers in Western Sahara: This is a list of rivers in Western Sahara. This list is arranged north to south by drainage basin, with respective tributaries indented under each larger stream's name.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Community Fingerprinting: Community fingerprinting refers to a set of molecular biology techniques that can be used to quickly profile the diversity of a microbial community. Rather than directly identifying or counting individual cells in an environmental sample, these techniques show how many variants of a gene are present.Dexatrim: Dexatrim is an over-the-counter (OTC) dietary supplement meant to assist with weight loss. Dexatrim claims it "gives you the power to lose weight, curb binges, and keep you in control of your diet.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.List of countries that regulate the immigration of felons: This is a list of countries that regulate the immigration of felons.Infinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.Hadrosaur diet: Hadrosaurids, also commonly referred to as duck-billed dinosaurs or hadrosaurs, were large terrestrial herbivores. The diet of hadrosaurid dinosaurs remains a subject of debate among paleontologists, especially regarding whether hadrosaurids were grazers who fed on vegetation close to the ground, or browsers who ate higher-growing leaves and twigs.Urban coyote: Urban coyotes are coyotes living in metropolitan areas such as cities and suburbs. Coyotes thrive in suburban settings and even some urban ones, because of the availability of food and the lack of predators.Lists of invasive species: These are lists of invasive species by country or region. A species is regarded as invasive if it has been introduced by human action to a location, area, or region where it did not previously occur naturally (i.Phyllodoce empetriformis: Phyllodoce empetriformis, the pink mountain-heather or pink mountain-heath, is found in mountainous regions of western North America in the Northwestern United States and Western Canada. Its southern range includes the Klamath Range in northern California and Oregon.Martha Foote Crow: Martha Emily Foote Crow (1854 - January 1, 1924) was an educator and writer. Born in Sackets Harbor, New York,KM.Deer farm: A deer farm is a fenced piece of land suitable for grazing that is populated with deer such as elk, moose, and even reindeer raised for the purpose of hunting tourism or as livestock. This practice is very different from the way such Arctic communities like the Laplanders migrate in open country with their herds of reindeer.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.

(1/2099) Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease and associated risk factors in American Indians: the Strong Heart Study.

Studies of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in minority populations provide researchers with an opportunity to evaluate PAD risk factors and disease severity under different types of conditions. Examination 1 of the Strong Heart Study (1989-1992) provided data on the prevalence of PAD and its risk factors in a sample of American Indians. Participants (N = 4,549) represented 13 tribes located in three geographically diverse centers in the Dakotas, Oklahoma, and Arizona. Participants in this epidemiologic study were aged 45-74 years; 60% were women. Using the single criterion of an ankle brachial index less than 0.9 to define PAD, the prevalence of PAD was approximately 5.3% across centers, with women having slightly higher rates than men. Factors significantly associated with PAD in univariate analyses for both men and women included age, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c level, albuminuria, fibrinogen level, fasting glucose level, prevalence of diabetes mellitus, and duration of diabetes. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict PAD for women and men combined. Age, systolic blood pressure, current cigarette smoking, pack-years of smoking, albuminuria (micro- and macro-), low density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and fibrinogen level were significantly positively associated with PAD. Current alcohol consumption was significantly negatively associated with PAD. In American Indians, the association of albuminuria with PAD may equal or exceed the association of cigarette smoking with PAD.  (+info)

(2/2099) Ancestral Asian source(s) of new world Y-chromosome founder haplotypes.

Haplotypes constructed from Y-chromosome markers were used to trace the origins of Native Americans. Our sample consisted of 2,198 males from 60 global populations, including 19 Native American and 15 indigenous North Asian groups. A set of 12 biallelic polymorphisms gave rise to 14 unique Y-chromosome haplotypes that were unevenly distributed among the populations. Combining multiallelic variation at two Y-linked microsatellites (DYS19 and DXYS156Y) with the unique haplotypes results in a total of 95 combination haplotypes. Contra previous findings based on Y- chromosome data, our new results suggest the possibility of more than one Native American paternal founder haplotype. We postulate that, of the nine unique haplotypes found in Native Americans, haplotypes 1C and 1F are the best candidates for major New World founder haplotypes, whereas haplotypes 1B, 1I, and 1U may either be founder haplotypes and/or have arrived in the New World via recent admixture. Two of the other four haplotypes (YAP+ haplotypes 4 and 5) are probably present because of post-Columbian admixture, whereas haplotype 1G may have originated in the New World, and the Old World source of the final New World haplotype (1D) remains unresolved. The contrasting distribution patterns of the two major candidate founder haplotypes in Asia and the New World, as well as the results of a nested cladistic analysis, suggest the possibility of more than one paternal migration from the general region of Lake Baikal to the Americas.  (+info)

(3/2099) Pap screening clinics with native women in Skidegate, Haida Gwaii. Need for innovation.

PROBLEM ADDRESSED: First Nations women in British Columbia, especially elders, are underscreened for cancer of the cervix compared with the general population and are much more likely to die of the disease than other women. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: To develop a pilot program, in consultation with community representatives, to address the Pap screening needs of First Nations women 40 years and older on a rural reserve. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: Identification of key links to the population; consultation with the community to design an outreach process; identification of underscreened women; implementation of community Pap screening clinics; evaluation of the pilot program. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a Pap screening outreach program that marked a departure from the usual screening approach in the community. First Nations community health representatives were key links for the process that involved family physicians and office staff at a local clinic on a rural reserve. Participation rate for the pilot program was 48%, resulting in an increase of 15% over the previously recorded screening rate for this population. More screening clinics of this type and evaluation for sustainability are proposed.  (+info)

(4/2099) Comprehensive computerized diabetes registry. Serving the Cree of Eeyou Istchee (eastern James Bay).

PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED: Diabetes is rapidly evolving as a major health concern in the Cree population of eastern James Bay (Eeyou Istchee). The Cree Board of Health and Social Services of James Bay (CBHSSJB) diabetes registry was the initial phase in the development of a comprehensive program for diabetes in this region. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: The CBHSSJB diabetes registry was developed to provide a framework to track the prevalence of diabetes and the progression of diabetic complications. The database will also identify patients not receiving appropriate clinical and laboratory screening for diabetic complications, and will provide standardized clinical flow sheets for routine patient management. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: The CBHSSJB diabetes registry uses a system of paper registration forms and clinical flow sheets kept in the nine community clinics. Information from these sheets is entered into a computer database annually. The flow sheets serve as a guideline for appropriate management of patients with diabetes, and provide a one-page summary of relevant clinical and laboratory information. CONCLUSIONS: A diabetes registry is vital to follow the progression of diabetes and diabetic complications in the region served by the CBHSSJB. The registry system incorporates both a means for regional epidemiologic monitoring of diabetes mellitus and clinical tools for managing patients with the disease.  (+info)

(5/2099) A case-control study of risk factors for Haemophilus influenzae type B disease in Navajo children.

To understand the potential risk factors and protective factors for invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease, we conducted a case-control study among Navajo children less than two years of age resident on the Navajo Nation. We analyzed household interview data for 60 cases that occurred between August 1988 and February 1991, and for 116 controls matched by age, gender, and geographic location. The Hib vaccine recipients were excluded from the analyses. Conditional logistic regression models were fit to examine many variables relating to social and environmental conditions. Risk factors determined to be important were never breast fed (odds ratio [OR] = 3.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.52, 8.26), shared care with more than one child less than two years of age (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 0.91, 5.96); wood heating (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 0.91, 5.05); rodents in the home (OR = 8.18, 95% CI = 0.83, 80.7); and any livestock near the home (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 0.94, 5.04).  (+info)

(6/2099) Variation by body mass index and age in waist-to-hip ratio associations with glycemic status in an aboriginal population at risk for type 2 diabetes in British Columbia, Canada.

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether obesity and age modify or confound relations between abdominal adiposity and metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was assess the consistency of relations between abdominal adiposity and glycemic variables across discrete categories of obesity and age. DESIGN: We performed a stratified analysis of prevalence data from a rural screening initiative in British Columbia, Canada. Subjects were Salishan Indians, all healthy relatives of individuals with type 2 diabetes [n = 151; age: 18-80 y; body mass index (BMI, in kg/m2): 17.0-48.2]. We measured waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (2 categories); insulin, glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1c), and 2-h glucose concentrations (2 categories); and BMI (4 categories). BMI and age-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated. RESULTS: WHR-glycemic variable relations were not consistent across BMI and age strata. Risks associated with high WHR were: for persons with BMIs from 25 to 29, elevated insulin (OR: 6.71; 95% CI: 1.41, 34.11) and Hb A1c (OR: 16.23; 95% CI: 2.04, 101.73) concentrations; for persons aged 18-34 y, elevated insulin concentrations [OR: indeterminate (+infinity); 95% CI: 1.89, +infinity]; and, for persons aged 35-49 y, elevated Hb A1c (OR: +infinity; 95% CI: 3.17, +infinity) and 2-h glucose (OR: 9.15; 95% CI: 1.74, 59.91) concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: WHR discriminates risk of type 2 diabetes in overweight but not obese individuals. Abdominal adiposity is associated with elevated insulin concentrations in younger age groups and with impaired glucose control in middle-aged groups, suggesting metabolic staging by age on a continuum from insulin resistance to impaired glucose tolerance.  (+info)

(7/2099) Trends in body weight among American Indians: findings from a telephone survey, 1985 through 1996.

OBJECTIVES: This study compared trends in body mass index for American Indian men and women across selected regions of the United States. METHODS: Self-reported data were collected from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. RESULTS: Among women in the Dakotas, New Mexico and Arizona, and Washington and Oregon, average adjusted body mass index increased significantly by 0.1 to 0.2 units per year. Among men in Alaska and the Dakotas, average adjusted body mass index also increased significantly by 0.1 to 0.2 units each year. CONCLUSIONS: Because of rapid increases in average body mass index, some American Indian populations could be burdened by an increased incidence of chronic disease.  (+info)

(8/2099) Influence of ethnic background on clinical and serologic features in patients with systemic sclerosis and anti-DNA topoisomerase I antibody.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of ethnicity on clinical and serologic expression in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and anti-DNA topoisomerase I (anti-topo I) antibody. METHODS: Clinical and serologic features, as well as HLA class II allele frequencies, were compared among 47 North American white, 15 North American black, 43 Japanese, and 12 Choctaw Native American SSc patients with anti-topo I antibody. RESULTS: The frequency of progressive pulmonary interstitial fibrosis was lower, and cumulative survival rates were better in white compared with black and Japanese patients. Sera of white and black patients frequently recognized the portion adjacent to the carboxyl terminus of topo I, sera of Japanese patients preferentially recognized the portion adjacent to the amino terminus of topo I, and sera of Choctaw patients recognized both portions of topo I. Anti-RNA polymerase II and anti-SSA/Ro antibodies were present together with anti-topo I antibody more frequently in sera of Japanese patients than in sera of white patients. The HLA-DRB1 alleles associated with anti-topo I antibody differed; i.e., DRB1*1101-*1104 in whites and blacks, DRB1*1502 in Japanese, and DRB1*1602 in Choctaws. Multivariate analysis showed that ethnic background was an independent determinant affecting development of severe lung disease as well as survival. CONCLUSION: Clinical and serologic features in SSc patients were strongly influenced by ethnic background. The variability of disease expression in the 4 ethnic groups suggests that multiple factors linked to ethnicity, including genetic and environmental factors, modulate clinical manifestations, disease course, and autoantibody status in SSc.  (+info)



Carolina Department


  • North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services, Raleigh, North Carolina. (ncdcr.gov)
  • www.publichealth.nc.gov North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services (North Carolina DHHS) is an equal opportunity employer and provider (03/15). (ncdcr.gov)

State


  • The Board of Podiatries Examiners, State of North Carolina This report was developed by the Health Services Research Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. (ncdcr.gov)

Dakota


  • To determine risk for West Nile virus (WNV) neuroinvasive disease in North Dakota, we tested plasma samples from blood donors for WNV IgG and compared infection rates with reported WNV neuroinvasive disease incidence. (biomedsearch.com)
  • University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, North Dakota, USA. (biomedsearch.com)

University


  • Funds for the publication of this doCument were provided by the Area Health Education Centers Program (AHEC), School of Medicine, and the Vice Chanccl10r for Health Affairs Office, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. (ncdcr.gov)
  • North Carolina dental review : magazine of the School of Dentistry, the University of North. (ncdcr.gov)

School


  • Our own UNC School of Dentistry recently established its North Carolina Oral Health Institute, which will stress collaborative new ways to combine research and community partner-ships to advance patient care. (ncdcr.gov)

unit


  • 2013 North Carolina HIV/STD Epidemiologic Profile HIV/STD Surveillance Unit Please direct any comments or questions to: HIV/STD Surveillance Unit North Carolina Communicable Disease Branch 1902 Mail Service Center Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1902 919-733-7301 http://epi.publichealth.nc.gov/cd/stds/figures.html Suggested Citation: North Carolina HIV/STD Surveillance Unit. (ncdcr.gov)