Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.United StatesPopulation Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)JapanPoisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.SwedenProportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.SEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)MinnesotaEnglandSurvival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.DenmarkEpidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Great BritainIndiaChina: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.ItalyFinlandStroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Carcinogenicity Tests: Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.EuropeSmoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.BrazilLung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.TaiwanDatabases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.IsraelModels, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.Rats, Inbred F344NorwayCaliforniaEpidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.WalesStomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.GermanyScotlandGeography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.IranProstatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.WisconsinUterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin: Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Cocarcinogenesis: The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Korea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Space-Time Clustering: A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.Venous Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Republic of Korea: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Hip Fractures: Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Herpes Zoster: An acute infectious, usually self-limited, disease believed to represent activation of latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN) in those who have been rendered partially immune after a previous attack of CHICKENPOX. It involves the SENSORY GANGLIA and their areas of innervation and is characterized by severe neuralgic pain along the distribution of the affected nerve and crops of clustered vesicles over the area. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cardia: That part of the STOMACH close to the opening from ESOPHAGUS into the stomach (cardiac orifice), the ESOPHAGOGASTRIC JUNCTION. The cardia is so named because of its closeness to the HEART. Cardia is characterized by the lack of acid-forming cells (GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS).Pulmonary Embolism: Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.IcelandSentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Leukemia, Radiation-Induced: Leukemia produced by exposure to IONIZING RADIATION or NON-IONIZING RADIATION.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.

*  State Cancer Profiles > Incidence Rates...

Incidence > Table Incidence Rates Table. Data Options. Area:. --- choose state ---. US by State US by County Alabama Counties ... Recent 5-Year Trend‡ in Incidence Rates. (95% Confidence Interval). Arizona 6,10 *** 384.2 (382.2, 386.3) 28,575 falling -1.7 ... 1969-2015 US Population Data File is used for SEER and NPCR incidence rates.. ‡ Incidence data come from different sources. Due ... Age-Adjusted Incidence Rate†. cases per 100,000. (95% Confidence Interval). Average Annual Count. Recent Trend. ...

*  State Cancer Profiles > Incidence Rates...

Incidence > Table Incidence Rates Table. Data Options. Area:. --- choose state ---. US by State US by County Alabama Counties ... Recent 5-Year Trend‡ in Incidence Rates. (95% Confidence Interval). Florida 6,10 *** 61.3 (60.9, 61.8) 16,485 falling -3.1 (- ... 1969-2015 US Population Data File is used for SEER and NPCR incidence rates.. ‡ Incidence data come from different sources. Due ... Age-Adjusted Incidence Rate†. cases per 100,000. (95% Confidence Interval). Average Annual Count. Recent Trend. ...

*  State Cancer Profiles > Interpretation of Incidence Rates...

Incidence > Table > Interpret Interpretation of Incidence Rates Data. Incidence Rate Report for Virginia by County. All Cancer ... Incidence Rate (95% Confidence Interval) - The incidence rate is based upon 100,000 people and is an annual rate (or average ... 1969-2015 US Population Data File is used for SEER and NPCR incidence rates.. ‡ Incidence data come from different sources. Due ... Rate : The incidence rate is 456.0 with a 95% confidence interval from 445.5 to 466.7 and 1,546 average annual cases over 2010- ...

*  US Predicted Cancer Incidence, 1999: Complete Maps

The data sources used to calculate US predicted cancer incidence rates include:. *Incidence data reported by the SEER cancer ... For a list of sources of cancer incidence statistics see Where can I find Cancer Incidence Statistics? on the Surveillance ... US Predicted Cancer Incidence, 1999 monograph - 6.2 MB. Suggested Citation Pickle LW, Feuer EJ, Edwards BK. US Predicted Cancer ... US Predicted Cancer Incidence, 1999: Complete Maps by County and State from Spatial Projection Models. ,, Monographs Home ...

*  Recent trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality - Lacey - 2002 - Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis - Wiley Online...

U.S. incidence rates are generally 20%−40% higher in white women than in non-white women, but are higher in young (under age 40 ... Incidence rates rose in the 1970s, leveled off in the 1990s, and are declining for young women. Women in some areas of the ... Recent trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality †. Authors. *. James V. Lacey Jr.,. Corresponding author*E-mail address ... Heidi A. Hanson, Ken R. Smith, Antoinette M. Stroup, C. Janna Harrell, An age-period-cohort analysis of cancer incidence among ...

*  State Cancer Profiles > Interpretation of Incidence Rates...

Incidence > Table > Interpret Interpretation of Incidence Rates Data. Incidence Rate Report by State. Brain & ONS, 2010-2014. ... Incidence Rate (95% Confidence Interval) - The incidence rate is based upon 100,000 people and is an annual rate (or average ... 1969-2015 US Population Data File is used for SEER and NPCR incidence rates.. ‡ Incidence data come from different sources. Due ... 8 Source: Incidence data provided by the SEER Program. AAPCs are calculated by the Joinpoint Regression Program and are based ...

*  State Cancer Profiles > Incidence Rates...

Recent 5-Year Trend‡ in Incidence Rates. (95% Confidence Interval). District of Columbia 6,10 No 43.9 (41.5, 46.3) 266 stable - ... Incidence > Table Incidence Rates Table. Data Options. Area:. --- choose state ---. US by State US by County Alabama Counties ... 1969-2015 US Population Data File is used for SEER and NPCR incidence rates.. ‡ Incidence data come from different sources. Due ... Age-Adjusted Incidence Rate†. cases per 100,000. (95% Confidence Interval). Average Annual Count. Recent Trend. ...

*  State Cancer Profiles > Interpretation of Incidence Rates...

Incidence > Table > Interpret Interpretation of Incidence Rates Data. Incidence Rate Report for Ohio by County. Breast, 2010- ... Incidence Rate (95% Confidence Interval) - The incidence rate is based upon 100,000 people and is an annual rate (or average ... 1969-2015 US Population Data File is used for SEER and NPCR incidence rates.. ‡ Incidence data come from different sources. Due ... Rate : The incidence rate is 122.9 with a 95% confidence interval from 121.7 to 124.0 and 8,866 average annual cases over 2010- ...

*  Internet Archive Search: subject:"mastectomy"

It also occurs in males, however it is more prevalent in females and quite rare in males but incidence trends are same for both ... It is one of the leading causes of mortality in many developing countries and has a high incidence rate in developed nations ...

*  Grazing-incidence small-angle scattering - Wikipedia

The scattered probe is either photons (grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering, GISAXS) or neutrons (grazing-incidence ... By varying the incidence angle the various contributions can be identified.. References[edit]. *^ T. H. Metzger, I. Kegel, R. ... a b P. Busch, M. Rauscher, D.-M. Smilgies, D. Posselt, and C. M. Papadakis: "Grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering ( ... Grazing-incidence small-angle scattering (GISAS) is a scattering technique used to study nanostructured surfaces and thin films ...

*  Toxic Shock Syndrome Incidence

... the incidence in this population is higher. Some research has indicated a significantly higher incidence when considering at ... The incidence of toxic shock syndrome rose significantly in the following decade until it reached a peak in the 1980s and ... Current Incidence. Toxic shock syndrome can affect anyone in the population, including women, men and children, although it is ... This public health initiative is largely to account for the decrease in incidence of toxic shock syndrome since the 1980s and ...

*  Incidence of Intussusception | The BMJ

Incidence of Intussusception. Br Med J 1959; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5152.635-b (Published 03 October 1959) Cite ...

*  Trends in Tuberculosis Incidence --- United States, 2006

... In 2006, a total of 13,767 tuberculosis (TB) cases (4.6 per 100,000 ... In 2006, TB incidence rates in the 51 reporting areas ranged from 0.8 (Wyoming) to 12.6 (DC) cases per 100,000 population ( ... The average annual percentage decline in the TB incidence rate decreased from 7.3% per year during 1993--2000 (95% confidence ... This report summarizes provisional 2006 TB incidence data from the National TB Surveillance System and describes trends since ...

*  Incidence - Motor Neurone Disease - PubMed Health

Incidence. A measure of the number of new cases of a disease, divided by the total population at risk of getting the disease, ...

*  Antigens with a high incidence. | The BMJ

Antigens with a high incidence.. Br Med J 1969; 3 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.3.5662.70 (Published 12 July 1969) Cite this ...

*  The Incidence of Pollution Control Policies

"Tax Incidence," NBER Working Papers 8829, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. *Gilbert E. Metcalf, 2006. "Tax Incidence ... "The Lifetime Incidence of State and Local Taxes: Measuring Changes During the 1980s," NBER Working Papers 4252, National Bureau ... "Lifetime Incidence and the Distributional Burden of Excise Taxes," NBER Working Papers 2833, National Bureau of Economic ... "Incidence of the Benefits and Costs of Environmental Programs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. ...

*  The Angle of Incidence

... Equals, the angle of refraction.. I was actually present, the day they taught high school physics. And, ...

*  incidence geometry

An incidence theorem in higher dimensions. 17 March, 2011 in math.AG, math.CO, paper , Tags: Ham sandwich theorem, incidence ... of incidences in , rather than the full set of incidences. Indeed, it seems most natural to consider the triplet ... 11 May, 2009 in math.AG, math.AP, math.AT, math.CO, talk, travel , Tags: additive combinatorics, heat flow, incidence geometry ... for the cell interiors, and so provided that one can also control incidences on the (low degree) cell boundary, we see that we ...

*  Hodgkin lymphoma incidence statistics | Cancer Research UK

The latest Hodgkin lymphoma incidence statistics for the UK for Health Professionals. See data for sex, age, trends over time ... Hodgkin lymphoma incidence trends over time Hodgkin lymphoma incidence rates have increased by 31% in the UK since the early ... Projections of incidence for Hodgkin lymphoma Hodgkin lymphoma incidence rates are projected to rise by 5% in the UK between ... Hodgkin lymphoma incidence by age Hodgkin lymphoma incidence shows a clear bimodal age distribution, with the first peak in ...

*  Uterine cancer incidence statistics | Cancer Research UK

The latest uterine cancer incidence statistics for the UK for Health Professionals. See data for age, trends over time, UK ... Uterine cancer incidence by age Uterine cancer incidence is related to age, with the highest incidence rates overall being in ... Uterine cancer incidence trends over time Uterine cancer age-standardised. (AS) incidence rates have increased by 57% in ... Projections of incidence for uterine cancer Uterine cancer incidence rates are projected to fall by 7% in the UK between 2014 ...

*  Breast Cancer Incidence Among Iraqi Women Profiled - Redorbit

In Iraq, the continuous rise in the incidence rate is associated with an obvious trend to affect premenopausal women," said ... Research Program to better understand the underlying molecular and environmental causes in an effort to curb the incidence of ...

*  Alcoholism: Incidence

Overview Incidence Risk Factors Symptoms Evaluation fiberoptic procedures Treatment questions for doctor specialist Home Care ... Alcoholism Incidence. Facts about alcoholism:. * Alcohol is the most commonly abused drug in the world. ...

*  Incidence and mortality of the preterm infant

... Author. George T Mandy, MD. George T Mandy, MD ... The incidence and mortality rate of preterm birth will be reviewed here. The risk and pathogenesis of preterm birth and ...

*  Incidence of Cancer of the Larynx | The BMJ

Incidence of Cancer of the Larynx Br Med J 1941; 1 :821 ... Incidence of Cancer of the Larynx. Br Med J 1941; 1 doi: https ...

*  Reasons for increased incidence of tuberculosis | The BMJ

EDITOR,-A Hayward and colleagues1 disagree with our conclusion that the 12% increase in the incidence of tuberculosis in ... 2 They restate our conclusion that the data on incidence by local authority districts in England and Wales are uninformative on ... Reasons for increased incidence of tuberculosis. BMJ 1995; 311 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.311.7006.688 (Published 09 ...

Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingDisease registry: Disease or patient registries are collections of secondary data related to patients with a specific diagnosis, condition, or procedure, and they play an important role in post marketing surveillance of pharmaceuticals. Registries are different from indexes in that they contain more extensive data.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Niigata UniversityFour Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Cancer survival rates: Cancer survival rates vary by the type of cancer, stage at diagnosis, treatment given and many other factors, including country. In general survival rates are improving, although more so for some cancers than others.Climate change in Sweden: The issue of climate change has received significant public and political attention in Sweden and the mitigation of its effects has been high on the agenda of the two latest Governments of Sweden, the previous Cabinet of Göran Persson (-2006) and the current Cabinet of Fredrik Reinfeldt (2006-). Sweden aims for an energy supply system with zero net atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.Rochester Epidemiology ProjectRed Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).Placebo-controlled study: Placebo-controlled studies are a way of testing a medical therapy in which, in addition to a group of subjects that receives the treatment to be evaluated, a separate control group receives a sham "placebo" treatment which is specifically designed to have no real effect. Placebos are most commonly used in blinded trials, where subjects do not know whether they are receiving real or placebo treatment.Aarhus Faculty of Health Sciences (Aarhus University): The Aarhus Faculty of Health Sciences is a faculty of Aarhus University. The Aarhus Faculty of Health Sciences became a reality after Aarhus University was divided into four new main academic areas which came into effect on 1 January 2011.Epidemiological method: The science of epidemiology has matured significantly from the times of Hippocrates and John Snow. The techniques for gathering and analyzing epidemiological data vary depending on the type of disease being monitored but each study will have overarching similarities.Breast cancer classification: Breast cancer classification divides breast cancer into categories according to different schemes, each based on different criteria and serving a different purpose. The major categories are the histopathological type, the grade of the tumor, the stage of the tumor, and the expression of proteins and genes.Budic II of Brittany: Budic II (; or ; ), formerly known as Budick, was a king of Cornouaille in Brittany in the late 5th and early 6th centuries. He was the father of Hoel Mawr and is probably to be identified with the Emyr Llydaw ("Emperor of Brittany") and King Nentres who appear in Arthurian legend.Netherlands national rollball team: Vishwaraj JadejaCarcinogen: A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent directly involved in causing cancer. This may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to the disruption of cellular metabolic processes.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityLayout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Spaceflight radiation carcinogenesisManagement of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Cancer screeningTriangle of death (Italy): The triangle of death (Italian: Triangolo della morte) is an area in the Italian province of Campania comprising the municipalities of Acerra, Nola and Marigliano. The region has recently experienced increasing deaths caused by cancer and other diseases that exceeds the Italian national average.Australia–Finland relations: Australia–Finland relations are foreign relations between the Australia and Finland. Diplomatic relations were established on 31 May 1949.List of kanji by stroke count: This Kanji index method groups together the kanji that are written with the same number of strokes. Currently, there are 2,186 individual kanji listed.Electrocardiography in myocardial infarctionBachelor of Environmental Science: A Bachelor of Environmental Science is an undergraduate bachelor's degree awarded for courses taken in the study of environmental science or related disciplines, such as sustainable resource development, environmental health, or ecological sustainability, and may also be known as a Bachelor of Environmental Science and Management degree in some schools.Comorbidity: In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. The additional disorder may also be a behavioral or mental disorder.GA²LENAdenocarcinoma of the lung: Adenocarcinoma of the lung (pulmonary adenocarcinoma) is a common histological form of lung cancer that contains certain distinct malignant tissue architectural, cytological, or molecular features, including gland and/or duct formation and/or production of significant amounts of mucus.University of CampinasTargeted therapy of lung cancer: Targeted therapy of lung cancer refers to using agents specifically designed to selectively target molecular pathways responsible for, or that substantially drive, the malignant phenotype of lung cancer cells, and as a consequence of this (relative) selectivity, cause fewer toxic effects on normal cells.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==List of lighthouses in Spain: This is a list of lighthouses in Spain.Tumor progression: Tumor progression is the third and last phase in tumor development. This phase is characterised by increased growth speed and invasiveness of the tumor cells.National Taiwan University Hospital: The National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH; ) started operations under Japanese rule in Daitōtei (today's Dadaocheng) on June 18, 1895, and moved to its present location in 1898. The Hospital was later annexed to the Medical School of Taihoku Imperial University and renamed Taihoku Imperial University Medical School Affiliated Hospital in 1937.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center: Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center (commonly referred to as Ichilov Hospital) is the main hospital serving Tel Aviv, Israel, and its metropolitan area. It is the third-largest hospital complex in the country.Inverse probability weighting: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.Silent strokeConcentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Morbidity and mortality conference: Morbidity and mortality}}Hospital of Southern Norway: [[Sørlandet Hospital Arendal, seen from the north.|thumb|200px]]San Diego County, California Probation: The San Diego County Probation Department is the body in San Diego County, California responsible for supervising convicted offenders in the community, either who are on probation, such as at the conclusion of their sentences, or while on community supervision orders.North Wales Narrow Gauge RailwaysOccupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.Baden, Lower Saxony: Baden is a town near Bremen, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is known to Africanists and Phoneticians as the place where Diedrich Hermann Westermann was born and died.Dundee Royal Infirmary: Dundee Royal Infirmary, often shortened to DRI, was a major teaching hospital in Dundee, Scotland. Until the opening of Ninewells Hospital in 1974, Dundee Royal Infirmary was Dundee’s main hospital.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Combination therapy: Combination therapy or polytherapy is therapy that uses more than one medication or modality (versus monotherapy, which is any therapy taken alone). Typically, these terms refer to using multiple therapies to treat a single disease, and often all the therapies are pharmaceutical (although it can also involve non-medical therapy, such as the combination of medications and talk therapy to treat depression).Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.

(1/32716) Incidence and occupational pattern of leukaemias, lymphomas, and testicular tumours in western Ireland over an 11 year period.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence of the following malignancies, testicular tumours, all leukaemias and all lymphomas in the West of Ireland in an 11 year period. Secondly, to examine the relation between disease patterns and available occupational data in male subjects of working age. DESIGN: A census survey of all cases occurring in the three counties in the Western Health Board (WHB) area, Galway, Mayo and Roscommon, for the 11 year period 1980 to 1990 inclusive. Average annual age standardised incidence rates for the period were calculated using the 1986 census data. Rates for the area are compared with rates from the southern region of Ireland, which had a tumour registry. Trends over the time period are evaluated. All male subjects for whom occupational data were available were categorised using the Irish socioeconomic group classification and incidence rates by occupation were compared using the standardised incidence ratio method. In one of the counties, Galway, a detailed occupational history of selected cases and an age matched control group was also elicited through patients' general practitioners. SETTING: All available case records in the West of Ireland. RESULTS: There are no national incidence records for the period. Compared with data from the Southern Tumour Registry, the number of cases of women with myeloid leukaemias was significantly lower. Male leukaemia rates were significantly lower as a group (SIR 84 (95% CI 74, 95) but not when considered as individual categories. Regression analysis revealed an increasing trend in the number of new cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among both men (r = 0.47, p = 0.02) and women (r = 0.90, p = 0.0001) and of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in men (r = 0.77, p = 0.005) and women (r = 0.68 p = 0.02) in the WHB region over the last decade. Four hundred and fifty six male cases over the age of 15 years were identified and adequate occupational information was available for 74% of these. Standardised incidence ratios of testicular tumours 100, 938) and agriworkers other than farmers (SIR 377, 95% CI 103, 967). There were also significantly increased incidence ratios for both non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SIR 169, 95% CI 124, 266) and three categories of leukaemias among farmers. Hodgkin's disease and acute myeloid leukaemias were significantly increased among semi-skilled people. Interview data with 90 cases and 54 controls of both sexes revealed that among farmers, cases (n = 31) were significantly less likely than controls (n = 20) to use tractor mounted spraying techniques (OR = 0.19 (95% CI 0.04, 0.80)) and less likely to wear protective masks (OR 0.22 (95% CI 0.05, 0.84)). CONCLUSIONS: Trends of increase in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and some leukaemias are consistent with studies elsewhere. The study provides further evidence of the relation between agricultural work and certain lymphoproliferative cancers. The possible carcinogenic role of chemicals used in agricultural industries must be considered as an explanation.  (+info)

(2/32716) Use of wood stoves and risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract: a case-control study.

BACKGROUND: Incidence rates for cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract in Southern Brazil are among the highest in the world. A case-control study was designed to identify the main risk factors for carcinomas of mouth, pharynx, and larynx in the region. We tested the hypothesis of whether use of wood stoves is associated with these cancers. METHODS: Information on known and potential risk factors was obtained from interviews with 784 cases and 1568 non-cancer controls. We estimated the effect of use of wood stove by conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for smoking, alcohol consumption and for other sociodemographic and dietary variables chosen as empirical confounders based on a change-in-estimate criterion. RESULTS: After extensive adjustment for all the empirical confounders the odds ratio (OR) for all upper aero-digestive tract cancers was 2.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 2.2-3.3). Increased risks were also seen in site-specific analyses for mouth (OR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2), pharyngeal (OR = 3.82; 95% CI: 2.0-7.4), and laryngeal carcinomas (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.2-4.7). Significant risk elevations remained for each of the three anatomic sites and for all sites combined even after we purposefully biased the analyses towards the null hypothesis by adjusting the effect of wood stove use only for positive empirical confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The association of use of wood stoves with cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract is genuine and unlikely to result from insufficient control of confounding. Due to its high prevalence, use of wood stoves may be linked to as many as 30% of all cancers occurring in the region.  (+info)

(3/32716) Constitutional, biochemical and lifestyle correlates of fibrinogen and factor VII activity in Polish urban and rural populations.

BACKGROUND: Fibrinogen and factor VII activity are known to be related to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, but population differences in clotting factors and modifiable characteristics that influence their levels have not been widely explored. METHODS: This paper examines correlates of plasma fibrinogen concentration and factor VII activity in 2443 men and women aged 35-64 in random samples selected from the residents in two districts in urban Warsaw (618 men and 651 women) and from rural Tarnobrzeg Province (556 men and 618 women) screened in 1987-1988, and assesses which characteristics might explain urban-rural differences. Fibrinogen and factor VII activity were determined using coagulation methods. RESULTS: Fibrinogen was 12.9 mg/dl higher in men and 14.1 mg/dl higher in women in Tarnobrzeg compared to Warsaw. Factor VII activity was higher in Warsaw (9.2% in men and 15.3% in women). After adjustment for selected characteristics, fibrinogen was higher in smokers compared to non-smokers by 28 mg/dl in men and 22 mg/dl in women. In women, a 15 mg/dl increase in HDL-cholesterol was associated with a 10 mg/dl decrease in fibrinogen (P < 0.01). After adjustment for other variables, a higher factor VII activity in Warsaw remained significant (a difference of 9.4% in men and 14.8% in women). Lower fibrinogen in Warsaw remained significant only in women (15.4 mg/dl difference). CONCLUSIONS: The study confirmed that sex, age, BMI, smoking and blood lipids are related to clotting factors. However, with the exception of gender differences and smoking, associations between clotting factors and other variables were small and of questionable practical importance.  (+info)

(4/32716) Short stature and cardiovascular disease among men and women from two southeastern New England communities.

BACKGROUND: Short stature has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), although the reason for the association remains unclear. Data on the relation between stature and stroke is more limited. We examined the association between stature and CHD as well as between stature and stroke in men and women from two communities in southeastern New England. METHODS: Coronary heart disease and stroke events were abstracted from medical records between January 1980 and December 1991. An epidemiological diagnostic algorithm developed to measure CHD was used in the present analysis. Unadjusted relative risks (RR) and RR adjusted for age, smoking status, obesity, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol <0.91 mmol/l, total cholesterol >6.21 mmol/l, hypertension, diabetes, education, and being foreign born were computed by gender-specific height categories separately for men (n = 2826) and women (n = 3741). RESULTS: A graded inverse association between stature and risk of CHD was observed among men which persisted after adjustment for confounders. Men >69.75 inches had an 83% lower risk of CHD compared with men < or = 65 inches. In addition, the tallest men had a 67% decreased risk of stroke compared with the shortest men. No significant relation between stature and CHD or stroke was observed among women. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the hypothesis that stature is inversely related to both risk of CHD and stroke at least among men. Factors which might explain this association remain to be determined.  (+info)

(5/32716) Screening for congenital heart malformation in child health centres.

BACKGROUND: Although screening for congenital heart malformations is part of the child health care programme in several countries, there are very few published evaluations of these activities. This report is concerned with the evaluation of this screening at the Dutch Child Health Centres (CHC). METHODS: All consecutive patients, aged between 32 days and 4 years, presented at the Sophia Children's Hospital Rotterdam throughout a period of 2 years, with a congenital heart malformation were included in this study. Paediatric cardiologists established whether or not these patients were diagnosed after haemodynamic complications had already developed (diagnosed 'too late'). Parents and CHC-physicians were interviewed in order to establish the screening and detection history. Test properties were established for all patients with a congenital heart malformation (n = 290), intended effects of screening were established in patients with clinically significant malformations (n = 82). RESULTS: The sensitivity of the actual screening programme was 0.57 (95% CI : 0.51-0.62), the specificity 0.985 (95% CI : 0.981-0.990) and the predictive value of a positive test result 0.13 (95% CI: 0.10-0.19). Sensitivity in a subpopulation of patients adequately screened was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.74-0.96). Adequately screened patients were less likely to be diagnosed 'too late' than inadequately screened patients (odds ratio [OR] = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.04-1.05). The actual risk of being diagnosed 'too late' in the study-population (48%) was only slightly less than the estimated risk for patients not exposed to CHC-screening (58%, 95% CI: 43%-72%). Adequately screened patients however were at considerably less risk (17%, 95% CI: 4%-48%). CONCLUSION: Screening for congenital heart malformations in CHC contributes to the timely detection of these disorders. The actual yield, however, is far from optimal, and the screening programme should be improved.  (+info)

(6/32716) Exposure to nitrogen dioxide and the occurrence of bronchial obstruction in children below 2 years.

BACKGROUND: The objective of the investigation was to test the hypothesis that exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has a causal influence on the occurrence of bronchial obstruction in children below 2 years of age. METHODS: A nested case-control study with 153 one-to-one matched pairs was conducted within a cohort of 3754 children born in Oslo in 1992/93. Cases were children who developed > or = 2 episodes of bronchial obstruction or one episode lasting >4 weeks. Controls were matched for date of birth. Exposure measurements were performed in the same 14-day period within matched pairs. The NO2 exposure was measured with personal samplers carried close to each child and by stationary samplers outdoors and indoors. RESULTS: Few children (4.6%) were exposed to levels of NO2 > or = 30 microg/m3 (average concentration during a 14-day period). In the 153 matched pairs, the mean level of NO2 was 15.65 microg/m3 (+/-0.60, SE) among cases and 15.37 (+/-0.54) among controls (paired t = 0.38, P = 0.71). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that NO2 exposure at levels observed in this study has no detectable effect on the risk of developing bronchial obstruction in children below 2 years of age.  (+info)

(7/32716) Socioeconomic inequalities and disability pension in middle-aged men.

BACKGROUND: The issue of inequalities in health has generated much discussion and socioeconomic status is considered an important variable in studies of health. It is frequently used in epidemiological studies, either as a possible risk factor or a confounder and the aim of this study was to analyse the relation between socioeconomic status and risk of disability pension. METHODS: Five complete birth year cohorts of middle-aged male residents in Malmo were invited to a health survey and 5782 with complete data constituted the cohort in this prospective study. Each subject was followed for approximately 11 years and nationwide Swedish data registers were used for surveillance. RESULTS: Among the 715 men (12%), granted disability pension during follow-up, three groups were distinguished. The cumulative incidence of disability pension among blue collar workers was 17% and among lower and higher level white collar workers, 11% and 6% respectively. With simultaneous adjustment for biological risk factors and job conditions, the relative risk for being granted a disability pension (using higher level white collar workers as reference) was 2.5 among blue collar workers and 1.6 among lower level white collar workers. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic status, as defined by occupation, is a risk factor for being granted disability pension even after adjusting for work conditions and other risk factors for disease.  (+info)

(8/32716) Demographic, clinical and social factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted diseases in a cohort of women from the United Kingdom and Ireland. MRC Collaborative Study of women with HIV.

BACKGROUND: Clinical experience suggests many women with HIV infection have experienced no other sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a substantial proportion of women with HIV infection in the United Kingdom and Ireland have experienced no other diagnosed STD and to describe the demographic, clinical and social factors associated with the occurrence of other STD in a cohort of HIV infected women. METHOD: Analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a prospective study of 505 women with diagnosed HIV infection. The setting was 15 HIV treatment centres in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The main outcome measures were occurrence of other STD diagnosed for the first time before and after HIV diagnosis. Data were obtained from interview with women and clinic notes. We particularly focused on occurrence of gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis after HIV diagnosis, as these are the STD most likely to reflect recent unprotected sexual intercourse. RESULTS: The women were mainly infected via heterosexual sex (n = 304), and injection drug use (n = 174). 151 were black Africans. A total of 250 (49.5%) women reported never having been diagnosed with an STD apart from HIV, 255 (50.5%) women had ever experienced an STD besides HIV, including 109 (21.6%) who had their first other STD diagnosed after HIV. Twenty-five (5%) women reported having had chlamydia, gonorrhoea or trichomoniasis diagnosed for the first time after HIV diagnosis, possibly reflecting unprotected sexual intercourse since HIV diagnosis. In all 301 (60%) women reported having had sex with a man in the 6 months prior to entry to the study. Of these, 168 (58%) reported using condoms 'always', 66(23%) 'sometimes' and 56 (19%) 'never'. CONCLUSIONS: Half the women in this study reported having never experienced any other diagnosed STD besides HIV. However, after HIV diagnosis most women remain sexually active and at least 5% had an STD diagnosed which reflect unprotected sexual intercourse.  (+info)



benefit incidence

  • In the 1990s a branch of fiscal incidence known as "benefit incidence analysis" grew in popularity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benefit incidence analyses typically provide detailed estimates of whether poverty-reducing programs-particularly in developing countries-reach targeted populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In economics, benefit incidence refers to the availability of a benefit. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, the benefit incidence is calculated by the National Compensation Survey (NCS). (wikipedia.org)
  • This is commonly contrasted with benefit incidence as an approach to planning and measuring the effect of a government spending programme. (wikipedia.org)

Geometry

  • You are currently browsing the tag archive for the 'incidence geometry' tag. (wordpress.com)
  • Jozsef Solymosi and I have just uploaded to the arXiv our paper " An incidence theorem in higher dimensions ", submitted to Discrete and Computational Geometry . (wordpress.com)
  • In mathematics, incidence geometry is the study of incidence structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using geometric language, as is done in incidence geometry, shapes the topics and examples that are normally presented. (wikipedia.org)
  • In geometry, an incidence relation is a binary relation between different types of objects that captures the idea being expressed when phrases such as "a point lies on a line" or "a line is contained in a plane" are used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, projective geometry was developed in order to make the propositions of incidence true without exceptions, such as those caused by the existence of parallels. (wikipedia.org)

Angle of Incide

  • The Angle of Incidence…Equals, the angle of refraction. (duckworksmagazine.com)
  • A variable-incidence wing has an adjustable angle of incidence relative to its fuselage. (wikipedia.org)

mathematics

  • Incidence structures arise naturally and have been studied in various areas of mathematics. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mathematics, an incidence matrix is a matrix that shows the relationship between two classes of objects. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mathematics, an abstract system consisting of two types of objects and a single relationship between these types of objects is called an incidence structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mathematics, an incidence poset or incidence order is a type of partially ordered set that represents the incidence relation between vertices and edges of an undirected graph. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order theory, a field of mathematics, an incidence algebra is an associative algebra, defined for every locally finite partially ordered set and commutative ring with unity. (wikipedia.org)

decrease the incidence

  • When the association between tampons with higher absorbency and toxic shock syndrome became clear, public health interventions were initiated to decrease the incidence of the condition. (news-medical.net)
  • The findings underscore the importance of state-based public health programs to prevent unnecessary opioid use and to treat substance use disorders during pregnancy, as well as decrease the incidence of NAS. (cdc.gov)

determine the incidence

  • Say you are looking at a sample population of 225 people, and want to determine the incidence rate of developing HIV over a 10-year period: At the beginning of the study (t=0) you find 25 cases of existing HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several definitional issues complicate attempts to determine the incidence of open marriage. (wikipedia.org)

early 1990s

  • AS) incidence rates have increased by 57% in females in the UK since the early 1990s. (cancerresearchuk.org)

cumulative incidence

  • Cumulative incidence or incidence proportion is a measure of frequency, as in epidemiology, where it is a measure of disease frequency during a period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cumulative incidence is defined as the probability that a particular event, such as occurrence of a particular disease, has occurred before a given time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cumulative incidence is calculated by the number of new cases during a period divided by the number of subjects at risk in the population at the beginning of the study. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2.5 marks] d) What was the cumulative incidence of ESKD over the 5-year study period? (wikipedia.org)
  • Incidence proportion (also known as cumulative incidence) is the number of new cases within a specified time period divided by the size of the population initially at risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • When this assumption is substantially violated, such as in describing survival after diagnosis of metastatic cancer, it may be more useful to present incidence data in a plot of cumulative incidence, over time, taking into account loss to follow-up, using a Kaplan-Meier Plot. (wikipedia.org)

assigns

  • This implies that incidence coloring assigns distinct colors to neighborly incidences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any member of an incidence algebra that assigns the same value to any two intervals that are isomorphic to each other as posets is a member of the reduced incidence algebra. (wikipedia.org)

relation

  • An incidence structure (P, L, I) consists of a set P whose elements are called points, a disjoint set L whose elements are called lines and an incidence relation I between them, that is, a subset of P × L whose elements are called flags. (wikipedia.org)
  • An incidence structure is a triple (P, L, I) where P is a set whose elements are called points, L is a disjoint set whose elements are called lines and I ⊆ P × L is the incidence relation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Incidence posets have been particularly studied with respect to their order dimension, and its relation to the properties of the underlying graph. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most basic incidence relation is that between a point, P, and a line, l, sometimes denoted P I l. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many expressions used in common language to describe incidence (for example, a line passes through a point, a point lies in a plane, etc.) but the term "incidence" is preferred because it does not have the additional connotations that these other terms have, and it can be used in a symmetric manner, reflecting this property of the relation. (wikipedia.org)
  • a plane is a set of points) then an incidence relation may be viewed as containment. (wikipedia.org)

poset

  • Every incidence poset of a non-empty graph has height two. (wikipedia.org)
  • The incidence poset of a connected graph G has order dimension at most two if and only if G is a path graph, and has order dimension at most three if and only if G is at most planar (Schnyder's theorem). (wikipedia.org)
  • Every complete graph on n vertices, and by extension every graph on n vertices, has an incidence poset with order dimension O(log log n). (wikipedia.org)
  • If an incidence poset has high dimension then it must contain copies of the incidence posets of all small trees either as sub-orders or as the duals of sub-orders. (wikipedia.org)
  • An incidence algebra is finite-dimensional if and only if the underlying poset is finite. (wikipedia.org)

graphs

  • The oriented incidence matrix of an undirected graph is the incidence matrix, in the sense of directed graphs, of any orientation of the graph. (wikipedia.org)
  • The definitions of incidence matrix apply to graphs with loops and multiple edges. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the edges of ordinary graphs can only have two vertices (one at each end), the column of an incidence matrix for graphs can only have two non-zero entries. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, graphs whose incidence posets have order dimension 4 may be dense and may have unbounded chromatic number. (wikipedia.org)
  • They bounded it in terms of Δ(G), the maximum degree of a graph G. Initially, the incidence chromatic number of trees, complete bipartite graphs and complete graphs was found out. (wikipedia.org)
  • They also conjectured that all graphs can have an incidence coloring using Δ(G) + 2 colors (Incidence coloring conjecture - ICC). (wikipedia.org)

estimates

  • The drawback to this is that the cell interiors can no longer be adequately controlled by trivial incidence estimates. (wordpress.com)
  • Inaccurate information about the openness of marriages will make estimates of the incidence of open marriage less reliable. (wikipedia.org)

graph theory

  • Incidence matrices are mostly used in graph theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • In graph theory an undirected graph has two kinds of incidence matrices: unoriented and oriented. (wikipedia.org)

vertex

  • The unoriented incidence matrix (or simply incidence matrix) of an undirected graph is a n × m matrix B, where n and m are the numbers of vertices and edges respectively, such that Bi,j = 1 if the vertex vi and edge ej are incident and 0 otherwise. (wikipedia.org)
  • The incidence matrix of a directed graph is a n × m matrix B where n and m are the number of vertices and edges respectively, such that Bi,j = −1 if the edge ej leaves vertex vi, 1 if it enters vertex vi and 0 otherwise (many authors use the opposite sign convention). (wikipedia.org)
  • For these examples, the vertices of the graph form the point set, the edges of the graph form the line set, and incidence means that a vertex is an endpoint of an edge. (wikipedia.org)
  • The incidence coloring is a special graph labeling where in each incidence of an edge with a vertex is assigned a color under certain constraints. (wikipedia.org)
  • Let G = (V, E) be a simple graph with vertex set (non-empty) V(G) and edge set E(G). An incidence is defined as a pair (v, e) where v ϵ V(G) is an end point of e ϵ E(G). In simple words, one says that vertex v is incident to edge e. (wikipedia.org)

vertices

  • However, a combinatorial metric does exist in the corresponding incidence graph (Levi graph), namely the length of the shortest path between two vertices in this bipartite graph. (wikipedia.org)
  • The distance between two objects of an incidence structure - two points, two lines or a point and a line - can be defined to be the distance between the corresponding vertices in the incidence graph of the incidence structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vertices of the collinearity graph are the points of the incidence structure and two points are joined if there exists a line incident with both points. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example the incidence matrix of the undirected graph shown on the right is a matrix consisting of 4 rows (corresponding to the four vertices, 1-4) and 4 columns (corresponding to the four edges, e1-e4): If we look at the incidence matrix, we see that the sum of each column is equal to 2. (wikipedia.org)

100,000

  • Of all population groups, the incidence per 100,000 people was 0.52. (news-medical.net)
  • Some particular population groups, such as women aged between 13 and 25 years, were more likely to be affected by the syndrome, with an incidence of 1.41 per 100,000. (news-medical.net)
  • These studies include incidence values ranging to a maximum of 17 per 100,000 women. (news-medical.net)
  • In 2006, TB incidence rates in the 51 reporting areas ranged from 0.8 (Wyoming) to 12.6 (DC) cases per 100,000 population (median: 3.4 cases). (cdc.gov)

Euclidean

  • A geometric structure such as the Euclidean plane is a complicated object that involves concepts such as length, angles, continuity, betweenness, and incidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is left is the incidence structure of the Euclidean plane. (wikipedia.org)

hypergraph

  • As there is a hypergraph for every Levi graph, and vice versa, the incidence matrix of an incidence structure describes a hypergraph. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, every incidence structure can be viewed as a hypergraph by identifying the lines with the sets of points that are incident with them. (wikipedia.org)

displaystyle

  • The discrete Laplacian (or Kirchhoff matrix) is obtained from the oriented incidence matrix B(G) by the formula B ( G ) B ( G ) T . {\displaystyle B(G)B(G)^{T}.} The integral cycle space of a graph is equal to the null space of its oriented incidence matrix, viewed as a matrix over the integers or real or complex numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The minimum number of colors needed for incidence coloring of a graph is known as incidence chromatic number or incidence coloring number of G, represented by χ i {\displaystyle \chi _{i}} (G). This notation was introduced by Jennifer J. Quinn Massey and Richard A. Brualdi in 1993. (wikipedia.org)
  • For a complete bipartite graph K m , n {\displaystyle K_{m,n}} with m ≥ n ≥ 2, incidence chromatic number is m + 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • For any graph G, χ i {\displaystyle \chi _{i}} (G) ≤ 2Δ(G). For cycle C n {\displaystyle C_{n}} , incidence chromatic number is at most 4. (wikipedia.org)
  • It may also be calculated by the incidence rate multiplied by duration: C I ( t ) = 1 − e − I R ( t ) ⋅ D . {\displaystyle CI(t)=1-e^{-IR(t)\cdot D}\,.} In order to examine progression from less severe chronic kidney disease to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), in 2010, researchers recruited a group of 8,808 Indigenous Australians, aged between 45 to 64, who currently have chronic kidney disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • On this underlying set one defines addition and scalar multiplication pointwise, and "multiplication" in the incidence algebra is a convolution defined by ( f ∗ g ) ( a , b ) = ∑ a ≤ x ≤ b f ( a , x ) g ( x , b ) . {\displaystyle (f*g)(a,b)=\sum _{a\leq x\leq b}f(a,x)g(x,b). (wikipedia.org)
  • An incidence coloring of a graph G {\displaystyle G} is an assignment of a color to each incidence of G in such a way that adjacent incidences get distinct colors. (wikipedia.org)

incident

  • The incidence matrix of an incidence structure C is a p × q matrix B, where p and q are the number of points and lines respectively, such that Bi,j = 1 if the point pi and line Lj are incident and 0 otherwise. (wikipedia.org)
  • An incidence structure is uniform if each line is incident with the same number of points. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, a partial linear space is an incidence structure that satisfies: Any two distinct points are incident with at most one common line, and Every line is incident with at least two points. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the first axiom above is replaced by the stronger: Any two distinct points are incident with exactly one common line, the incidence structure is called a linear space. (wikipedia.org)
  • The orientation of the incident light's polarization with respect to the plane of incidence has an important effect on the strength of the reflection. (wikipedia.org)
  • P-polarized light is incident linearly polarized light with polarization direction lying in the plane of incidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grazing incidence X-ray and neutron diffraction (GID, GIXD, GIND), typically from a crystalline structure uses small incident angles for the incoming X-ray or neutron beam, so that diffraction can be made surface sensitive. (wikipedia.org)

distinct colors

  • Therefore, these incidences have to be colored using distinct colors. (wikipedia.org)

corresponds

  • The oriented incidence matrix is unique up to negation of any of the columns, since negating the entries of a column corresponds to reversing the orientation of an edge. (wikipedia.org)
  • The delta function in this incidence algebra similarly corresponds to the formal power series 1. (wikipedia.org)

loops and multiple edges

  • Any graph (which need not be simple, loops and multiple edges are allowed) is a uniform incidence structure with two points per line. (wikipedia.org)

increases

  • For Hodgkin lymphoma, like most cancer types, incidence increases with age. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • During the study period, significant increases in NAS incidence occurred in 25 of 27 states with at least 3 years of data, with annual incidence rate changes ranging from 0.05 (Hawaii) to 3.6 (Vermont) per 1,000 births. (cdc.gov)
  • Incidence is usually more useful than prevalence in understanding the disease etiology: for example, if the incidence rate of a disease in a population increases, then there is a risk factor that promotes the incidence. (wikipedia.org)

Levi

  • In this case the incidence matrix is also a biadjacency matrix of the Levi graph of the structure. (wikipedia.org)

fiscal

  • Fiscal incidence is a concept within public finance, a sub-discipline within economics, that refers to the combined overall economic impact of both government taxation and expenditures on the real economic income of individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fiscal incidence is the term for the overall impact of government taxing and spending considered together. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is referred to as fiscal incidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early empirical studies of fiscal incidence date to the 1940s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barna's conceptual framework-first developed as a doctoral candidate at the London School of Economics under Nicholas Kaldor-was influential and today serves as the essential framework for fiscal incidence studies conducted by the British government. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, early studies found that overall fiscal incidence resulted in a net redistribution of income between income groups within the United States, from higher-income individuals to lower-income individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both studies found that the U.S. tax system was roughly proportional overall and mildly progressive over some ranges, while the distribution of expenditure benefits was sharply progressive, resulting a progressive overall distribution of fiscal incidence for 1961 and 1965. (wikipedia.org)

epidemiology

  • Play media Incidence in epidemiology is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. (wikipedia.org)

satisfy some additional

  • Incidence structures that are most studied are those that satisfy some additional properties (axioms), such as projective planes, affine planes, generalized polygons, partial geometries and near polygons. (wikipedia.org)
  • it is typical to study incidence structures that satisfy some additional axioms. (wikipedia.org)

GISAS

  • Grazing-incidence small-angle scattering ( GISAS ) is a scattering technique used to study nanostructured surfaces and thin films. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a hybrid technique, GISAS combines concepts from transmission small-angle scattering (SAS), from grazing-incidence diffraction (GID), and from diffuse reflectometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • When employed under very small scattering angles, the technique is called grazing-incidence small-angle scattering (GISAS, GISAXS, GISANS), and requires special methodology. (wikipedia.org)

1,000

  • During 1999-2013, state-specific NAS incidence rates increased significantly in 25 of 27 states with at least 3 years of data, with annual changes in incidence rates ranging from 0.05 (Hawaii) to 3.6 (Vermont) per 1,000 hospital births. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2013, NAS incidence ranged from 0.7 (Hawaii) to 33.4 cases (West Virginia) per 1,000 hospital births. (cdc.gov)
  • Among 28 states with publicly available data in HCUP during 1999-2013, the overall NAS incidence increased 300%, from 1.5 per 1,000 hospital births in 1999, to 6.0 per 1,000 hospital births in 2013. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, if a population initially contains 1,000 non-diseased persons and 28 develop a condition over two years of observation, the incidence proportion is 28 cases per 1,000 persons per two years, i.e. 2.8% per two years. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the same example as above, the incidence rate is 14 cases per 1000 person-years, because the incidence proportion (28 per 1,000) is divided by the number of years (two). (wikipedia.org)

GISAXS

  • The scattered probe is either photons ( grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering , GISAXS ) or neutrons ( grazing-incidence small-angle neutron scattering , GISANS ). (wikipedia.org)

adjacent

  • The two incidences (v,e) and (u,f) are said to be adjacent if one of the given conditions holds: v = u, e ≠ f e = f, v ≠ u e = {v, u}, f = {u, w} and v ≠ w. (wikipedia.org)
  • An incidence coloring of G can be defined as a function c: I(G) → N such that c((v, e)) ≠ c((u,f)) for any incidences (v, e) and (u, f) that are adjacent. (wikipedia.org)

largely

  • This public health initiative is largely to account for the decrease in incidence of toxic shock syndrome since the 1980s and its relative rarity today. (news-medical.net)

algebra

  • The members of the incidence algebra are the functions f assigning to each nonempty interval [a, b] a scalar f(a, b), which is taken from the ring of scalars, a commutative ring with unity. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a subalgebra of the incidence algebra, and it clearly contains the incidence algebra's identity element and zeta function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any element of the reduced incidence algebra that is invertible in the larger incidence algebra has its inverse in the reduced incidence algebra. (wikipedia.org)

typically

  • The concept of an incidence structure is very simple and has arisen in several disciplines, each introducing its own vocabulary and specifying the types of questions that are typically asked about these structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the tax incidence falls on the farmer, this burden will typically flow back to owners of the relevant factors of production, including agricultural land and employee wages. (wikipedia.org)

containment

  • Incidence of a point and a line is given by containment of the one dimensional subspace in the two dimensional subspace. (wikipedia.org)

sharply

  • Age-specific incidence rates rise sharply during childhood and peak first in young adults aged 20-24. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Age-specific incidence rates rise sharply from around age 40-44, peak in the 70-74 age group, and subsequently drop sharply. (cancerresearchuk.org)

proportion

  • Where the period of time considered is an entire lifetime, the incidence proportion is called lifetime risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is sometimes also referred to as the incidence proportion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Incidence should not be confused with prevalence, which is the proportion of cases in the population at a given time rather than rate of occurrence of new cases. (wikipedia.org)

structures

  • It sometimes happens that authors blur the distinction between a study and the objects of that study, so it is not surprising to find that some authors refer to incidence structures as incidence geometries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Very general incidence structures can be obtained by imposing "mild" conditions, such as: A partial linear space is an incidence structure for which the following axioms are true: Every pair of distinct points determines at most one line. (wikipedia.org)
  • Incidence structures are most often considered in the geometrical context where they are abstracted from, and hence generalize, planes (such as affine, projective, and Möbius planes), but the concept is very broad and not limited to geometric settings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Incidence structures of this type are called set-theoretic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Incidence structures use a geometric terminology, but in graph theoretic terms they are called hypergraphs and in design theoretic terms they are called block designs. (wikipedia.org)

significantly

  • The incidence of toxic shock syndrome rose significantly in the following decade until it reached a peak in the 1980s and declined from that point until today and is now seen as a relatively rare condition. (news-medical.net)
  • Some research has indicated a significantly higher incidence when considering at risk populations of women that use tampons regularly. (news-medical.net)
  • During 2000-2012, the incidence of NAS in the United States significantly increased ( 2 , 3 ). (cdc.gov)

Burden

  • Lifetime Incidence and the Distributional Burden of Excise Taxes ," American Economic Review , American Economic Association, vol. 79(2), pages 325-330, May. (repec.org)
  • Lifetime Incidence And The Distributional Burden Of Excise Taxes ," Working papers 510, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics. (repec.org)
  • Lifetime Incidence and the Distributional Burden of Excise Taxes ," NBER Working Papers 2833, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. (repec.org)
  • In economics, tax incidence or tax burden is the analysis of the effect of a particular tax on the distribution of economic welfare. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tax incidence is said to "fall" upon the group that ultimately bears the burden of, or ultimately has to pay, the tax. (wikipedia.org)
  • The key concept is that the tax incidence or tax burden does not depend on where the revenue is collected, but on the price elasticity of demand and price elasticity of supply. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, if the apple farmer is unable to raise prices because the product is price elastic the farmer has to bear the burden of the tax or face decreased revenues: the tax incidence falls on the farmer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tax incidence or burden does not in any way depend on where the revenue has been collected. (wikipedia.org)

rate

  • In Iraq, the continuous rise in the incidence rate is associated with an obvious trend to affect premenopausal women," said Nada A.S. Alwan, M.D., Ph.D., director of the National Breast Cancer Research Unit at Baghdad University Medical College and the executive director of the newly established Iraqi National Cancer Research Program. (redorbit.com)
  • The incidence and mortality rate of preterm birth will be reviewed here. (uptodate.com)
  • The incidence rate is the number of new cases per population at risk in a given time period. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the denominator is the sum of the person-time of the at risk population, it is also known as the incidence density rate or person-time incidence rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Use of this measure implies the assumption that the incidence rate is constant over different periods of time, such that for an incidence rate of 14 per 1000 persons-years, 14 cases would be expected for 1000 persons observed for 1 year or 50 persons observed for 20 years. (wikipedia.org)

1993

  • This report summarizes provisional 2006 TB incidence data from the National TB Surveillance System and describes trends since 1993. (cdc.gov)
  • 1-3 ] Uterine cancer incidence rates increased by 3% in Great Britain between 1979-1981 and 1991-1993. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • The concept of incidence coloring was introduced by Brualdi and Massey in 1993. (wikipedia.org)

taxation

  • When the economic incidence of taxation is combined with the economic incidence of government expenditures, the result is a measure of the overall increase or decrease in welfare that individuals enjoy from the state's taxing and spending policies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concept was brought to attention by the French Physiocrats, in particular François Quesnay, who argued that the incidence of all taxation falls ultimately on landowners and is at the expense of land rent. (wikipedia.org)

economics

  • The Incidence of Pollution Control Policies ," Departmental Working Papers 200504, Rutgers University, Department of Economics. (repec.org)

Trends

  • CDC examined state trends in NAS incidence using all-payer, hospital inpatient delivery discharges compiled in the State Inpatient Databases of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) during 1999-2013. (cdc.gov)

equivalent

  • It is equivalent to the incidence, calculated using a period of time during which all of the individuals in the population are considered to be at risk for the outcome. (wikipedia.org)

thus

  • The tax incidence is thus said to fall on the employee. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, incidence conveys information about the risk of contracting the disease, whereas prevalence indicates how widespread the disease is. (wikipedia.org)

cases

  • However, it could equally well be argued that in some cases the incidence of the tax falls on the employer. (wikipedia.org)

females

  • Hodgkin lymphoma incidence shows a clear bimodal age distribution, with the first peak in incidence rates in young adults, and the second peak in older males and females. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Incidence rates are higher for males than for females aged between 35-39 to 75-79 and this gap is widest at the age of 45-49, when the male: female incidence ratio of age-specific rates (to account for the different proportions of males to females in each age group) is around 19:10. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Uterine cancer incidence is related to age, with the highest incidence rates overall being in females in their early 70s - a slightly different pattern to most cancers. (cancerresearchuk.org)

population

  • Women who are menstruating and use tampons are at a greater risk of suffering from toxic shock syndrome and, for this reason, the incidence in this population is higher. (news-medical.net)

However

  • However, early in 1980, epidemiological studies reported toxic shock syndrome occurring with increasing incidence in menstruating women. (news-medical.net)
  • However, Rely was not the only tampon product available that had led to the increased incidence of the syndrome. (news-medical.net)
  • however, data describing incidence at the state level are limited. (cdc.gov)

case

  • This conjecture was disproved by Guiduli, who showed that incidence coloring concept is a directed star arboricity case, introduced by Alon and Algor. (wikipedia.org)
  • He showed that in case of outerplanar graph of maximum degree 4, the incidence chromatic number is not 5. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case the variable incidence provided good takeoff and landing performance while avoiding any passenger discomfort from tilting the fuselage. (wikipedia.org)

concept

  • There is no natural concept of distance (a metric) in an incidence structure. (wikipedia.org)

example

  • His counter example showed that incidence chromatic number is at most Δ(G) + O(log Δ(G)). Chen et al. (wikipedia.org)

relatively

  • The incidence of open marriage has remained relatively stable over the last two generations. (wikipedia.org)

risk

  • EDITOR,-A Hayward and colleagues 1 disagree with our conclusion that the 12% increase in the incidence of tuberculosis in England and Wales between 1988 and 1992 affected the "low risk" white and West Indian communities as well as the "high risk" Indian subcontinent, African, and refugee communities. (bmj.com)

data

  • Data from research conducted over the period from 2000-2006, reported that the incidence of toxic shock syndrome now remains low and stable. (news-medical.net)
  • An incidence structure is what is obtained when all other concepts are removed and all that remains is the data about which points lie on which lines. (wikipedia.org)

higher

  • Studies that define open marriage by agreement alone will tend to report a higher incidence than studies that define open marriage by agreement and behavior. (wikipedia.org)

time

  • Another way to define a distance again uses a graph-theoretic notion in a related structure, this time the collinearity graph of the incidence structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • For each mesh, the incidence colors can be made in the linear time with the least number of colors. (wikipedia.org)

points

  • The distance between two points of the incidence structure can then be defined as their distance in the collinearity graph. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is an incidence structure in which the lines fall into k parallel classes, so that two lines in the same parallel class have no common points, but two lines in different classes have exactly one common point, and each point belongs to exactly one line from each parallel class. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an incidence structure, X is the set of points and F is the set of lines, usually called blocks in this context (repeated blocks must have distinct names, so F is actually a set and not a multiset). (wikipedia.org)

structure

  • When distance is considered in an incidence structure, it is necessary to mention how it is being defined. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Fano plane above is a self-dual incidence structure. (wikipedia.org)

study

  • To measure incidence you must take into account how many years each person contributed to the study, and when they developed HIV. (wikipedia.org)

frequency

  • The incidence of open marriage is the frequency with which open marriage occurs. (wikipedia.org)

lines

  • Statements such as "any two lines in a plane meet" are called incidence propositions. (wikipedia.org)