Immune System Diseases: Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.Central Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Central Nervous System Viral Diseases: Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.Meningoencephalitis: An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.Central Nervous System Infections: Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: A rare, slowly progressive encephalitis caused by chronic infection with the MEASLES VIRUS. The condition occurs primarily in children and young adults, approximately 2-8 years after the initial infection. A gradual decline in intellectual abilities and behavioral alterations are followed by progressive MYOCLONUS; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; autonomic dysfunction; and ATAXIA. DEATH usually occurs 1-3 years after disease onset. Pathologic features include perivascular cuffing, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, neurophagia, and fibrous gliosis. It is caused by the SSPE virus, which is a defective variant of MEASLES VIRUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp767-8)AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Lamin Type A: A subclass of developmentally regulated lamins having a neutral isoelectric point. They are found to disassociate from nuclear membranes during mitosis.Maus Elberfeld virus: A strain of ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS, a species of CARDIOVIRUS, usually causing an inapparent intestinal infection in mice. A small number of mice may show signs of flaccid paralysis.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Meninges: The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.Digestive System Diseases: Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Demyelinating Diseases: Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Enterovirus InfectionsCentral Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mice, Inbred C57BLEndocrine System Diseases: Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.Adaptive Immunity: Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immune Evasion: Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.Mice, Inbred BALB CLymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Immune System Processes: Mechanisms of action and interactions of the components of the IMMUNE SYSTEM.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Immune Complex Diseases: Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.

*  Auto Immune Diseases

Infectious Diseases and Immune System - Euro Immunology 2018 (Italy). *Infectious Diseases, Emerging and Reemerging diseases: ... Auto Immune Diseases Submit Abstract Register Now Autoimmune disease is a pathological state arising from an abnormal immune ... Any disease that results from such an unusual immune response is termed an autoimmune disease. Autoimmune disease can affect ... Immune System and Autoimmunity - Autoimmunity-2017 (Germany). *Immune System Disorders - Immunity and Immunotherapies-2017 (USA ...
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*  IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES AND HOW TO PREVENT IT

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*  Glycoconjugates As Vaccines for Cancer Immunotherapy: Clinical Trials and Future Directions | BenthamScience

The modern vision of immune responses against cancer is more complex because the immune system sculpts the immunogenic ... Division of Allergy and Immunological Diseases 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093-0731,USA. ... The modern vision of immune responses against cancer is more complex because the immune system sculpts the immunogenic ... Abstract: The immune system recognizes and potentially eliminates tumors that express antigenic molecules. The theory of " ...
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*  Genetic Analysis of Immune Disorders - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Immune System Diseases. Job Syndrome. Disease. Pathologic Processes. Infant, Newborn, Diseases. DNA Repair-Deficiency Disorders ... The immune system is the body s defense system. Some immune deficiencies impair a person s ability to fight infections; others ... Information from this study will increase knowledge about the immune system and what causes immune deficiencies. Participants ... This protocol includes studies of genetic defects of the immune system that cause failure of host defenses against infections, ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00001467?cond="Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome"&rank=8

*  Spleen Disorders and Immunodeficiency - Immune Disorders - Merck Manuals Consumer Version

The spleen is crucial to the function of the immune system. The spleen filters the blood, removing and destroying bacteria and ... For people whose spleen is absent at birth or has been damaged or removed because of disease, the risk of developing severe ... From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health ...
merckmanuals.com/home/immune-disorders/immunodeficiency-disorders/spleen-disorders-and-immunodeficiency

*  PD-L1 on tumor cells is sufficient for immune evasion in immunogenic tumors and inhibits CD8 T cell cytotoxicity | JEM

MA 02115Evergrande Center for Immunological Diseases, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 ... PD-L1 on tumor cells is sufficient for immune evasion in immunogenic tumors and inhibits CD8 T cell cytotoxicity. Vikram R. ... PD-L1 on tumor cells is sufficient for immune evasion in immunogenic tumors and inhibits CD8 T cell cytotoxicity ... MA 02115Evergrande Center for Immunological Diseases, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 ...
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*  Autoimmune Diseases Affecting the Immune System

Eating natural fermented foods may help you avoid any autoimmune diseases that could impair your immune system. ... According to some estimates, allergies and diseases of the immune system have doubled, tripled or even quadrupled in the last ... their immune systems are malfunctioning and attacking parts of their own body - the very definition of autoimmune disease. ... that strengthen your immune system and provide long-lasting immunity against disease. ...
https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2012/07/05/fermented-food-diet.aspx

*  What happens when your immune system responds to disease? | Holland & Barrett

What happens when your immune system responds to disease?. Your immune system is your body's in-built defence system against ... Does your immune system stop once your body is healthy?. The hard work doesn't end for your immune system. Some of your B- and ... Your immune system has three main layers of defence. You probably don't notice some of this happening, even though your body is ... Secondly, your immune system will identify germs, viruses, and bacteria and try to destroy before it can start to reproduce in ...
hollandandbarrett.com/the-health-hub/happens-immune-system-responds-disease/

*  9780071668996: Digestive Wellness: Strengthen the Immune System and Prevent Disease Through Healthy Digestion, Fourth Edition -...

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*  How does the immune system fight off disease?

One of the main responsibilities of the immune system is to help the body fight off infectious organisms such as viruses, ... How does the immune system fight off disease?. This is a very good, simple question which unfortunately, has many answers. ... The immune system is able to spot these 'faulty cells' and destroy them. If this quality control system fails, a faulty cell ... What could I do to improve my Immune system to avoid getting a cold and cough when the weather changes. If you easily catch a ...
avogel.ca/en/health/the-immune-system/questions-and-answers/how-does-the-immune-system-fight-off-disease/

*  Oral Bacteria and Immune System Problems Involved in Gum Disease (Periodontitis) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Who gets gum disease and how bad it will be depends on (1) the different bacteria in the mouth and (2) how the immune system of ... Oral Bacteria and Immune System Problems Involved in Gum Disease (Periodontitis). This study is currently recruiting ... To study how immune system problems may lead to problems in the mouth, including gum disease. ... Children and adults at least 7 years of age who have genetic problems with their immune system. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01568697?recr=Open&cond="Gingival Diseases"&rank=2

*  Herbal medicine to boost immune system against diseases caused by infections.

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*  Scientists Link Immune System's Natural Killer Cells to Infant Liver Disease

... a disease where blocked bile ducts can cause severe liver damage and death. Researchers at Cincinnati Children's Hospital ... bile duct tissues lessens damage and may be a way to treat the most common cause of chronically progressive liver disease in ... Scientists have linked an overactive response by one of the immune system's key weapons against infection - natural killer, or ... Scientists Link Immune System's Natural Killer Cells to Infant Liver Disease. Friday, July 24, 2009 ...
https://cincinnatichildrens.org/news/release/2009/infant-liver-disease-07-24-2009

*  The Safety and Effectiveness of Isoprinosine in Patients With Weakened Immune Systems and Lymph Node Disease - Full Text View -...

Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes. Immune System Diseases. ... The Safety and Effectiveness of Isoprinosine in Patients With Weakened Immune Systems and Lymph Node Disease. This study has ... Lymphatic Diseases. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. ... Immune Tolerance. Inosine Pranobex. Killer Cells. T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. AIDS- ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00002296

*  How Does The Immune System Fight Disease? | Home Remedies by SpeedyRemedies

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*  Best Selling Books in Disorders & Diseases - Immune Systems

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*  Yet more clampdowns by the european union | September 2003 (Vol. 14 Issue 6) | Magazine | What Doctors Don't Tell You

Vaccination affects immune system diseases. Sodium content in softened water. Breast cancer screening - false positive results ...
https://wddty.com/magazine/2003/september/yet-more-clampdowns-by-the-european-union.html

*  1st Meeting on Systems Biology approach in immune mediated renal disease and transplantation

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ndt-educational.org/page-23-404-0-426--1stmeetingonsystemsbiologyapproachinimmunemediatedrenaldiseaseandtransplantation.php

*  Does the phrase "over-responsive immune system" mean that a person with celiac disease has an aggressive immune system rather...

Does the phrase "over-responsive immune system" mean that a person with celiac disease has an aggressive immune system rather ... diet drugs enzymes exposure genes genetic genetic test gluten gluten-free diet glutened gluten sensitivity iga immune system ... The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center. 5841 S. Maryland Avenue, Mail Code 4069. Chicago, IL 60637 ...
cureceliacdisease.org/faq/does-the-phrase-over-responsive-immune-system-mean-that-a-person-with-celiac-disease-has-an-aggressive-immune-system-rather-than-a-weak-one/

*  Genetic Variants can Influence Immune System and Act as Risk Factors for Neurodegenerative and Other Diseases

... young individuals have a major influence on immune cell function. ... Computers to Fight Disease Cancer Evades Innate Immune System ... Genetic Variants can Influence Immune System and Act as Risk Factors for Neurodegenerative and Other Diseases. ... "Our study highlights the potential role of immune system cells in human diseases." ... "Functionally, we cannot say that blood-derived immune cells are the key cell type for Alzheimer's disease. They are likely to ...
medindia.net/news/genetic-variants-can-influence-immune-system-and-act-as-risk-factors-for-neurodegenerative-and-other-diseases-135584-1.htm

*  Genetic Evidence Implicates the Immune System and Cholesterol Metabolism in the Aetiology of Alzheimer's Disease

... the innate immune response have previously been implicated by pathological and epidemiological studies of Alzheimer's disease, ... but it has been unclear whether those findings reflected primary aetiological events or consequences of the disease process. ... We found a significant overrepresentation of association signals in pathways related to cholesterol metabolism and the immune ... Background Late Onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) is the leading cause of dementia. Recent large genome-wide association studies ...
journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0013950

*  Stem Cell Transplants

... are effective treatments for a wide range of diseases, including cancer. ... Stem cells help rebuild a weakened immune system. ... This is because for kids with a compromised immune system, even ... immune system diseases; and bone marrow syndromes.. Transplanted hematopoietic stem cells are put into the bloodstream through ... During conditioning therapy and while the transplant is engrafting, their immune systems are weakened and unable to fight ...
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*  Okra/okro Alleviates Asthma, Lowers Cholesterol, Boost Immune System, Prevent Kidney Diseases ~ Casual Entertainment TV

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*  Oral Immunotherapy (OIT) for Peanut Allergy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Immune System Diseases. Food Hypersensitivity. Hypersensitivity, Immediate. To Top. *For Patients and Families ... We are also studying the effect of peanut OIT on the peanut specific immune response to determine if tolerance to peanut ... and changing the peanut-specific immune response in subjects who have peanut allergy (tolerance). ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00815035

*  Is the Hepatitis Vaccine Safe? My Story | What to Expect

Aside from the outward effects, the virus caused me to contract other diseases since my immune system was weak. The combination ... The yellowing should go away after the disease runs its course, but the hint of a yellow undertone remained. In fact, a girl in ... and it also reduces their chances of contracting the disease later in life. A big factor in my decision is that my family ...
https://whattoexpect.com/wom/toddler/is-the-hepatitis-vaccine-safe--my-story.aspx

OdulimomabCentral nervous system disease: A central nervous system disease can affect either the spinal cord (myelopathy) or brain (encephalopathy), both of which are part of the central nervous system.Immunomics: Immunomics is the study of immune system regulation and response to pathogens using genome-wide approaches. With the rise of genomic and proteomic technologies, scientists have been able to visualize biological networks and infer interrelationships between genes and/or proteins; recently, these technologies have been used to help better understand how the immune system functions and how it is regulated.Central nervous system viral disease: A central nervous system viral disease is a viral infection that affects the central nervous system.Pug: The Pug is a breed of dog with a wrinkly, short-muzzled face and curled tail. The breed has a fine, glossy coat that comes in a variety of colours, most often fawn or black, and a compact square body with well-developed muscles.Progressive rubella panencephalitis: Progressive rubella panencephalitis (PRP) is a neurological disorder which may occur in a child with congenital rubella. It is a slow viral infection of the brain characterized by chronic encephalitis, usually manifesting between 8–19 years of age.Cognitive effects of HIVMethylsterol monooxygenase: Methylsterol monooxygenase (, methylsterol hydroxylase, 4-methylsterol oxidase, 4,4-dimethyl-5alpha-cholest-7-en-3beta-ol,hydrogen-donor:oxygen oxidoreductase (hydroxylating)) is an enzyme with system name 4,4-dimethyl-5alpha-cholest-7-en-3beta-ol,NAD(P)H:oxygen oxidoreductase (hydroxylating). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionPrifinium bromideDemyelinating disease: -, |Keshan diseaseGross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Death of Ludwig van Beethoven: The death of Ludwig van Beethoven on 26 March 1827 followed a prolonged illness. It was witnessed by his sister-in-law and by his close friend Anselm Hüttenbrenner, who provided a vivid description of the event.PMHC cellular microarray: PMHC cellular microarrays are a type of cellular microarray that has been spotted with pMHC complexes peptide-MHC class I or peptide-MHC class II.Astrocyte: Astrocytes (Astro from Greek astron = star and cyte from Greek "kyttaron" = cell), also known collectively as astroglia, are characteristic star-shaped glial cells in the brain and spinal cord. The proportion of astrocytes in the brain is not well defined.Proinflammatory cytokine: A proinflammatory cytokine is a cytokine which promotes systemic inflammation.BMC Endocrine Disorders: BMC Endocrine Disorders is an open access peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing original research articles in all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of endocrine disorders, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology.References ==Cell-mediated immunity: Cell mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies, but rather involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen. Historically, the immune system was separated into two branches: humoral immunity, for which the protective function of immunization could be found in the humor (cell-free bodily fluid or serum) and cellular immunity, for which the protective function of immunization was associated with cells.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingSilent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Acute myeloid dendritic cell leukemia: Acute myeloid dendritic cell leukemia is an exceedingly rare form of leukemia. This form of leukemia represents only about 0.Periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths: Periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths (or periarterial lymphatic sheaths, or PALS) are a portion of the white pulp of the spleen. They are populated largely by T cells and surround central arteries within the spleen; the PALS T-cells are presented with blood borne antigens via myeloid dendritic cells.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.HyperintensityCD4 immunoadhesin: CD4 immunoadhesin is a recombinant fusion protein consisting of a combination of CD4 and the fragment crystallizable region.HSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).Raji cell: Raji cell line is the first continuous human cell line from hematopoietic origin. The cell lines produce an unusual strain of Epstein-Barr virus which will both transform cord blood lymphocytes and induce early antigens in Raji cells.Polyclonal B cell response: Polyclonal B cell response is a natural mode of immune response exhibited by the adaptive immune system of mammals. It ensures that a single antigen is recognized and attacked through its overlapping parts, called epitopes, by multiple clones of B cell.Toll-like receptor 11: Toll-like receptor 11 (TLR11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the gene TLR11. TLR11 belongs to the toll-like receptor (TLR) family and the interleukin-1 receptor/toll-like receptor superfamily.Tingible body macrophage: A tingible body macrophage is a type of macrophage predominantly found in germinal centers, containing many phagocytized, apoptotic cells in various states of degradation, referred to as tingible bodies (tingible meaning stainable).Horst Ibelgaufts' COPE: Cytokines & Cells Online Pathfinder Encyclopaedia > tingible body macrophages Retrieved on June 27, 2010 Tingible body macrophages contain condensed chromatin fragments.Inflammation: Inflammation (Latin, [is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogen]s, damaged cells, or irritants.Intraepithelial lymphocyte: Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are lymphocytes found in the epithelial layer of mammalian mucosal linings, such as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and reproductive tract. However, unlike other T cells, IELs do not need priming.KLRD1: CD94 (Cluster of Differentiation 94), also known as killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily D, member 1 (KLRD1) is a human gene.Flow cytometry: In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them by an electronic detection apparatus. It allows simultaneous multiparametric analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of up to thousands of particles per second.Immunologic adjuvant: In immunology, an adjuvant is a component that potentiates the immune responses to an antigen and/or modulates it towards the desired immune responses. The word “adjuvant” comes from the Latin word adiuvare, meaning to help or aid.Autologous immune enhancement therapy: Autologous immune enhancement therapy (AIET) is a treatment method in which immune cells are taken out from the patient's body which are cultured and processed to activate them until their resistance to cancer is strengthened and then the cells are put back in the body. The cells, antibodies, and organs of the immune system work to protect and defend the body against not only tumor cells but also bacteria or viruses.

(1/386) The potential application of ribozymes for the treatment of hematological disorders.

With the identification and increasing understanding of the genes involved in neoplastic transformation has come the realization that abrogation of these genes' products may lead to cell death or a return to normalcy. The use of ribozymes and their nucleic acid cousins, antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), are two such ways of perturbing the disease-related gene expression. This review will look at the development and application of ribozymes to abrogate gene expression, with particular relevance to hematological settings. Some examples of antisense ODNs will also be mentioned where appropriate.  (+info)

(2/386) Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor induces an invasive phenotype in human squamous cell carcinomas.

Inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor Flk-1 has been shown to prevent invasion of experimental squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). To directly investigate the role of VEGF in tumor invasion, we stably transfected human SCC-13 cells, which are characterized by a noninvasive phenotype in vivo, with expression vectors containing murine VEGF(164) in sense (SCC/VEGF+) or antisense (SCC/VEGF-) orientation or with vector alone (SCC/vec). SCC/vec cells formed slowly growing, well-differentiated tumors with well-defined borders between tumor and stroma, after intradermal or subcutaneous injection. In contrast, SCC/VEGF+ tumors were characterized by rapid tumor growth, with small cell groups and single cells invading into the surrounding tissue, and by admixture of blood vessels and tumor cells in areas of tumor invasion. We detected an increase in tumor vessel density and size in VEGF-overexpressing tumors, resulting in a more than fourfold increase in total vascular areas. In contrast, SCC/VEGF- clones formed noninvasive, sharply circumscribed tumors with reduced vascular density. These findings demonstrate that selective VEGF overexpression was sufficient to induce tumor invasiveness, and they provide further evidence for an active role of the tumor stroma in cancer progression.  (+info)

(3/386) Inhibition of the CD8+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity reaction by hypericin: potential for treatment of T cell-mediated diseases.

The cytotoxicity reaction of murine CD8 T lymphocytes has been found to be strongly inhibited by nanomolar concentrations of hypericin, a lipophilic dianthraquinone with photodynamic properties. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-induced target cell apoptosis, as well as exocytosis of cytolytic granules from these cells, were ablated by hypericin, administered at the onset of the reaction, without affecting CTL viability. The inhibition of cytolysis occurred without the light irradiation which is essential for photosensitization. The findings suggest that the action of hypericin targets the effector CTL; however, apoptosis induced in murine L-cells with recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha was also prevented by hypericin. Since hypericin is a known inhibitor of protein kinase C, MAP kinase and at least one other tyrosine kinase, this inhibitory activity could play a role in the down-modulation of CTL-induced cytotoxicity. Furthermore, our studies show that the action of hypericin induces rapid dephosphorylation of phospholipids associated with low-density membranes in CTL, but not with membranes of the cytotoxic granules. The ability of hypericin to interfere with cytotoxicity may render it useful in the treatment of T cell-mediated diseases.  (+info)

(4/386) Human T cells with a type-2 cytokine profile are resistant to apoptosis induced by primary activation: consequences for immunopathogenesis.

The mechanisms leading to a relative dominance of T cells producing type 2 cytokines in certain human immune disorders are still unclear. We investigated the relative susceptibility to apoptosis induced by primary in vitro activation of human type 1 (producing interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)) or type 2 (producing IL-4) T cells. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated from patients with immune disorders characterized by expansion of type 2 cells (four with AIDS and hyper-IgE/hypereosinophilia, one with Churg-Strauss syndrome, and one with idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome) or from individuals with normal cytokine balances. Cells were stimulated for 16 h with ionomycin and phorbol ester, and apoptosis of cytokine-producing cells was assessed by flow cytometry. T cells with a type-2 cytokine profile, i.e. producing IL-4 alone, were significantly more resistant to activation-induced apoptosis than those producing IFN-gamma alone. This was observed in AIDS patients, whose type 2 cells were mostly CD8+, as well as in the patients with Churg-Strauss and with hypereosinophilic syndrome. CD4+ and CD8+ IL-4-producing cells were equally resistant to apoptosis. Lower susceptibility to apoptosis of type-2 T cells was also observed in subjects with normal cytokine balances. Bcl-2 expression was high in type-2 cells and in viable type-1 cells, whereas it was low in apoptotic type-1 cells. Resistance to activation-induced apoptosis may explain the expansion of cells producing type-2 cytokines in certain immune disorders.  (+info)

(5/386) US FDA "Redbook II" immunotoxicity testing guidelines and research in immunotoxicity evaluations of food chemicals and new food proteins.

The rapid advances in the field of immunology and an understanding of the potential adverse effects of xenobiotics on the immune system have resulted in the development of a discipline in toxicology now referred to as immunotoxicology. This discipline has evolved steadily over the last 2 decades as a result of research in the national and international communities. Various US, European, and Japanese regulatory agencies have recognized a need to promulgate testing guidelines for immunotoxicity in support of the approval process involving toxicological testing. The US Food and Drug Administration "Redbook II" guidelines and some of the research conducted in support of the concepts and testing strategies are presented here. Concerns raised with regard to these guidelines are included, as are on-going initiatives in development of experimental approaches for assessing allergic potential and/or hypersensitivity responses to new foods and food constituents.  (+info)

(6/386) Responses of the immune system to injury.

Three categories of immunotoxic effects are identified: direct immunotoxicity, hypersensitivity, and autoimmunity. Direct immunotoxicity consists of immunosuppression and immunostimulation. Total abrogation of the immune response (immunosuppression) results in more frequent, severe, and often atypical and relapsing infections and lymphomas. Immunostimulation is associated with febrile reactions, the induction/facilitation of autoimmune diseases and allergic reactions to unrelated allergens, and impaired hepatic drug biotransformation. Hypersensitivity is manifested by a variety of symptoms involving either antigen-specific or non-antigen-specific humoral and cellular adverse responses. Autoimmune reactions are divided into organ-specific and systemic reactions. Because of the involvement of many redundant mechanisms, it is difficult to predict responses of the immune system to a given immunotoxic injury. In laboratory animals, histologic but also functional changes are necessary to show evidence of and to predict such adverse responses.  (+info)

(7/386) Genetic polymorphism of IL-12 p40 gene in immune-mediated disease.

Understanding of the genetic basis of autoimmune diseases is currently incomplete. Cytokine gene polymorphisms warrant consideration as factors explaining variation in the human immune and inflammatory responses and as candidate susceptibility genes for related pathological states. Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is a key regulator of the polarisation of immune responses to T helper 1 or 2 categories and plays a role in autoimmune and infectious diseases. Using a bioinformatic strategy, we aligned cDNA and expressed sequence tag sequences to identify putative polymorphic regions of the IL-12 p40 gene. Position 1188 in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) was polymorphic with the frequency of the common allele around 80% in healthy UK Caucasoids. PCR genotyping of multiple Caucasoid groups and an African group showed significant population variation. In a case-control design, the polymorphism was not associated with rheumatoid arthritis, Felty's syndrome or large granular lymphocyte syndrome with arthritis or multiple sclerosis. A nonsignificant increase in the B allele frequency was observed in the rare large granular lymphocyte syndrome without arthritis (odds ratio 2.02 95% CI 0.95-4.3). This new genetic marker could be useful in anthropological studies and should be investigated in other autoimmune, allergic, inflammatory and infectious diseases.  (+info)

(8/386) Alteration of human erythrocyte membrane properties by complement fixation.

Erythrocyte survival studies of complement-coated radiolabeled erythrocytes have shown rapid removal of these cells from the peripheral blood with a return of these cells into the circulation within a few hours. We studied complement-coated human erythrocytes and measured surface charge and deformability, two parameters believed to be important in erythrocyte survival. Erythrocytes were coated with complement by two in vitro techniques: the addition of (a) low ionic strength sucrose, and (b) IgM cold agglutinins. Erythrocytes obtained from three patients with cold agglutinin disease were used as a source of in vivo complement-coated cells. No difference was found in surface charge as measured by electrophoretic mobility between erythrocytes from normal subjects and complement-coated erythrocytes from any of the three sources. When deformability was measured by filtration through 3-mum polycarbonate sieves, marked decreases in deformability were found in complement-coated erythrocytes. The filtration returned toward control levels by incubating the complement-coated erythrocytes in serum for 1 h and correlated with decreases in immune adherence. Using screen filtration pressure as a measure of deformability, a positive correlation between number of C3 molecules per erythrocyte and decreased deformability was found. C3b appeared responsible for the decreased deformability of the erythrocytes, since conversion of C3b to C3d resulted in a return of deformability toward normal. The data suggested that the sequestration of complement-coated human erythrocytes in the microvasculature can be explained in part by decreased deformability and changes in immune adherence.  (+info)



Infectious Diseases


  • Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: Recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. (uptodate.com)

infection


  • During therapy, patients should be monitored for recurrence of clinical symptoms that may suggest increased intracranial pressure, relapse of infection (from lack of adherence or drug resistance), adverse events related to antifungal therapy, and immune recovery syndromes secondary to antiretroviral therapy (ART). (uptodate.com)
  • See 'Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of Cryptococcus neoformans meningoencephalitis in HIV-infected patients' and 'Microbiology and epidemiology of Cryptococcus neoformans infection' and 'Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome' and 'Treatment of Cryptococcus neoformans meningoencephalitis in HIV-infected patients' . (uptodate.com)
  • Have a history of a neurologic disease unrelated to HIV infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • SSPE is a lethal, neurodegenerative viral infection stemming from an abnormal immune response to measles. (callfred.com)

Individuals


  • Individuals with AIDS frequently suffer central nervous system (CNS) problems that are characterized by cognitive, motor, and behavioral deficits, in a disorder known as AIDS dementia complex. (clinicaltrials.gov)

central


certain


  • There is no cure for SSPE, but certain antiviral drugs can slow the progression of the disease. (callfred.com)