Ilex paraguariensis: A plant species of the family AQUIFOLIACEAE. An infusion of the leaves is commonly drunk in South America for stimulating effect in much the same manner as coffee is in other cultures.Ilex: A plant genus of the family AQUIFOLIACEAE. The common name of 'holly' usually refers to this genus but may sometimes refer to similar looking plants of the MAHONIA or QUERCUS genus.Chlorogenic Acid: A naturally occurring phenolic acid which is a carcinogenic inhibitor. It has also been shown to prevent paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rats. (From J Chromatogr A 1996;741(2):223-31; Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1996;60(5):765-68).Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Glipizide: An oral hypoglycemic agent which is rapidly absorbed and completely metabolized.
Mate con malicia: Mate con malicia (Spanish: "mate with malice") or mate con punta ("spiked mate")is a drink made of mate infusion and aguardiente or pisco, consumed mainly in rural areas of Chile. Huarisnaque is typically drunk by huasos, gauchos, fishermen and lumberjacks to warm up, as it combines both alcohol and the psychoactive substances of yerba mate, namely caffeine, theobromine and theophylline.Ilex verticillata: Ilex verticillata, the winterberry, is a species of holly native to eastern North America in the United States and southeast Canada, from Newfoundland west to Ontario and Minnesota, and south to Alabama.USDA .Chlorogenic acidPhytomedicineGlipizide
(1/28) Mate consumption and the risk of squamous cell esophageal cancer in uruguay.
A retrospective hospital-based case-control study was carried out at the Oncology Institute of Montevideo, Uruguay, to investigate the role of mate consumption in esophageal cancer risk. The study included 344 cases with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus and 469 controls recruited between January 1988 and August 2000. Mate consumption was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing esophageal cancer and showed a clear dose response, with a relative risk of 2.84 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.41-5.73] for those drinking more than 1 liter/day of mate as compared with nondrinkers. Subjects who self-reported drinking mate at a very hot temperature had an almost 2-fold increase in risk [odds ratio (OR), 1.87; 95% CI, 1.17-3.00] compared with those drinking warm to hot mate, after adjusting for cumulative consumption of mate. Mate amount and temperature were observed to have independent effects and, although no departure from multiplicativity was observed between the two covariates, those drinking more than 1 liter/day of mate at a very hot temperature had a 3-fold increase in risk (OR, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.30-6.74) compared with those drinking less than 0.5 liter/day of mate at a warm to hot temperature. Subjects with high cumulative exposure to mate in the presence of low alcohol and tobacco exposures presented a lower-risk estimate (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.88-2.62), whereas those with high cumulative exposures to mate, alcohol, and tobacco presented a 7-fold increase in esophageal cancer risk (OR, 7.10; 95% CI, 3.75-13.46). The population-attributable fraction as a result of mate consumption was calculated to be 53%, of which the sole effect of amount and temperature was 14.8 and 12.6% respectively, and 14.9% was attributable to high mate consumption at high temperature. (+info)
(2/28) Case-control study of bladder cancer and exposure to arsenic in Argentina.
Studies have found increased bladder cancer risks associated with high levels of arsenic in drinking water, but little information exists about risks at lower concentrations. Ecologic studies in Argentina have found increased bladder cancer mortality in Cordoba Province, where some wells are contaminated with moderate arsenic concentrations. This population-based bladder cancer case-control study in two Cordoba counties recruited 114 case-control pairs, matched on age, sex, and county, during 1996-2000. Water samples, particularly from wells, were obtained from subjects' current residences and residences in the last 40 years. Statistical analyses showed no evidence of associations with exposure estimates based on arsenic concentrations in drinking water. However, when well-water consumption per se was used as the exposure measure, time-window analyses suggested that use of well water more than 50 years before interview was associated with increased bladder cancer risk. This association was limited to ever smokers (odds ratio = 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 5.5 for 51-70 years before interview), and the possibility that this association is due to chance cannot be excluded. This study suggests lower bladder cancer risks for arsenic than predicted from other studies but adds to evidence that the latency for arsenic-induced bladder cancers may be longer than previously thought. (+info)
(3/28) Mate drinking during pregnancy and risk of preterm and small for gestational age birth.
Mate, a hot infusion of Ilex paraguayensis, is a beverage largely consumed in Southeast Latin America, including during pregnancy. To assess the effect of mate drinking during pregnancy on preterm and small for gestational age (SGA) birth, a cross-sectional study was done. From January 1st to December 31st, 1993, in the first 24 h after delivery, all 5304 mothers giving birth at the hospitals in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, were interviewed and several of their characteristics were gathered. Birthweight was recorded and gestational age at birth assessed using the Dubowitz score. All 5189 single births were analyzed. The prevalence of SGA and preterm birth was 8.0 and 9.1%, respectively. Mate intake at least once a week during the entire pregnancy period was reported by approximately 68% of the mothers. Crude analyses showed a 30% increase in the risk of SGA among daily mate drinkers compared with nonconsumers (prevalence ratio = 1.3; 95% CI 1.1-1.6), whereas no statistical association was detected with preterm births. After controlling for confounders, the significance of the association with SGA birth no longer held and the lack of association with prematurity remained unchanged. In conclusion, prevalence of daily mate drinking was high among pregnant women and, contrary to the hypothesis, no harmful effect on intrauterine growth or duration of pregnancy was detected. (+info)
(4/28) Higher urine 1-hydroxy pyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG) is associated with tobacco smoke exposure and drinking mate in healthy subjects from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
BACKGROUND: The highest rates of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in Brazil occur in Rio Grande do Sul, the most southern state, which has incidence rates of 20.4/100,000/year for men and 6.5/100,000/year for women. Exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) through tobacco smoke and other sources may increase the risk of ESCC. The aims of the current study were to investigate the degree and sources of PAH exposure of the inhabitants of this region of southern Brazil. METHODS: Two hundred healthy adults (half smokers, half non smokers, half male and half female) were recruited, given a standardized questionnaire, and asked to provide a urine sample for measurement of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG), a PAH metabolite). Urine 1-OHPG concentrations were measured using immunoaffinity chromatography and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and urine cotinine was measured using a dipstick test. We examined factors associated with 1-OHPG concentration using Wilcoxon tests and multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Urine 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG) was successfully measured on 199 subjects. The median (interquartile range) of urine 1-OHPG in the 199 participants was 2.09 pmol/mL (0.51, 5.84). Tobacco smoke exposure and mate drinking were statistically significantly associated with higher urine 1-OHPG concentrations in the multivariate linear regression model. CONCLUSION: Tobacco smoke and mate both contribute to high levels of benzo[a]pyrene exposure in the people of southern Brazil. This high PAH exposure may contribute to the high rates of ESCC observed in this population. The increased urine 1-OHPG concentrations associated with mate suggest that contaminants, not just thermal injury, may help explain the increased risk of ESCC previously reported for mate consumption. (+info)
(5/28) Non-alcoholic beverages and risk of bladder cancer in Uruguay.
BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer is the fourth most frequent malignancy among Uruguayan men. A previous study from Uruguay suggested a high risk of bladder cancer associated with mate drinking. We conducted an additional case-control study in order to further explore the role of non-alcoholic beverages in bladder carcinogenesis. METHODS: In the time period 1996-2000, 255 incident cases with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and 501 patients treated in the same hospitals and in the same time period were frequency matched on age, sex, and residence. Both cases and controls were face-to-face interviewed on occupation, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and intake of mate, coffee, tea, and soft drinks. Statistical analysis was carried out by unconditional multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: Ever mate drinking was positively associated with bladder cancer (odds ratio [OR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-3.9) and the risk increased for increasing duration and amount of mate drinking. Both coffee and tea were strongly associated with bladder cancer risk (OR for coffee drinking 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.3; OR for tea drinking 2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.4). These results were confirmed in a separate analysis of never-smokers. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that drinking of mate, coffee and tea may be risk factors for bladder carcinoma in Uruguay. (+info)
(6/28) Phenolic antioxidants identified by ESI-MS from Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) and green tea (Camelia sinensis) extracts.
Aqueous extracts of green yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) and green tea (Camellia sinensis) are good sources of phenolic antioxidants, as already described in the literature. The subject of this study were organic extracts from yerba mate, both green and roasted, and from green tea. Their phenolic profiles were characterized by direct infusion electrospray insertion mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and their free radical scavenging activity was determined by the DPPH assay. Organic extracts containing phenolic antioxidants might be used as natural antioxidants by the food industry, replacing the synthetic phenolic additives used nowadays. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts from green yerba mate, roasted yerba mate and green tea showed excellent DPPH scavenging activity (>89%). The ether extracts from green and roasted yerba mate displayed a weak scavenging activity, different from the behavior observed for the green tea ether extract. The main phenolic compounds identified in green yerba mate water and ethanolic extracts were: caffeic acid, quinic acid, caffeoyl glucose, caffeoylquinic acid, feruloylquinic acid, dicaffeoylquinic acid and rutin. After the roasting process two new compounds were formed: caffeoylshikimic acid and dicaffeoylshikimic acid. The ethanolic extracts from yerba mate, both roasted and green, with lower content of phenolic compounds (3.80 and 2.83 mg/mL) presented high antioxidant activity and even at very low phenolic concentrations, ether extract from GT (0.07 mg/mL) inhibited DPPH over 90%. (+info)
(7/28) Protective effects of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) on H2O2-induced DNA damage and DNA repair in mice.
(8/28) High levels of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mate drinks.