No data available that match "Hypobetalipoproteinemias"
No data available that match "Hypobetalipoproteinemias"
(1/94) Insights into apolipoprotein B biology from transgenic and gene-targeted mice.
Over the past five years, several laboratories have used transgenic and gene-targeted mice to study apolipoprotein (apo) B biology. Genetically modified mice have proven useful for investigating the genetic and environmental factors affecting atherogenesis, for defining apoB structure/function relationships, for understanding the regulation of the apoB gene expression in the intestine, for defining the "physiologic rationale" for the existence of the two different forms of apoB (apoB48 and apoB100) in mammalian metabolism and for providing mechanistic insights into the human apoB deficiency syndrome, familial hypobetalipoproteinemia. This review will provide several examples of how genetically modified mice have contributed to our understanding of apoB biology, including our new discovery that human heart myocytes secrete nascent apoB-containing lipoproteins. (+info)
(2/94) Molecular bases of low production rates of apolipoprotein B-100 and truncated apoB-82 in a mutant HepG2 cell line generated by targeted modification of the apolipoprotein B gene.
In subjects with familial hypobetalipoproteinemia heterozygous for truncated forms of apolipoprotein B, both apoB-100 and the truncated forms are produced at lower than expected rates. We studied the mechanism of low levels of apoB in a cell model produced by targeted modification of the apob gene of HepG2 cells. One of the three alleles of apob was found to be targeted. The targeted cells expressed apoB-100 and B-82. The media of mutant cells contained 56% of the levels of apoB-100 present in the media of wild-type (WT) HepG2 cells. ApoB-82 was present at 11% of the apoB-100 levels in mutant cell media. An 85-kD protein (apoB-15) representing the N-terminal fragment of apoB was also secreted, but only in the mutant cell media. We examined the mechanism of low levels of apoB-82. Cellular apoB-82 mRNA was 11% of apoB-100 mRNA, lower than the 33% expected, but consistent with relative levels of apoB-82 in the media. ApoB mRNA transcription in WT and the mutant cells did not differ, while the levels of apoB-82 mRNA in nuclei and polysomes were 46% and 12% of the levels of apoB-100 mRNA, respectively, suggesting that the lower levels of apoB-82 mRNA were due to altered message stability. In a pulse/chase experiment with [35S] methionine, at zero time of chase, the amounts of apoB-100 in mutant cells was 66% that of WT levels, consistent with the modification of one allele. The fractions of newly synthesized apoB-100 secreted into the media at 2 h were 10% in the mutant cells and 19% in the WT cells, suggesting greater presecretory degradation of apoB-100 in the mutant cells. Thus, low levels of mutant apoB-82 mRNA gave rise to the low levels of apoB-82, while low levels of apoB-100 were due to low rates of secretion. (+info)
(3/94) Known mutations of apoB account for only a small minority of hypobetalipoproteinemia.
Low LDL cholesterol and apoB levels in plasma cosegregate with mutations of apoB in some kindreds with familial hypobetalipoproteinemia. Approximately 35 apoB mutations, many specifying apoB truncations, have been described. Based on the centile nomenclature where the full-length nature apoB consisting of 4536 amino acids is designated as apoB-100, only those truncations of apoB >25% of normal length are detectable in plasma. Previously, we reported on five unrelated kindreds with familial hypobetalipoproteinemia in whom although no apoB truncations were detectable in plasma, low apoB levels were nevertheless linked to the apoB gene. In one of those kindreds, we reported a donor splice site mutation in intron 5 (specifying apoB- 4). We now describe a nonsense mutation in exon 10 (apoB-9) in two of the other unrelated families. Both the apoB-4 and apoB-9 mutations have been reported by others in unrelated families. Recurrent mutations of apoB-40 and apoB-55 also have been reported, suggesting that recurrent mutations of apoB may account for an appreciable proportion of familial hypobetalipoproteinemia kindreds. To test this hypothesis, we searched for four apoB mutations whose products are not detected in plasma including the apoB-4, apoB-9, and two other previously reported mutations in exons 21 and 25. We studied three groups with plasma cholesterols <130 mg/dl in whom no apoB truncations were detected in plasma: a) 28 FHBL probands from St. Louis, b) 151 individual St. Louisians, and c) 28 individual Sicilians. One subject from the 28 kindreds and two subjects among 151 hypobeta individuals from St. Louis harbored the exon 10 mutation. None of the other mutations were detected. Thus, among hypobeta lipoproteinemic subjects without any detectable apoB truncations in plasma, <5% had an apoB truncation-producing mutation. As only about 0.5% of hypobeta lipoproteinemic subjects have plasma-detectable apoB truncations, our data suggest that the known apoB truncations account for only a small proportion of hypocholesterolemia. (+info)
(4/94) Anderson's disease: exclusion of apolipoprotein and intracellular lipid transport genes.
Anderson's disease is a rare, hereditary hypocholesterolemic syndrome characterized by chronic diarrhea, steatorrhea, and failure to thrive associated with the absence of apo B48-containing lipoproteins. To further define the molecular basis of the disease, we studied 8 affected subjects in 7 unrelated families of North African origin after treatment with a low-fat diet. Lipid loading of intestinal biopsies persisted, but the pattern and extent of loading was variable among the patients. Electron microscopy showed lipoprotein-like particles in membrane-bound compartments, the densities (0.65 to 7.5 particles/mu(2)) and the mean diameters (169 to 580 nm) of which were, in general, significantly larger than in a normal fed subject (0.66 particles/mu(2), 209 nm mean diameter). There were also large lipid particles having diameters up to 7043 nm (average diameters from 368 to 2127 nm) that were not surrounded by a membrane. Rarely, lipoprotein-like particles 50 to 150 nm in diameter were observed in the intercellular spaces. Intestinal organ culture showed that apo B and apo AIV were synthesized with apparently normal molecular weights and that small amounts were secreted in lipid-bound forms (density <1.006 g/mL). Normal microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) and activity were also detected in intestinal biopsies. Segregation analyses of 4 families excluded, as a cause of the disease, significant regions of the genome surrounding the genes for apo AI, AIV, B, CI, CII, CIII, and E, as were the genes encoding 3 proteins involved in intracellular lipid transport, MTP, and fatty acid binding proteins 1 and 2. The results suggest that a factor other than apoproteins and MTP are important for human intestinal chylomicron assembly and secretion. (+info)
(5/94) Decreased production rates of VLDL triglycerides and ApoB-100 in subjects heterozygous for familial hypobetalipoproteinemia.
Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL) is an autosomal codominant disorder characterized by low levels of apolipoprotein (apo) B and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Decreased production rates of apoB have been demonstrated in vivo in FHBL heterozygotes. In the present study, we wished to investigate whether the transport of triglycerides was similarly affected in these subjects. Therefore, we studied the in vivo kinetics of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglycerides and VLDL apoB-100 simultaneously in 7 FHBL heterozygotes from 2 well-characterized kindreds and 7 healthy normolipidemic subjects. In both kindreds, hypobetalipoproteinemia is caused by mutations in the 5' portion of the apoB gene specifying short truncations of apoB undetectable in plasma. A bolus injection of deuterated palmitate and a primed constant infusion of deuterated leucine were given simultaneously, and their incorporation into VLDL triglycerides and VLDL apoB, respectively, were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Kinetic parameters were calculated by using compartmental modeling. VLDL apoB fractional catabolic rates (FCRs) in FHBL heterozygotes and controls were similar (11. 6+/-3.9 and 10.9+/-2.4 pools per day, respectively, P=0.72). On the other hand, FHBL heterozygotes had a 75% decrease in VLDL apoB production rates compared with normal subjects (5.8+/-1.8 versus 23.4+/-7.1 mg/kg per day, P<0.001). The decreased production rates of VLDL apoB accounts for the very low concentrations of plasma apoB found in heterozygotes from these kindreds (24% of normal). Mean VLDL triglyceride FCRs in FHBL subjects and controls were not significantly different (1.06+/-0.74 versus 0.89+/-0.50 pools per hour, respectively, P=0.61). There was a good correlation between VLDL apoB FCR and VLDL triglyceride FCR in the 2 groups (r=0.84, P<0. 001). VLDL triglyceride production rates were decreased by 60% in FHBL heterozygotes compared with controls (9.3+/-6.0 versus 23.0+/-9. 6 micromol/kg per hour, P=0.008). Thus, the hepatic secretion of VLDL triglycerides is reduced in FHBL heterozygotes but to a lesser extent than the decrease in apoB-100 secretion. This is probably achieved by the secretion of VLDL particles enriched with triglycerides. (+info)
(6/94) Linkage of a gene for familial hypobetalipoproteinemia to chromosome 3p21.1-22.
Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL) is an apparently autosomal dominant disorder of lipid metabolism characterized by less than fifth percentile age- and sex-specific levels of apolipoprotein beta (apobeta) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. In a minority of cases, FHBL is due to truncation-producing mutations in the apobeta gene on chromosome 2p23-24. Previously, we reported on a four-generation FHBL kindred in which we had ruled out linkage of the trait to the apobeta gene. To locate other loci containing genes for low apobeta levels in the kindred, a genomewide search was conducted. Regions on 3p21.1-22 with two-point LOD scores >1.5 were identified. Additional markers were typed in the region of these signals. Two-point LOD scores in the region of D3S2407 increased to 3.35 at O = 0. GENEHUNTER confirmed this finding with an nonparametric multipoint LOD score of 7.5 (P=.0004). Additional model-free analyses were conducted with the square root of the apobeta level as the phenotype. Results from the Loki and SOLAR programs further confirmed linkage of FHBL to 3p21.1-22. Weaker linkage to a region near D19S916 was also indicated by Loki and SOLAR. Thus, a heretofore unidentified genetic susceptibility locus for FHBL may reside on chromosome 3. (+info)
(7/94) A targeted apolipoprotein B-38.9-producing mutation causes fatty livers in mice due to the reduced ability of apolipoprotein B-38.9 to transport triglycerides.
Nonphysiological truncations of apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 cause familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL) in humans and mice. An elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the FHBL phenotypes may provide valuable information on the metabolism of apo B-containing lipoproteins and the structure-function relationship of apo B. To generate a faithful mouse model of human FHBL, a subtle mutation was introduced into the mouse apo B gene by targeting embryonic stem cells using homologous recombination followed by removal of the selection marker gene by Cre-loxP-mediated site-specific recombination. The engineered mice bear a premature stop codon at residue 1767 and a 42-base pair loxP inserted into intron 24 of the apo B gene, thus closely resembling the apo B-38.9-producing mutation in humans. Apo B-38.9 was the sole apo B protein in homozygote (apob(38.9/38.9)) plasma. In heterozygotes (apob(+/)(38. 9)), apo B-100 and apo B-48 were reduced by 75 and 40%, respectively, and apo B-38.9 represented 20% of total circulating apo B. Hepatic apo B-38.9 mRNA levels were reduced by 40%. In cultured apob(+/)(38. 9) hepatocytes, apo B-100 was produced in trace quantities, and the synthesis rate of apo B-38.9 relative to apo B-48 was reduced by 40%. However, almost equimolar amounts of apo B-38.9 and apo B-48 were secreted into the media. Pulse-chase studies revealed that apo B-38. 9 was secreted at a faster rate and more efficiently than apoB-48. Nevertheless, both apob(+/)(38.9) and apob(38.9/38.9) mice had reduced hepatic triglyceride secretion rates and fatty livers. Thus, low mRNA levels or defective secretion of apo B-38.9 may not be responsible for the FHBL phenotypes caused by the apo B-38.9 mutation. Rather, a reduced capacity of apo B-38.9 for triglyceride transport may account for the fatty livers in these mice. (+info)
(8/94) Oxidation of apolipoprotein B-100 in circulating LDL is related to LDL residence time. In vivo insights from stable-isotope studies.
5-Hydroxy-2-aminovaleric acid (HAVA) has been suggested to be a specific marker of oxidation of apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 proline (Pro) and arginine (Arg) side-chain residues in low density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro. Here we describe the application of sensitive mass spectrometric techniques to the characterization of Pro/Arg-modified apoB-100 in LDL(1) (S(f) 7 to 12) and LDL(2) (S(f) 0 to 7) in vivo. We studied 7 subjects with familial defective apoB-100 (FDB) and 8 normolipidemic controls. In FDB subjects, the presence of a mutant apoB-100 (FDB(3500Q)) in LDL markedly reduced its affinity for the LDL receptor, leading to increased residence times (RTs) of LDL(1) (65+/-21 versus 32+/-12 hours, P<0.005) and LDL(2) (230+/-40 versus 53+/-7 hours, P:<0.001) when compared with controls, as determined by stable-isotope turnover studies. LDL(1) HAVA content was not different between the groups (FDB, 0.004+/-0. 001 mol/mol apoB-100 versus controls, 0.003+/-0.001 mol/mol apoB-100, P=0.200). LDL(2) HAVA content was higher in FDB subjects (0. 374+/-0.088 versus 0.013+/-0.002 mol/mol apoB-100, P<0.001). In both groups, LDL(2) HAVA was positively associated with LDL(2) RT (FDB, r=0.893, P:=0.003; controls, r=0.976, P=0.000) and negatively correlated with LDL(2) alpha-tocopherol content (FDB, r=-0.929, P=0. 003; controls, r=-0.903, P=0.002). No significant correlations could be found between LDL(1) HAVA, LDL(1) RT, and alpha-tocopherol, respectively. The low LDL(1) HAVA content observed in both FDB and control groups was thought to be due to the relatively lower RT as well as the higher alpha-tocopherol content of these lipoproteins. In contrast, LDL(2) seemed to be strongly prone to direct oxidation of apoB-100 in vivo. The longer these particles linger in the circulation, the more apoB-100 Pro/Arg residues become modified. (+info)