Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Antelopes: Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Estuaries: A partially enclosed body of water, and its surrounding coastal habitats, where saltwater from the ocean mixes with fresh water from rivers or streams. The resulting mixture of seawater and fresh water is called brackish water and its salinity can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt. (accessed http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/estuaries/estuaries01_whatis.html)WyomingWater Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Satellite Communications: Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Mediterranean SeaGeologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)FiresWeather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.BrazilPhylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.EuropeNitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Appropriation (By Any Other Name): June 13, 2005EcosystemMeramec Conservation AreaAntelope: An antelope is a member of a number of even-toed ungulate species indigenous to various regions in Africa and Eurasia. Antelopes comprise a wastebasket taxon (miscellaneous group) within the family Bovidae, encompassing those Old World species that are not cattle, sheep, buffalo, bison, or goats.List of rivers of Brazil: This is a list of rivers in Brazil.Bodega Marine Reserve: Bodega Marine Reserve is a nature reserve and marine reserve on the coast of northern California, located in the vicinity of the Bodega Marine Laboratory on Bodega Head. It is a unit of the University of California Natural Reserve System, that is administered by the University of California, Davis.IPCC Second Assessment Report: The Second Assessment Report (SAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), published in 1996, is an assessment of the then available scientific and socio-economic information on climate change. It was superseded by the Third Assessment Report (TAR) in 2001.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightMatrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Peat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.Threshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Anoxic event: Oceanic anoxic events or anoxic events (anoxia conditions) refer to intervals in the Earth's past where portions of oceans become depleted in oxygen (O2) at depths over a large geographic area. During some of these events, euxinia develops - euxinia refers to anoxic waters that contain hydrogen sulfide.Rogerstown Estuary: Rogerstown Estuary (Irish: Inbhear Bhaile Roiséir) is an estuary in Ireland. It is situated just north of the Donabate-Portrane peninsula, and also south of Rush, on Ireland's east coast about north of Dublin.Environment of Wyoming: Wyoming [the Continental Divide], and its abrupt topographic relief includes alternating basins and mountain ranges. Major mountain ranges include the [[Beartooth Mountains|Beartooth, Gros Ventre, Teton, Wind River, Bighorn, Sierra Madre, and Medicine Bow.Climate change in the United Kingdom: Climate change in the United Kingdom has been a subject of protests and controversies, and various policies have been developed to mitigate its effects. It is estimated to demand at least 80-85% emission reductions in the EU during 2008-2050 with reductions as soon as technically possible.Hydraulic action: Hydraulic action is erosion that occurs when the motion of water against a rock surface produces mechanical weathering. Most generally, it is the ability of moving water (flowing or waves) to dislodge and transport rock particles.Eutrophication: Eutrophication (Greek: eutrophia—healthy, adequate nutrition, development; ) or more precisely hypertrophication, is the ecosystem's response to the addition of artificial or natural nutrients, mainly phosphates, through detergents, fertilizers, or sewage, to an aquatic system.Schindler, David and Vallentyne, John R.Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin: The Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin is a drainage basin that covers part of western Queensland and New South Wales. It is adjacent to the much larger Lake Eyre basin.Human impact on the nitrogen cycleTimeline of historic inventionsEvolution in Variable EnvironmentLandsat 4Spatial ecology: Spatial ecology is a specialization in ecology and geography that is concerned with the identification of spatial patterns and their relationships to ecological phenomena. Ecological events can be explained through the detection of patterns at a given spatial scale: local, regional, or global.Computational archaeology: Computational archaeology describes computer-based analytical methods for the study of long-term human behaviour and behavioural evolution. As with other sub-disciplines that have prefixed 'computational' to their name (e.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Cambrian–Ordovician extinction eventPolarized light pollution: Polarization is a property of light waves that describes the orientation of their oscillations. Polarized light pollutionGábor Horváth, György Kriska, Péter Malik, Bruce Robertson.California coastal salt marsh: California's coastal salt marsh is a wetland plant community that occurs sporadically along the Pacific Coast from Humboldt Bay to San Diego. This salt marsh type is found in bays, harbors, inlets, and other protected areas subject to tidal flooding.Baltic sculpin: The Baltic sculpinBaltic sculpin (Cottus microstomus) at EOL (Cottus microstomus) is a species of sculpin, a European freshwater fish in the Cottidae family. It is widespread in the Dniester drainage (Black Sea basin), Odra and Vistula drainages (southern Baltic basin), most likely extending further east to Gulf of Finland.Sustainable Fisheries Act of 1996: The Sustainable Fisheries Act of 1996 is an amendment to the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, a law governing the management of marine fisheries in the United States. Another major amendment to this legislation was later made under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Reauthorization Act of 2006.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.List of drainage basins by area: The list of drainage basins by area identifies basins (also known as watersheds or catchments), sorted by area, which drain to oceans, mediterranean seas, rivers, lakes and other water bodies. All basins larger than are included as well as selected smaller basins.Nankai Trough gas hydrate site: Nankai Methane Hydrate Site (or Japanese Methane Hydrate R&D Program at Nankai, Nankai Trough Methane Hydrate Site) is located in the Nankai Trough, Japan.National Fire Academy: The National Fire Academy (NFA)National Fire Academy Mission Accessed: 6/12/2012 is one of two schools in the United States operated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) at the National Emergency Training Center (NETC) in Emmitsburg, Maryland. Operated and governed by the United States Fire Administration (USFA) as part of the U.Citizen Weather Observer Program: The Citizen Weather Observer Program (CWOP) is a network of privately owned electronic weather stations concentrated in the United States but also located in over 150 countries. Network participation allows volunteers with computerized weather stations to send automated surface weather observations to the National Weather Service (NWS) by way of the Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS).Lists of invasive species: These are lists of invasive species by country or region. A species is regarded as invasive if it has been introduced by human action to a location, area, or region where it did not previously occur naturally (i.Deep chlorophyll maximum: A deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) is a subsurface maximum in the concentration of chlorophyll in the ocean or a lake. A DCM is not always present--sometimes there is more chlorophyll at the surface than at any greater depth--but it is a common feature of most aquatic ecosystems.Stratosphere: The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere. It is stratified in temperature, with warmer layers higher up and cooler layers farther down.Deer farm: A deer farm is a fenced piece of land suitable for grazing that is populated with deer such as elk, moose, and even reindeer raised for the purpose of hunting tourism or as livestock. This practice is very different from the way such Arctic communities like the Laplanders migrate in open country with their herds of reindeer.Water Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area: Water Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area (French, Eau Agriculture Et Sante Et Milieu Tropical (E.A.Microbial food web: The microbial food web refers the combined trophic interactions among microbes in aquatic environments. These microbes include viruses, bacteria, algae, heterotrophic protists (such as ciliates and flagellates).The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down: "The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down" is a narrative song from the Walt Disney musical film featurette, Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day. The song is also incorporated into the 1977 musical film The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh which is an amalgamation of three Winnie-the-Pooh featurettes including "Blustery Day".Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.List of geographic information systems software: GIS software encompasses a broad range of applications which involve the use of a combination of digital maps and georeferenced data. GIS software can be sorted into different categories.Ditch: A ditch is a small to moderate depression created to channel water. A ditch can be used for drainage, to drain water from low-lying areas, alongside roadways or fields, or to channel water from a more distant source for plant irrigation.Genetic variation: right|thumbUniversity of CampinasPhylogeography: Phylogeography is the study of the historical processes that may be responsible for the contemporary geographic distributions of individuals. This is accomplished by considering the geographic distribution of individuals in light of the patterns associated with a gene genealogy.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Bird trapping: Bird trapping techniques to capture wild birds include a wide range of techniques that have their origins in the hunting of birds for food. While hunting for food does not require birds to be caught alive, some trapping techniques capture birds without harming them and are of use in ornithology research.Index of soil-related articles: This is an index of articles relating to soil.Panmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.P-AnisidineGeolocation software: In computing, geolocation software is used to deduce the geolocation (geographic location) of another party. For example, on the Internet, one geolocation approach is to identify the subject party's IP address, then determine what country (including down to the city and post/ZIP code level), organization, or user the IP address has been assigned to, and finally, determine that party's location.Layout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).Microsatellite: A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 2–5 base pairs) are repeated, typically 5-50 times. Microsatellites occur at thousands of locations in the human genome and they are notable for their high mutation rate and high diversity in the population.GA²LENNitrogen deficiencyMatrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale: The Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale (BADLS) is a 20-item questionnaire designed to measure the ability of someone with dementia to carry out daily activities such as dressing, preparing food and using transport.Inverse probability weighting: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).
(1/299) Global climate change.
Most of the last 100,000 years or longer has been characterized by large, abrupt, regional-to-global climate changes. Agriculture and industry have developed during anomalously stable climatic conditions. New, high-resolution analyses of sediment cores using multiproxy and physically based transfer functions allow increasingly confident interpretation of these past changes as having been caused by "band jumps" between modes of operation of the climate system. Recurrence of such band jumps is possible and might be affected by human activities. (+info)
(2/299) Clinical characteristics of unexplained sudden cardiac death in Korea.
In Western countries, sudden cardiac death (SCD) is closely related to coronary artery disease, but in Korea the clinical characteristics of SCD are not well determined. Over a 4-year period (June 1995 to May 1999), 186 cases of SCD, ranging in age from 16 to 75 years, were admitted to the Chonnam National University Hospital. In 82 (44.1%) of these, neither symptoms nor evidence of structural heart disease was found and so their clinical characteristics were investigated. There were 66 (80.5%) men and 16 (19.5%) women (male/female ratio = 4.1:1). The mean age was 50 +/- 14 years: 19 (23.2%) were in their 40s, 21 (25.6%) in their 50s, and 17 (20.7%) in their 60s. The time of circulatory collapse witnessed in 68 cases of SCD showed 2 peaks: between midnight and 03.00h (n=16, 23.5%) and between 09.00h and midday (n=15, 22.1%). Unexplained SCD occurred at home in 48 (64.9%) cases and on the street in 12 (16.2%); it occurred during normal daily routine activity in 23 (39.6%) and during sleep in 15 (25.9%). Thirty-three patients (40.2%) experienced various prodromal symptoms, including chest discomfort (n=13, 15.9%) and dyspnea (n=8, 9.8%). The electrocardiogram taken on arrival recorded asystole in 65 (79.3%) and ventricular fibrillation in 17 (20.7%). Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation was diagnosed in 14 (10 men, 4 women; 45 +/- 11 years) of 21 patients who recovered spontaneous circulation. Five (6.1%) patients were discharged alive, and an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator was implanted in 2. Unexplained SCD is common in Korea and develops predominantly in middle-aged males around midnight or in the late morning usually with no prodromal symptoms (59.8%). Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation is thought to be one of the important causes. (+info)
(3/299) A genetic analysis of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale in 1560 World War II male veteran twins in the NAS-NRC Twin Registry.
Responses to the eight-item Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) obtained from 1560 World War II male veteran twin pairs [818 monozygotic (MZ), 742 dizygotic (DZ)] were analysed to determine the extent to which genetic influences are involved in self-reported daytime sleepiness in the elderly. Average ESS score (+/- SD) in this sample was 7.1 +/- 3.9, range 0--24. More than half of the twins (65%--67%) reported a moderate to high chance of falling asleep while lying down to rest; fewer than 3% admitted that this would occur while sitting and talking to someone or while stopped in traffic. Daytime sleepiness was not associated with age but was significantly and positively associated with obesity. The intraclass twin correlation on ESS scores was 0.39 in MZ pairs and 0.21 in DZ pairs (both P < 0.001). Structural equation modeling of the observed variance-covariance matrices for MZ and DZ twins estimated the heritability of ESS to be 38% (95% confidence interval 33%--44%). Environmental influences not shared by twin brothers accounted for the remaining variance in daytime sleepiness. A reasonable interpretation of the heritability of ESS in this healthy cohort of elderly male twins is a genetic susceptibility for disordered breathing during sleep. (+info)
(4/299) Health-related quality of life in narcolepsy.
Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder characterised by symptoms of excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. The aim of this study was to describe the health-related quality of life of people with narcolepsy residing in the UK. The study comprised a postal survey of 500 members of the UK narcolepsy patient association, which included amongst other questions the UK Short Form 36 (SF-36), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Ullanlinna Narcolepsy Scale (UNS). A total of 305 questionnaires were included in the final analysis. The results showed that the subjects had significantly lower median scores on all eight domains of the SF-36 than normative data, and scored particularly poorly for the domains of role physical, energy/vitality, and social functioning. The BDI indicated that 56.9% of subjects had some degree of depression. In addition, many individuals described limitations on their education, home, work and social life caused by their symptoms. There was little difference between the groups receiving different types of medication. This study is the largest of its type in the UK, although the limitations of using a sample from a patient association have been recognised. The results are consistent with studies of narcolepsy in other countries in demonstrating the extensive impact of this disorder on health-related quality of life. (+info)
(5/299) Ecological degradation in protected areas: the case of Wolong Nature Reserve for giant pandas.
It is generally perceived that biodiversity is better protected from human activities after an area is designated as a protected area. However, we found that this common perception was not true in Wolong Nature Reserve (southwestern China), which was established in 1975 as a "flagship" protected area for the world-renowned endangered giant pandas. Analyses of remote sensing data from pre- and post-establishment periods indicate that the reserve has become more fragmented and less suitable for giant panda habitation. The rate of loss of high-quality habitat after the reserve's establishment was much higher than before the reserve was created, and the fragmentation of high-quality habitat became far more severe. After the creation of the reserve, rates of habitat loss and fragmentation inside the reserve unexpectedly increased to levels that were similar to or higher than those outside the reserve, in contrast to the situation before the reserve was created. (+info)
(6/299) Differential effects of activity and climate on onset of subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Conflicting findings of the effect of climate on onset of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may result from the influence of strenuous activities which can trigger aneurysmal rupture independent of climatological factors. The effect of climate and patient activities on onset of SAH were analyzed. The clinical records of 786 consecutive patients with aneurysmal SAH admitted to our hospital for 10 years were reviewed. Activities at onset were categorized according to the intensity of strain at onset. Seasonal variation, circannual cyclic trend, and association with 90 meteorological factors were examined in each category and the results were compared between categories. Bimonthly occurrence in the light strain group showed a significant seasonal variation and cyclic trend with two peaks in early spring and fall, whereas no significant trend was detected in the overall patients and in the heavy strain group. The significant meteorological factors were global solar radiation, sunshine hours, changes in mean and minimum temperature and mean vapor pressure from the previous day, and minimum pressure in the previous 7 days. Lower global solar radiation in the light strain group was associated with onset with the lowest p value (p = 0.0046). No factors were significant in the heavy strain group. There is some evidence of the possible influence of climatological factors on onset of SAH without strenuous activity. Strenuous activity seems to affect onset more strongly, which masks any effect of climate. (+info)
(7/299) A multispecies overkill simulation of the end-Pleistocene megafaunal mass extinction.
A computer simulation of North American end-Pleistocene human and large herbivore population dynamics correctly predicts the extinction or survival of 32 out of 41 prey species. Slow human population growth rates, random hunting, and low maximum hunting effort are assumed; additional parameters are based on published values. Predictions are close to observed values for overall extinction rates, human population densities, game consumption rates, and the temporal overlap of humans and extinct species. Results are robust to variation in unconstrained parameters. This fully mechanistic model accounts for megafaunal extinction without invoking climate change and secondary ecological effects. (+info)
(8/299) Energy costs of standard activities among Indian adults.
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the energy cost of resting (RMR), sitting and standing for urban Indian adults and compare these estimates with the reported values. DESIGN: Energy costs were measured using oxylog while body fat was estimated using equipment (HBF300, OMRON Corporation, Japan) that works on the principle of bioelectrical impedance, for 24 men and 40 women, aged 20-50 y, engaged in sedentary activities. SETTINGS: Agharkar Research Institute, Pune, India. RESULTS: Mean energy cost (kJ/min) of resting (RMR), sitting and standing were significantly (P<0.01, for all) higher for men (4.01+/-0.42, 5.0+/-0.72 and 5.74+/-0.69, respectively) than women (3.54+/-0.28, 4.03+/-0.41 and 4.35+/-0.52, respectively). Gender difference increased with the level of activity, from 13% for RMR to 32% for standing. These differences reduced when adjusted (using analysis of covariance) for body weight and became non-significant on adjusting for fat-free mass (FFM) in the case of RMR and sitting activity. The measured values of energy cost (absolute and per kg weight) for these activities were similar to African subjects but lower compared to Asian or European subjects for both sexes. The stepwise regression analysis done separately by sexes showed weight (29%) in men and body mass index (44%) in women to be the best predictors of RMR, while regression analysis for combined sexes indicated FFM and height as predictors of RMR (r(2)=56%, P<0.01). If means to estimate body fat were not available, RMR could best be predicted with BMI and sex as predictors (r(2)=55%; P<0.01). This was mainly due to the fact that the sex differences in our population were more prominent in FFM than that in BMI. Our observations thus indicate the need to develop prediction equations separately for different populations owing to differences in their body compositions, especially in fat mass (FM) or FFM. CONCLUSION: The energy costs of activities were associated with body composition, especially with absolute fat-free mass, which may vary even with the same body fat percentage. Therefore, there is a need to develop separate prediction equations for different communities. (+info)