Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Hospitals, General: Large hospitals with a resident medical staff which provides continuous care to maternity, surgical and medical patients.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Hospital Costs: The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).Hospitals, Urban: Hospitals located in metropolitan areas.Nursing Staff, Hospital: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in a hospital.Economics, Hospital: Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.Hospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.Hospital Bed Capacity: The number of beds which a hospital has been designed and constructed to contain. It may also refer to the number of beds set up and staffed for use.Hospitals, Special: Hospitals which provide care for a single category of illness with facilities and staff directed toward a specific service.Hospitals, District: Government-controlled hospitals which represent the major health facility for a designated geographic area.Hospitals, Private: A class of hospitals that includes profit or not-for-profit hospitals that are controlled by a legal entity other than a government agency. (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed)Financial Management, Hospital: The obtaining and management of funds for hospital needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Hospital Planning: Areawide planning for hospitals or planning of a particular hospital unit on the basis of projected consumer need. This does not include hospital design and construction or architectural plans.Hospital Charges: The prices a hospital sets for its services. HOSPITAL COSTS (the direct and indirect expenses incurred by the hospital in providing the services) are one factor in the determination of hospital charges. Other factors may include, for example, profits, competition, and the necessity of recouping the costs of uncompensated care.Hospital Departments: Major administrative divisions of the hospital.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Hospitals, Psychiatric: Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Hospital Records: Compilations of data on hospital activities and programs; excludes patient medical records.Hospital Units: Those areas of the hospital organization not considered departments which provide specialized patient care. They include various hospital special care wards.Equipment and Supplies, Hospital: Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.Libraries, Hospital: Information centers primarily serving the needs of hospital medical staff and sometimes also providing patient education and other services.Surgery Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers all departmental functions and the provision of surgical diagnostic and therapeutic services.Patient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.Patient Discharge: The administrative process of discharging the patient, alive or dead, from hospitals or other health facilities.Hospitals, County: Hospitals controlled by the county government.Outpatient Clinics, Hospital: Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.Hospital Bed Capacity, 500 and overAmerican Hospital Association: A professional society in the United States whose membership is composed of hospitals.Hospitals, Municipal: Hospitals controlled by the city government.Food Service, Hospital: Hospital department that manages and supervises the dietary program in accordance with the patients' requirements.Hospital Information Systems: Integrated, computer-assisted systems designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information concerned with the administrative and clinical aspects of providing medical services within the hospital.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and management of services provided for obstetric and gynecologic patients.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Hospitals, Religious: Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.United StatesHospitals, Maternity: Special hospitals which provide care to women during pregnancy and parturition.Diagnosis-Related Groups: A system for classifying patient care by relating common characteristics such as diagnosis, treatment, and age to an expected consumption of hospital resources and length of stay. Its purpose is to provide a framework for specifying case mix and to reduce hospital costs and reimbursements and it forms the cornerstone of the prospective payment system.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Inpatients: Persons admitted to health facilities which provide board and room, for the purpose of observation, care, diagnosis or treatment.Patient Readmission: Subsequent admissions of a patient to a hospital or other health care institution for treatment.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Nursing Service, Hospital: The hospital department which is responsible for the organization and administration of nursing activities.Hospital Shared Services: Cooperation among hospitals for the purpose of sharing various departmental services, e.g., pharmacy, laundry, data processing, etc.Laboratories, Hospital: Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cardiology Service, Hospital: The hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of diagnostic and therapeutic services for the cardiac patient.Hospital Bed Capacity, under 100EnglandQuality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Hospital Bed Capacity, 100 to 299Hospitals, Military: Hospitals which provide care for the military personnel and usually for their dependents.Bed Occupancy: A measure of inpatient health facility use based upon the average number or proportion of beds occupied for a given period of time.Hospitals, AnimalHospitals, Veterans: Hospitals providing medical care to veterans of wars.Tertiary Care Centers: A medical facility which provides a high degree of subspecialty expertise for patients from centers where they received SECONDARY CARE.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Health Facility Size: The physical space or dimensions of a facility. Size may be indicated by bed capacity.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Purchasing, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the purchasing of supplies and equipment.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Medical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.Patient Transfer: Interfacility or intrahospital transfer of patients. Intrahospital transfer is usually to obtain a specific kind of care and interfacility transfer is usually for economic reasons as well as for the type of care provided.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Nurseries, Hospital: Hospital facilities which provide care for newborn infants.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Psychiatric Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the organization and administration of psychiatric services.Ownership: The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Housekeeping, Hospital: Hospital department which manages and provides the required housekeeping functions in all areas of the hospital.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Oncology Service, Hospital: The hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of diagnostic and therapeutic services for the cancer patient.Surgical Procedures, Operative: Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Utilization Review: An organized procedure carried out through committees to review admissions, duration of stay, professional services furnished, and to evaluate the medical necessity of those services and promote their most efficient use.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Emergency Medical Services: Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Health Facility Merger: The combining of administrative and organizational resources of two or more health care facilities.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Medication Systems, Hospital: Overall systems, traditional or automated, to provide medication to patients in hospitals. Elements of the system are: handling the physician's order, transcription of the order by nurse and/or pharmacist, filling the medication order, transfer to the nursing unit, and administration to the patient.Hospitals, Chronic Disease: Hospitals which provide care to patients with long-term illnesses.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Personnel Administration, Hospital: Management activities concerned with hospital employees.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Formularies, Hospital: Formularies concerned with pharmaceuticals prescribed in hospitals.Hospital-Physician Relations: Includes relationships between hospitals, their governing boards, and administrators in regard to physicians, whether or not the physicians are members of the medical staff or have medical staff privileges.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Admitting Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the flow of patients and the processing of admissions, discharges, transfers, and also most procedures to be carried out in the event of a patient's death.Child, Hospitalized: Child hospitalized for short term care.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Personnel Staffing and Scheduling: The selection, appointing, and scheduling of personnel.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.BrazilMulti-Institutional Systems: Institutional systems consisting of more than one health facility which have cooperative administrative arrangements through merger, affiliation, shared services, or other collective ventures.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Health Facility Closure: The closing of any health facility, e.g., health centers, residential facilities, and hospitals.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Hospitals, Group Practice: Hospitals organized and controlled by a group of physicians who practice together and provide each other with mutual support.Great BritainDay Care: Institutional health care of patients during the day. The patients return home at night.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Risk Adjustment: The use of severity-of-illness measures, such as age, to estimate the risk (measurable or predictable chance of loss, injury or death) to which a patient is subject before receiving some health care intervention. This adjustment allows comparison of performance and quality across organizations, practitioners, and communities. (from JCAHO, Lexikon, 1994)Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Safety Management: The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Hospital-Patient Relations: Interactions between hospital staff or administrators and patients. Includes guest relations programs designed to improve the image of the hospital and attract patients.Uncompensated Care: Medical services for which no payment is received. Uncompensated care includes charity care and bad debts.Ancillary Services, Hospital: Those support services other than room, board, and medical and nursing services that are provided to hospital patients in the course of care. They include such services as laboratory, radiology, pharmacy, and physical therapy services.Dental Service, Hospital: Hospital department providing dental care.Hospitals, High-Volume: Hospitals with a much higher than average utilization by physicians and a large number of procedures.Insurance, Hospitalization: Health insurance providing benefits to cover or partly cover hospital expenses.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Radiology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which is responsible for the administration and provision of x-ray diagnostic and therapeutic services.Transportation of Patients: Conveying ill or injured individuals from one place to another.Societies, Hospital: Societies having institutional membership limited to hospitals and other health care institutions.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)LondonIndiaRegistries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Cost Allocation: The assignment, to each of several particular cost-centers, of an equitable proportion of the costs of activities that serve all of them. Cost-center usually refers to institutional departments or services.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Maintenance and Engineering, Hospital: Hospital department whose primary function is the upkeep and supervision of the buildings and grounds and the maintenance of hospital physical plant and equipment which requires engineering expertise.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Medical Errors: Errors or mistakes committed by health professionals which result in harm to the patient. They include errors in diagnosis (DIAGNOSTIC ERRORS), errors in the administration of drugs and other medications (MEDICATION ERRORS), errors in the performance of surgical procedures, in the use of other types of therapy, in the use of equipment, and in the interpretation of laboratory findings. Medical errors are differentiated from MALPRACTICE in that the former are regarded as honest mistakes or accidents while the latter is the result of negligence, reprehensible ignorance, or criminal intent.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.CaliforniaDisease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Home Care Services, Hospital-Based: Hospital-sponsored provision of health services, such as nursing, therapy, and health-related homemaker or social services, in the patient's home. (Hospital Administration Terminology, 2d ed)ScotlandCost Savings: Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Medical Records Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the creating, care, storage and retrieval of medical records. It also provides statistical information for the medical and administrative staff.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Health Services Misuse: Excessive, under or unnecessary utilization of health services by patients or physicians.SwitzerlandHealth Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Centralized Hospital Services: The coordination of services in one area of a facility to improve efficiency.Governing Board: The group in which legal authority is vested for the control of health-related institutions and organizations.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Hospitals, Low-Volume: Hospitals with a much lower than average utilization by physicians and smaller number of procedures.Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Benchmarking: Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.Hospitals, Packaged: Hospital equipment and supplies, packaged for long-term storage, sufficient to set up a general hospital in an emergency situation. They are also called Packaged Disaster Hospitals and formerly Civil Defense Emergency Hospitals.Patient Safety: Efforts to reduce risk, to address and reduce incidents and accidents that may negatively impact healthcare consumers.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Outpatients: Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Health Facility Environment: Physical surroundings or conditions of a hospital or other health facility and influence of these factors on patients and staff.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Emergency Treatment: First aid or other immediate intervention for accidents or medical conditions requiring immediate care and treatment before definitive medical and surgical management can be procured.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Home Care Services: Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.JapanFrance: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.TaiwanPathology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers and provides pathology services.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Tertiary Healthcare: Care of a highly technical and specialized nature, provided in a medical center, usually one affiliated with a university, for patients with unusually severe, complex, or uncommon health problems.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Chief Executive Officers, Hospital: Individuals who have the formal authority to manage a hospital, including its programs and services, in accordance with the goals and objectives established by a governing body (GOVERNING BOARD).Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Hospital Communication Systems: The transmission of messages to staff and patients within a hospital.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Nursing Administration Research: Research concerned with establishing costs of nursing care, examining the relationships between nursing services and quality patient care, and viewing problems of nursing service delivery within the broader context of policy analysis and delivery of health services (from a national study, presented at the 1985 Council on Graduate Education for Administration in Nursing (CGEAN) meeting).Heart Arrest: Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.

*  Boris Kirkin

He was also an exceptional teacher; many of his students advanced to leading positions in various hospitals and institutions. ... 1967-1981: practice at the 2ndPirogov Moscow Medical Institute, Hospital Therapy Department. ... specializing in Hospital Therapy. Masters Thesis written in 1973 on the pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmias in Chronic Ischemic ...
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*  Mount Sinai Health System - New York City | Mount Sinai - New York

The Mount Sinai Hospital Achieves Honor Roll Status U.S. News and World Report Ranks The Mount Sinai Hospital, part of the ... Kravis Children's Hospital Ranks Among the Nation's Best U.S. News & World Report ranks the Kravis Children's Hospital at Mount ... An Alliance with Mount Sinai and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Expands Sharing expertise through new Fetal Medicine ...
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*  Australian Hospitals

... with photos and info
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*  doctors and hospitals

...
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*  San Carlos City Hospitals

In 1955, the bed capacity of the hospital was increased from 25 to 50 allowed to operate as a general hospital. These numerous ... 1957 - The clinic became a 4 storey hospital and was renamed Virgen Milagrosa Hospital. ... this hospital formed then nuecleus of the present San Carlos General Hospital. ... Since then the hospital has improved by leaps and bounds in the form of buildings which were constructed and the expansion of ...
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*  Hospitals | Channels - McGill University

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*  Hospitals | Wales - ITV News

Get the latest Hospitals news in the Wales region on ITV News. Videos, stories and updates ... The service will run by The British Red Cross between July and September from Tenby Hospital over each weekend and during the ... The partner of Allan King, who died after receiving bowel surgery at the Princess of Wales Hospital in Bridgend, says she felt ... Betsi Cadwaladr UHB says controversial plans to shut some smaller hospitals and merge others into hubs are needed to meet ...
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*  hospitals Archives - ExtremeTech

It's crazy, but one of the most dangerous things you can do is visit the hospital. The US Centers for Disease Control and ... Prevention (CDC) estimates that nearly two million hospital patients contract a healthcare-associated infection (HAI) every ...
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*  Hospitals | Real Simple

Hospitals & Medical Insurance 11 Things You Need to Do Before a Hospital Stay Here, doctors, nurses, and patient advocates ... Hospitals & Medical Insurance 7 Smart Ways to Find a Doctor Choosing a physician for yourself or a family member can be a ... Hospitals & Medical Insurance Healthful Websites Whether you're looking for the best ER in your hometown or you want to create ... Hospitals & Medical Insurance Insider's Guide to the Emergency Room Knowing how to navigate an ER can save time, frustration― ...
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*  Cottage Hospitals | The BMJ

Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust: Locum Consultant in Paediatric Infectious Disease and Antimicrobial ... Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust: Consultants in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (2 Posts) ... Cottage Hospitals. Br Med J 1882; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.1130.391 (Published 26 August 1882) Cite this as: Br Med ...
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*  Voluntary Hospitals | The BMJ

Milton Keynes University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust: Consultant Cellular Pathologist Isle of Man Government: Junior Clinical ... Health Education East of England: Pre-hospital Emergency Medicine Sub-specialty Training ... Voluntary Hospitals. Br Med J 1941; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.4209.353 (Published 06 September 1941) Cite this as: ...
bmj.com/content/2/4209/353.1

*  OUR UNSANITARY HOSPITALS

Hospitals in the United States should be held to higher sanitary standards, says Betsey McCaughey... ... OUR UNSANITARY HOSPITALS. November 29, 2007. Hospitals in the United States should be held to the same sanitary standards that ... The organization that accredits most hospitals, the Joint Commission, usually visits a hospital every three years, says ... The finding is based on lab tests, not on what hospitals report; if the same methodology were used to quantify deaths from all ...
ncpa.org/sub/dpd/index.php?Article_ID=15303

*  MGDM Hospital

... : Super Specialty. *Knee transplants using Stryker Knee Navigation system. MGDM HOSPITAL : EXTENTION/OUT REACH ... MGDM Hospital renders not only hospital based services but also preventive and promotive health care and also services aimed at ... While most of the multi specialty hospitals in Kerala and India are situated in urban setting, MGDM Hospital has a special ... Mar Geevarghese Dionysious Memorial Hospital, (MGDM Hospital) Kangazha (established in 1964) has a prominent place in the ...
https://sites.google.com/site/mgdmhospital/

*  Doctor-owned hospitals

doctor owned hospitals is a good idea, so of course they oppose it. Depends. If - and say if - hospital services are anything ... For a doctor to build a hospital is now a crime.. That's not exactly true. Building or owning a hospital is not an issue. ... The Stark Law had exceptions for rural hospitals and specialty hospitals.. That's a little simplistic, but I hope you get my ... In astouding (to me) news, the ACA prohibits doctor-owned hospitals from expanding, and prevents new doctor-owned hospitals at ...
freerepublic.com/focus/f-bloggers/3022686/posts?page=7

*  Hospitals : Shots - Health News : NPR

Hospitals
npr.org/tags/126567794/hospitals/archive?date=8-31-2003

*  Hospitals : Shots - Health News : NPR

Design students are taking a stab at clearer hospital signs that don't require words. Does it work? You be the judge. ... On today's Planet Money, a hospital administrator describes the challenges of controlling costs (when the doctor wants a ... Listener tips for cutting through health insurance nightmares and getting better care in the hospital. ...
npr.org/tags/126567794/hospitals/archive?date=8-31-2009

*  Psychiatric hospitals Bills - GovTrack.us

Psychiatric hospitals-related bills in the U.S. Congress. ... Psychiatric hospitals. Use this page to browse bills in the U.S ... Congress related to the subject Psychiatric hospitals, as determined by the Library of Congress. ...
https://govtrack.us/congress/bills/subjects/psychiatric_hospitals/4168?congress=109

*  Category:Hospitals established in 1821 - Wikipedia

Pages in category "Hospitals established in 1821". The following 3 pages are in this category, out of 3 total. This list may ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Hospitals_established_in_1821&oldid=432657346" ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Hospitals_established_in_1821

*  Category:Hospitals established in 1941 - Wikipedia

Pages in category "Hospitals established in 1941". The following 12 pages are in this category, out of 12 total. This list may ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Hospitals_established_in_1941&oldid=571150011" ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Hospitals_established_in_1941

*  Republicans debate mini-bailouts for hospitals

South Carolina's leaders increased payments to hospitals in a push to improve rural health. It likely placated hospital ... Ed Sheeran Has Reportedly Been Hit by a Car and Rushed to the Hospital. 217 reactions4%81%15% ... In two years, federal payments to hospitals treating a large share of the nation's poor will begin to evaporate under the ... The problem is that many states have refused to expand Medicaid, leaving public safety net hospitals there in a potentially ...
https://yahoo.com/news/republicans-debate-mini-bailouts-hospitals-163430104.html?ref=gs

*  Soroti Hospital - Wikipedia

Hospitals in Uganda. Medical education in Uganda. Soroti Regional Referral Hospital, commonly known as Soroti Hospital is a ... Soroti Hospital is a public hospital, funded by the Uganda Ministry of Health and general care in the hospital is free. It is ... one of the 13 Regional Referral Hospitals in Uganda.[3] The hospital is designated as one of the 15 Internship Hospitals in ... Soroti Regional Referral Hospital Lacks Cold Rooms. Coordinates: 01°42′58″N 33°36′47″E / 1.71611°N 33.61306°E / 1.71611; ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soroti_Hospital

*  Blaenavon Hospital - Wikipedia

Hospitals in Wales. Blaenavon Hospital, located in Blaenavon, is a small community hospital run by the Aneurin Bevan Local ... "Anger at Blaenavon hospital bed loss". South Wales Argus. 6 October 2010. Retrieved 26 December 2014.. ... http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sitesplus/866/directory/hospitals/208. Lists. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Blaenavon_Hospital&oldid=639685905" ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blaenavon_Hospital

*  Whittington Hospital - Wikipedia

Archway Group Hospital Management Committee, jointly forming the Whittington Hospital in 1948. The current hospital on the ... The Whittington Hospital is a district general and teaching hospital of UCL Medical School and Middlesex University School of ... In 1773, the hospital moved to purpose built premises designed by Robert Mylne between St. Luke's Hospital for Lunatics and the ... The hospital was granted a royal charter in 1935 and came under the control of the Northern Group Hospital Management Committee ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whittington_Hospital

*  Disinfectants in Hospitals | The BMJ

Derby Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust: Consultant in Radiology with A Special Interest Breast Imaging ... Derby Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust: Consultant in Radiology with A Special Interest ... Disinfectants in Hospitals. Br Med J 1965; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.5432.400 (Published 13 February 1965) Cite this ...
bmj.com/content/1/5432/400.1

*  University Hospital

... type:. TV Show. Current Status:. In Season. Producer:. Aaron Spelling. genre:. Drama. We gave it a B ... University Hospital is up-front about its exploitation - the series' first shower scene takes place beneath the writer's credit ... A viewer's only conceivable worry is that the hospital is located in Washington State, thereby minimizing the chances of beach ... Despite this sartorial constraint, the heroic quartet still manages to dash down hospital corridors during emergencies, the ...
ew.com/article/1995/01/13/university-hospital/

Wansbeck General Hospital: Wansbeck General Hospital is a district general hospital based in Ashington, Northumberland. It is one of two "low energy" built hospitals in the United Kingdom, and is the most northerly General hospital in England.Soonchunhyang University Hospital: Soonchunhyang University Hospital is a hospital in Bucheon, South Korea. It is affiliated with Soonchunhyang University.Akron Children's Hospital: The Akron Children's Hospital is a children's hospital located in Akron, Ohio.Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital: The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital (informally the RNOH) is a specialist orthopaedic hospital located in Greater London, United Kingdom and a part of Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust. It provides the most comprehensive range of neuro-musculoskeletal health care in the UK, including acute spinal injury, complex bone tumour treatment, orthopaedic medicine and specialist rehabilitation for chronic back pain.Thayet District: Thayet District (; also Thayetmyo District) is a district of the Magway Division in central Burma (Myanmar)."Burma: Second-Order Administrative Divisions (Districts)" The Permanent Committee of Geographic Names (PCGN), United Kingdom, from Internet Archive of 25 September 2007 The administrative centre is the town of Thayetmyo.Jessie McPherson Private HospitalSenior Emergency Department: The senior emergency department is a recent hospital innovation to build separate geriatric emergency rooms for older adults akin to pediatric emergency rooms designed for children. The trend comes in response to the nation's rapidly growing population of older adults and overcrowding of emergency departments.U.S.C. Institute of Safety and Systems Management: == History ==Two Rivers Psychiatric Hospital: Two Rivers Behavioral Health System is a psychiatric hospital located in Kansas City, Missouri.List of SEPTA Trolley and Interurban stations: The Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority contains more than several trolley lines and one interurban line; These include five Subway–Surface Trolley Lines, and one Heritage trolley (Route 15), all of which were inherited from the former Philadelphia Transportation Company, and originally built by the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company. Both systems are officially part of the City Transit Division.Middlesex County Hospital: Middlesex County Hospital was a hospital operated by Middlesex County which was operational from the 1930s until 2001 in Waltham and Lexington, Massachusetts. Originally opened as a tuberculosis hospital, the hospital eventually became the county hospital for Middlesex until its closure in 2001.Medical state: Medical states or medical conditions are used to describe a patient's condition in a hospital. These terms are most commonly used by the news media and are rarely used by physicians, who in their daily business prefer to deal with medical problems in greater detail.Riverview Health Centre: Riverview Health Centre is a community hospital in Winnipeg, Manitoba. It was founded in 1911 by the City of Winnipeg as the Winnipeg Municipal Hospital.Kitchen: A kitchen is a room or part of a room used for cooking and food preparation in a dwelling or in a commercial establishment. In the West, a modern residential kitchen is typically equipped with a stove, a sink with hot and cold running water, a refrigerator, counters and kitchen cabinets arranged according to a modular design.Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the University of Chicago Press. It publishes research on control and evaluation of the transmission of pathogens in healthcare institutions and on the use of epidemiological principles and methods to evaluate and improve the delivery of care, including infection control practices, surveillance, cost-benefit analyses, resource use, occupational health, and regulatory issues.Anssi JoutsenlahtiList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Diagnosis-related group: Diagnosis-related group (DRG) is a system to classify hospital cases into one of originally 467 groups,Mistichelli, Judith Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) and the Prospective Payment System: Forecasting Social Implications with the last group (coded as 470 through v24, 999 thereafter) being "Ungroupable". This system of classification was developed as a collaborative project by Robert B Fetter, PhD, of the Yale School of Management, and John D.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingCircuit rider (water/wastewater): Rural water circuit riders are roving technical experts employed by State Rural Water Associations to provide training and assistance to rural and small water utilities within their state.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Frankston Hospital: Peninsula HealthRed Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).Antibiotic misuse: Antibiotic misuse, sometimes called antibiotic abuse or antibiotic overuse, refers to the misuse or overuse of antibiotics, with potentially serious effects on health. It is a contributing factor to the development of antibiotic resistance, including the creation of multidrug-resistant bacteria, informally called "super bugs": relatively harmless bacteria can develop resistance to multiple antibiotics and cause life-threatening infections.Queen Alexandra's Military Hospital: The Queen Alexandra's Military Hospital (Millbank) (QAMH) opened in July 1905. It was constructed immediately to the north of the Tate Britain (across a side-street) adjacent to the River Thames on the borders of the neighbourhoods of Millbank/Pimlico, Westminster, London.Hotel Rio Park: Hotel Rio Park is a 2* hotel in Benidorm, Spain that caters to British package holiday tourists from Thomson Holidays, being its most popular hotel, accounting, as of 2001, for 10% of all Thomson guests, and having catered to over a million visits from British tourists, more than any other hotel in the world.American Animal Hospital Association: right|American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) corporate logo.jpgCanandaigua Veterans Hospital Historic DistrictTertiary referral hospital: A tertiary referral hospital (also called a tertiary hospital, tertiary referral center, or tertiary care center, or tertiary center) is a hospital that provides tertiary care, which is health care from specialists in a large hospital after referral from primary care and secondary care. Beyond that general definition, there is no precise narrower or more formal definition, but tertiary centers usually include the following:BacitracinClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Central Cardiac Audit DatabasePavement life-cycle cost analysis: In September 1998, the United States Department of Transportation (DoT) introduced risk analysis, a probabilistic approach to account for the uncertainty of the inputs of the cost/benefit evaluation of pavement projects, into its decision-making policies. The traditional (deterministic) approach did not consider the variability of inputs.Themis MedicareIncidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Amager HospitalRevised Cardiac Risk IndexAge adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Referral (medicine): In medicine, referral is the transfer of care for a patient from one clinician to another.García Olmos L, Gervas Camacho J, Otero A, Pérez Fernández M.Paramedic: A paramedic is a healthcare professional, predominantly in the pre-hospital and out-of-hospital environment, and working mainly as part of emergency medical services (EMS), such as on an ambulance.Merger CupLoader (computing): In computing, a loader is the part of an operating system that is responsible for loading programs and libraries. It is one of the essential stages in the process of starting a program, as it places programs into memory and prepares them for execution.Fort Grey TB HospitalEmergency: An emergency is a situation that poses an immediate risk to health, life, property, or environment. Most emergencies require urgent intervention to prevent a worsening of the situation, although in some situations, mitigation may not be possible and agencies may only be able to offer palliative care for the aftermath.Integrated catchment management: Integrated catchment management is a subset of environmental planning which approaches sustainable resource management from a catchment perspective, in contrast to a piecemeal approach that artificially separates land management from water management.Truven Health Analytics: $96,000 thousands USD (2013)

(1/3457) A comparative analysis of surveyors from six hospital accreditation programmes and a consideration of the related management issues.

PURPOSE: To gather data on how accreditors manage surveyors, to compare these data and to offer them to the accreditors for improvement and to the scientific community for knowledge of the accreditation process and reinforcement of the credibility of these processes. DATA SOURCE: The data were gathered with the aid of a questionnaire sent to all accreditors participating in the study. RESULTS: An important finding in this comparative study is the different contractual relationships that exist between the accreditors and their surveyors. CONCLUSION: Surveyors around the world share many common features in terms of careers, training, work history and expectations. These similarities probably arise from the objectives of the accreditors who try to provide a developmental process to their clients rather than an 'inspection'.  (+info)

(2/3457) Class I integrons in Gram-negative isolates from different European hospitals and association with decreased susceptibility to multiple antibiotic compounds.

Class I integrons are associated with carriage of genes encoding resistance to antibiotics. Expression of inserted resistance genes within these structures can be poor and, as such, the clinical relevance in terms of the effect of integron carriage on susceptibility has not been investigated. Of 163 unrelated Gram-negative isolates randomly selected from the intensive care and surgical units of 14 different hospitals in nine European countries, 43.0% (70/163) of isolates were shown to be integron-positive, with inserted gene cassettes of various sizes. Integrons were detected in isolates from all hospitals with no particular geographical variations. Integron-positive isolates were statistically more likely to be resistant to aminoglycoside, quinolone and beta8-lactam compounds, including third-generation cephalosporins and monobactams, than integron-negative isolates. Integron-positive isolates were also more likely to be multi-resistant than integron-negative isolates. This association implicates integrons in multi-drug resistance either directly through carriage of specific resistance genes, or indirectly by virtue of linkage to other resistance determinants such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes. As such their widespread presence is a cause for concern. There was no association between the presence of integrons and susceptibility to cefepime, amikacin and the carbapenems, to which at least 97% of isolates were fully susceptible.  (+info)

(3/3457) Comparison of large restriction fragments of Mycobacterium avium isolates recovered from AIDS and non-AIDS patients with those of isolates from potable water.

We examined potable water in Los Angeles, California, as a possible source of infection in AIDS and non-AIDS patients. Nontuberculous mycobacteria were recovered from 12 (92%) of 13 reservoirs, 45 (82%) of 55 homes, 31 (100%) of 31 commercial buildings, and 15 (100%) of 15 hospitals. Large-restriction-fragment (LRF) pattern analyses were done with AseI. The LRF patterns of Mycobacterium avium isolates recovered from potable water in three homes, two commercial buildings, one reservoir, and eight hospitals had varying degrees of relatedness to 19 clinical isolates recovered from 17 patients. The high number of M. avium isolates recovered from hospital water and their close relationship with clinical isolates suggests the potential threat of nosocomial spread. This study supports the possibility that potable water is a source for the acquisition of M. avium infections.  (+info)

(4/3457) Enhancing the identification of excessive drinkers on medical wards: a 1-year follow-up study.

This paper describes a 1-year follow-up study examining whether hospital ward doctors and nurses continue to take quantitative alcohol histories and provide brief intervention to problem drinkers on general medical wards after the introduction of a simple protocol. Regular training in the use of this protocol was stipulated in the annual service contract between the Health Authority and the Hospital Trusts. Improvements in staff practice persisted at 1-year follow-up, although it fell from a peak at an earlier phase of the study. The positive role of state purchasers of health services in sustaining improvements in clinical practice is discussed.  (+info)

(5/3457) Costs of high-dose salvage therapy and blood stem cell transplantation for resistant-relapsed malignant lymphomas in a southern Italian hospital.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Analysis of costs of high technological procedures such as peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) autotransplantation in lymphomas are generally finalized at disclosing whether the improvement of survival in a subset of patients is cost effective and whether the cost of the procedure could be reduced. With the aim of revealing a possibility of reducing costs with respect to conditions of safety, we present our experience with PBSC autotransplantation in a particularly poor prognosis subset of patients with lymphoma. DESIGN AND METHODS: The expenses are analyzed for groups of cost and main resources necessary at unitary cost are considered separately. Groups of cost include various phases of the PBSC autotransplantation such as preparative procedures, execution of myeloablative therapy, reinfusion of CD34 cells, supportive therapy after reinfusion until discharge of the patient, general support for the management of patient. All costs are calculated according to 1997 prices and salaries and reported in dollars. The analysis was conducted on 21 patients with lymphoma resistant to other therapies treated by myeloablative therapy and PBSC autotransplantation in an hematologic unit in an open ward; the assistance was provided by staff not exclusively dedicated to bone marrow transplant procedures, with some help from a family member. RESULTS: The PBSC procedure, including all phases, costs from $17,761.9 to $18,259.9 depending on the type of myeloablative therapy employed; the mean cost was $18,092.6. The preparative phase with mobilization of CD34 cells, cryopreservation and reinfusion costed $3,538.7 (19.6% of the total cost); a major cost of this phase was cryopreservation and CD34 manipulation ($857.1). The second phase with myeloablative therapy and reinfusion of CD34 cells had a mean cost of $2,785.9 (15.4% of the total cost); a major cost of this phase was the hospitalization ($1,119.8). The third phase of patient's support after treatment had a total cost of $7,649 (42.3% of the cost of the total procedure) with the major cost being due to hospitalization ($2,571) calculated on a mean of 15 days after the reinfusion of CD-34. The last group of costs, including management support, accounted for $4,119 (22.7%) with a major cost being amortization of the structure ($1,600). The general cost for nurse's assistance to the patient was $1,355.1 (7.5%). INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: A procedure of PBSC autotransplantation in resistant lymphoma is affordable without the strict precautions generally given in intensive care units. This provides a substantial reduction of expenses because of the low number of specifically trained staff members and the generally low cost of the necessary supplies. Before, however, proposing PBSC autotransplantation in most patients with resistant lymphoma, an evaluation of whether costs could be further reduced and whether the procedure has a cost benefit impact is needed.  (+info)

(6/3457) Korean Nationwide Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance of bacteria in 1997.

Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria are known to be prevalent in tertiary-care hospitals in Korea. Twenty hospitals participated to this surveillance to determine the nationwide prevalence of resistance bacteria in 1997. Seven per cent and 26% of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were resistant to 3rd-generation cephalosporin. Increased resistance rates, 19% of Acinetobacter baumannii to ampicillin/sulbactam, and 17% of Pseudomonas aeruginoa to imipenem, were noted. The resistance rate to fluoroquinolone rose to 24% in E. coli, 56% in A. baumannii and 42% in P. aeruginosa. Mean resistance rates were similar in all hospital groups: about 17% of P. aeruginosa to imipenem, 50% of Haemophilus influenzae to ampicillin, 70% of Staphylococcus aureus to methicillin, and 70% of pneumococci to penicillin. In conclusion, nosocomial pathogens and problem resistant organisms are prevalent in smaller hospitals too, indicating nosocomial spread is a significant cause of the increasing prevalence of resistant bacteria in Korea.  (+info)

(7/3457) Relation between hospital surgical volume and outcome for pancreatic resection for neoplasm in a publicly funded health care system.

BACKGROUND: Recent studies from the United States have shown that institutions with higher numbers of pancreatic resection procedures for neoplasm have lower mortality rates associated with this procedure. However, minimal work has been done to assess whether the results of similar volume-outcome studies within a publicly financed health care system would differ from those obtained in a mixed public-private health care system. METHODS: A population-based retrospective analysis was used to examine pancreatic resection for neoplasm in Ontario for the period 1988/89 to 1994/95. Outcomes examined included in-hospital case fatality rate and mean length of stay in hospital. For each hospital, total procedure volume for the study period was defined as low (fewer than 22), medium (22-42) or high (more than 42). Regression models were used to measure volume-outcome relations. RESULTS: The likelihood of postoperative death was higher in low-volume and medium-volume centres than in high-volume centres (odds ratio 5.1 and 4.5 respectively; p < 0.01 for both). Mean length of stay was greater in low- and medium-volume centres than in high-volume centres (by 7.7 and 9.2 days respectively, p < 0.01 for both). INTERPRETATION: This study adds to growing evidence that, for pancreatic resection for neoplasm, patients may have better outcomes if they are treated in high-volume hospitals rather than low-volume hospitals.  (+info)

(8/3457) Indigenous perceptions and quality of care of family planning services in Haiti.

This paper presents a method for evaluating and monitoring the quality of care of family planning services. The method was implemented in Haiti by International Planned Parenthood Federation Western Hemisphere Region (IPPF/WHR), the managerial agency for the Private Sector Family Planning Project (PSFPP), which is sponsored by the USAID Mission. The process consists of direct observations of family planning services and clinic conditions by trained Haitian housewives playing the role of 'mystery clients', who visit clinics on a random basis without prior notice. Observations conducted by mystery clients during one year, from April 1990 to April 1991, are presented and illustrate the use of the method. In addition, measurements for rating the acceptability of the services were developed, providing a quantitative assessment of the services based on mystery clients' terms. Statistical results demonstrate that simulated clients ranked some criteria of acceptability higher than others. These criteria are: the interaction provider/client, information adequacy, and competence of the promoter. Likewise, simulated clients' direct observations of the services permitted the identification of deficiencies regarding the quality of care such as the paternalistic attitudes of the medical staff; the lack of competence of promoters; and the lack of informed choice. Based on its reliability since its implementation in 1990 the method has proven to be a useful tool in programme design and monitoring.  (+info)



mortality rates


  • The CMS study concluded that specialty hospitals generally provide good quality of care, with somewhat lower complications and mortality rates in cardiac specialty hospitals than in general hospitals, but with a higher rate of readmissions. (hschange.org)
  • Cost inefficiency and mortality rates in Florida hospitals ," Health Economics , John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(4), pages 419-431. (repec.org)

Specialty


  • Do Specialty Hospitals Promote Price Competition? (hschange.org)
  • Policy makers continue to debate the correct public policy toward physician-owned heart, orthopedic and surgical specialty hospitals. (hschange.org)
  • Do specialty hospitals offer desirable competition for general hospitals and foster improved quality, efficiency and service? (hschange.org)
  • Or do specialty hospitals add unneeded capacity and increased costs while threatening the ability of general hospitals to deliver community benefits? (hschange.org)
  • In three Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) sites with significant specialty hospital development Indianapolis, Little Rock and Phoenix recent site visits found that purchasers generally believe specialty hospitals are contributing to a medical arms race that is driving up costs without demonstrating clear quality advantages. (hschange.org)
  • he 18-month moratorium on new physician-owned heart, orthopedic and surgical specialty hospitals imposed by the Medicare Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA) temporarily stalled the rapid growth of specialty hospitals. (hschange.org)
  • After the moratorium expired on June 8, 2005, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) indicated it would not approve any new specialty hospitals for at least another six months while the agency reviewed its enrollment procedures for specialty hospitals. (hschange.org)
  • Legislation expected to be enacted in early 2006 would further prohibit specialty hospital enrollment in Medicare for up to another eight months. (hschange.org)
  • CMS also plans to revise payment policies for inpatient and outpatient care to reduce price distortions that have helped spur specialty hospital development. (hschange.org)
  • Congressional interest in specialty hospitals remains intense but divided. (hschange.org)
  • As part of the MMA, the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC) and CMS were directed to study specialty hospitals to help decide whether Medicare policy should promote or impede specialty hospital development. (hschange.org)
  • MedPAC found that physician-owned specialty hospitals treat patients who are less severely ill than average and concentrate on relatively profitable conditions. (hschange.org)
  • MedPAC also found that specialty hospital costs for inpatients were not lower than general hospitals, although specialty hospital patients had shorter average lengths of stay. (hschange.org)
  • To date, the MedPAC and CMS findings have not produced a consensus on the correct Medicare policy stance regarding physician-owned specialty hospitals.1 Further, these reports do not focus on whether specialty hospitals promote useful marketplace competition related to the care of patients covered in employer-sponsored health plans. (hschange.org)
  • and whether employers want specialty hospitals included in health plan networks (see Data Source). (hschange.org)
  • Although employers and health plans are predisposed to favoring new hospital entrants to produce greater competition, in the three sites studied, they generally believe that specialty hospitals are contributing to a medical arms race that is driving up costs. (hschange.org)
  • Moreover, purchasers believe specialty hospitals have unfair advantages that create an unlevel playing field for hospital competition, and some suggested that certificate-of-need regulations be used to limit the growth of specialty hospitals. (hschange.org)
  • urchasers expressed somewhat conflicting views on whether specialty hospital entry to the market resulted in price competition among specialty and general hospitals for services offered by the specialty hospitals, as economic theory would suggest. (hschange.org)

Beds


  • All the selected hospitals have agreed to make 10 beds available exclusively to treat patients with H1N1 flu," T.S. Cheluvaraj, joint director (communicable diseases), said in a statement. (hindustantimes.com)
  • We find that hospital quality can be explained by the number of beds, the number of employees per bed, hospital financial performance, and whether the hospital is urban or rural. (repec.org)

private


  • The quantitative descriptive survey used self-completion questionnaires to study factors influencing nurses' job satisfaction in selected private hospitals in England. (scielo.org.za)
  • In terms of Herzberg's Theory of Motivation, the most important extrinsic (hygiene) factor was no satisfaction with their salaries compared to nurses' salaries in other private hospitals in England, in the NHS and even at their own hospitals. (scielo.org.za)
  • Enhanced levels of job satisfaction could help to reduce turnover rates among registered nurses at the private hospitals in England that participated in this study. (scielo.org.za)
  • Factors influencing nursing turnover in selected private hospitals in England. (scielo.org.za)
  • Nurse job satisfaction and retention: comparing public to private hospitals in Jordan. (scielo.org.za)
  • Abstract Study objectives  To examine how outpatient cancer patients assess their cancer care in private oncology practices and day hospitals, and to identify the extent to which staff meet the expectations of their patients. (ebscohost.com)
  • Chief Executive of Australian Private Hospitals Association, Michael Roff's recent note that private hospital costs are significantly lower than public hospital costs doesn't quite add up, according to CPD's John Menadue. (cpd.org.au)
  • I am at a loss to understand how Michael Roff, Chief Executive, Australian Private Hospitals Association can claim in his letter of 15 February, that according to the Productivity Commission … 'Private hospital costs were 32% less than public hospitals. (cpd.org.au)
  • The draft PC Report, page 83, acknowledges that 'comparing the costs of public and private hospitals has been one of the most challenging parts of this study. (cpd.org.au)
  • It goes on that 'the Commission's experimental cost estimates suggest that, at a national level, public and private hospitals had broadly similar costs per casemix-adjusted separation in 2007/08. (cpd.org.au)
  • In the Financial Review of 17 February, Mark Fitzgibbon, in an opinion piece, was more cautious and said only that the Productivity Commission 'calculated that almost three fifths of surgery in public hospitals had an average cost at least 10% higher than in private hospitals. (cpd.org.au)
  • His figure, drawn from page 102 of the PC Report, makes clear that private hospitals are specialised in certain areas, particularly minor surgery. (cpd.org.au)
  • The ultimate test of whether private hospitals are more efficient overall is why they don't jump at the opportunity to treat public patients in private hospitals on a casemix basis. (cpd.org.au)
  • Years ago Jeff Kennett made an offer to the private hospitals to treat public patients on this basis, but they declined. (cpd.org.au)
  • With 10 more swine flu cases reported in Bangalore in the last 24 hours, the Karnataka government has roped in the services of 11 private hospitals to tackle the spread of the influenza A (H1N1) virus. (hindustantimes.com)
  • The decision to utilise the services of private hospitals was taken at a meeting of health department and private hospital officials late on Friday. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Are the risks greater at a teaching hospital such as UCSF than at a private hospital? (medhelp.org)

patients


  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends routine HIV testing in U.S. hospitals in which HIV infected patients make up at least 1% of the total patient population for that hospital. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Currently, patients with H1N1 flu symptoms are being treated at the Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Chest Diseases, Victoria Hospital and Lakeside Medical Center and Hospital. (hindustantimes.com)

services


  • This study will compare the effectiveness of two different approaches to providing routine HIV counseling, testing, and referral services in an urban hospital emergency department setting. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Students who are referred and granted Home and Hospital Teaching services receive at least six hours per week of instruction, unless otherwise indicated. (hcpss.org)
  • The research uses three indicators of quality suggested by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services to examine factors leading to differentials in quality of hospital care. (repec.org)

quality of care


  • Hospital ownership and cost and quality of care: is there a dime's worth of difference? (repec.org)
  • The effect of financial pressure on the quality of care in hospitals ," Journal of Health Economics , Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 243-269, March. (repec.org)
  • Estimating the quality of care in hospitals using instrumental variables ," Journal of Health Economics , Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 747-767, December. (repec.org)

study


  • Participants in this study will include adults who visit Brigham and Women's Hospital emergency department in Boston, Massachusetts. (clinicaltrials.gov)

However


  • However, routine HIV testing in such hospitals is rarely carried out, which might be because the CDC has not specified who should perform routine HIV testing. (clinicaltrials.gov)

higher


  • Ablation Risks Higher at Teaching Hospital? (medhelp.org)

emergency


  • Nonfatal work-related inhalations: surveillance data from hospital emergency departments, 1995-1996. (cdc.gov)
  • Data from a stratified sample of hospital emergency rooms in the USA were used to describe nonfatal work-related inhalation injuries and illnesses during July 1995 to July 1996. (cdc.gov)
  • For emergency purposes, each hospital will be given 100 tablets of Tamiflu. (hindustantimes.com)
  • We look after it every day at our hospitals, outpatient clinics, radiology and radiotherapy institutes as well as at our outpatient surgery centres and emergency departments. (hirslanden.ch)

Care


  • Registered nurses' perception of work satisfaction at a tertiary care university hospital. (scielo.org.za)

Journal


  • Hospital quality choice and market structure in a regulated duopoly ," Journal of Health Economics , Elsevier, vol. 22(6), pages 1011-1036, November. (repec.org)

community


  • Our program is provided by part-time non-contractual teachers who instruct students on an individual basis in a home school, home, hospital, or community space setting. (hcpss.org)

makes


  • I have complete confidence in Dr. Lesh, but the fact that UCSF is a teaching hospital makes me a bit nervous. (medhelp.org)

Setting


  • Setting: District general hospital serving a population of 550 000. (ebscohost.com)