Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.United StatesRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Patient Discharge: The administrative process of discharging the patient, alive or dead, from hospitals or other health facilities.Patient Readmission: Subsequent admissions of a patient to a hospital or other health care institution for treatment.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Hospital Costs: The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Patient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.Child, Hospitalized: Child hospitalized for short term care.Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Inpatients: Persons admitted to health facilities which provide board and room, for the purpose of observation, care, diagnosis or treatment.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Hospital Charges: The prices a hospital sets for its services. HOSPITAL COSTS (the direct and indirect expenses incurred by the hospital in providing the services) are one factor in the determination of hospital charges. Other factors may include, for example, profits, competition, and the necessity of recouping the costs of uncompensated care.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Hospitals, Psychiatric: Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Rotavirus Infections: Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Insurance, Hospitalization: Health insurance providing benefits to cover or partly cover hospital expenses.DenmarkAcute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Bronchiolitis: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.International Classification of Diseases: A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)New YorkSex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.BrazilCaliforniaAsthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.Utilization Review: An organized procedure carried out through committees to review admissions, duration of stay, professional services furnished, and to evaluate the medical necessity of those services and promote their most efficient use.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.IsraelMyocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Health Services Misuse: Excessive, under or unnecessary utilization of health services by patients or physicians.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Nursing Homes: Facilities which provide nursing supervision and limited medical care to persons who do not require hospitalization.Insurance Claim Review: Review of claims by insurance companies to determine liability and amount of payment for various services. The review may also include determination of eligibility of the claimant or beneficiary or of the provider of the benefit; determination that the benefit is covered or not payable under another policy; or determination that the service was necessary and of reasonable cost and quality.Cost Savings: Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.TennesseeHealth Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Hospitals, Public: Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Skilled Nursing Facilities: Extended care facilities which provide skilled nursing care or rehabilitation services for inpatients on a daily basis.Hospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Poisoning: A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.Home Care Services: Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Direct Service Costs: Costs which are directly identifiable with a particular service.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Outpatients: Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.ItalyCross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Bronchiolitis, Viral: An acute inflammatory disease of the lower RESPIRATORY TRACT, caused by paramyxoviruses, occurring primarily in infants and young children; the viruses most commonly implicated are PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS TYPE 3; RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS, HUMAN; and METAPNEUMOVIRUS.Diagnosis-Related Groups: A system for classifying patient care by relating common characteristics such as diagnosis, treatment, and age to an expected consumption of hospital resources and length of stay. Its purpose is to provide a framework for specifying case mix and to reduce hospital costs and reimbursements and it forms the cornerstone of the prospective payment system.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Veterans: Former members of the armed services.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.WashingtonIntensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Respiratory Tract DiseasesDouble-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Hospitals, Urban: Hospitals located in metropolitan areas.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Hospital Records: Compilations of data on hospital activities and programs; excludes patient medical records.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)SwedenHeart Failure, Systolic: Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial contraction during SYSTOLE leading to defective cardiac emptying.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.MassachusettsAftercare: The care and treatment of a convalescent patient, especially that of a patient after surgery.Homes for the Aged: Geriatric long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Western Australia: A state in western Australia. Its capital is Perth. It was first visited by the Dutch in 1616 but the English took possession in 1791 and permanent colonization began in 1829. It was a penal settlement 1850-1888, became part of the colonial government in 1886, and was granted self government in 1890. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1329)Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Chickenpox: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It usually affects children, is spread by direct contact or respiratory route via droplet nuclei, and is characterized by the appearance on the skin and mucous membranes of successive crops of typical pruritic vesicular lesions that are easily broken and become scabbed. Chickenpox is relatively benign in children, but may be complicated by pneumonia and encephalitis in adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Saskatchewan: A province of Canada, lying between the provinces of Alberta and Manitoba. Its capital is Regina. It is entirely a plains region with prairie in the south and wooded country with many lakes and swamps in the north. The name was taken from the Saskatchewan River from the Cree name Kisiskatchewani Sipi, meaning rapid-flowing river. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1083 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p486)Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.TaiwanManitoba: A province of Canada, lying between the provinces of Saskatchewan and Ontario. Its capital is Winnipeg. Taking its name from Lake Manitoba, itself named for one of its islands, the name derived from Algonquian Manitou, great spirit. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p724 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p332)PennsylvaniaQuality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Communicable DiseasesQuebec: A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)Disease Management: A broad approach to appropriate coordination of the entire disease treatment process that often involves shifting away from more expensive inpatient and acute care to areas such as preventive medicine, patient counseling and education, and outpatient care. This concept includes implications of appropriate versus inappropriate therapy on the overall cost and clinical outcome of a particular disease. (From Hosp Pharm 1995 Jul;30(7):596)Episode of Care: An interval of care by a health care facility or provider for a specific medical problem or condition. It may be continuous or it may consist of a series of intervals marked by one or more brief separations from care, and can also identify the sequence of care (e.g., emergency, inpatient, outpatient), thus serving as one measure of health care provided.Continuity of Patient Care: Health care provided on a continuing basis from the initial contact, following the patient through all phases of medical care.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Empyema: Presence of pus in a hollow organ or body cavity.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Diarrhea, Infantile: DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.RomePatient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.AlaskaDiabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.MaineLinear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Acute Coronary Syndrome: An episode of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA that generally lasts longer than a transient anginal episode that ultimately may lead to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Fee-for-Service Plans: Method of charging whereby a physician or other practitioner bills for each encounter or service rendered. In addition to physicians, other health care professionals are reimbursed via this mechanism. Fee-for-service plans contrast with salary, per capita, and prepayment systems, where the payment does not change with the number of services actually used or if none are used. (From Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Frail Elderly: Older adults or aged individuals who are lacking in general strength and are unusually susceptible to disease or to other infirmity.Patient Transfer: Interfacility or intrahospital transfer of patients. Intrahospital transfer is usually to obtain a specific kind of care and interfacility transfer is usually for economic reasons as well as for the type of care provided.Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.GermanyInjury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)ColoradoUrban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Pneumonia, Pneumococcal: A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Databases as Topic: Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Anti-Asthmatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat asthma.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Miley Cyrus -- Death of Dog Triggered Illness Triggered Hospitalization | TMZ.comMiley Cyrus may have been rushed to the hospital because of a bad reaction to antibiotics, but we're told the reason she was on the meds was because she…
Adults With Diabetes at Greater Risk for Fracture Hospitalization... Adults diagnosed with diabetes are at significantly ... There were a total of 1,078 fracture-related hospitalizations during the 20-year follow-up period. (Only fractures that ... The incidence of fracture hospitalization was higher among those with diagnosed diabetes compared with those without diabetes ... Compared with the 13,340 study participants without diabetes, the incidence of fracture-related hospitalization was ...
Risk Factors for Prolonged Length of Stay or Complications During Pediatric Respiratory Hospitalizations | Research Articles |...For asthma hospitalizations, mean age was 6.52 (SE 0.03) years, with 62% of hospitalizations for boys. Most hospitalizations ... For pediatric asthma hospitalizations, a total of 1595 (1.9%) of hospitalizations indicated a complication: all 1595 (1.9%) ... LRI hospitalizations included those for bronchiolitis (50%), pneumonia (46%), and influenza (4%). For LRI hospitalizations, ... There were 60 429 asthma hospitalizations and 144 569 LRI hospitalizations before survey-weighting. After survey-weights were ...
Trends in Venous Thromboembolism-Related Hospitalizations, 1994-2009 | Articles | PediatricsConsistent with other studies,1,4,7,9,12 the majority of children with a VTE-associated hospitalization between 1994 and 2009 ... Trends in Venous Thromboembolism-Related Hospitalizations, 1994-2009. Sheree L. Boulet, Scott D. Grosse, Courtney D. Thornburg ... Between 1994 and 2009, the rate of DVT-associated hospitalization increased from 4.4 to 9.2 per 100 000, and the rate of PE- ... Trends in Venous Thromboembolism-Related Hospitalizations, 1994-2009 Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
Why are children hospitalized ? The role of non-clinical factors in pediatric hospitalizations. | Base documentaire | BDSP... study examines the relationship between the characteristics of local medical services and the likelihood of hospitalization. ... Why are children hospitalized ? The role of non-clinical factors in pediatric hospitalizations. R f. 87095 Article - En anglais ... Hospitalization, Public health organization, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Human, United States, North America, America ... study examines the relationship between the characteristics of local medical services and the likelihood of hospitalization. ...
WAC 296-20-075: Hospitalization.1) Hospitalization will be paid for proper and necessary medical treatment of the accepted condition(s). The department may ... Reimbursement for hospitalization is limited to proper and necessary care for an accepted condition. Failure to comply with ...
Hospitalization | Define Hospitalization at Dictionary.comHospitalization definition, the act, process, or state of being hospitalized. See more. ... Sam Lutfi may have tricked Amanda Bynes into hospitalization. Sam Lutfi Is Young Hollywood's Most Infamous Svengali Amy ... William Baker was quite sure he had no need of hospitalization, but he let them settle him in a hospital bed anyway. ... hospitalization hos·pi·tal·i·za·tion (hŏs'pĭ-tl-ĭ-zā'shən). n. ...
hospitalization | BlackPressUSAContent tagged with hospitalization.
Bobby Brown on Bobbi Kristina Brown's HospitalizationBobby Brown 'Inconsolable' Over Bobbi Kristina's Hospitalization. By Dana Rose Falcone•@DanaRoseFalcone ...
Skipping Meds Ups HospitalizationThe risk of hospitalization increased by >2-fold in patients with type 2 diabetes who had been nonadherent to their oral ... Patients with type 2 diabetes who take their oral medication only some of the time risk hospitalization. Using data from a ... The investigators noted that hospitalization was a strong possibility even after considering the effect of other illnesses and ... was not significantly connected with an increased risk of hospitalization. (The findings were reported in Diabetes Care, ...
Life After Hospitalization: Helping Kids With Cancer AdjustLearn how to help kids get back into the swing of being at home and going to school.
Elton John Cancels Concerts After Hospitalization - NBC ChicagoElton John Cancels Concerts After Hospitalization. The piano legend had a serious respiratory illness. By Sam Schulz. ...
Kyrgyz President Back Home After Heart Scare, Russian HospitalizationKyrgyz President Almazbek Atambaev has arrived home in Bishkek after more than a week in a Russian hospital, where his office said he received 'treatment' for possible heart problems afte...
Lindner Center of HOPE Adult Partial Hospitalization Program Doubles CapacityLindner Center of HOPE's Adult Partial Hospitalization Program, which opened in May 2012 has just announced that it ... Who benefits from Adult Partial Hospitalization?. The Adult Partial Hospitalization Program (PHP) at Lindner Center of HOPE ... without full hospitalization. Partial hospitalization helps patients progress to the point where standard outpatient ... This program is also used as a step-down program from hospitalization, with the intent of gradually easing an adult back into ...
Tracking Physical Activity of Cancer Patients to Avoid Unplanned Hospitalization... supportive care for patients who are predicted to be at high risk for hospitalization based on activity data, with the ... the study team developed an algorithm that inspects trends in activity levels to predict unplanned hospitalizations related to ...
VIDEO] Richard Simmons Hospitalization Speaks Out To FansRichard Simmons finally broke his silence on April 19 and addressed his fans directly.
Lindsay Lohan arrested; Tori Spelling recuperates after hospitalization - The Washington PostThe arrest involved Lohan's car colliding with a man.
Brandy Norwood "Home Resting" After Hospitalization | InStyle.comThe hospitalization came just one day after Norwood shared an Instagram video of herself smiling and playing tennis. ...
Big Ang Makes Statement Regarding Reports Of Hospitalization - VH1Big Ang Makes Statement To Fans Regarding Reports Of Hospitalization And Health Issues The Mob Wives star clarifies the rumors ...
HIV-Related Hospitalizations Decline - TheBody.comHospitalizations for a primary or secondary HIV diagnosis dropped from 269,248 in 1998 to 240,461 in 2005. ...
Adult Partial Hospitalization/Intensive Outpatient Program | SinaiThe Adult Partial Hospitalization/Intensive Outpatient Program (PHP/IOP) is an acute ambulatory program providing up to five ... Sinai , Medical Services , Sinai Medical Services & Centers of Excellence , Psychiatry , Adult Partial Hospitalization/ ...
Carbondale Area Partial Hospitalization Program in Carbondale, PA - YellowBotCarbondale Area Partial Hospitalization Program at 185 Fallbrook St, Carbondale, PA 18407 ... Carbondale Area Partial Hospitalization Program. Address. 185 Fallbrook St Carbondale PA 18407 Phone. (570) 282-7355 ... What the community has to say about Carbondale Area Partial Hospitalization Program Add Photo or Video User Photos & Videos. Be ... Carbondale Area Partial Hospitalization Program is located at Brooklyn St, Carbondale, PA. This business specializes in Mental ...
Pueblo reports first flu hospitalization of season | FOX31 DenverEach year there are approximately 200,000 hospitalizations for flu-related illnesses.. Symptoms of the flu start suddenly and ... Pueblo reports first flu hospitalization of season. Posted 3:37 pm, December 6, 2012, by Web Staff ...
List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Management of heart failure: Management of heart failure requires a multimodal approach. It involves a combination of lifestyle modifications, medications, and possibly the use of devices or surgery.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Therapy cap: In 1997 the Balanced Budget Act established annual per-beneficiary Medicare spending limits, or therapy cap, for outpatient therapy services covered under Medicare Part B. Medicare Provisions in Balanced Budget Act of 1997.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingHospital-acquired pneumonia: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or nosocomial pneumonia refers to any pneumonia contracted by a patient in a hospital at least 48–72 hours after being admitted. It is thus distinguished from community-acquired pneumonia.Comorbidity: In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. The additional disorder may also be a behavioral or mental disorder.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Influenza A virus subtype H1N1: Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish Flu.Senior Emergency Department: The senior emergency department is a recent hospital innovation to build separate geriatric emergency rooms for older adults akin to pediatric emergency rooms designed for children. The trend comes in response to the nation's rapidly growing population of older adults and overcrowding of emergency departments.Themis MedicareFour Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Two Rivers Psychiatric Hospital: Two Rivers Behavioral Health System is a psychiatric hospital located in Kansas City, Missouri.Viral gastroenteritis: Viral gastroenteritis (Gastro-Enter-eye,tiss),http://www.merriam-webster.Aarhus Faculty of Health Sciences (Aarhus University): The Aarhus Faculty of Health Sciences is a faculty of Aarhus University. The Aarhus Faculty of Health Sciences became a reality after Aarhus University was divided into four new main academic areas which came into effect on 1 January 2011.Pavement life-cycle cost analysis: In September 1998, the United States Department of Transportation (DoT) introduced risk analysis, a probabilistic approach to account for the uncertainty of the inputs of the cost/benefit evaluation of pavement projects, into its decision-making policies. The traditional (deterministic) approach did not consider the variability of inputs.Respiratory syncytial virus G protein: Respiratory syncytial virus G protein is a protein produced by respiratory syncytial virus.Diffuse panbronchiolitisIncremental cost-effectiveness ratio: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is a statistic used in cost-effectiveness analysis to summarise the cost-effectiveness of a health care intervention. It is defined by the difference in cost between two possible interventions, divided by the difference in their effect.Disease registry: Disease or patient registries are collections of secondary data related to patients with a specific diagnosis, condition, or procedure, and they play an important role in post marketing surveillance of pharmaceuticals. Registries are different from indexes in that they contain more extensive data.Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems: The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, usually called by the short-form name International Classification of Diseases (ICD), is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes". The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.Non-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.New York State Department of HealthUniversity of CampinasSan Diego County, California Probation: The San Diego County Probation Department is the body in San Diego County, California responsible for supervising convicted offenders in the community, either who are on probation, such as at the conclusion of their sentences, or while on community supervision orders.Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research: Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), founded in 1988, performs basic research in the field of allergy and asthma with the aim to improve the understanding and treatment of these conditions, which affect around 30-40% of the westernized population. The Institute has its roots in the Tuberculosis Research Institute of Davos, a medical society founded in 1905 to study the beneficial effects of high altitude treatment of tuberculosis.Morbidity and mortality conference: Morbidity and mortality}}Effect of oxygen on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: In some individuals, the effect of oxygen on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is to cause increased carbon dioxide retention, which may cause drowsiness, headaches, and in severe cases lack of respiration, which may lead to death. People with lung ailments or with central respiratory depression, who receive supplemental oxygen, require careful monitoring.Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center: Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center (commonly referred to as Ichilov Hospital) is the main hospital serving Tel Aviv, Israel, and its metropolitan area. It is the third-largest hospital complex in the country.Electrocardiography in myocardial infarctionNational Center for Injury Prevention and Control: The U.S.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Home of the future: The home of the future, similar to the office of the future, is a concept that has been popular to explore since the early 20th century, or perhaps earlier. There have been many exhibits, such as at World's Fairs and theme parks, purporting to show how future homes will look and work, as well as standalone model "homes of the future" sponsored by builders, developers, or technology companies.Precautionary savings: Precautionary saving is saving (non-expenditure of a portion of income) that occurs in response to uncertainty regarding future income. The precautionary motive to delay consumption and save in the current period rises due to the lack of completeness of insurance markets.Lower respiratory tract infection: Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), while often used as a synonym for pneumonia, can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess and acute bronchitis. Symptoms include shortness of breath, weakness, fever, coughing and fatigue.List of lighthouses in Spain: This is a list of lighthouses in Spain.Dialysis adequacy: In nephrology, dialysis adequacy is the measurement of renal dialysis for the purpose of determining dialysis treatment regime and to better understand the pathophysiology of renal dialysis. It is an area of considerable controversy in nephrology.Canadian Organ Replacement Registry: The Canadian Organ Replacement Registry CORR is a health organisation was started by Canadian nephrologists and kidney transplant surgeons in 1985 in order to develop the care of patients with renal failure. In the early 1990s data on liver and heart transplantation were added to the registry.Outline of Tennessee: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Tennessee:Resource leak: In computer science, a resource leak is a particular type of resource consumption by a computer program where the program does not release resources it has acquired. This condition is normally the result of a bug in a program.Cancer survival rates: Cancer survival rates vary by the type of cancer, stage at diagnosis, treatment given and many other factors, including country. In general survival rates are improving, although more so for some cancers than others.Akron Children's Hospital: The Akron Children's Hospital is a children's hospital located in Akron, Ohio.Pathogenesis: The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that lead to the diseased state. The term can also describe the origin and development of the disease, and whether it is acute, chronic, or recurrent.Bacitracin
(1/10524) Delay in presentation of patients with acute stroke to hospital in Oxford.
We identified prospectively all patients (181 patients, 183 episodes) admitted to hospital in Oxford with acute stroke from 1 January to 30 June 1997. Data were inadequate in 30, leaving 153 episodes in 151 patients (63 men, 90 women). Structured interviews were used to investigate the timing of events preceding admission. Most strokes (91%) occurred at home, and 36% of patients were alone. After a median delay of 15 min, 56% called a GP (median 30 min response), 41% an ambulance (median 48 min to admission), and 3% went directly to A&E. Median time from hospital admission to doctor assessment was 69 min. Factors reducing delay were: initially calling an ambulance rather than a GP (p < 0.0001); onset not at home (p < 0.001); symptoms improving between onset and admission (p < 0.002); and altered consciousness (p < 0.002). The stroke was not recognized by 44% of patients, but no significant delay resulted. Overall, 31% were admitted within 3 h of onset, 46% within 6 h. Initial contact with the GP is a major determinant of delay. If acute therapies for stroke become available, GPs should be the primary targets for an educational initiative. (+info)
(2/10524) Late referral of end-stage renal failure.
We studied all new patients accepted for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in one unit from 1/1/96 to 31/12/97 (n = 198), to establish time from nephrology referral to RRT, evidence of renal disease prior to referral and the adequacy of renal management prior to referral. Sixty four (32.3%, late referral group) required RRT within 12 weeks of referral. Fifty-nine (29.8%) had recognizable signs of chronic renal failure > 26 weeks prior to referral. Patients starting RRT soon after referral were hospitalized for significantly longer on starting RRT (RRT within 12 weeks of referral, median hospitalization 25.0 days (n = 64); RRT > 12 weeks after referral, median 9.7 days (n = 126), (p < 0.001)). Observed survival at 1 year was 68.3% overall, with 1-year survival of the late referral and early referral groups being 60.5% and 72.5%, respectively (p = NS). Hypertension was found in 159 patients (80.3%): 46 (28.9%) were started on antihypertensive medication following referral, while a further 28 (17.6%) were started on additional antihypertensives. Of the diabetic population (n = 78), only 26 (33.3%) were on an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) at referral. Many patients are referred late for dialysis despite early signs of renal failure, and the pre-referral management of many of the patients, as evidenced by the treatment of hypertension and use of ACEI in diabetics, is less than optimal. (+info)
(3/10524) Tuberculous meningitis in South African urban adults.
We retrospectively reviewed 56 adults with culture-proven tuberculous meningitis (TBM), investigating clinical signs, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings and outcome. There were 50 patients, aged 18-59 years, 39 with and 11 without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Six were aged 60 years or older. Neurological signs of TBM in 18-59-year-olds were unaffected by HIV serostatus while, compared to those > or = 60 years of age, there were more patients with meningism (86.0% vs. 33.3%; p = 0.011) and fewer with seizures (12.0% vs. 50.0%; p = 0.046). The HIV-infected 18-59-year-olds had significantly more extrameningeal tuberculosis compared to the non-HIV-infected (76.9% vs. 9.1%; p = 0.0001) and 23.1% had 'breakthrough' TBM. CSF analysis revealed 12 patients (21.4%) with acellular fluid (more common in those > or = 60 years of age, p = 0.016), of whom three had completely normal CSF. A neutrophil predominance was found in 22 patients (39.3%). Only three patients (5.4%) had a positive CSF smear for acid-fast bacilli. In-hospital mortality occurred in 39 patients (69.1%), was similar in all study groups, and was not related to neurological stage. The diagnosis of TBM can be masked by lack of meningism in the elderly and by atypical CSF findings. (+info)
(4/10524) Premature morbidity from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.
OBJECTIVE: To determine rates of morbidity due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: I used the California Hospital Discharge Database, which contains information on all discharges from acute care hospitals in California, to identify women with SLE who had been hospitalized for treatment of either acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF), or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) from 1991 to 1994. I compared the proportions of hospitalizations for each cause among women with SLE with those in a group of women without SLE, for 3 age strata (18-44 years, 45-64 years, and > or =65 years). RESULTS: Compared with young women without SLE, young women with SLE were 2.27 times more likely to be hospitalized because of AMI (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.08-3.46), 3.80 times more likely to be hospitalized because of CHF (95% CI 2.41-5.19), and 2.05 times more likely to be hospitalized because of CVA (95% CI 1.17-2.93). Among middle-aged women with SLE, the frequencies of hospitalization for AMI and CVA did not differ from those of the comparison group, but the risk of hospitalization for CHF was higher (odds ratio [OR] 1.39, 95% CI 1.05-1.73). Among elderly women with SLE, the risk of hospitalization for AMI was significantly lower (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.51-0.89), the risk of hospitalization for CHF was higher (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.01-1.49), and the risk of hospitalization for CVA was not significantly different from those in the comparison group. CONCLUSION: Young women with SLE are at substantially increased risk of AMI, CHF, and CVA. The relative odds of these conditions decrease with age among women with SLE. (+info)
(5/10524) Elevated levels of C-reactive protein at discharge in patients with unstable angina predict recurrent instability.
BACKGROUND: In a group of patients admitted for unstable angina, we investigated whether C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels remain elevated at discharge and whether persistent elevation is associated with recurrence of instability. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured plasma levels of CRP, serum amyloid A protein (SAA), fibrinogen, total cholesterol, and Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae antibody titers in 53 patients admitted to our coronary care unit for Braunwald class IIIB unstable angina. Blood samples were taken on admission, at discharge, and after 3 months. Patients were followed for 1 year. At discharge, CRP was elevated (>3 mg/L) in 49% of patients; of these, 42% had elevated levels on admission and at 3 months. Only 15% of patients with discharge levels of CRP <3 mg/L but 69% of those with elevated CRP (P<0.001) were readmitted because of recurrence of instability or new myocardial infarction. New phases of instability occurred in 13% of patients in the lower tertile of CRP (=2.5 mg/L), in 42% of those in the intermediate tertile (2.6 to 8.6 mg/L), and in 67% of those in the upper tertile (>/=8.7 mg/L, P<0.001). The prognostic value of SAA was similar to that of CRP; that of fibrinogen was not significant. Chlamydia pneumoniae but not Helicobacter pylori antibody titers significantly correlated with CRP plasma levels. CONCLUSIONS: In unstable angina, CRP may remain elevated for at >/=3 months after the waning of symptoms and is associated with recurrent instability. Elevation of acute-phase reactants in unstable angina could represent a hallmark of subclinical persistent instability or of susceptibility to recurrent instability and, at least in some patients, could be related to chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. (+info)
(6/10524) Acinetobacter bacteremia in Hong Kong: prospective study and review.
The epidemiological characteristics of 18 patients with acinetobacter bacteremia were analyzed. Patients (mean age, 55.5 years) developed bacteremia after an average of 14.1 days of hospitalization. Fifteen of 16 patients survived bacteremia caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. Cultures of blood from the remaining two patients yielded Acinetobacter lwoffii. Most patients (78%) resided in the general ward, while four patients (22%) were under intensive care. Genotyping by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction analysis and the temporal sequence of isolation were more useful than phenotyping by antimicrobial susceptibility in the determination of the source of bacteremia, and the intravascular catheter was the leading infection source (39% of cases). The possibility of an association of glucose with the pathogenesis of acinetobacter infection was raised. (+info)
(7/10524) Alternate child care, history of hospitalization, and preschool child behavior.
BACKGROUND: With more single mothers entering the workforce due to welfare reform efforts, more hospitalized children from single-parent families will have experienced alternate child care arrangements where routine care is provided by adults other than the child's mother. OBJECTIVES: To investigate with secondary analysis of data whether experience with alternate child care has a moderating effect on the relationship between hospitalization and behavior of preschool children living in female-headed single-parent families. METHOD: A sample of 60 preterm and 61 full-term children who were 3, 4, or 5 years old was recruited for the larger longitudinal study. Behavior problems were measured with the Child Behavior Checklist. History of hospitalization and alternate child care arrangements were measured with the Life History Calendar. RESULTS: Preschool children who experienced hospitalization without alternate child care experience had more somatic complaints, but those with both hospital and alternate child care experience had fewer aggressive behaviors than other children. For children with a history of hospitalization, aggressive behaviors decreased as the proportion of the child's life in alternate child care increased. CONCLUSIONS: Experience with alternate child care may ameliorate some of the negative effects of hospitalization, and potentially other novel and negative experiences, for preschool children. This could be due to child care providing positive experiences with separation from the mother, a peer group with which to talk about the novel experience, or actual instruction about the novel experience. (+info)
(8/10524) Can restrictions on reimbursement for anti-ulcer drugs decrease Medicaid pharmacy costs without increasing hospitalizations?
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of a policy restricting reimbursement for Medicaid anti-ulcer drugs on anti-ulcer drug use and peptic-related hospitalizations. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: In addition to U.S. Census Bureau data, all of the following from Florida: Medicaid anti-ulcer drug claims data, 1989-1993; Medicaid eligibility data, 1989-1993; and acute care nonfederal hospital discharge abstract data (Medicaid and non-Medicaid), 1989-1993. STUDY DESIGN: In this observational study, a Poisson multiple regression model was used to compare changes, after policy implementation, in Medicaid reimbursement for prescription anti-ulcer drugs as well as hospitalization rates between pre- and post-implementation periods in Medicaid versus non-Medicaid patients hospitalized with peptic ulcer disease. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Following policy implementation, the rate of Medicaid reimbursement for anti-ulcer drugs decreased 33 percent (p < .001). No associated increase occurred in the rate of Medicaid peptic-related hospitalizations. CONCLUSIONS: Florida's policy restricting Medicaid reimbursement for anti-ulcer drugs was associated with a substantial reduction in outpatient anti-ulcer drug utilization without any significant increase in the rate of hospitalization for peptic-related conditions. (+info)
- In AF patients and sinus rhythm (SR) patients who achieved a resting heart rate ≤ 80 b.p.m., there were beneficial treatment effects on cardiovascular mortality/cardiovascular hospitalization [hazard ratio (HR) 0.61, P = 0.025, and 0.79, P = 0. (biomedsearch.com)
- β(1)389-Arg/Arg AF patients had nominally significant reductions in all-cause mortality/HF hospitalization and cardiovascular mortality/hospitalization with bucindolol (HR 0.23, P = 0.037 and 0.28, P = 0.039), whereas Gly carriers did not. (biomedsearch.com)
- METHODS AND RESULTS: A post-hoc analysis of patients in BEST with and without AF was performed to estimate the effect of bucindolol on mortality and hospitalization. (biomedsearch.com)
- Approximately 30 to 40 percent of patients with heart failure are readmitted within six months of hospitalization. (aafp.org)