Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History of MedicineHistory, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.HistoryHistory, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Natural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.History of NursingReproductive History: An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.United StatesOdds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.JapanFatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Child Abuse, Sexual: Sexual maltreatment of the child or minor.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Historiography: The writing of history; the principles, theory, and history of historical writing; the product of historical writing. (Webster, 3d ed)China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.EuropeHypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).ItalyDiabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).IranBiopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Abortion, Habitual: Three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.History of DentistryBody Size: The physical measurements of a body.Genetic Counseling: An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.CaliforniaCardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.BrazilLife Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Famous PersonsAfricaDepressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.IndiaInterviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Suicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Genes, BRCA1: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).MuseumsEthnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.North AmericaBase Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sex Offenses: Any violation of established legal or moral codes in respect to sexual behavior.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Germ-Line Mutation: Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Great BritainSwedenStatistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.TurkeySexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.EnglandSurvival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Adult Survivors of Child Abuse: Persons who were child victims of violence and abuse including physical, sexual, or emotional maltreatment.Iowa

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  https://www.valorebooks.com/textbooks/the-worlds-greatest-books-volume-xi-ancient-and-medieval-history/9780554209401
*  Black Death the Plague Essay - 610 Words
The Black Death What was it? The black death was a medieval pandemic that swept through Europe from China and was deadly and ... Important Facts about the Black Death * Interesting information and important facts and history of the disease: * Key Dates ... In Medieval England alone, 1.5 million people out of four million people died between 1347A.D. and 1350 A.D. The Black Death ... The first is from medieval writers who believe that it began in China because they considered China to be a land of magical ...
  http://www.studymode.com/essays/Black-Death-The-Plague-5395.html
*  Modern plague has origins in Black Death, scientists say
deadliest virus in history =/= bubonic plague. You probably don't remember smallpox, which would wipe out 90% of victims in ... Rats and rat fleas, like in medieval times, seem to spread it, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. And ... They are both caused by variations of the bacteria strain Yersinia pestis but the kind they discovered in the medieval remains ... What a great idea...lets reconstruct the deadliest virus in history that at one point killed over half of the world's ...
  http://thechart.blogs.cnn.com/2011/10/12/modern-plague-has-origins-in-black-death-scientists-say/
*  Download Ancient Classical Criticism History Medieval Theater, clas...
Ancient Classical Criticism History Medieval Theater: 8 assigned downloads, like The Theater of Plautus: Playing to the ... history • literary criticism • medieval • michael d. bristol • modern • performing arts • rome • theater • thomas g. rosenmeyer ...
  https://www.tradebit.com/tagworld.php/ancient+classical+criticism+history+medieval+theater
*  Download General History Medieval Classical Ancient Juvenal, mediev...
General History Medieval Classical Ancient Juvenal: 1 assigned downloads, like Classics in Translation, Volume II: Latin ... Similar tags: ancient • classical • general • literary collections • medieval Top tags: sound effects • games shop • service ... Here, translated into modern English, are the works of literature, history, science, oratory, and philosophy that constitute ...
  https://www.tradebit.com/tagworld.php/general+history+medieval+classical+ancient+juvenal
*  Download Art History Medieval Religious Subjects Themes, themes, ea...
Art History Medieval Religious Subjects Themes: 2 assigned downloads, like William Blakes Divine Comedy Illustrations: 102 Full ... Similar tags: art • eastern europe • general • historymedieval • religious • subjects • themes • william blake Top tags: ... Medieval East Central Europe in a Comparative Perspective draws together the new perspectives concerning the relevance of East ... Medieval East Central Europe In A Comparative Perspective: From Frontier Zones To Lands In Focus. ...
  https://www.tradebit.com/tagworld.php/art+history+medieval+religious+subjects+themes
*  Writing Medieval History - Google Books
... are applied to the study of medieval history in practice, challenging our most fundamental assumptions about the meaning of ... Within each section are essays on subjects such as the social self, use of psychoanalysis, and sex and gender in medieval life ... This book surveys non-traditional subjects and approaches that have become part of the mainstream discipline of medieval ... History.html?id=uhNiQgAACAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareWriting Medieval History. ...
  https://books.google.co.uk/books/about/Writing_medieval_history.html?id=uhNiQgAACAAJ&hl=en
*  Medieval History Magazine - Wikipedia
Medieval History Magazine was a magazine dedicated to the medieval era, with a readership encompassing historians, re-enactors ... medieval sources of place-names Issue 3: November 2003 Anglo-Saxon medicine; Medieval hospitals; Women in medicine; Battle of ... Medieval shipping; Preaux family, Channel Islands Issue 9: May 2004 Ripon Cathedral; The decline of the medieval Castle; The ... Self-defense in Medieval Europe: primary sources; Medieval Stained glass in Australia; Archeology and anthropology of the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medieval_History_Magazine
*  Medieval History Database - Wikipedia
... www.medieval-history.org/ accessed 4 March 2013. Home page for the Medieval History Database.. ... The Medieval History Database (MHDB) is an online project with the goal of creating 3D virtual models of "cathedrals, towns, ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medieval_History_Database
*  The Medieval History Journal - Wikipedia
The Medieval History Journal is a peer reviewed academic journal that aims to encompass the medieval world in scope. The ... The journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). The Medieval History Journal is abstracted and indexed ... India in association with the Medieval History Society and provides a space for comparative and transcultural conversations. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Medieval_History_Journal
*  Journal of Medieval History - Wikipedia
The Journal of Medieval History is a major international academic journal devoted to all aspects of the history of Europe in ... "Journal of Medieval History Editorial Board". Elsevier. Archived from the original on 18 February 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2013 ... Each issue contains 4 or 5 original articles on European history, including the British Isles, North Africa, and the Middle ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Journal_of_Medieval_History
*  The Cambridge Medieval History - Wikipedia
The Cambridge Medieval History is a history of medieval Europe in eight volumes published by Cambridge University Press and ... The New Cambridge Medieval History (1995-1999) "General Preface" in The Cambridge Medieval History Volume I The Christian Roman ... The history aimed to encompass the whole of European medieval history so that the editors were obliged to use a wide range of ... The Cambridge Medieval History, Volume IV, The Byzantine Empire, Part I, Byzantium and its Neighbours, Part II, Government, ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Cambridge_Medieval_History
*  Edwards Professor of Medieval History - Wikipedia
The Edwards Professor of Medieval History is a professorship at the University of Glasgow, in Scotland. Founded in 1955 as the ... List of Professorships at the University of Glasgow Professor of Modern History, Glasgow Professor of Scottish History and ... Chair of Medieval History the name was changed in 1989 to commemorate the Glasgow scholar and antiquarian John Edwards (1846- ... Literature, Glasgow Who, What and Where: The History and Constitution of the University of Glasgow. Compiled by Michael Moss, ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwards_Professor_of_Medieval_History
*  Professor of Medieval History (Cambridge) - Wikipedia
The Professorship of Medieval History is a professorship in medieval history at the University of Cambridge. It was founded on ... The professorship is assigned to the Faculty of History. The following have held the chair: 1937-1942: Charles William Previté- ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Professor_of_Medieval_History_(Cambridge)
*  New Studies in Medieval History - Wikipedia
New Studies in Medieval History was a series of undergraduate level books on medieval history published by Macmillan between ... Reviewed Work: Early Medieval Spain: Unity in Diversity, 400-1000, (New Studies in Medieval History series) by R. Collins. ... French and Italian history notably featured in the list of volumes with Chris Wickham's Early Mediaeval Italy (1981), Edward ... Review by: P. Fouracre, Teaching History, No. 44 (February 1986), p. 48. "Reviewed Work: Medieval Thought. The Western ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Studies_in_Medieval_History
*  The New Cambridge Medieval History - Wikipedia
The New Cambridge Medieval History is a history of Europe from 500 to 1500 AD published by Cambridge University Press in seven ... The New Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 27 November 2016. "Preface" by Paul Fouracre in The ... It replaced The Cambridge Medieval History in eight volumes published between 1911 and 1936. The first volume was the last to ... "Preface" by Rosamond McKitterick in The New Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1995. p. xvii.. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_New_Cambridge_Medieval_History
*  Mediaeval History MLitt | University of St Andrews
Mediaeval History (MLitt) 2018 entry. The MLitt in Mediaeval History allows students to study a variety of topics in depth from ... Special Topic in Mediaeval History: a detailed study of a mediaeval topic of the student's own choice which will include ... The School of History hosts the Mediaeval History Postgraduate Seminar Series which is intended to provide a space for ... The MLitt in Mediaeval History is a taught postgraduate programme run by the School of History. ...
  https://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/subjects/history/mediaeval-history-mlitt/
*  Medieval History - Beautiful Feet Books
From award winning authors you will find all the required and supplemental books we carry on the history of the Medieval World ... Here you will find all the books Beautiful Feet Books carries on Medieval History. ... Ancient Medieval Early American Early American & World Modern American and World Modern US & World Gov & Econ Science Music ... A Brief History of Beautiful Feet Books Get Started! Awards What Our Customers Have to Say Articles Made in USA ...
  http://bfbooks.com/Books/Medieval-History
*  History of Medieval Cumbria - Wikipedia
The history of medieval Cumbria has several points of interest. The region's status as a borderland coping with 400 years of ... London]: History Today. 43: 41-48. Reid, R. R. (1917). "The Office of Warden of the March : its origin and early history". ... A regional history of England. London:New York: Longman. pp. xix, 460. ISBN 058249334X. Mitchison, Rosalind (1982). A history ... Mullett, Michael A. (2017). A New history of Penrith : book I : from pre-history to the close of the Middle Ages. Carlisle: ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Medieval_Cumbria
*  History of medieval Tunisia - Wikipedia
See subsection on Ibn Khaldun, in Hafsid dynasty section of History of medieval Tunisia. Laroui, The History of the Maghrib ( ... A History of Islamic Law (Oxford Univ. 2004) at 197-198. E.g., Laroui, History of the Maghrib at 221. Julien, A History of ... A History of Medieval Spain (Cornell Univ. 1975) at 234, 245-249. Abun-Nasr, A History of the Maghrib (1971) at 109, 111. The ... In their medieval Islamic history the Berbers may be divided into three major tribal groups: the Zanata, the Sanhaja, and the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_medieval_Tunisia
*  Political history of medieval Karnataka - Wikipedia
History of India History of Bihar History of Bengal History of Tamil Nadu Timeline of Karnataka Ramesh (1984), pp1-3 From the ... The political history of medieval Karnataka spans the 4th to the 16th centuries, when the empires that evolved in the Karnataka ... Chopra, P.N.; Ravindran, T.K.; Subrahmanian, N (2003) [2003]. History of South India (Ancient, Medieval and Modern) Part 1,2,3 ... ISBN 0-8021-3797-0. Moraes, George M. (1990) [1931]. The Kadamba Kula, A History of Ancient and Medieval Karnataka. New Delhi, ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_history_of_medieval_Karnataka
*  Medieval
History Extra is owned and published by Immediate Media Company Limited. BBC History Magazine and BBC World Histories Magazine ... BBC History Magazine. Britain's best-selling history magazine helps you bring Britain's and the world's rich past to life. ... BBC World Histories Magazine. A new magazine looking at how world history has shaped our modern times ... Kings and queens Weird and wonderful Sex and love Social history Women's history View all Topics ...
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The Flash ChroniclesNewington Green Unitarian ChurchBeaumont Leys: Beaumont Leys is a suburb and electoral ward in north-western Leicester, England. Locally, Beaumont Leys is usually used in reference to the large housing estate, built within the administrative division, centred on Strasbourg Drive.Discoverer 23Enlightenment Intensive: An Enlightenment Intensive is a group retreat designed to enable a spiritual enlightenment experience within a relatively short time. Devised by Americans Charles (1929–2007) and Ava Berner in the 1960s,http://www.Timeline of historic inventionsList of asbestos disease medical articles: Thousands of scientific and medical articles have chronicled human understanding of the hazards of asbestos to human life.Environmental Working Group, List of References regarding asbestos hazards This understanding paralleled the growth of the industrial revolution, particularly in the textile factories and mines of Great Britain.Parchment repair: The repair and mending of parchment has taken place for thousands of years. Methods from the earliest hand stitching of tears to today's use of modern equipment to mend and fill parchment show the importance that has been placed on its preservation and conservation.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Ippolito de' MediciGreenpoint Renaissance Enterprise Corporation: The Greenpoint Renaissance Enterprise Corporation (GREC) is a consortium of neighborhood organizations in North Brooklyn that serves to facilitate and advocate the activities for city initiatives, as well as coordinate community involvement in the neighborhood of the former Greenpoint Hospital Complex.Lang, Frank.St. Herman's Blue Hole National Park: St. Herman's Blue Hole National Park is a national park located just off the Hummingbird Highway in Cayo District of Belize, near Belmopan, the capital city.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Professionalization and institutionalization of history: Professionalization and institutionalization of history is term used in historiography to describe process of professionalization of the historical discipline with historians becoming professionals through process of special education, and genesis of historical institutions they founded.Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingIncidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Genetic variation: right|thumbList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Panmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Phylogeography: Phylogeography is the study of the historical processes that may be responsible for the contemporary geographic distributions of individuals. This is accomplished by considering the geographic distribution of individuals in light of the patterns associated with a gene genealogy.Pedigree chart: A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next,pedigree chart Genealogy Glossary - About.com, a part of The New York Times Company.Dense artery sign: In medicine, the dense artery sign or hyperdense artery sign is a radiologic sign seen on computer tomography (CT) scans suggestive of early ischemic stroke. In earlier studies of medical imaging in patients with strokes, it was the earliest sign of ischemic stroke in a significant minority of cases.Full-body CT scan: A full-body scan is a scan of the patient's entire body as part of the diagnosis or treatment of illnesses. If computed tomography (CAT) scan technology is used, it is known as a full-body CT scan, though many medical imaging technologies can perform full-body scans.Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossil: Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossils (LOEMs) are microscopic acritarchs, usually over 100 μm in diameter, which are common in sediments of the Ediacaran period, . They largely disappear from the Ediacaran fossil record before , roughly coeval with the origin of the Ediacara biota.Cancer screeningDNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Comorbidity: In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. The additional disorder may also be a behavioral or mental disorder.Breast cancer classification: Breast cancer classification divides breast cancer into categories according to different schemes, each based on different criteria and serving a different purpose. The major categories are the histopathological type, the grade of the tumor, the stage of the tumor, and the expression of proteins and genes.HyperintensityLoader (computing): In computing, a loader is the part of an operating system that is responsible for loading programs and libraries. It is one of the essential stages in the process of starting a program, as it places programs into memory and prepares them for execution.Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA)Niigata UniversityGross examinationSurvivors Healing Center: The Survivors Healing Center is a not-for-profit located in Santa Cruz County, California. Founded in 1987, its mission is to provide services for survivors of childhood sexual abuse and educate the public and service agencies about the issue.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Research Society on Alcoholism: The Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) is a learned society of over 1600 active members based in Austin, Texas. Its objective is to advance research on alcoholism and the physiological and cognitive effects of alcohol.Tumor progression: Tumor progression is the third and last phase in tumor development. This phase is characterised by increased growth speed and invasiveness of the tumor cells.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.The Iraq War: A Historiography of Wikipedia Changelogs: The Iraq War: A Historiography of Wikipedia Changelogs is a 12-volume set of printed books that shows every change made to the English Wikipedia article on the Iraq War from December 2004 to November 2009 and represents 12,000 changes in 7,000 printed pages. The books are an artistic visualization of the changes made to a particular article at Wikipedia.Layout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).Hyperparameter: In Bayesian statistics, a hyperparameter is a parameter of a prior distribution; the term is used to distinguish them from parameters of the model for the underlying system under analysis.Decoding methods: In coding theory, decoding is the process of translating received messages into codewords of a given code. There have been many common methods of mapping messages to codewords.Occupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.Substance-related disorderNon-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.Coles PhillipsEcosystemReproductive toxicity: Reproductive toxicity is a hazard associated with some chemical substances, that they will interfere in some way with normal reproduction; such substances are called reprotoxic. 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Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Gene polymorphism

(1/361) Early medieval cattle remains from a Scandinavian settlement in Dublin: genetic analysis and comparison with extant breeds.

A panel of cattle bones excavated from the 1000-year-old Viking Fishamble Street site in Dublin was assessed for the presence of surviving mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Eleven of these bones gave amplifiable mtDNA and a portion of the hypervariable control region was determined for each specimen. A comparative analysis was performed with control region sequences from five extant Nordic and Irish cattle breeds. The medieval population displayed similar levels of mtDNA diversity to modern European breeds. However, a number of novel mtDNA haplotypes were also detected in these bone samples. In addition, the presence of a putative ancestral sequence at high frequency in the medieval population supports an early post-domestication expansion of cattle in Europe.  (+info)

(2/361) How microbial ancient DNA, found in association with human remains, can be interpreted.

The analysis of the DNA of ancient micro-organisms in archaeological and palaeontological human remains can contribute to the understanding of issues as different as the spreading of a new disease, a mummification process or the effect of diets on historical human populations. The quest for this type of DNA, however, can represent a particularly demanding task. This is mainly due to the abundance and diffusion of bacteria, fungi, yeasts, algae and protozoans in the most diverse environments of the present-day biosphere and the resulting difficulty in distinguishing between ancient and modern DNA. Nevertheless, at least under some special circumstances, by using rigorous protocols, which include an archaeometric survey of the specimens and evaluation of the palaeoecological consistency of the results of DNA sequence analysis, glimpses of the composition of the original microbial flora (e.g. colonic flora) can be caught in ancient human remains. Potentials and pitfalls of this research field are illustrated by the results of research works performed on prehistoric, pre-Columbian and Renaissance human mummies.  (+info)

(3/361) Analysis of ancient DNA from a prehistoric Amerindian cemetery.

The Norris Farms No. 36 cemetery in central Illinois has been the subject of considerable archaeological and genetic research. Both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA have been examined in this 700-year-old population. DNA preservation at the site was good, with about 70% of the samples producing mtDNA results and approximately 15% yielding nuclear DNA data. All four of the major Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups were found, in addition to a fifth haplogroup. Sequences of the first hypervariable region of the mtDNA control region revealed a high level of diversity in the Norris Farms population and confirmed that the fifth haplogroup associates with Mongolian sequences and hence is probably authentic. Other than a possible reduction in the number of rare mtDNA lineages in many populations, it does not appear as if European contact significantly altered patterns of Amerindian mtDNA variation, despite the large decrease in population size that occurred. For nuclear DNA analysis, a novel method for DNA-based sex identification that uses nucleotide differences between the X and Y copies of the amelogenin gene was developed and applied successfully in approximately 20 individuals. Despite the well-known problems of poor DNA preservation and the ever-present possibility of contamination with modern DNA, genetic analysis of the Norris Farms No. 36 population demonstrates that ancient DNA can be a fruitful source of new insights into prehistoric populations.  (+info)

(4/361) Genotypic analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from medieval human remains.

Three medieval bone samples with osteological evidence of tuberculosis infection were analysed for the presence of DNA sequences from Mycobacterium tuberculosis using a series of PCRs. In each case amplification of IS6110 and part of the beta-subunit of RNA polymerase identified infection with a bacterium belonging to the M. tuberculosis complex. Amplification of the mtp40 genome fragment and the presence of a guanine residue at position 285 in the oxyR pseudogene, demonstrated the infecting strain to be similar to present day M. tuberculosis isolates rather than to Mycobacterium bovis. Spoligotyping, based on amplification of the direct repeat (DR) region of the mycobacterial genome, provided further evidence of similarity to M. tuberculosis and indicated a close relationship between isolates associated with two separate medieval burials. The study demonstrates the feasibility of amplifying multiple M. tuberculosis loci in ancient human remains and suggests important applications in the study of the palaeoepidemiology and virulence of tuberculosis in past populations.  (+info)

(5/361) Abandonment of terminally ill patients in the Byzantine era. An ancient tradition?

Our research on the texts of the Byzantine historians and chroniclers revealed an apparently curious phenomenon, namely, the abandonment of terminally ill emperors by their physicians when the latter realised that they could not offer any further treatment. This attitude tallies with the mentality of the ancient Greek physicians, who even in Hippocratic times thought the treatment and care of the terminally ill to be a challenge to nature and hubris to the gods. Nevertheless, it is a very curious attitude in the light of the concepts of the Christian Byzantine physicians who, according to the doctrines of the Christian religion, should have been imbued with the spirit of philanthropy and love for their fellowmen. The meticulous analysis of three examples of abandonment of Byzantine emperors, and especially that of Alexius I Comnenus, by their physicians reveals that this custom, following ancient pagan ethics, in those times took on a ritualised form without any significant or real content.  (+info)

(6/361) Graffiti - visual memory of Croatian history.

Throughout the Middle Ages a unique Croatian Glagolitic script co-existed with Latin and western Cyrillic scripts, thus creating an open, large, and tolerant cultural environment. Many works common to European cultural heritage were translated into Croatian (Church Slavonic) language and preserved in the Glagolitic script. Among the oldest preserved Glagolitic monuments carved in stone are the so-called tables from Baska on the island Krk and Valun (11th-12th century) containing not only many names and church dedications but also valuable historical data. For centuries this script also provided a vehicle of transferring and preserving medical knowledge.  (+info)

(7/361) Age estimate of the N370S mutation causing Gaucher disease in Ashkenazi Jews and European populations: A reappraisal of haplotype data.

The N370S mutation at the GBA locus on human chromosome 1q21, which causes Gaucher disease (GD), has a high frequency in the Ashkenazim and is the second-most-widespread GD mutation in the European non-Jewish population. A common ancient origin for the N370S mutation in the Ashkenazi Jewish and Spanish populations has been proposed on the basis of both a similar haplotype for associated markers and an age estimate that suggests that this mutation appeared several thousand years ago. However, a reappraisal of haplotype data, using the Risch formula properly along with a Luria-Delbruck setting of the genetic clock, allows identification of the likely origin of the N370S mutation in Ashkenazi Jews between the 11th and 13th centuries. This result is consistent with the estimated ages of other mutations that are frequent among Ashkenazim, with the exception of type II (Glu117Stop) factor XI deficiency, which is deemed to be >3000 years old, predating the separation of the Ashkenazi and Iraqi Jews. The present finding supports the hypothesis of a more recent origin for the N370S mutation and is consistent with both a founder chromosome transfer from Ashkenazim who assimilated in some European populations and a non-Jewish origin of the European N370S-bearing chromosomes.  (+info)

(8/361) Ophthalmology's future in the next decade: a historical and comparative perspective.

PURPOSE: To gain a historical and comparative perspective about the future of ophthalmology within the profession of medicine. METHODS: A literature search is made of disciplines other than medicine (history, sociology, philosophy, economics, and ethics) in order to assess factors responsible for survival and healthiness of a profession. The "learned" professions (medicine, law, and theology) are assessed. Other "professional" careers valued by society (sports and classical music) are reviewed. RESULTS: From the perspective of other disciplines, the future of ophthalmology is seen as vulnerable and fragile. Survival of professions, be they classically or economically defined, is linked to societal needs, a profession's unique commitment and ability to provide services to society, and the profession's maintenance of knowledge as well as skill-based services. Historical evidence has shown erosion of a profession's power consequent to capitalist influences, government influences, access of skills by less trained individuals, and elitist posturing by a profession. Comparative evidence has shown societal acceptance of an escalation of salaries for designated superstars, increasing roles and influence of managerial personnel, and trivialization of values other than economic ones. CONCLUSION: Attention to historical and comparative trends by individual ophthalmologists as well as associations representing ophthalmologists is mandatory if ophthalmology as we know it is to survive within the profession of medicine.  (+info)



  • Europe
  • Medieval East Central Europe in a Comparative Perspective draws together the new perspectives concerning the relevance of East Central Europe. (tradebit.com)
  • As well as a fitting tribute to remarkable scholar, the essays in this collection constitute a major body of research which will be of long-term value to anyone with an interest in the history of early medieval Europe. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • Islamic
  • Perhaps because Tunisians have long been Sunnis themselves, they may currently evidence faint pride in the Fatimid Caliphate's rôle in Islamic history. (wikipedia.org)
  • historians
  • This scenario is doubted by historians who are given to think that the Welsh genealogical tracts which mention Coel were later, 9th century, attempts to bolster British history against the encroaching English. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it was presented to the world in 1965 with an accompanying scholarly book written by British Museum and Yale University librarians, historians of geography and medieval document specialists began to suspect that it might be a fake as soon as photographs of it became available, and chemical analyses have identified one of the major ink ingredients as a 20th-century artificial pigment. (wikipedia.org)
  • University
  • University of St Andrews School of History. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2009, some members of the Studies Group of Medieval Chinese History at National Taiwan University (NTU), Li-hsin Chao National Chi Nan University as the promoter of this group, starting to emerge a new academic community. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr Martin Allen is Senior Assistant Keeper in the Department of Coins and Medals at the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, and an Affiliated Lecturer in the History Faculty of the University of Cambridge. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • Chair
  • Founded in 1955 as the Chair of Medieval History the name was changed in 1989 to commemorate the Glasgow scholar and antiquarian John Edwards (1846-1937). (wikipedia.org)
  • world
  • BBC History Magazine and BBC World Histories Magazine are published by Immediate Media Company Limited under licence from BBC Worldwide, which helps fund new BBC programmes. (historyextra.com)
  • He is also General Editor of the Blackwell History of the World series. (wiley.com)
  • study
  • This text clearly articulates key concepts, defines critical vocabulary and demonstrates how postmodern theories, which have influenced all areas of the humanistic disciplines in recent years, are applied to the study of medieval history in practice, challenging our most fundamental assumptions about the meaning of historical evidence and our ability to read and interpret it. (google.co.uk)
  • This memorial volume of essays commemorates Mark Blackburn's considerable achievement and impact on the field, builds on his research and evaluates a vibrant period in the study of early medieval monetary history. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • On July 5, 1912, Building News stated: "While the ordinary reader will scan the book with pleasurable interest, the architectural student of Mediaeval architecture who believes - some still believe it, we suppose even in these days - that structural integrity was the raison d'être of Gothic art, will follow Mr Power's intelligent exposition with profit, and find stimulation to further study. (wikipedia.org)
  • Editor
  • He is the Editor of the British Numismatic Journal, and his publications include Mints and Money in Medieval England (2012). (whsmith.co.uk)
  • She is also General Editor of the Medieval European Coinage Project (a British Academy Research Project). (whsmith.co.uk)
  • book
  • The Vinland map first came to light in 1957 (three years before the discovery of the Norse site at L'Anse aux Meadows in 1960), bound in a slim volume with a short medieval text called the Hystoria Tartarorum (usually called in English The Tartar Relation), and was unsuccessfully offered to the British Museum by London book dealer Irving Davis on behalf of a Spanish-Italian dealer named Enzo Ferrajoli de Ry. (wikipedia.org)
  • European
  • This course discusses aspects of European history between the late Roman era and the eighteenth century. (umich.edu)
  • East
  • Hence the rise in medieval Tunisia (Ifriqiya) of regimes not beholden to the east (al-Mashriq), which marks a new and a popular era of Berber sovereignty. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prof. Perkins mentions the preceding history of rule from the east (al-Mashriq), and comments that following the Fatimids departure there arose in Tunisia an intent to establish a "Muslim state geared to the interests of its Berber majority. (wikipedia.org)
  • Personal
  • The Medieval History Database (MHDB) is an online project with the goal of creating 3D virtual models of "cathedrals, towns, chateaux, and other locations", which users can move through in real-time on their personal computers. (wikipedia.org)