History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Animal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.National Academy of Sciences (U.S.): A United States organization of distinguished scientists and engineers established for the purpose of investigating and reporting upon any subject of art or science as requested by any department of government. The National Research Council organized by NAS serves as the principal operating agency to stimulate and support research.United StatesHistory, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Southwestern United States: The geographic area of the southwestern region of the United States. The states usually included in this region are Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Physiology, Comparative: The biological science concerned with similarities or differences in the life-supporting functions and processes of different species.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Sociology, Medical: The study of the social determinants and social effects of health and disease, and of the social structure of medical institutions or professions.Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of data through the application of computers.History of MedicineSchools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.Computer Peripherals: Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.HistoryEducation, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Clinical Clerkship: Undergraduate education programs for second- , third- , and fourth-year students in health sciences in which the students receive clinical training and experience in teaching hospitals or affiliated health centers.EuropeRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Communicable DiseasesEcosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Famous PersonsPandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Medicine in ArtInternationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.High-Throughput Screening Assays: Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Great BritainDelivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.History of NursingNeoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.PaintingsWalesModels, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.EnglandEmbryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Nobel PrizeTreatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Civilization: The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Encephalitis, St. Louis: A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)Mummies: Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.History of DentistryNatural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Books, Illustrated: Books containing photographs, prints, drawings, portraits, plates, diagrams, facsimiles, maps, tables, or other representations or systematic arrangement of data designed to elucidate or decorate its contents. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p114)Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Paleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Eugenics: The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.MuseumsCohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Manuscripts, MedicalColonialism: The aggregate of various economic, political, and social policies by which an imperial power maintains or extends its control over other areas or peoples. It includes the practice of or belief in acquiring and retaining colonies. The emphasis is less on its identity as an ideological political system than on its designation in a period of history. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Plague: An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Burial: The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.Sialyltransferases: A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.Historiography: The writing of history; the principles, theory, and history of historical writing; the product of historical writing. (Webster, 3d ed)Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Reproductive History: An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Leper Colonies: Residential treatment centers for individuals with leprosy.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.ItalyEcology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Philosophy, MedicalDNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.History, Modern 1601-: The period of history from 1601 of the common era to the present.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Hypericum: Genus of perennial plants in the family CLUSIACEAE (sometimes classified as Hypericaceae). Herbal and homeopathic preparations are used for depression, neuralgias, and a variety of other conditions. Hypericum contains flavonoids; GLYCOSIDES; mucilage, TANNINS; volatile oils (OILS, ESSENTIAL), hypericin and hyperforin.Manuscripts as Topic: Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Mythology: A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Psychoanalysis: The separation or resolution of the psyche into its constituent elements. The term has two separate meanings: 1. a procedure devised by Sigmund Freud, for investigating mental processes by means of free association, dream interpretation and interpretation of resistance and transference manifestations; and 2. a theory of psychology developed by Freud from his clinical experience with hysterical patients. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996).Catholicism: The Christian faith, practice, or system of the Catholic Church, specifically the Roman Catholic, the Christian church that is characterized by a hierarchic structure of bishops and priests in which doctrinal and disciplinary authority are dependent upon apostolic succession, with the pope as head of the episcopal college. (From Webster, 3d ed; American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.South AmericaBooksPaleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.GermanySpecies Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.SculptureNorth AmericaPedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.AfricaTropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Scurvy: An acquired blood vessel disorder caused by severe deficiency of vitamin C (ASCORBIC ACID) in the diet leading to defective collagen formation in small blood vessels. Scurvy is characterized by bleeding in any tissue, weakness, ANEMIA, spongy gums, and a brawny induration of the muscles of the calves and legs.Genetics: The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Mortuary Practice: Activities associated with the disposition of the dead. It excludes cultural practices such as funeral rites.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Awards and PrizesArtDevelopmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.

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Like many great challenges of the 21st century, the science identifying the problems with sugar seems clear. What's lacking is ... But in the 21st century, the grip of sugar is stronger than comparable scourges like tobacco, or even alcohol. Sugar is not ... Like many great challenges of the 21st century, such as climate change, the science identifying the problem seems clear. ... Black history is the black book of capitalism. Shipping on the Clyde, 1881, by John Atkinson Grimshaw. Host City Glasgow: signs ...
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History of medicine, the development of the prevention and treatment of disease from prehistoric times to the 21st century. ... History of medicine, the development of the prevention and treatment of disease from prehistoric and ancient times to the 21st ... A Study of History: Who, What, Where, and When?. Take this History quiz at encyclopedia britannica to test your knowledge of ... History of medicine. Written By:. E. Ashworth Underwood, Douglas James Guthrie, William Archibald Robson Thomson, Philip Rhodes ...
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History, Birmingham, School of History and Cultures. Teacher Professor Sabine Lee. Prof. of Mod. History, Birmingham, School of ... of History, Stirling, Department of History. Research interests: International evangelicalism, 18th-21st c.; W.E. Gladstone. ... History, Edinburgh, History. Research interests: Social and cultural history of modern Ireland and the Irish diaspora. Teacher ... Lecturer in History, Durham, Department of History. Research interests: British political history since 1850. Teacher ...
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21st Century, History, Politics & Government. Subterms for Politics & Government. *Governmental Bodies. *Political Parties & ...
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*  Classes - Family History in the 21st Century Genealogy - FamilySearch Wiki

Classes - Family History in the 21st Century. From FamilySearch Wiki. Revision as of 01:53, 19 October 2011 by Bobjune7 (talk ... Oral Histories-Memory Joggers What to ask your older family members in an oral interview to get their life history (Also works ... Retrieved from "https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/index.php?title=Classes_-_Family_History_in_the_21st_Century&oldid=778052 ... Publishing Your Family History Projects Come find ways to share your family history information with family and friends. Great ...
https://familysearch.org/wiki/en/index.php?title=Classes_-_Family_History_in_the_21st_Century&oldid=778052

*  Telecommunications History & Policy into the 21st Century | RIT Press | RIT

Telecommunications History & Policy into the 21st Century provides a succinct overview of the telecommunications environment ... Telecommunications History & Policy into the 21st Century provides a succinct overview of the telecommunications environment ...
https://rit.edu/press/telecommunications-history-policy-21st-century

*  ISBNs for capitalism history 21st century

The Future of Work: Super-exploitation and Social Precariousness in the 21st Century ... will occupy leaders on both sides of the Pacific for decades to come and will shape the first half of the 21st century more ... will occupy leaders on both sides of the Pacific for decades to come and will shape the first half of the 21st century more ... This volume reassesses the nature of the current global economic crisis and its implication for the 21st century, through the ...
isbn.nu/sisbn/capitalism history 21st century

*  The Renaissance Prezi by iHistory - History Education for the 21st Century

This 623-click Prezi covers everything from the Medici to Science and Exploration. Make a copy of this Prezi and modify it to meet your needs Included with your purchase are eight editable guided note sheets.
https://teacherspayteachers.com/Product/The-Renaissance-Prezi-3226173

*  The history of electric vehicles: A 21st-century timeline

... since the first 10 years of the 20th century, when 38 percent of cars in 1900 were charging up, many with the aid of Thomas ...
reliableplant.com/Read/28077/History-electric-vehicles-timeline

*  A Brief History of the 21st Century | Sojourners

A Brief History of the 21st Century. By Brian McLaren August 2006 Print ... A Brief History of the 21st Century, Chapter 11: The Former United States. ... A Brief History of the 21st Century. ... ostensibly from a 22nd-century history book, describing our ... many of whom provide safe havens for various remnants of 21st-century jihadist networks. ...
https://sojo.net/magazine/august-2006/brief-history-21st-century?quicktabs_web_extras=0

*  British Library EThOS: New Italian epic : history, journalism and the 21st century 'novel'

I conclude by considering the interactions between literature and film in the twenty-first century, and suggest that the ' ... This is followed by a periodisation, which traces developments in recent history and literature that influenced the New Italian ... history and memory studies, epic, realism, and the role of literature in society. ... New Italian epic : history, journalism and the 21st century 'novel' Author: Willman, Kate Elizabeth ISNI: 0000 0004 5915 5699 ...
ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.682922

*  A Short History of Biological Warfare: From Pre-History to the 21st Century | U.S. Government Bookstore

A Short History of Biological Warfare: From Pre-History to the 21st Century. ... A Short History of Biological Warfare: From Pre-History to the 21st Century ... This publication gives a history of biological warfare (BW) from the prehistoric period through the present, with a section on ... In addition, military historians and students, and professors and students engaged in military studies and/or the history of ...
https://bookstore.gpo.gov/products/short-history-biological-warfare-pre-history-21st-century

*  Review: 'The Revenge of History: The Battle for the 21st Century' - Al Jazeera English

Review: 'The Revenge of History: The Battle for the 21st Century' Seumas Milne's book gives a perspective of what has brought ... We're history's actors... and you, all of you, will be left to just study what we do." ... Fukuyama united with other neo-conservatives under the banner of the "Project for the New American Century", later using the ... "end of history" itself - meaning that Western liberalism (in the benign sense in which he viewed it, as a force for democracy ...
aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2012/10/2012101691833380198.html

*  Continuum: Framing Trans Lives in 21st Century Britain - People's History Museum : Manchester Museums

Continuum: Framing Trans Lives in 21st Century Britain. Opening on Saturday 24 June, Continuum is one of the first large-scale ... Continuum will showcase the diversity of trans voices in 21st century Britain, with 14 artists from a variety of backgrounds, ... Catherine O'Donnell, Programme Manager for the People's History Museum, says, 'The Never Going Underground season at the ... People's History Museum has given LGBT+ communities the opportunity to tell, express and share their stories, and Continuum is ...
phm.org.uk/news/continuum-framing-trans-lives-in-21st-century-britain/

*  2000 Years of Charismatic Christianity: A 21st Century Look at Church History from a Pentecostal/Charismatic Prospective by...

A 21st Century Look at Church History from a Pentecostal/Charismatic Prospective by Eddie L ... Church History: The First Century Church history is one of the most compelling and interesting parts of human history, filled ... Church History: The First Century Church history is one of the most compelling and interesting parts of human history, filled ... Church History: Twenty Centuries of Catholic Christianity / This volume represents the best and most up-to-date single volume ...
https://barnesandnoble.com/w/2000-years-of-charismatic-christianity-eddie-l-hyatt/1111638403?ean=9780884198727&itm=1

*  Pages that link to "Foundations of Education and Instructional Assessment/History of Education/21st Century" - Wikibooks, open...

The following pages link to Foundations of Education and Instructional Assessment/History of Education/21st Century ... Pages that link to "Foundations of Education and Instructional Assessment/History of Education/21st Century". ← Foundations of ... Foundations of Education and Instructional Assessment/History of Education ‎ (← links , edit). *Foundations of Education and ... Assessment/History_of_Education/21st_Century" ... and Instructional Assessment/History of Education/21st Century ...
https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Special:WhatLinksHere/Foundations_of_Education_and_Instructional_Assessment/History_of_Education/21st_Century

*  The Civil War to the 21st Century, Volume 2: All American History Series: Celeste W. Rakes - Christianbook.com

The Civil War to the 21st Century, Volume 2: All American History Series by Celeste W. Rakes ... Looking at the past through a distinctly Christian lens, All American History provides a full year's worth of history for ... Learn about the latter half of American history with units on the Civil War and Reconstruction, the Gilded Age, World War I & ... Thirty-two weekly lessons examine important events in American history, including the atmosphere in which they occurred and ...
https://christianbook.com/century-volume-2-american-history-series/celeste-rakes/pd/247200

*  journal: 21st-century art history - AAANZ | The Art Association of Australia and New Zealand

21st-century art history. 2009. This bumper issue speculates on the forms art history will take in the wake of globalism, with ... Globalised Art History: The new universality and the question of cosmopolitanism, Huw Hallam. Backing Kant, with Interest: A ... Paranoia and the Wandjina: For the ancient astronaut as a category of art history, Darren Jorgensen. The Shock of the Past: ... Stay, Go, or Come: A history of Australian art, 1920-40, Rex Butler and A. D. S. Donaldson. Fiji Biennale Pavilions: Fourth ...
aaanz.info/journals/journal-21st-century-art-history/

*  Preparing for the 21st century : 40 years of excellence | 102721286 | Computer History Museum

Preparing for the 21st century : 40 years of excellence ...
computerhistory.org/collections/catalog/102721286

*  Wolves and Wild Lands in the 21st Century | Museum of Natural and Cultural History

A traveling exhibit from the International Wolf Center and the Bell Museum of Natural History at the University of Minnesota ... University of Oregon Museum of Natural and Cultural History. 1680 E. 15th Ave.. Eugene, OR 97403-1224. mnch@uoregon.edu ...
natural-history.uoregon.edu/exhibits/wolves-and-wild-lands-21st-century

*  History Quizzes - 16th 17th Centuries,18th 19th Centuries,20th 21st Centuries,Ancient History,Asian,European Hi...: Trivia...

16th 17th Centuries,18th 19th Centuries,20th 21st Centuries,Ancient History,Asian,European Hi...: trivia questions, facts and ... 16th & 17th Centuries. 18th & 19th Centuries. 20th & 21st Centuries. Ancient History. Asian. European History. Geologic Eras. ... Mixed History. Russian History. Specialized History. U.S. History. War History. World History. World War II. ... Famous Couples In History by Slava. History is often thought of only as battles, conquests and exploration. However, there is a ...
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*  All American History, Vol. 2: The Civil War to the 21st Century, Student Activity Book: 9781892427441 - Christianbook.com

All American History, Vol. 2: The Civil War to the 21st Century, Student Activity Book (9781892427441) ... forms and review questions to the All American History Volume 2, Student Reader. Activities focus on the geography of the time ... This activity book is an integral part of the All American History Volume 2 series, containing the accompanying maps, ... Homeschool >> Subjects >> History >> History Publishers >> Bright Ideas Press. *Homeschool >> Subjects >> History >> History ...
https://christianbook.com/american-history-civil-century-student-activity/9781892427441/pd/427441?event=1016BIP|1655434|1016

*  Research and Documentation in the 21st Century: Oral History and Genealogy of the Yuan Shikai Family | CHAO | Cross-Cultural...

Oral History and Genealogy of the Yuan Shikai Family ... Research and Documentation in the 21st Century: ...
cscanada.net/index.php/ccc/article/view/4870/6027

Newington Green Unitarian ChurchThe Flash ChroniclesEnlightenment Intensive: An Enlightenment Intensive is a group retreat designed to enable a spiritual enlightenment experience within a relatively short time. Devised by Americans Charles (1929–2007) and Ava Berner in the 1960s,http://www.Discoverer 23Ippolito de' MediciGreenpoint Renaissance Enterprise Corporation: The Greenpoint Renaissance Enterprise Corporation (GREC) is a consortium of neighborhood organizations in North Brooklyn that serves to facilitate and advocate the activities for city initiatives, as well as coordinate community involvement in the neighborhood of the former Greenpoint Hospital Complex.Lang, Frank.International Life Sciences Institute: The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) is a nonprofit [501c3]IRS 501c3 Definition1985 IRS ILSI Tax Code Determination science organization founded in 1978 and headquartered in Washington, DC. It is a member organization whose members are primarily food and beverage, agricultural, chemical, and pharmaceutical companies.ToxicityParchment repair: The repair and mending of parchment has taken place for thousands of years. Methods from the earliest hand stitching of tears to today's use of modern equipment to mend and fill parchment show the importance that has been placed on its preservation and conservation.Climate change in the United Kingdom: Climate change in the United Kingdom has been a subject of protests and controversies, and various policies have been developed to mitigate its effects. It is estimated to demand at least 80-85% emission reductions in the EU during 2008-2050 with reductions as soon as technically possible.Journal of Medical Toxicology: The Journal of Medical Toxicology is a peer-reviewed medical journal on medical toxicology and the official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology. It publishes original articles, illustrative cases, review articles, and other special features that are related to the clinical diagnosis and management of patients with exposure to various poisons.IPCC Second Assessment Report: The Second Assessment Report (SAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), published in 1996, is an assessment of the then available scientific and socio-economic information on climate change. It was superseded by the Third Assessment Report (TAR) in 2001.National Academy of Customs Excise and Narcotics: The National Academy of Customs, Excise and Narcotics, abbreviated as NACEN, is a premier National academy of the Government of India for the training of Indian Revenue Service (IRS) officers administering Customs, Central Excise, Service Tax and Narcotics laws in India. It imparts training to the officers of the elite Indian Revenue Service (IRS) who are selected through the prestigious Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) examination, popularly known as the Civil Services Examination.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Timeline of historic inventionsHadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightSouthwestern United States: The Southwestern United States (also known as the American Southwest) is the United States portion of the Southwest (which is situated in both the United States and Mexico). It is a region of the United States defined in different ways by different sources.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Comparative physiology: Comparative physiology is a subdiscipline of physiology that studies and exploits the diversity of functional characteristics of various kinds of organisms. It is closely related to evolutionary physiology and environmental physiology.Food Race: American environmental author Daniel Quinn coined the term Food Race (by analogy to the Cold War's "nuclear arms race") to describe an understanding of the current overpopulation emergency as a perpetually escalating crisis between growing human population and growing food production, fueled by the latter. Quinn argues that as the worldwide human population increases, the typical international response is to more intensely produce and distribute food to feed these greater numbers of people.History of sociology: Sociology as a scholarly discipline emerged primarily out of enlightenment thought, shortly after the French Revolution, as a positivist science of society. Its genesis owed to various key movements in the philosophy of science and the philosophy of knowledge.WebAIMBeaumont Leys: Beaumont Leys is a suburb and electoral ward in north-western Leicester, England. Locally, Beaumont Leys is usually used in reference to the large housing estate, built within the administrative division, centred on Strasbourg Drive.List of medical schools in the United KingdomPlant breeders' rights: Plant breeders' rights (PBR), also known as plant variety rights (PVR), are rights granted to the breeder of a new variety of plant that give the breeder exclusive control over the propagating material (including seed, cuttings, divisions, tissue culture) and harvested material (cut flowers, fruit, foliage) of a new variety for a number of years.Opinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010: Opinion polling (popularly known as surveys in the Philippines) for the 2010 Philippine presidential election is managed by two major polling firms: Social Weather Stations and Pulse Asia, and several minor polling firms. The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.Breeding for drought stress toleranceKeyboard buffer: A keyboard buffer is a section of computer memory used to hold keystrokes before they are processed.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Appropriation (By Any Other Name): June 13, 2005Andrew Dickson WhiteSystematic Protein Investigative Research EnvironmentHealth geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Stratosphere: The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere. It is stratified in temperature, with warmer layers higher up and cooler layers farther down.National Ambient Air Quality Standards: The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under authority of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.List of asbestos disease medical articles: Thousands of scientific and medical articles have chronicled human understanding of the hazards of asbestos to human life.Environmental Working Group, List of References regarding asbestos hazards This understanding paralleled the growth of the industrial revolution, particularly in the textile factories and mines of Great Britain.GA²LENQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Global Infectious Disease Epidemiology Network: Global Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Network (GIDEON) is a web-based program for decision support and informatics in the fields of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine. As of 2005, more than 300 generic infectious diseases occur haphazardly in time and space and are challenged by over 250 drugs and vaccines.EcosystemSyllabus: A syllabus (pl. syllabi) is an outline and summary of topics to be covered in an education or training course.Dda (DNA-dependent ATPase): Dda (short for DNA-dependent ATPase; also known as Dda helicase and Dda DNA helicase) is the 439-amino acid 49,897-atomic mass unit protein coded by the Dda gene of the bacteriophage T4 phage, a virus that infects enterobacteria.ESCAIDEThe Republican War on Science: The Republican War on Science is a 2005 book by Chris C. Mooney, an American journalist who focuses on the politics of science policy.Cross-cultural leadership: Cross-cultural psychology attempts to understand how individuals of different cultures interact with each other (Abbe et al., 2007).International Network of Prison Ministries: The International Network of Prison Ministries (INPM) is a Dallas, Texas based crime prevention and rehabilitation trans-national organization. INPM functions through a website that serves as a clearinghouse for information about various Christian prison ministries.Anoxic event: Oceanic anoxic events or anoxic events (anoxia conditions) refer to intervals in the Earth's past where portions of oceans become depleted in oxygen (O2) at depths over a large geographic area. During some of these events, euxinia develops - euxinia refers to anoxic waters that contain hydrogen sulfide.Nicholas II of WerlePandemic: A pandemic (from Greek πᾶν pan "all" and δῆμος demos "people") is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread through human populations across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide. A widespread endemic disease that is stable in terms of how many people are getting sick from it is not a pandemic.Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Meramec Conservation AreaProphet Jeremiah (Michelangelo): The Prophet Jeremiah is one of the seven Old Testament prophets painted by the Italian High Renaissance master Michelangelo (c. 1542–1545) on the Sistine Chapel ceiling.Criticisms of globalization: Criticism of globalization is skepticism of the claimed benefits of globalization. Many of these views are held by the anti-globalization movement.High throughput biologyHealth policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Fragment-based lead discovery: Fragment-based lead discovery (FBLD) also known as fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is a method used for finding lead compounds as part of the drug discovery process. It is based on identifying small chemical fragments, which may bind only weakly to the biological target, and then growing them or combining them to produce a lead with a higher affinity.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingFour Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Biotechnology Industry Organization: The Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) is the largest trade organization to serve and represent the biotechnology industry in the United States and around the world.Anna Edney, "Biosciences Defy U.Evolution in Variable EnvironmentNational Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Global Health Delivery ProjectEuropean Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Chronic care: Chronic care refers to medical care which addresses pre-existing or long term illness, as opposed to acute care which is concerned with short term or severe illness of brief duration. Chronic medical conditions include asthma, diabetes, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, congestive heart disease, cirrhosis of the liver, hypertension and depression.Lucas paradox: In economics, the Lucas paradox or the Lucas puzzle is the observation that capital does not flow from developed countries to developing countries despite the fact that developing countries have lower levels of capital per worker.}}Influenza A virus subtype H1N1: Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish Flu.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Layout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Document-centric collaboration: Document-centric collaboration is a new approach to working together on projects online which puts the document and its contents at the centre of the process.Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
Professionalization and institutionalization of history: Professionalization and institutionalization of history is term used in historiography to describe process of professionalization of the historical discipline with historians becoming professionals through process of special education, and genesis of historical institutions they founded.Taagepera Castle: The Taagepera Castle (German name: Wagenküll) is a mansion in Taagepera village, Helme Parish, Valga County, Estonia.North Wales Narrow Gauge RailwaysMatrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==List of countries by carbon dioxide emissionsRed Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990: The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It created the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority which is in charge of human embryo research, along with monitoring and licensing fertility clinics in the United Kingdom.Eco-Runner Team Delft: Eco-Runner Team Delft

(1/2140) Blindness prevention programmes: past, present, and future.

Blindness and visual impairment have far-reaching implications for society, the more so when it is realized that 80% of visual disability is avoidable. The marked increase in the size of the elderly population, with their greater propensity for visually disabling conditions, presents a further challenge in this respect. However, if available knowledge and skills were made accessible to those communities in greatest need, much of this needless blindness could be alleviated. Since its inception over 50 years ago, and beginning with trachoma control, WHO has spearheaded efforts to assist Member States to meet the challenge of needless blindness. Since the establishment of the WHO Programme for the Prevention of Blindness in 1978, vast strides have been made through various forms of technical support to establish national prevention of blindness programmes. A more recent initiative, "The Global Initiative for the Elimination of Avoidable Blindness" (referred to as "VISION 2020--The Right to Sight"), launched in 1999, is a collaborative effort between WHO and a number of international nongovernmental organizations and other interested partners. This effort is poised to take the steps necessary to achieve the goal of eliminating avoidable blindness worldwide by the year 2020.  (+info)

(2/2140) A brief history of the Japan Society for Cell Biology.

The Japan Society for Cell Biology (JSCB) was first founded in 1950 as the Japan Society for Cellular Chemistry under the vigorous leadership of Seizo Katsunuma, in collaboration with Shigeyasu Amano and Satimaru Seno. The Society was provisionally named as above simply because cell biology had not yet been coined at that time in Japan, although in prospect and reality the Society was in fact for the purpose of pursuing cell biology. Later in 1964, the Society was properly renamed as the Japan Society for Cell Biology. After this renaming, the JSCB made great efforts to adapt itself to the rapid progress being made in cell biology. For this purpose the Society's constitution was created in 1966 and revised in 1969. According to the revised constitution, the President, Executive Committee and Councils were to be determined by ballot vote. The style of the annual meetings was gradually modified to incorporate general oral and poster presentations in addition to Symposia (1969-1974). The publication of annual periodicals in Japanese called Symposia of the Japan Society for Cellular Chemistry (1951-1967) and later Symposia of the Japan Society for Cell Biology (1968-1974) was replaced by a new international journal called Cell Structure and Function initiated in 1975. This reformation made it possible for the Society to participate in the Science Council of Japan in 1975 and finally in 1993 to acquire its own study section of Cell Biology with grants-in-aid from the Ministry of Education and Science, Japan. The JSCB hosted the 3rd International Congress on Cell Biology (ICCB) in 1984 and the 3rd Asian-Pacific Organization for Cell Biology (APOCB) Congress in 1998, thus contributing to the international advancement of cell biology. Now the membership of JSCB stands at approximately 1,800 and the number of presentations per meeting is 300 to 400 annually. Although a good number of interesting and important findings in cell biology have been reported from Japan, the general academic activity of the JSCB is far less than one might expect. This is simply due the fact that academic activity in the field of cell biology in Japan is divided among several other related societies such as the Japan Society for Molecular Biology and the Japan Society for Developmental Biology, among others.  (+info)

(3/2140) Circulation Research: origin and early years.

Circulation Research, first published in 1953, was created by the American Heart Association as "the authoritative new journal for investigators of the basic sciences as they apply to the heart and circulation." This review of the early years of the journal highlights the contributions of the first four Editors: Carl J. Wiggers, Carl F. Schmidt, Eugene M. Landis, and Julius H. Comroe, Jr. The success of Circulation Research is seen not only in the high quality of the articles published in its pages but also in the remarkable improvements in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease that have occurred over the past half century.  (+info)

(4/2140) In memoriam: Professor G.N. Ramachandran (1922-2001).

Few scientists contribute an idea of such clarity and power that it appears in all the discipline's textbooks and bears the author's name. For the contribution to be relevant and universally employed almost forty years after it first appeared is even less common. Structural biology lost the author of such an idea with the death of G.N. Ramachandran, whose picture appears on the cover of this issue of Protein Science. His seminal contribution is described in remembrances of Professor Ramachandran's life and career by colleague and co-author of the 1963 paper, C. Ramakrishnan. A perspective by George D. Rose follows, which articulates the enduring impact of that work.  (+info)

(5/2140) Intermediate care--a challenge to specialty of geriatric medicine or its renaissance?

The specialism of geriatric medicine has developed considerably in the last half of the twentieth century. In Great Britain it has emerged from its sombre beginnings in Victorian poor law institutions to become one of the largest specialities in medicine encompassing a wide range of disciplines and interests. More recently, there has been a parallel development in "intermediate care" a sweeping phrase that encompasses a wide diversity of practices in a plethora of venues. Although there is considerable attraction in minimising the duration of hospital stay by older people, there is a real risk of intermediate care being used as a euphemism for indeterminate neglect. For older people to benefit from appropriate treatment and care, the lessons learnt by earlier generations of geriatricians, and supported by the international evidence base should not be disregarded. Elderly people need a full multi-disciplinary assessment (comprehensive geriatric assessment) and continued involvement of skilled and trained personnel in their continuing care (geriatric evaluation and management). The recommendations of the British Geriatrics Society on intermediate care are commended and should be adhered to by all planners and providers of intermediate care. There is considerable logic in developing ways in which the two developments can be integrated to build upon the best features of both.  (+info)

(6/2140) Rheumatic fever in the 21st century.

In the first half of the twentieth century, the group A streptococcus (GAS) was established as the sole etiologic agent of acute rheumatic fever (ARF). In the century's latter half, the clinical importance of variation in the virulence of strains of GAS has become clearer. Although still obscure, the pathogenesis of ARF requires primary infection of the throat by highly virulent GAS strains. These contain very large hyaluronate capsules and M protein molecules. The latter contain epitopes that are cross-reactive with host tissues and also contain superantigenic toxic moieties. In settings where ARF has become rare, GAS pharyngitis continues to be common, although it is caused by GAS strains of relatively lower virulence. These strains, however, colonize the throat avidly and stubbornly. Molecularly distinct pyoderma strains may cause acute glomerulonephritis, but they are not rheumatogenic, even though they may secondarily colonize and infect the throat. Guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of GAS pharyngitis and ARF are reviewed with particular reference to the prevalence of the latter in the community.  (+info)

(7/2140) Access to dental care: a historical review of medicaid eligibility growth and dental productivity decline.

The present dilemma in providing dental services to the indigent and Medicaid recipients throughout this nation has generated considerable controversy as to the evolution of the problem. Most states recognize that there are deficiencies in the provision of dental services to these populations and are seeking resolutions. While state licensing board practices and dental professional society politics have been the object of criticism as contributing to if not causing of this problem, other rational and statistically valid explanations for the current difficulty exist. As an explanation for access to care issues, this paper explores the decline in the national numbers of dental practitioners and concomitant dental productivity. Furthermore, it relates those parameters to the dramatic rise in the utilization and demand for dental services resulting from a robust economy, population growth trends, and changes in state and federal Medicaid legislation that increase numbers of Medicaid-eligible recipients. While these general trends are national in scope and application, the state of North Carolina and its experience will be used to fully explore the impact of these trends at the state and local level.  (+info)

(8/2140) History and importance of antimalarial drug resistance.

The emergence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to widely used antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine (CQ) has made malaria control and treatment much more difficult. This is particularly dramatic for Africa, as few affordable alternatives are available. Drug pressure has been identified as one of the key factors for the emergence and spread of resistance. The contribution of the extensive use and misuse of antimalarial drugs to the selection of resistant parasites became particularly evident during the Global Malaria Eradication campaign, launched by World Health Organization (WHO) in 1955. The first reports confirming P. falciparum resistance to CQ came almost simultaneously in the early 1960s from South America and South-East Asia, where direct or indirect (through use of medicated cooking salt) mass drug administration (MDA) had been implemented. Similar approaches were very limited in Africa, where P. falciparum resistance to CQ was first reported from the eastern region in the late 1970s and spread progressively west. Most African countries still rely heavily on CQ as first-line treatment despite various levels of resistance, although some states have changed to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as the first-line drug. Unfortunately, the predicted SP useful therapeutic life might be very short, probably because of its prolonged half-life, causing a higher probability of selecting resistant strains and a consequent fast development of resistance. CQ resistance is not evenly distributed and important differences can be found within and between countries. It seems to have spread more rapidly in East than in West Africa. Considering the high level of CQ use in West Africa, other factors such as intensity of transmission, population immunity or population movements should be considered when explaining the different levels of resistance. Understanding such factors may help us in devising strategies to contain the spread of drug resistance.  (+info)



20th


  • The past decade has been the most significant 10-year period for electric vehicles (EVs) since the first 10 years of the 20th century, when 38 percent of cars in 1900 were charging up, many with the aid of Thomas Edison-designed electric technology . (reliableplant.com)

lens


  • Product Description: This volume reassesses the nature of the current global economic crisis and its implication for the 21st century, through the unique lens of Marx's theory of the value-form as the unconscious matrix of modern society.Going beyond orthodox Marxist and postmodernist accounts, the author offers fresh new readings of Marx, Benjamin, Foucault, and Žižek. (isbn.nu)
  • Looking at the past through a distinctly Christian lens, All American History provides a full year's worth of history for grades 6-12. (christianbook.com)

Book


  • Taped to the back of a painting of dogs playing cards, she discovered two pages of single-spaced text, ostensibly from a 22nd-century history book, describing our immediate future. (sojo.net)

Twenty-first C


  • I conclude by considering the interactions between literature and film in the twenty-first century, and suggest that the 'unidentified narrative objects' we have seen throughout the study seem to be a particular product of our times. (bl.uk)

america


  • Thirty-two weekly lessons examine important events in American history, including the atmosphere in which they occurred and their impact on the future of America. (christianbook.com)

Product Description


  • Product Description: We know that our world is undergoing seismic change―but how can we emerge from the crisis a fairer, more equal society?Over the past two centuries or so, capitalism has undergone profound changes―economic cycles that veer from boom to bust―from which it has always emerged transformed and strengthened. (isbn.nu)

artists


  • Continuum will showcase the diversity of trans voices in 21st century Britain, with 14 artists from a variety of backgrounds, working across a range of artistic media. (phm.org.uk)

American


  • Fukuyama united with other neo-conservatives under the banner of the "Project for the New American Century", later using the events of September 11, 2001 to promote the aggressive foreign and military policies of Bush the Second. (aljazeera.com)
  • Written in the same engaging and comfortable style as the All American History Volume 2 series is written in the same engaging and comfortable style as Volume 1. (christianbook.com)
  • Learn about the latter half of American history with units on the Civil War and Reconstruction, the Gilded Age, World War I & II, The Great Depression, The Cold War and more! (christianbook.com)
  • I'm the author/artist and I want to review The Civil War to the 21st Century, Volume 2: All American History Series . (christianbook.com)
  • American History Goodies by MrSmartGuy A mixed bag of American history that ranges from easy to tricky. (123facts.com)

politics


  • Sean's Russia Blog covers contemporary Russian politics, media, history and culture. (pitt.edu)

take


  • Take the trivia quiz and see how love makes history. (123facts.com)

past


  • Over the past two centuries or so, capitalism has undergone profound changes from which it has always emerged transformed and strengthened. (isbn.nu)

human


  • Church history is one of the most compelling and interesting parts of human history, filled with wisdom and understanding about how the heights of human greatness can be attained or how the worst mistakes can be made. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Famous Historical Figures by bobby They were all famous leaders in the history of human kind. (123facts.com)

world


  • The analogy is not exact, but for fate as the power greater than humanity in the worldview of the classical Greeks, let us substitute, in the modern world, the perpetual development of social, economic and political relations through history, which have no divinely pre-ordained outcome, but which nevertheless provide the inescapable wider context for our actions. (aljazeera.com)
  • As Bush the First announced a "New World Order" based on Washington's military and economic supremacy, Francis Fukuyama famously declared the "end of history" itself - meaning that Western liberalism (in the benign sense in which he viewed it, as a force for democracy and prosperity rather than imperialism and exploitation), had emerged victorious from history's struggles, becoming a settled and uncontested ideal to which all would now aspire. (aljazeera.com)

Church


  • The LDS church makes a number of genealogy websites that require a subscription to view their records available at no cost for patrons of family history centers through the Family History Portal. (familysearch.org)
  • Many members of the LDS Church feel that their family history is "all done. (familysearch.org)

share


  • Overview of how to connect with family members as well as others who share your interest in genealogy and family history. (familysearch.org)
  • Catherine O'Donnell, Programme Manager for the People's History Museum , says, 'The Never Going Underground season at the People's History Museum has given LGBT+ communities the opportunity to tell, express and share their stories, and Continuum is no exception. (phm.org.uk)

military


  • Given in this class will be the why, the how and the where of locating military records for this turbulent time in our history. (familysearch.org)
  • In addition, military historians and students, and professors and students engaged in military studies and/or the history of warfare and weapons may want a copy of this publication. (gpo.gov)

volume


  • On its release, the seven volume A People's History of Christianity was lauded for its commitment to raising awareness of the ways in which ordinary Christians have lived throughout more than twenty centuries of Christian History. (barnesandnoble.com)

political


  • This is followed by a periodisation, which traces developments in recent history and literature that influenced the New Italian Epic phenomenon, including the Cannibal and migrant writers of the nineties, the violent events at the G8 protest in Genoa in 2001, and the political and cultural climate in Italy in the new millennium. (bl.uk)

policy


  • Telecommunications History & Policy into the 21st Century provides a succinct overview of the telecommunications environment and the factors that have shaped this industry from its inception through 2009. (rit.edu)

studies


  • After describing the phenomenon and outlining the main theoretical underpinnings to my analysis of it, I examine the Memorandum in detail, in order to individuate the ideas that will resurface throughout the study, related to postmodernism, new technologies, history and memory studies, epic, realism, and the role of literature in society. (bl.uk)

Research


  • Research interests: International evangelicalism, 18th-21st c. (history.ac.uk)

free