History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Famous PersonsMedicine in ArtHistoryHistory of MedicinePaintingsPersia: An ancient civilization, known as early as 2000 B.C. The Persian Empire was founded by Cyrus the Great (550-529 B.C.) and for 200 years, from 550 to 331 B.C., the Persians ruled the ancient world from India to Egypt. The territory west of India was called Persis by the Greeks who later called the entire empire Persia. In 331 B.C. the Persian wars against the Greeks ended disastrously under the counterattacks by Alexander the Great. The name Persia in modern times for the modern country was changed to Iran in 1935. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p546 & Asimov, Words on the Map, 1962, p176)Leper Colonies: Residential treatment centers for individuals with leprosy.Civilization: The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.Nobel PrizeEmbryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.Paleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.History of NursingMedicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Manuscripts as Topic: Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)Scurvy: An acquired blood vessel disorder caused by severe deficiency of vitamin C (ASCORBIC ACID) in the diet leading to defective collagen formation in small blood vessels. Scurvy is characterized by bleeding in any tissue, weakness, ANEMIA, spongy gums, and a brawny induration of the muscles of the calves and legs.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Burial: The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.Eugenics: The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Books, Illustrated: Books containing photographs, prints, drawings, portraits, plates, diagrams, facsimiles, maps, tables, or other representations or systematic arrangement of data designed to elucidate or decorate its contents. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p114)Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Plague: An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.Literature, MedievalEuropeSculptureBooksMummies: Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.United StatesMythology: A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.History, Modern 1601-: The period of history from 1601 of the common era to the present.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)ArtManuscripts, MedicalMagic: Beliefs and practices concerned with producing desired results through supernatural forces or agents as with the manipulation of fetishes or rituals.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Philosophy, MedicalForecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Naval Medicine: The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.Croatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Medical Illustration: The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Skeleton: The rigid framework of connected bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues, and provides attachments for MUSCLES.Psychoanalysis: The separation or resolution of the psyche into its constituent elements. The term has two separate meanings: 1. a procedure devised by Sigmund Freud, for investigating mental processes by means of free association, dream interpretation and interpretation of resistance and transference manifestations; and 2. a theory of psychology developed by Freud from his clinical experience with hysterical patients. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996).Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Engraving and EngravingsReligion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Fur Seals: A group comprised of several species of eared seals found in two genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to SEA LIONS, they have an especially dense wooly undercoat.Materia Medica: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Numismatics: Study of coins, tokens, medals, etc. However, it usually refers to medals pertaining to the history of medicine.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Theology: The study of religion and religious belief, or a particular system or school of religious beliefs and teachings (from online Cambridge Dictionary of American English, 2000 and WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, 1997)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.ItalyFounder Effect: A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.Communicable DiseasesEconomic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.Smallpox: An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Societies, Hospital: Societies having institutional membership limited to hospitals and other health care institutions.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Democracy: A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.Periostitis: Inflammation of the periosteum. The condition is generally chronic, and is marked by tenderness and swelling of the bone and an aching pain. Acute periostitis is due to infection, is characterized by diffuse suppuration, severe pain, and constitutional symptoms, and usually results in necrosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)Theft: Unlawful act of taking property.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Th1-Th2 Balance: Homeostatic control of the immune system by secretion of different cytokines by the Th1 and Th2 cells. The concentration dependent binding of the various cytokines to specific receptors determines the balance (or imbalance leading to disease).Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Symbolism: A concept that stands for or suggests something else by reason of its relationship, association, convention, or resemblance. The symbolism may be mental or a visible sign or representation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Citrus aurantiifolia: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar lime fruit. Its common name of lime is similar to the limetree (TILIA).Developmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.Genealogy and HeraldryEnglandClinical Medicine: The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Awards and PrizesWorld Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.GermanyEcology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.GreeceDemography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Great BritainOceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).North AmericaHungaryCrops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Islam: A monotheistic religion promulgated by the Prophet Mohammed with Allah as the deity.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.South AmericaWater Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.PortugalEducation, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Europe, EasternSuntan: An induced skin pigment (MELANIN) darkening after exposure to SUNLIGHT or ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. The degree of tanning depends on the intensity and duration of UV exposure, and genetic factors.RussiaSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cercopithecinae: A subfamily of the Old World monkeys, CERCOPITHECIDAE. They inhabit the forests and savannas of Africa. This subfamily contains the following genera: CERCOCEBUS; CERCOPITHECUS; ERYTHROCEBUS; MACACA; PAPIO; and THEROPITHECUS.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Yersinia pestis: The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.PolandGeneral Surgery: A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.SwitzerlandPacific OceanLondonSocial Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.BrazilAge Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.AfricaNutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.MexicoNeoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.WalesGeologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)History of DentistrySex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.JapanNatural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Newington Green Unitarian ChurchDiscoverer 23Enlightenment Intensive: An Enlightenment Intensive is a group retreat designed to enable a spiritual enlightenment experience within a relatively short time. Devised by Americans Charles (1929–2007) and Ava Berner in the 1960s,http://www.The Flash ChroniclesGreenpoint Renaissance Enterprise Corporation: The Greenpoint Renaissance Enterprise Corporation (GREC) is a consortium of neighborhood organizations in North Brooklyn that serves to facilitate and advocate the activities for city initiatives, as well as coordinate community involvement in the neighborhood of the former Greenpoint Hospital Complex.Lang, Frank.Ippolito de' MediciParchment repair: The repair and mending of parchment has taken place for thousands of years. Methods from the earliest hand stitching of tears to today's use of modern equipment to mend and fill parchment show the importance that has been placed on its preservation and conservation.Lars Larsen Forsæth: Lars Larsen Forsæth (baptized 9 December 1759 – 12 February 1839) was a Norwegian farmer who served as a representative at the Norwegian Constituent Assembly. Tallak Lindstøl: Stortinget og Statsraadet, Kristiania, 1914.Timeline of historic inventionsNicholas II of WerleProphet Jeremiah (Michelangelo): The Prophet Jeremiah is one of the seven Old Testament prophets painted by the Italian High Renaissance master Michelangelo (c. 1542–1545) on the Sistine Chapel ceiling.List of asbestos disease medical articles: Thousands of scientific and medical articles have chronicled human understanding of the hazards of asbestos to human life.Environmental Working Group, List of References regarding asbestos hazards This understanding paralleled the growth of the industrial revolution, particularly in the textile factories and mines of Great Britain.Beaumont Leys: Beaumont Leys is a suburb and electoral ward in north-western Leicester, England. Locally, Beaumont Leys is usually used in reference to the large housing estate, built within the administrative division, centred on Strasbourg Drive.Taagepera Castle: The Taagepera Castle (German name: Wagenküll) is a mansion in Taagepera village, Helme Parish, Valga County, Estonia.Imad al-Din Mahmud ibn Mas‘ud Shirazi: Imad al-Din Mahmud ibn Mas‘ud Shirazi was a mid-16th-century Persian physician from Shiraz, Iran.Culion leper colony: The Culion Leper Colony was a former leprosarium located on Culion, an island in the Palawan province of the Philippines. It was established by the US government in order to rid leprosy from the Philippine islands through the only method known at the time: isolating all existing cases and gradually phasing out the disease from the population.List of Indus Valley Civilization sites: "'Indus Civilization"' is an ancient civilization.Rosalyn Sussman YalowHuman Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990: The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It created the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority which is in charge of human embryo research, along with monitoring and licensing fertility clinics in the United Kingdom.Paleopathology: Paleopathology, also spelled palaeopathology, is the study of ancient diseases. It is useful in understanding the history of diseases, and uses this understanding to predict its course in the future.Professionalization and institutionalization of history: Professionalization and institutionalization of history is term used in historiography to describe process of professionalization of the historical discipline with historians becoming professionals through process of special education, and genesis of historical institutions they founded.Spanking Shakespeare: Spanking Shakespeare (2007) is the debut novel by Jake Wizner. It is a young adult novel that tells the story of the unfortunately named Shakespeare Shapiro and his struggles in high school, dating and friendship.Esther InglisComputational archaeology: Computational archaeology describes computer-based analytical methods for the study of long-term human behaviour and behavioural evolution. As with other sub-disciplines that have prefixed 'computational' to their name (e.Medical Anthropology Quarterly: Medical Anthropology Quarterly (MAQ) is an international peer-reviewed academic journal published for the Society for Medical Anthropology by the American Anthropological Association. It publishes research and theory about human health and disease from all areas of medical anthropology.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightLa Chapelle-aux-Saints 1: La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 (also known as "The Old Man") is a partial skeleton of the species Homo neanderthalensis. It was discovered in La Chapelle-aux-Saints, France by A.Eugenics in the United States: Eugenics, the set of beliefs and practices which aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population played a significant role in the history and culture of the United States prior to its involvement in World War II.Hellenistic portraitureUCL Institute of NeurologyFrom Occident to Orient: From Occident to Orient is a 2007 compilation by English folk/rock singer-songwriter Roy Harper. It was initially released as a collectors item by Vinyl Japan to coincide with Harpers 2007 tour there.Prosection: A prosection is the dissection of a cadaver (human or animal) or part of a cadaver by an experienced anatomist in order to demonstrate for students anatomic structure."Prosection.Septicemic plague: Septicemic (or septicaemic) plague is one of the three main forms of plague. It is caused by Yersinia pestis, a gram-negative species of bacterium.List of years in literature: This page gives a chronological list of years in literature (descending order), with notable publications listed with their respective years and a small selection of notable events. The time covered in individual years covers Renaissance, Baroque and Modern literature, while Medieval literature is resolved by century.GA²LENMarble sculpture: Marble sculpture is the art of creating three-dimensional forms from marble. Sculpture is among the oldest of the arts.Blue Peter Book Award: The Blue Peter Book Awards are a set of literary awards for children's books conferred by the BBC television programme Blue Peter. They were inaugurated in 2000 for books published in 1999.Aztec mummy: Aztec mummy refers to an intentionally prepared or naturally desiccated human body of Aztec origin.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Giant (mythology)IPCC Second Assessment Report: The Second Assessment Report (SAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), published in 1996, is an assessment of the then available scientific and socio-economic information on climate change. It was superseded by the Third Assessment Report (TAR) in 2001.Sade LiveHealth geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Modern Moral Philosophy: "Modern Moral Philosophy" is an influential article on moral philosophy by G. E.Saint-Florent Cathedral: Saint-Florent Cathedral or Nebbio Cathedral (Cathédrale Saint-Florent de Saint-Florent, also known as Cathédrale du Nebbio) is a former Roman Catholic cathedral and French national monument located in the town of Saint-Florent in Corsica. It is now the church of Santa Maria Assunta.Brugsch Papyrus: The Brugsch Papyrus (Pap. Berl.Magic (illusion): Magic (sometimes referred to as stage magic to distinguish it from paranormal or ritual magic) is a performing art that entertains audiences by staging tricks or creating illusions of seemingly impossibleHenning Nelms. Magic and Showmanship: A Handbook for Conjurers, page 1 (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, Inc, 2000).Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Negroid: Negroid (also known as Congoid) is a term that is used by forensic and physical anthropologists to refer to individuals and populations that share certain morphological and skeletal traits that are frequent among most populations in Sub-Saharan Africa. The term is commonly associated with notions of racial typology, which are disputed by many anthropologists.Opinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010: Opinion polling (popularly known as surveys in the Philippines) for the 2010 Philippine presidential election is managed by two major polling firms: Social Weather Stations and Pulse Asia, and several minor polling firms. The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.Arthur Wilson (Royal Navy officer)University Hospital Centre Zagreb: The University Hospital Centre (sometimes also Clinical Hospital Centre, ) in Zagreb, Croatia, is the largest hospital in Croatia and the teaching hospital of the University of Zagreb. It serves most of Central and Northern Croatia for specialist and acute medical procedures.Josse de Corte: [Court Altare S. Maria della Salute.Climate change in the United Kingdom: Climate change in the United Kingdom has been a subject of protests and controversies, and various policies have been developed to mitigate its effects. It is estimated to demand at least 80-85% emission reductions in the EU during 2008-2050 with reductions as soon as technically possible.EcosystemThe Oxford Textbook of Medicine: The Oxford Textbook of Medicine Warrell DA, Cox TM, Firth JD. (2010).The Republican War on Science: The Republican War on Science is a 2005 book by Chris C. Mooney, an American journalist who focuses on the politics of science policy.Type XXVII collagen: Type XXVII collagen is the protein predicted to be encoded by COL27A1. It was first described by Dr.Karl Abraham: Karl Abraham (; 3 May 1877 – 25 December 1925) was an early important and influential German psychoanalyst, and a collaborator of Sigmund Freud, who called him his 'best pupil'.Freud Museum at www.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Laser engravingDaesun Jinrihoe: Daesun Jinrihoe (Also transliterated as Daesunjinrihoe, Daesun Chillihoe, Taesunchillihoe, Daesoonjinrihoe, Daesoon Jinrihoe and Taesŏn Chillihoe) is a Korean new religious movement, founded in April 1969 by Park Han-gyeong (박한경) (1918–96). It is a splinter of the syncretic religion founded by Gang Il-Sun (1871–1909, also known as Chungsan Kang).QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Gavriil Pribylov: Gavriil Loginovich Pribylov (; first name also spelled Gavriel, Gerasim or Gerassim, last name also spelled Pribilof) (died 1796) was a Russian navigator who discovered the Bering Sea islands of St. George Island and St.Eclectic Materia Medica: Eclectic Materia Medica is a materia medica written by the eclectic medicine doctor Harvey Wickes Felter (co-author with John Uri Lloyd of King's American Dispensatory). This was the last, articulate, but in the end, futile attempt to stem the tide of Standard Practice Medicine, the antithesis of the model of the rural primary care "vitalist" physician that was the basis for Eclectic medicine.Buchanan (horse): Buchanan (1881 – c.1898) was an American thoroughbred racehorse and was the winner of the 1884 Kentucky Derby, Ripple Stakes and Clark Stakes.First Strike CoinsLarge ornamented Ediacaran microfossil: Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossils (LOEMs) are microscopic acritarchs, usually over 100 μm in diameter, which are common in sediments of the Ediacaran period, . They largely disappear from the Ediacaran fossil record before , roughly coeval with the origin of the Ediacara biota.Dorjee KhanduAmerican Mixed Breed Obedience Registry: The American Mixed Breed Obedience Registry (AMBOR) is a registry for mixed-breed dogs to enable them to compete in obedience and dog agility.Triangle of death (Italy): The triangle of death (Italian: Triangolo della morte) is an area in the Italian province of Campania comprising the municipalities of Acerra, Nola and Marigliano. The region has recently experienced increasing deaths caused by cancer and other diseases that exceeds the Italian national average.Global Infectious Disease Epidemiology Network: Global Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Network (GIDEON) is a web-based program for decision support and informatics in the fields of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine. As of 2005, more than 300 generic infectious diseases occur haphazardly in time and space and are challenged by over 250 drugs and vaccines.Hesquiaht First NationMassachusetts smallpox epidemic: Massachusetts smallpox epidemic or Colonial epidemic was a smallpox epidemic that hit Massachusetts in 1633, affecting settlers and Native Americans. The casualties included 20 settlers from Mayflower and their only physician Dr Samuel Fuller.ESCAIDEAlexander Walker (physiologist): Alexander Walker (1779—1852) was a Scottish physiologist, aesthetician, encyclopaedist, translator, novelist, and journalist.Social history of England: The social history of England evidences many social changes the centuries. These major social changes have affected England both internally and in its relationship with other nations.Budic II of Brittany: Budic II (; or ; ), formerly known as Budick, was a king of Cornouaille in Brittany in the late 5th and early 6th centuries. He was the father of Hoel Mawr and is probably to be identified with the Emyr Llydaw ("Emperor of Brittany") and King Nentres who appear in Arthurian legend.Howard Phillips (politician)PeriostitisMetal theft: Metal theft is "the theft of items for the value of their constituent metals". It usually increases when worldwide prices for scrap metal rise, as has happened dramatically due to rapid industrialization in India and China.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingFood Race: American environmental author Daniel Quinn coined the term Food Race (by analogy to the Cold War's "nuclear arms race") to describe an understanding of the current overpopulation emergency as a perpetually escalating crisis between growing human population and growing food production, fueled by the latter. Quinn argues that as the worldwide human population increases, the typical international response is to more intensely produce and distribute food to feed these greater numbers of people.Apple (symbolism): Apples appear in many religious traditions, often as a mystical or forbidden fruit. One of the problems identifying apples in religion, mythology and folktales is that as late as the 17th century, the word "apple" was used as a generic term for all (foreign) fruit other than berries, but including nuts.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Mortality rate: Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.Peat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.Cement Mixer (drink): A cement mixer is a shot drink. It often consists of:
(1/2006) John Collins Warren and his act of conscience: a brief narrative of the trial and triumph of a great surgeon.
On examination of the correspondence among the principals involved, as well as the original patent application being prepared by Morton, it has become possible to reconstruct some of the remarkable details attending the first use of ether anesthesia at the Massachusetts General Hos pital in the autumn of 1846. At the time that Warren invited Morton to demonstrate the use of his "ethereal vapor" for anesthesia in a minor operation on Oct. 16, 1846, the exact chemical composition of the agent used was being held secret by Morton; Warren was clearly disturbed by this unethical use of a secret "nostrum." When the time arrived 3 weeks later for its possible use for a serious "capital" operation, Warren employed a simple stratagem of public confrontation to discover from Morton the true nature of the substance to be used. On being informed that it was pure unadulterated sulfuric ether, not some mysterious new discovery labeled "Letheon," Warren gave approval for its first use in a "capital" operation (low thigh amputation) on Nov. 7, 1846. Despite this revelation to the immediate participants, a veil of secrecy continued to surround the substance for many months, an anomalous situation evidently traceable to Morton's desire for personal reward from the discovery. It was this matter of secrecy, rather than priority for its discovery, that surrounded the early use of ether anesthesia with controversy and recrimination both in this country and abroad. (+info)
(2/2006) The pneumococcus at the millennium: not down, not out.
In the 12 decades that will have elapsed between the first isolation of the pneumococcus and the coming millennium, much of fundamental biologic importance has been learned from the study of this bacterium and the diseases it causes. Streptococcus pneumoniae is associated with the development of Gram's stain, the Quellung reaction, and many of the fundamentals of immunology. It has also played a significant role in the history of antimicrobial therapy. After a transitory period of euphoria engendered by the improved prognosis of pneumococcal pneumonia resulting from therapeutic advances, recognition that the newer treatments could not bring about the recovery of those sustaining early irreversible physiologic injury led to renewed interest in immunoprophylaxis. Added impetus to this approach has been fostered by the recent rapid increase in the number of pneumococcal isolates resistant to antimicrobial agents and in the magnitude of their resistance. Pneumococcal vaccines are increasingly relevant. (+info)
(3/2006) Early theory and research on hemispheric specialization.
This article provides an account of early theory and research on hemispheric specialization. It begins by tracing theory and research on localization of function that set the stage for the discovery of hemispheric specialization. After that, it describes the studies of Paul Broca, John Hughlings-Jackson, and others on hemisphere specialization and reviews some of the proposed explanations for the phenomenon. It then turns to the study of hemispheric specialization and mental illness, and it ends by identifying some of the linkages between theory and research from the past and the present. (+info)
(4/2006) An appreciation of A.E. Malloch, MB, MD (1844-1919): a forgotten surgical pioneer.
Dr. Archibald Edward Malloch was a surgeon whose life and work were greatly influenced by Joseph Lister and his revolutionary system of antiseptic surgery. This paper describes how a young Canadian medical man came to introduce Lister's system to North America in 1869 and studies his career in the light of Lister's surgical epoch. (+info)
(5/2006) Vitamin A as "anti-infective" therapy, 1920-1940.
In the last fifteen years, a large series of controlled clinical trials showed that vitamin A supplementation reduces morbidity and mortality of children in developing countries. It is less well known that vitamin A underwent two decades of intense clinical investigation prior to World War II. In the 1920s, a theory emerged that vitamin A could be used in "anti-infective" therapy. This idea, largely championed by Edward Mellanby, led to a series of at least 30 trials to determine whether vitamin A--usually supplied in the form of cod-liver oil--could reduce the morbidity and mortality of respiratory disease, measles, puerperal sepsis, and other infections. The early studies generally lacked such innovations known to the modern controlled clinical trial such as randomization, masking, sample size and power calculations, and placebo controls. Results of the early trials were mixed, but the pharmaceutical industry emphasized the positive results in their advertising to the public. With the advent of the sulfa antibiotics for treatment of infections, scientific interest in vitamin A as "anti-infective" therapy waned. Recent controlled clinical trials of vitamin A from the last 15 y follow a tradition of investigation that began largely in the 1920s. (+info)
(6/2006) Rapid economic growth and 'the four Ds' of disruption, deprivation, disease and death: public health lessons from nineteenth-century Britain for twenty-first-century China?
Rapid economic growth has always entailed serious disruption: environmental, ideological, and political. As a result the relationship between economic growth and public health is complex since such disruption always threatens to spill over into deprivation, disease and death. The populations of most current high-income, high-life expectancy countries of 'the West' endured several decades of severely compromised health when they first experienced industrialization in the last century Although health technologies have moved on, the social, administrative and political disruption accompanying economic growth can still impede the delivery of health improvements. The case history of 19th-century laissez-faire Britain is explored in some detail to demonstrate the importance of these social and political forces, particularly the relative vigour and participatory nature of local government, linking to recent work on the importance of social capital in development. For a country like China today, paradoxically, there is nothing that needs such careful planning as a 'free market' economy. (+info)
(7/2006) Chemical hormesis: its historical foundations as a biological hypothesis.
Despite the long history of hormesis-related experimental research, no systematic effort to describe its early history has been undertaken. The present paper attempts to reconstruct and assess the early history of such research and to evaluate how advances in related scientific fields affected the course of hormesis-related research. The purpose of this paper is not only to satisfy this gap in current knowledge but also to provide a foundation for the assessment of how the concept of hormetic dose-response relationships may have affected the nature of the bioassay, especially with respect to hazard assessment practices within a modern risk assessment framework. (+info)
(8/2006) Milestones in the research on tobacco mosaic virus.
Beijerinck's (1898) recognition that the cause of tobacco mosaic disease was a novel kind of pathogen became the breakthrough which eventually led to the establishment of virology as a science. Research on this agent, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), has continued to be at the forefront of virology for the past century. After an initial phase, in which numerous biological properties of TMV were discovered, its particles were the first shown to consist of RNA and protein, and X-ray diffraction analysis of their structure was the first of a helical nucleoprotein. In the molecular biological phase of research, TMV RNA was the first plant virus genome to be sequenced completely, its genes were found to be expressed by cotranslational particle disassembly and the use of subgenomic mRNA, and the mechanism of assembly of progeny particles from their separate parts was discovered. Molecular genetical and cell biological techniques were then used to clarify the roles and modes of action of the TMV non-structural proteins: the 126 kDa and 183 kDa replicase components and the 30 kDa cell-to-cell movement protein. Three different TMV genes were found to act as avirulence genes, eliciting hypersensitive responses controlled by specific, but different, plant genes. One of these (the N gene) was the first plant gene controlling virus resistance to be isolated and sequenced. In the biotechnological sphere, TMV has found several applications: as the first source of transgene sequences conferring virus resistance, in vaccines consisting of TMV particles genetically engineered to carry foreign epitopes, and in systems for expressing foreign genes. TMV owes much of its popularity as a research mode to the great stability and high yield of its particles. Although modern methods have much decreased the need for such properties, and TMV may have a less dominant role in the future, it continues to occupy a prominent position in both fundamental and applied research. (+info)
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