History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Famous PersonsMedicine in ArtHistoryHistory of MedicinePaintingsPersia: An ancient civilization, known as early as 2000 B.C. The Persian Empire was founded by Cyrus the Great (550-529 B.C.) and for 200 years, from 550 to 331 B.C., the Persians ruled the ancient world from India to Egypt. The territory west of India was called Persis by the Greeks who later called the entire empire Persia. In 331 B.C. the Persian wars against the Greeks ended disastrously under the counterattacks by Alexander the Great. The name Persia in modern times for the modern country was changed to Iran in 1935. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p546 & Asimov, Words on the Map, 1962, p176)Leper Colonies: Residential treatment centers for individuals with leprosy.Civilization: The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.Nobel PrizeEmbryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.Paleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.History of NursingMedicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Manuscripts as Topic: Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)Scurvy: An acquired blood vessel disorder caused by severe deficiency of vitamin C (ASCORBIC ACID) in the diet leading to defective collagen formation in small blood vessels. Scurvy is characterized by bleeding in any tissue, weakness, ANEMIA, spongy gums, and a brawny induration of the muscles of the calves and legs.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Burial: The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.Eugenics: The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Books, Illustrated: Books containing photographs, prints, drawings, portraits, plates, diagrams, facsimiles, maps, tables, or other representations or systematic arrangement of data designed to elucidate or decorate its contents. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p114)Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Plague: An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.Literature, MedievalEuropeSculptureBooksMummies: Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.United StatesMythology: A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.History, Modern 1601-: The period of history from 1601 of the common era to the present.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)ArtManuscripts, MedicalMagic: Beliefs and practices concerned with producing desired results through supernatural forces or agents as with the manipulation of fetishes or rituals.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Philosophy, MedicalForecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Naval Medicine: The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.Croatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Medical Illustration: The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Skeleton: The rigid framework of connected bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues, and provides attachments for MUSCLES.Psychoanalysis: The separation or resolution of the psyche into its constituent elements. The term has two separate meanings: 1. a procedure devised by Sigmund Freud, for investigating mental processes by means of free association, dream interpretation and interpretation of resistance and transference manifestations; and 2. a theory of psychology developed by Freud from his clinical experience with hysterical patients. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996).Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Engraving and EngravingsReligion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Fur Seals: A group comprised of several species of eared seals found in two genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to SEA LIONS, they have an especially dense wooly undercoat.Materia Medica: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Numismatics: Study of coins, tokens, medals, etc. However, it usually refers to medals pertaining to the history of medicine.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Theology: The study of religion and religious belief, or a particular system or school of religious beliefs and teachings (from online Cambridge Dictionary of American English, 2000 and WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, 1997)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.ItalyFounder Effect: A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.Communicable DiseasesEconomic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.Smallpox: An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Societies, Hospital: Societies having institutional membership limited to hospitals and other health care institutions.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Democracy: A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.Periostitis: Inflammation of the periosteum. The condition is generally chronic, and is marked by tenderness and swelling of the bone and an aching pain. Acute periostitis is due to infection, is characterized by diffuse suppuration, severe pain, and constitutional symptoms, and usually results in necrosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)Theft: Unlawful act of taking property.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Th1-Th2 Balance: Homeostatic control of the immune system by secretion of different cytokines by the Th1 and Th2 cells. The concentration dependent binding of the various cytokines to specific receptors determines the balance (or imbalance leading to disease).Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Symbolism: A concept that stands for or suggests something else by reason of its relationship, association, convention, or resemblance. The symbolism may be mental or a visible sign or representation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Citrus aurantiifolia: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar lime fruit. Its common name of lime is similar to the limetree (TILIA).Developmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.Genealogy and HeraldryEnglandClinical Medicine: The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Awards and PrizesWorld Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.GermanyEcology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.GreeceDemography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Great BritainOceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).North AmericaHungaryCrops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Islam: A monotheistic religion promulgated by the Prophet Mohammed with Allah as the deity.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.South AmericaWater Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.PortugalEducation, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Europe, EasternSuntan: An induced skin pigment (MELANIN) darkening after exposure to SUNLIGHT or ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. The degree of tanning depends on the intensity and duration of UV exposure, and genetic factors.RussiaSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cercopithecinae: A subfamily of the Old World monkeys, CERCOPITHECIDAE. They inhabit the forests and savannas of Africa. This subfamily contains the following genera: CERCOCEBUS; CERCOPITHECUS; ERYTHROCEBUS; MACACA; PAPIO; and THEROPITHECUS.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Yersinia pestis: The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.PolandGeneral Surgery: A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.SwitzerlandPacific OceanLondonSocial Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.BrazilAge Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.AfricaNutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.MexicoNeoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.WalesGeologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)History of DentistrySex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.JapanNatural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)

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... the historical period can be said to begin early in the 15th century." (p.202 Inca culture at conquest, John Rowe) ... Of course now they claim, since 1870, when he speaks ex-cathedra he is, but I've never heard in modern history of a Pope being ... Centuries go by; these false gods do not become truer because some missionary made a bridge by their cultural mythical beliefs ... "Alfred Metraux, however, in his History of the Incas, agrees with Professor John H. Rowe who, he says, "has succeeded in ...
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Timeline of Muslim history Bosworth, Clifford Edmund, The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual, p. ... Grousset, Rene: The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia, pg. 180. Rutgers University Press, 1970.. ...
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The 15th century in North American History provides a timeline of events occurring within the North American continent from ... The archaeological record supplements indigenous recorded and oral history. 1479: Aztec Sun Stone, a monolithic calendar stone ... Mississippian culture List of archaeological periods (North America) "Aztec calendar stone." Aztec History. (retrieved 2 Nov ... is carved Athapaskan-speaking Apache and Navajo reach the American Southwest after migrating over three centuries from the ...
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*  history chronologies : 15th century
At the same time, it was in the 15th century that Europe exploded outward accross the globe. First it was the Portuguese ... While it is the European voyages that are most heavily reported during the 15th century, a much larger operation at the time ... The Renaissance was more pronounced and established outside of Italy by the 15th century. The Renaissance had a profound affect ... This trend is so pronounced that by the 16th century we can read English authors with considerable ease. The Great Schism ...
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Archaeologists have unearthed several 500-year-old bras that some experts say could rewrite fashion history. While they'll ... Medieval "Lingerie" From 15th Century Castle Could Rewrite Fashion History 177 Posted by samzenpus on Friday July 20, 2012 @01: ... Medieval "Lingerie" From 15th Century Castle Could Rewrite Fashion History. Archived Discussion. Load All Comments ... Medieval "Lingerie" From 15th Century Castle Could Rewrite Fashion History More Login ...
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*  14-15th Century Strapend [z6165] - $22.95 : Gaukler Medieval Wares, Own Some History!
15th century inscribed strapend plate (IHS), 4.2cm, found in the Lincolnshire Wolds. ... 14-15th Century Strapend. $22.95. 15th century inscribed strapend plate (IHS), 4.2cm, found in the Lincolnshire Wolds. ... Gaukler Medieval Wares 14-15th Century Strapend [z6165] - ...
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The history of French women's costume. The modes of the Middle Ages ... 13th to 15th century. Middle Ages Embroidery & Lace design. 13th to 15th century. → ... 14th to 15th century costume history.. L'histoire du costume féminin français. Les modes du Moyen Age, de l'an 1037 à l'an 1461 ... This entry was posted in 1330, 1350, 1410, 1420, 1460, 14th Century, 15th Century, Burgundian dress, Court dress, France, ...
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"History Of Parliament 1558-1603". HIstory of Parliament Online. Bain1 1894, p. vol 1 98-100. Bain1 1894, p. vol 1 69-70. Bain1 ... Early in the 15th century an elite company of Scots Guards (Garde Ecossaise) was engaged especially to protect and serve the ... Douglases at the beginning of the 15th century. Just as the place-name "Roxburgh" appears in historic records with numerous ... As the 16th century and Queen Elizabeth's reign drew to a close, and with Scotland's James VI expecting to inherit her realm, ...
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15th century. Chateau de Chantilly. France. Stock Photos. Search over 12 million royalty free images and rights managed stock ... Download History of Gaul. The troops of Caesar and the Germanic hordes fighting over the Rhine. Medieval miniature. ... 15th century. Chateau de Chantilly. France.. This image has Third Party Permissions. Please contact our Sales department for ... Stock Photo: History of Gaul. The troops of Caesar and the Germanic hordes fighting over the Rhine. Medieval miniature. ...
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Watch Educational videos about Science, History, Culture, Geography, Mathematics, Space, Environment, Nature and more. ... Columbus, de Gama, and Zheng He! 15th Century Mariners. Crash Course: World History #21. In which John Green teaches you about ... Columbus, de Gama, and Zheng He! 15th Century Mariners. Crash Course: World History #21. Published 24/03/2017 ... Columbus, whether portrayed as hero or villain, is usually credited as the great sailor of the 15th century, but he definitely ...
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Family history of cancer: pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. Abstract ... The globalization of tobacco use: 21 challenges for the 21st century. Abstract ... transition probability and event history analyses. Abstract ...
  http://labindex.jove.com/group/Century-History%2C-15th
*  15th or 16th Century Quiz
For 15th (1401-1500) enter 5 and for 16th (1501-1600) enter 6. Test your knowledge on this history quiz to see how you do and ... Can you identify in which century these events occurred? ... History Quiz / 15th or 16th Century. Random History or General ... Tags:Century Quiz, Decade Quiz, General Knowledge Quiz, This or That Quiz, World Events, World History ... Can you identify in which century these events occurred? For 15th (1401-1500) enter 5 and for 16th (1501-1600) enter 6.. by ...
  https://www.sporcle.com/games/kfastic/15th-16th-century
*  Timeline of Oxford - Wikipedia
"Timeline History of Oxford - 15th Century". Welcome to Oxford. Retrieved 20 October 2014. "College History". Magdalen College. ... "Timeline History of Oxford - 20th Century". Welcome to Oxford. Retrieved 20 October 2014. "Bannister breaks four-minute mile". ... "Timeline History of Oxford - 12th Century". Welcome to Oxford. Retrieved 20 October 2014. Hilton, Lisa (2008). Queens Consort: ... "Timeline History of Oxford - 19th Century". Welcome to Oxford. Retrieved 20 October 2014. Wenham, Simon (2014). Pleasure ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Oxford
*  15th century in literature - Wikipedia
1493 - Opening of Cynthia Harnett's children's novel The Wool-Pack (1951). 15th century in poetry "History of Guildhall Library ... See also: 15th century in poetry, 14th century in literature, 16th century in literature, list of years in literature. 1403 - A ... ISBN 0-14-102715-0. Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 130-133. ISBN 0- ... This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in the 15th century. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/15th_century_in_literature
*  Tammun - Wikipedia
The town's name derives from the Arabic word tammen, meaning "quiet". Tammun's modern history dates from the 15th century. The ... Over the past four centuries, Arabs from the towns of Kafr Qaddum and Halhul have settled in the town. In 1882, the Palestine ... John F. A. Sawyer and David J. A. Clines (1983). Midian, Moab And Edom: History And Archaeology Of Late Bronze And Iron Age ... Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tammun
*  Franciscan Monastery in Kadaň - Wikipedia
Its history dates back to the 15th century. It is now the seat of the Municipal Museum of Kadaň with an exposition of life in a ... The 18th century brought several unfavourable events. French soldiers of the anti-Habsburg coalition used the church as their ... A revival did not come until the second half of the 17th century, when the buildings were renovated and the church received new ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franciscan_Monastery_in_Kada%C5%88
*  Lincoln College, Oxford - Wikipedia
p. 2. "A 15th Century History of Lincoln College, Oxford". Archived from the original on 5 March 2009. "An 18th Century History ... There are three quads: the Front Quad (15th century), the Chapel Quad (1608-1631) and The Grove (19th century), as well as a ... According to Nikolaus Pevsner, Lincoln College preserves "more of the character of a 15th century college than any other in ... Freshers' Handbook 2008, p.5 "A 19th Century History of Lincoln College, Oxford". Archived from the original on 5 March 2009. " ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lincoln_College,_Oxford
*  Munirka - Wikipedia
Munirka's history dates back to the 15th century. The name Munirka is derived from Munir Khan, who was a mansabdar of the area ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Munirka
*  Carotid artery injury from an airgun pellet: a case report and review of the literature.
Modern airgun history began in the 15th century. These weapons were known as wind chambers and were designed using an air ... Careful, thorough history and examination and appropriate imaging are imperative in the management of such injuries. ...
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Carotid-artery-injury-from-airgun/19149904.html
*  Hajduk-Veljko - Wikipedia
History of the Balkans 14th-15th Century (in Bulgarian). Plovdiv: Hermes. p. 273. ISBN 954-459-901-0. Stevanović, Mihailo M. ( ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hajduk-Veljko
*  Kızılhisar, Yenişehir - Wikipedia
The village's history dates back to approximately 15th century. On religious or public holidays, young girls in the village ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C4%B1z%C4%B1lhisar,_Yeni%C5%9Fehir
*  Johann Friedrich (theologian) - Wikipedia
Jahrhunderts (1862) - Wessel Gansfort; a portrait of church history in the 15th century. Die Lehre des Johann Hus (1862) - The ... Jahrhunderts (1876) - Contribution to church history of the 18th century. Der Mechanismus der vatikanischen Religion (1876) - ... Geschichte des Vatikanischen Konzils (2 volumes, 1877-86) - History of the Vatican Council. Das Papsttum (1892) - The papacy. ... Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands (2 volumes, 1867-69) - German church history. Download Tagebuch während des Vaticanischen ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Friedrich_(theologian)
*  Marco I Sanudo - Wikipedia
4th-15th centuries », in Economic History of Byzantium., p. 87. J.K. Fotheringham, op. cit., p. 17-20. J.K. Fotheringham, op. ... This rule, asserted in the 15th century, is thus extended to the start of the 13th century by Biondo. The most commonly used ... Most of them are Venetian chronicles dating from the 14th and 15th centuries. In the first one, Istoria di Romania, Marino ... In the 10th century, a theme of the Aegean Sea (tò théma toû Aiyaíou Pelágous) ruled by an admiral (dhrungarios) was created. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marco_I_Sanudo
*  Cumbarjua - Wikipedia
Cumbarjua's history dates back to the early 15th century. On the west was Gandaulim which marked the fortified border of the ... In the 19th century, Cumbarjua was divided into four pieces and sold. Out of that sale, one piece was bought by the rich Shenvi ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cumbarjua
*  https://lib.ugent.be/catalog/ebk01:3390000000059245
Italian literature 15th century History and criticism.. Literary Studies, general.. Literary Studies.. Literatura italiana S. ... a Italian literature y 15th century v History and criticism. 650. 4. a Literary Studies, general. ...
  https://lib.ugent.be/catalog/ebk01:3390000000059245

Newington Green Unitarian ChurchDiscoverer 23Enlightenment Intensive: An Enlightenment Intensive is a group retreat designed to enable a spiritual enlightenment experience within a relatively short time. Devised by Americans Charles (1929–2007) and Ava Berner in the 1960s,http://www.The Flash ChroniclesGreenpoint Renaissance Enterprise Corporation: The Greenpoint Renaissance Enterprise Corporation (GREC) is a consortium of neighborhood organizations in North Brooklyn that serves to facilitate and advocate the activities for city initiatives, as well as coordinate community involvement in the neighborhood of the former Greenpoint Hospital Complex.Lang, Frank.Ippolito de' MediciParchment repair: The repair and mending of parchment has taken place for thousands of years. Methods from the earliest hand stitching of tears to today's use of modern equipment to mend and fill parchment show the importance that has been placed on its preservation and conservation.Lars Larsen Forsæth: Lars Larsen Forsæth (baptized 9 December 1759 – 12 February 1839) was a Norwegian farmer who served as a representative at the Norwegian Constituent Assembly. Tallak Lindstøl: Stortinget og Statsraadet, Kristiania, 1914.Timeline of historic inventionsNicholas II of WerleProphet Jeremiah (Michelangelo): The Prophet Jeremiah is one of the seven Old Testament prophets painted by the Italian High Renaissance master Michelangelo (c. 1542–1545) on the Sistine Chapel ceiling.List of asbestos disease medical articles: Thousands of scientific and medical articles have chronicled human understanding of the hazards of asbestos to human life.Environmental Working Group, List of References regarding asbestos hazards This understanding paralleled the growth of the industrial revolution, particularly in the textile factories and mines of Great Britain.Beaumont Leys: Beaumont Leys is a suburb and electoral ward in north-western Leicester, England. Locally, Beaumont Leys is usually used in reference to the large housing estate, built within the administrative division, centred on Strasbourg Drive.Taagepera Castle: The Taagepera Castle (German name: Wagenküll) is a mansion in Taagepera village, Helme Parish, Valga County, Estonia.Imad al-Din Mahmud ibn Mas‘ud Shirazi: Imad al-Din Mahmud ibn Mas‘ud Shirazi was a mid-16th-century Persian physician from Shiraz, Iran.Culion leper colony: The Culion Leper Colony was a former leprosarium located on Culion, an island in the Palawan province of the Philippines. It was established by the US government in order to rid leprosy from the Philippine islands through the only method known at the time: isolating all existing cases and gradually phasing out the disease from the population.List of Indus Valley Civilization sites: "'Indus Civilization"' is an ancient civilization.Rosalyn Sussman YalowHuman Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990: The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It created the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority which is in charge of human embryo research, along with monitoring and licensing fertility clinics in the United Kingdom.Paleopathology: Paleopathology, also spelled palaeopathology, is the study of ancient diseases. It is useful in understanding the history of diseases, and uses this understanding to predict its course in the future.Professionalization and institutionalization of history: Professionalization and institutionalization of history is term used in historiography to describe process of professionalization of the historical discipline with historians becoming professionals through process of special education, and genesis of historical institutions they founded.Spanking Shakespeare: Spanking Shakespeare (2007) is the debut novel by Jake Wizner. It is a young adult novel that tells the story of the unfortunately named Shakespeare Shapiro and his struggles in high school, dating and friendship.Esther InglisComputational archaeology: Computational archaeology describes computer-based analytical methods for the study of long-term human behaviour and behavioural evolution. As with other sub-disciplines that have prefixed 'computational' to their name (e.Medical Anthropology Quarterly: Medical Anthropology Quarterly (MAQ) is an international peer-reviewed academic journal published for the Society for Medical Anthropology by the American Anthropological Association. It publishes research and theory about human health and disease from all areas of medical anthropology.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightLa Chapelle-aux-Saints 1: La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 (also known as "The Old Man") is a partial skeleton of the species Homo neanderthalensis. It was discovered in La Chapelle-aux-Saints, France by A.Eugenics in the United States: Eugenics, the set of beliefs and practices which aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population played a significant role in the history and culture of the United States prior to its involvement in World War II.Hellenistic portraitureUCL Institute of NeurologyFrom Occident to Orient: From Occident to Orient is a 2007 compilation by English folk/rock singer-songwriter Roy Harper. It was initially released as a collectors item by Vinyl Japan to coincide with Harpers 2007 tour there.Prosection: A prosection is the dissection of a cadaver (human or animal) or part of a cadaver by an experienced anatomist in order to demonstrate for students anatomic structure."Prosection.Septicemic plague: Septicemic (or septicaemic) plague is one of the three main forms of plague. It is caused by Yersinia pestis, a gram-negative species of bacterium.List of years in literature: This page gives a chronological list of years in literature (descending order), with notable publications listed with their respective years and a small selection of notable events. The time covered in individual years covers Renaissance, Baroque and Modern literature, while Medieval literature is resolved by century.GA²LENMarble sculpture: Marble sculpture is the art of creating three-dimensional forms from marble. Sculpture is among the oldest of the arts.Blue Peter Book Award: The Blue Peter Book Awards are a set of literary awards for children's books conferred by the BBC television programme Blue Peter. They were inaugurated in 2000 for books published in 1999.Aztec mummy: Aztec mummy refers to an intentionally prepared or naturally desiccated human body of Aztec origin.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Giant (mythology)IPCC Second Assessment Report: The Second Assessment Report (SAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), published in 1996, is an assessment of the then available scientific and socio-economic information on climate change. It was superseded by the Third Assessment Report (TAR) in 2001.Sade LiveHealth geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Modern Moral Philosophy: "Modern Moral Philosophy" is an influential article on moral philosophy by G. E.Saint-Florent Cathedral: Saint-Florent Cathedral or Nebbio Cathedral (Cathédrale Saint-Florent de Saint-Florent, also known as Cathédrale du Nebbio) is a former Roman Catholic cathedral and French national monument located in the town of Saint-Florent in Corsica. It is now the church of Santa Maria Assunta.Brugsch Papyrus: The Brugsch Papyrus (Pap. Berl.Magic (illusion): Magic (sometimes referred to as stage magic to distinguish it from paranormal or ritual magic) is a performing art that entertains audiences by staging tricks or creating illusions of seemingly impossibleHenning Nelms. Magic and Showmanship: A Handbook for Conjurers, page 1 (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, Inc, 2000).Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Negroid: Negroid (also known as Congoid) is a term that is used by forensic and physical anthropologists to refer to individuals and populations that share certain morphological and skeletal traits that are frequent among most populations in Sub-Saharan Africa. The term is commonly associated with notions of racial typology, which are disputed by many anthropologists.Opinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010: Opinion polling (popularly known as surveys in the Philippines) for the 2010 Philippine presidential election is managed by two major polling firms: Social Weather Stations and Pulse Asia, and several minor polling firms. The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.Arthur Wilson (Royal Navy officer)University Hospital Centre Zagreb: The University Hospital Centre (sometimes also Clinical Hospital Centre, ) in Zagreb, Croatia, is the largest hospital in Croatia and the teaching hospital of the University of Zagreb. It serves most of Central and Northern Croatia for specialist and acute medical procedures.Josse de Corte: [Court Altare S. Maria della Salute.Climate change in the United Kingdom: Climate change in the United Kingdom has been a subject of protests and controversies, and various policies have been developed to mitigate its effects. It is estimated to demand at least 80-85% emission reductions in the EU during 2008-2050 with reductions as soon as technically possible.EcosystemThe Oxford Textbook of Medicine: The Oxford Textbook of Medicine Warrell DA, Cox TM, Firth JD. (2010).The Republican War on Science: The Republican War on Science is a 2005 book by Chris C. Mooney, an American journalist who focuses on the politics of science policy.Type XXVII collagen: Type XXVII collagen is the protein predicted to be encoded by COL27A1. It was first described by Dr.Karl Abraham: Karl Abraham (; 3 May 1877 – 25 December 1925) was an early important and influential German psychoanalyst, and a collaborator of Sigmund Freud, who called him his 'best pupil'.Freud Museum at www.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Laser engravingDaesun Jinrihoe: Daesun Jinrihoe (Also transliterated as Daesunjinrihoe, Daesun Chillihoe, Taesunchillihoe, Daesoonjinrihoe, Daesoon Jinrihoe and Taesŏn Chillihoe) is a Korean new religious movement, founded in April 1969 by Park Han-gyeong (박한경) (1918–96). It is a splinter of the syncretic religion founded by Gang Il-Sun (1871–1909, also known as Chungsan Kang).QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Gavriil Pribylov: Gavriil Loginovich Pribylov (; first name also spelled Gavriel, Gerasim or Gerassim, last name also spelled Pribilof) (died 1796) was a Russian navigator who discovered the Bering Sea islands of St. George Island and St.Eclectic Materia Medica: Eclectic Materia Medica is a materia medica written by the eclectic medicine doctor Harvey Wickes Felter (co-author with John Uri Lloyd of King's American Dispensatory). This was the last, articulate, but in the end, futile attempt to stem the tide of Standard Practice Medicine, the antithesis of the model of the rural primary care "vitalist" physician that was the basis for Eclectic medicine.Buchanan (horse): Buchanan (1881 – c.1898) was an American thoroughbred racehorse and was the winner of the 1884 Kentucky Derby, Ripple Stakes and Clark Stakes.First Strike CoinsLarge ornamented Ediacaran microfossil: Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossils (LOEMs) are microscopic acritarchs, usually over 100 μm in diameter, which are common in sediments of the Ediacaran period, . They largely disappear from the Ediacaran fossil record before , roughly coeval with the origin of the Ediacara biota.Dorjee KhanduAmerican Mixed Breed Obedience Registry: The American Mixed Breed Obedience Registry (AMBOR) is a registry for mixed-breed dogs to enable them to compete in obedience and dog agility.Triangle of death (Italy): The triangle of death (Italian: Triangolo della morte) is an area in the Italian province of Campania comprising the municipalities of Acerra, Nola and Marigliano. The region has recently experienced increasing deaths caused by cancer and other diseases that exceeds the Italian national average.Global Infectious Disease Epidemiology Network: Global Infectious Diseases Epidemiology Network (GIDEON) is a web-based program for decision support and informatics in the fields of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine. As of 2005, more than 300 generic infectious diseases occur haphazardly in time and space and are challenged by over 250 drugs and vaccines.Hesquiaht First NationMassachusetts smallpox epidemic: Massachusetts smallpox epidemic or Colonial epidemic was a smallpox epidemic that hit Massachusetts in 1633, affecting settlers and Native Americans. The casualties included 20 settlers from Mayflower and their only physician Dr Samuel Fuller.ESCAIDEAlexander Walker (physiologist): Alexander Walker (1779—1852) was a Scottish physiologist, aesthetician, encyclopaedist, translator, novelist, and journalist.Social history of England: The social history of England evidences many social changes the centuries. These major social changes have affected England both internally and in its relationship with other nations.Budic II of Brittany: Budic II (; or ; ), formerly known as Budick, was a king of Cornouaille in Brittany in the late 5th and early 6th centuries. He was the father of Hoel Mawr and is probably to be identified with the Emyr Llydaw ("Emperor of Brittany") and King Nentres who appear in Arthurian legend.Howard Phillips (politician)PeriostitisMetal theft: Metal theft is "the theft of items for the value of their constituent metals". It usually increases when worldwide prices for scrap metal rise, as has happened dramatically due to rapid industrialization in India and China.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingFood Race: American environmental author Daniel Quinn coined the term Food Race (by analogy to the Cold War's "nuclear arms race") to describe an understanding of the current overpopulation emergency as a perpetually escalating crisis between growing human population and growing food production, fueled by the latter. Quinn argues that as the worldwide human population increases, the typical international response is to more intensely produce and distribute food to feed these greater numbers of people.Apple (symbolism): Apples appear in many religious traditions, often as a mystical or forbidden fruit. One of the problems identifying apples in religion, mythology and folktales is that as late as the 17th century, the word "apple" was used as a generic term for all (foreign) fruit other than berries, but including nuts.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Mortality rate: Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.Peat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.Cement Mixer (drink): A cement mixer is a shot drink. It often consists of:

(1/201) Fish and mammals in the economy of an ancient Peruvian kingdom.

Fish and mammal bones from the coastal site of Cerro Azul, Peru shed light on economic specialization just before the Inca conquest of A. D. 1470. The site devoted itself to procuring anchovies and sardines in quantity for shipment to agricultural communities. These small fish were dried, stored, and eventually transported inland via caravans of pack llamas. Cerro Azul itself did not raise llamas but obtained charqui (or dried meat) as well as occasional whole adult animals from the caravans. Guinea pigs were locally raised. Some 20 species of larger fish were caught by using nets; the more prestigious varieties of these show up mainly in residential compounds occupied by elite families.  (+info)

(2/201) A simple and efficient method for PCR amplifiable DNA extraction from ancient bones.

A simple and effective modified ethanol precipitation-based protocol is described for the preparation of DNA from ancient human bones. This method is fast and requires neither hazardous chemicals nor special devices. After the powdering and incubating of the bone samples Dextran Blue was added as a carrier for removing the PCR inhibitors with selective ethanol precipitation. This method could eliminate the time-consuming separate decalcification step, dialysis, application of centrifugation-driven microconcentrators and the second consecutive PCR amplification. The efficiency of this procedure was demonstrated on ten 500-1200-year-old human bones from four different Hungarian burial sites. A mitochondrial specific primer pair was used to obtain sequence information from the purified ancient DNA. The PCR amplification, after our DNA extraction protocol, was successful from each of the 10 bone samples investigated. The results demonstrate that extraction of DNA from ancient bone samples with this new approach increases the success rate of PCR amplification.  (+info)

(3/201) Involving women in HIV vaccine efficacy trials: lessons learned from a vaccine preparedness study in New York City.

This paper identifies the recruitment strategies and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors of at-risk women in an HIV vaccine preparedness study in New York City, assesses how these behaviors changed over time, and draws implications for women's involvement in HIV vaccine efficacy trials. Noninjecting HIV-1 negative women (N = 89) were recruited into an HIV vaccine preparedness study. An observational cohort study design was used. Women were recruited from clinics and community-based organizations (40%), through other study participants (24%), through newspaper advertisements (20%), and through street outreach (16%). Most women who refused (72%) also came from clinics and agencies. Retention after 12 months was 67%; after 18 months, it was 62%. The proportion of women reporting unprotected vaginal sex in the previous 3 months was 85% at baseline and declined to 70% after 12 months (P < .05). There have been no seroconversions detected. Recruitment efforts to include at-risk women in HIV vaccine efficacy trials must be diverse and actively involve community agencies. Successfully retaining these cohorts over time and detecting a high enough HIV seroincidence rate present ongoing challenges that will need to be addressed to ensure women's involvement in future trials in the US.  (+info)

(4/201) First European exposure to syphilis: the Dominican Republic at the time of Columbian contact.

Recognition of syphilis in Europe in the late 15th century and its prior absence suggest New World origin. Skeletal populations were examined from sites with documented Columbian contact in the Dominican Republic. Examination of 536 skeletal remains revealed periosteal reaction characteristic of treponemal disease in 6%-14% of the afflicted population. Findings were identical to that previously noted in confirmed syphilis-affected populations and distinctive from those associated with yaws and bejel: it was a low population frequency phenomenon, affecting an average of 1.7-2.6 bone groups, often asymmetric and sparing hands and feet, but associated with significant tibial remodeling. While findings diagnostic of syphilis have been reported in the New World, actual demonstration of syphilis in areas where Columbus actually had contact was missing, until now. The evidence is consistent with this site as the point of initial contact of syphilis and of its subsequent spread from the New World to the Old.  (+info)

(5/201) Molecular identification by "suicide PCR" of Yersinia pestis as the agent of medieval black death.

Medieval Black Death is believed to have killed up to one-third of the Western European population during the 14th century. It was identified as plague at this time, but recently the causative organism was debated because no definitive evidence has been obtained to confirm the role of Yersinia pestis as the agent of plague. We obtained the teeth of a child and two adults from a 14th century grave in France, disrupted them to obtain the pulp, and applied the new "suicide PCR" protocol in which the primers are used only once. There were no positive controls: Neither Yersinia nor Yersinia DNA were introduced in the laboratory. A negative result is followed by a new test using other primers; a positive result is followed by sequencing. The second and third primer pair used, coding for a part of the pla gene, generated amplicons whose sequence confirmed that it was Y. pestis in 1 tooth from the child and 19/19 teeth from the adults. Negative controls were negative. Attempts to detect the putative alternative etiologic agents Bacillus anthracis and Rickettsia prowazekii failed. Suicide PCR avoids any risk of contamination as it uses a single-shot primer-its specificity is absolute. We believe that we can end the controversy: Medieval Black Death was plague.  (+info)

(6/201) Facts and fiction surrounding the discovery of the venous valves.

Venous valves are delicate structures, the integrity of which is crucial for the normal function of the venous system. Their abnormalities lead to widespread disorders, ranging from chronic venous insufficiency to life-threatening thromboembolic phenomena. The discovery of the venous valves, however, has been the subject of hot controversy. Even though Fabricius ab Aquapendente is credited with the discovery by most historians, we demonstrate in this paper that other anatomists described them many years before Fabricius ab Aquapendente publicly demonstrated them in Padua in 1579. A thorough review of the historical literature surrounding the discovery of the venous valves was carried out from 1545 to the present under the supervision of the Medical History Department of our institution. Research was performed at the History of Medicine Division of the National Library of Medicine and through MEDLINE access to the medical literature. The Parisian Charles Estienne first mentioned the venous valves in his 1545 publication when he described "apophyses membranarum" in the veins of the liver. Lusitanus and Canano publicly demonstrated them in the azygos vein during cadaver dissections performed in Ferrera, Italy. The Parisian Jacques Sylvius described valves in the veins of the extremities in 1555. The work of these anatomists, however, could not achieve full recognition, because Andreas Vesalius, the leading anatomist at that time, was unable to confirm their findings and strongly denied the existence of venous valves. Vesalius's influence was so powerful that research on the subject was idle until 1579, when Fabricius ab Aquapendente "discovered" the venous valves. About the same time, the German Salomon Alberti published the first drawings of a venous valve (in 1585). William Harvey, a disciple of Fabricius ab Aquapendente, finally postulated the function of the venous valves, providing anatomical support for one of the greatest discoveries in medicine: the blood circulation. Therefore, our investigations revealed that Estienne and Canano discovered the venous valves in the 1530s. Fabricius ab Aquapendente's achievement was their full recognition 64 years later. However, it was not until 1628 that their function was fully understood, with the discovery of the blood circulation by William Harvey.  (+info)

(7/201) Fecal steroids of the coprolite of a Greenland Eskimo mummy, AD 1475: a clue to dietary sterol intake.

BACKGROUND: Sterols in feces reflect sterols in the diet. In previous analyses of the fecal steroids in 1000-2000-y-old Native American coprolites found in the dry caves of Nevada, we showed that the sterol nucleus was stable. The coprolites provided useful dietary information. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we analyzed the fecal steroids of an Eskimo mummy buried and frozen >500 y ago in Greenland. We compared these analyses with our findings in the coprolites from Nevada and in present-day stool samples from Tarahumara Indians of Mexico and Americans consuming low- and high-cholesterol diets. DESIGN: The fecal material from the Eskimo mummy was subjected to saponification, extraction, and digitonin precipitation. The sterols and bile acids were further analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The fecal steroids of the Greenland Eskimo mummy were remarkably similar to those of present-day stool samples. However, unlike in the stool of modern humans, a portion of the neutral steroids in the coprolite had been converted to sterol epimers. Instead of deoxycholic acid, 3alpha,6beta,12alpha-trihydroxycholanic acid was one of the major fecal bile acids. The plant sterol output in the coprolite was only 0.4% of the output of Americans consuming 250-400 mg plant sterols/d. The ratio of bile acid to cholesterol in the coprolite was similar to that in stool from Tarahumara Indians consuming a low-cholesterol diet. CONCLUSION: The sterol nucleus is stable when frozen. The analysis of coprolite showed that the young Eskimo woman had consumed a diet very low in plant sterols and moderate to low in cholesterol content.  (+info)

(8/201) Hieronymus Bosch (1450-1516): paleopathology of the medieval disabled and its relation to the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010.

BACKGROUND: At the start of the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010, a paleopathologic study of the physically disabled may yield information and insight on the prevalence of crippling disorders and attitudes towards the afflicted in the past compared to today. OBJECTIVE: To analyze "The procession of the Cripples," a representative drawing of 31 disabled individuals by Hieronymus Bosch in 1500. METHODS: Three specialists--a rheumatologist, an orthopedic surgeon and a neurologist--analyzed each case by problem-solving means and clinical reasoning in order to formulate a consensus on the most likely diagnosis. RESULTS: This iconographic study of cripples in the sixteenth century reveals that the most common crippling disorder was not a neural form of leprosy, but rather that other disorders were also prevalent, such as congenital malformation, dry gangrene due to ergotism, post-traumatic amputations, infectious diseases (Pott's, syphilis), and even simulators. The drawings show characteristic coping patterns and different kinds of crutches and aids. CONCLUSION: A correct clinical diagnosis can be reached through the collaboration of a rheumatologist, an orthopedist and a neurologist. The Bone and Joint Decade Project, calling for attention and education with respect to musculoskeletal disorders, should reduce the impact and burden of crippling diseases worldwide through early clinical diagnosis and appropriate treatment.  (+info)



  • 20th
  • The influence of 15th century garments can be seen in the academic gowns that teachers at English public (exclusive private) schools still wore in the early 20th century and are still worn by university dons for ceremonial purposes. (histclo.com)
  • Culture, fashion and costume history from Antique to the 20th century. (world4.eu)
  • The room where he is believed to have worked is also named after him and was renovated by American Methodists at the beginning of the 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • This course will explore the phenomenon that is American 20th century art music with its distinctive 'New World' sound full of energy and drive. (hotcourses.com)
  • 16th century
  • Botticelli's work in the late 15th and early 16th century shows the continuing influence of the Church, but includes wonderfully detailed depiction of the fashion of the day, both clothing and hair styles. (histclo.com)
  • This trend is so pronounced that by the 16th century we can read English authors with considerable ease. (histclo.com)
  • The most commonly used chronicle, because it gives a lot of geographical and chronological details, is the one written by Daniele Barbaro in the 16th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of course, the audience is attracted by the possibility to see the portraits of the Russian rulers, including Tsar Ivan the Terrible who ruled in the 16th century, those who ruled after him and the last Russian Emperor Nicholas II. (angelfire.com)
  • 17th
  • A revival did not come until the second half of the 17th century, when the buildings were renovated and the church received new furniture and fixtures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Histoire nouvelle des anciens Ducs de l'Archipel, another widely used account, was written in the second half of the 17th century by a French Jesuit from Naxos monastery, Father Saulger. (wikipedia.org)
  • great
  • Many great universities were founded are became established in the 15th century. (histclo.com)
  • So for example, in Macbeth, Duncan's two sons spend time at the court of Edward the Great, even though Macbeth is set almost two centuries before Edward the Great was even BORN (but Edward was a direct ancestor to Queen Elizabeth - still reigning monarch when Macbeth was written), the passage is a clear case of puckering up to the royal rectum rather than attempting to be historically accurate or believable. (slashdot.org)
  • Columbus, whether portrayed as hero or villain, is usually credited as the great sailor of the 15th century, but he definitely wasn't the only contender. (hotstream.org)
  • paintings
  • The residents of St. Petersburg say that the idea to create a national portrait gallery was expressed by their compatriot - the prominent Russian artist and art critic - Alexander Benois who considered the Mikhailovsky Palace in St. Petersburg to be an ideal place for paintings reflecting Russia's history. (angelfire.com)
  • time
  • At the same time, it was in the 15th century that Europe exploded outward accross the globe. (histclo.com)
  • While it is the European voyages that are most heavily reported during the 15th century, a much larger operation at the time was Chinese eunuch Admiral Zheng He's voyage with an emense fleet to South-East Asia, India, and East Africa. (histclo.com)
  • university
  • The story goes that, centuries ago, as a mob chased students at the University through the town, the Lincoln porter allowed in the Lincoln students but refused entry to the Brasenose member, leaving him to the mercy of the mob. (wikipedia.org)
  • Black
  • According to documents so far uncovered, Routledges were aligned with cadet barons of the "Black" Douglases at the beginning of the 15th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • goes
  • Columbus gets a bad rap from many modern historians, but it turns out he was pretty important as far as the history of the world goes. (hotstream.org)
  • almost
  • 1479: Aztec Sun Stone, a monolithic calendar stone, almost 12 feet in diameter, is carved Athapaskan-speaking Apache and Navajo reach the American Southwest after migrating over three centuries from the western Canadian prairies. (wikipedia.org)
  • city
  • The family came to the Venetian islands at the beginning of the 9th century after their city was destroyed. (wikipedia.org)