Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Social Work: The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Social Distance: The degree of closeness or acceptance an individual or group feels toward another individual or group.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Social Conditions: The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Social Problems: Situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community, and that require programs of amelioration.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Social Security: Government sponsored social insurance programs.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Psychology, Social: The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.Social Desirability: A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.Social Identification: The process by which an aspect of self image is developed based on in-group preference or ethnocentrism and a perception of belonging to a social or cultural group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Social Participation: Involvement in community activities or programs.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Social Conformity: Behavioral or attitudinal compliance with recognized social patterns or standards.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Social Facilitation: Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.Social Alienation: The state of estrangement individuals feel in cultural settings that they view as foreign, unpredictable, or unacceptable.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Social Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the role of socio-environmental factors in the occurrence, prevention and treatment of disease.Social Marketing: Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Dominance-Subordination: Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine: Controlled vocabulary of clinical terms produced by the International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation (IHTSDO).Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Social Determinants of Health: The circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics ( An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Social Stigma: A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Friends: Persons whom one knows, likes, and trusts.Social Work, Psychiatric: Use of all social work processes in the treatment of patients in a psychiatric or mental health setting.Sociology: A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.Immunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Reinforcement, Social: The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Social Planning: Interactional process combining investigation, discussion, and agreement by a number of people in the preparation and carrying out of a program to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community. It usually involves the action of a formal political, legal, or recognized voluntary body.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.United StatesBiological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Loneliness: The state of feeling sad or dejected as a result of lack of companionship or being separated from others.Rejection (Psychology): Non-acceptance, negative attitudes, hostility or excessive criticism of the individual which may precipitate feelings of rejection.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Mescaline: Hallucinogenic alkaloid isolated from the flowering heads (peyote) of Lophophora (formerly Anhalonium) williamsii, a Mexican cactus used in Indian religious rites and as an experimental psychotomimetic. Among its cellular effects are agonist actions at some types of serotonin receptors. It has no accepted therapeutic uses although it is legal for religious use by members of the Native American Church.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Economics, Behavioral: The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Social Control, Formal: Control which is exerted by the more stable organizations of society, such as established institutions and the law. They are ordinarily embodied in definite codes, usually written.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Social Discrimination: Group behavior toward others by virtue of their group membership.Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Sociology, Medical: The study of the social determinants and social effects of health and disease, and of the social structure of medical institutions or professions.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Pair Bond: In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Higher Nervous Activity: A term used in Eastern European research literature on brain and behavior physiology for cortical functions. It refers to the highest level of integrative function of the brain, centered in the CEREBRAL CORTEX, regulating language, thought, and behavior via sensory, motor, and cognitive processes.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Socialization: The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Sociobiology: The comparative study of social organization in animals including humans, especially with regard to its genetic basis and evolutionary history. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Games, Experimental: Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Caulobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod- or vibroid-shaped or fusiform bacteria that commonly produce a stalk. They are found in fresh water and soil and divide by binary transverse fission.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Emotional Intelligence: The ability to understand and manage emotions and to use emotional knowledge to enhance thought and deal effectively with tasks. Components of emotional intelligence include empathy, self-motivation, self-awareness, self-regulation, and social skill. Emotional intelligence is a measurement of one's ability to socialize or relate to others.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Personal Construct Theory: A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Ethology: The discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.Housing, AnimalPsychosocial Deprivation: The absence of appropriate stimuli in the physical or social environment which are necessary for the emotional, social, and intellectual development of the individual.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Sociometric Techniques: Methods for quantitatively assessing and measuring interpersonal and group relationships.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Trust: Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Anthropology, Cultural: It is the study of social phenomena which characterize the learned, shared, and transmitted social activities of particular ethnic groups with focus on the causes, consequences, and complexities of human social and cultural variability.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Concept Formation: A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Family Relations: Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Shyness: Discomfort and partial inhibition of the usual forms of behavior when in the presence of others.Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.Mice, Inbred C57BLAmygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Great BritainPower (Psychology): The exertion of a strong influence or control over others in a variety of settings--administrative, social, academic, etc.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Cultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Cichlids: Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.Psychology: The science dealing with the study of mental processes and behavior in man and animals.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Anomie: A state of social disorganization and demoralization in society which is largely the result of disharmony between cultural goals and the means for attaining them. This may be reflected in the behavior of the individual in many ways - non-conformity, social withdrawal, deviant behavior, etc.Territoriality: Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Abies: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Life Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.

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Prison social hierarchy refers to the social status of prisoners within a correctional facility, and how that status is used to ... A prisoner's place in the hierarchy is determined by a wide array of factors including previous crimes, access to contraband, ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Kloehn, Steve (September 27, 1991). "Prisoners Observe Hierarchy". Bangor Daily ... "The Evolving Nature of Prison Argot and Sexual Hierarchies" (PDF). The Prison Journal. 83 (3): 289-300. Retrieved 24 May 2014. ...
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Fighting between sows is not essential to establish and maintain a dominance/social hierarchy. A major concern with group ... space divisions/mixing pens to facilitate social hierarchy formation and stability.. *space to segregate individual sows if ... Providing a pen environment with sufficient space configured for sow comfort and stability of the social hierarchy can ... facilitate establishment and maintenance of stable social hierarchy in the group; and stockpeople that are knowledgeable, ...
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Social Hierarchy. America: 2012. France: 1789. Background to the Revolution. Before the revolution, French society was divided ... Social Hierarchy. America: 2012. France: 1789. Background to the Revolution. Before the revolution, French society was divided ...
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SOCIAL CLASS and STRATIFICATION. Stratification system: Rank some kinds of people as more deserving than others, or '...all ... Social Stratification -. social class. people who have similar position in the social hierarchy, who have similar political and ... CHAPTER 8 -Social stratification. chapter 8. what is social stratification? why does social inequality exist? how do social ... Chapter 9 -. social class and social stratification. chapter outline. social differentiation and social stratification why is ...
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Books authored by Barchas include Social Cohesion, Social Hierarchies, and Sociophysiology.. Patricia R. Barchas Award[edit]. ... Social hierarchies. London: Greenwood Press.. *Barchas, P. R. 1984. Social Cohesion: Essays Toward A Sociophysiological ... Patricia Barchas discovered that small amounts of alcohol could alter the formation and retention of social hierarchies in ... showed that humans and non-human primates form new social hierarchies in analogous ways; and provided evidence that groups of ...
*  Deborah Barnum
"Whist, Quadrilles, and Social Hierarchy: Pride and Prejudice as a Game." MA thesis. U of Central Oklahoma, 2012. ProQuest (2012 ... "Spatial Anxiety: Adapting the Social Space of Pride and Prejudice." Literature Film Quarterly 40.1 (2012): 30-45. ... "Housekeeping, Social Habits, Mealtimes and Menus in the Georgian and Regency Periods." Transactions 23 (2012): 93-105. ... "Hierarchy and Seduction in Regency Fashion." Persuasions On-Line 33.1 (2012). Web. ...
*  Effects of stress on immune function: the good, the bad, and the beautiful | SpringerLink
The influence of social hierarchy on primate health. Science. 2005;308:648-52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Reduced serum antibodies associated with social defeat in rats. Physiol Behav. 1989;45:1183-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Anger is associated with increased IL-6 stress reactivity in women, but only among those low in social support. Int J Behav Med ... Differential effect of severe and moderate social stress on blood immune and endocrine measures and susceptibility to collagen ...
*  Pecking order - Wikipedia
Pecking order is a basic concept in social stratification and social hierarchy that has its counterparts in other animal ... The term dominance hierarchy is often used for this type of social organisation in other animals. ... "Social Hierarchy and Dominance. Benchmark Papers in Animal Behavior, Volume 3." Stroudsburg, PA: Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, ... It has been shown that in larger groups, which is common in farming, the dominance hierarchy becomes less stable and aggression ...
*  Living on Earth: May 27, 2005
He says they have a well-defined social hierarchy. They're monogamous but they also allow for divorce. They'll defend their ... Scientists insist these results prove social factors play a part in this problem, but do not get to the heart of the matter ... that means there's an opening in the social system. And if you're a submissive magpie you can move up one notch. ...
*  The Concept Formerly Described as "Dominance"
Social hierarchies do exist. Put any two high-thinking sentient beings in a room together, and a social hierarchy will develop ... The potential of injury in social predators, is the reason that many argue why social hierarchies developed in animals like ... That's the explanation for the existence of social hierarchies: they allow individuals to get 'priority access' without having ... It is highly influenced by resource distribution: "Clumped, high quality resources" tend to exaggerate social hierarchies, ...
*  Experts at Stony Brook University, New York
Assistant Professor Expertise social hierarchy; social hierarchy within organizations; power; status; competition; testosterone ... Professor School of Social Welfare Expertise homelessness; poverty; social welfare; social welfare policy; housing; food ... Assistant Professor Psychiatry Expertise depression; neuroimaging; brain response to social rejection; social acceptance; ... social disorders; psychosocial interventions for autism spectrum disorders; social problems in children and adolescents ...
*  Ambrosiaster's Political Theology - Sophie Lunn-Rockliffe - Oxford University Press
4. Social hierarchies. 5. Ecclesiastical hierarchies. 6. Divine kingship. 7. Diabolical tyranny. Conclusion ... She looks at how Ambrosiaster's attitudes to social and political order were formed on the basis of theological concepts and ...
*  Frontiers | Cyclic ADP-Ribose and Heat Regulate Oxytocin Release via CD38 and TRPM2 in the Hypothalamus during Social or...
That is, when male mice received cage-switch stress and eliminated due to their social subclass, significantly higher levels of ... exert their functions on OT release during stress or stress-induced hyperthermia in relation to the anxiolytic roles and social ... and suggested that CD38 and TRPM2 are potential therapeutic targets for OT release in psychiatric diseases caused by social ... exert their functions on OT release during stress or stress-induced hyperthermia in relation to the anxiolytic roles and social ...
*  IQ modulates with status in small groups | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
2008 Know your place: neural processing of social hierarchy in humans. Neuron 58, 273-283. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2008.01.025 ( ... 2005 The influence of social hierarchy on primate health. Science 308, 648-652. doi:10.1126/science.1106477 (doi:10.1126/ ... One important signal in the context of a small group is social rank; however, the cognitive impact of changes in social rank is ... 2005 The social nature of primate cognition. Proc. R. Soc. B 272, 1865-1875. doi:10.1098/rspb.2005.3200 (doi:10.1098/rspb. ...
*  Badger cull may not be long-term solution to TB - Farmers Weekly
Badgers are social animals with their own social hierarchy. Removing badgers, therefore, causes disturbance in the population ...
*  Shark - Wikipedia
Cross-species social hierarchies exist. For example, oceanic whitetip sharks dominate silky sharks of comparable size during ... These social sharks are often migratory, traveling huge distances around ocean basins in large schools. These migrations may be ... Guttridge, T.L., van Dijk, S., Stamhuis, E.J., Krause, J., Gruber, S.H. and Brown, C. (2013). "Social learning in juvenile ... Most live far more social, sedentary, benthic lives, and appear likely to have their own distinct personalities. Even solitary ...
*  Cognition
Cognitive Skills Needed for Social Hierarchies. Russell D. Fernald. Summary. Summary: Cognition in 2014. Terrence J. Sejnowski ... Perception and Social Behavior. Early Language Learning and the Social Brain. Patricia K. Kuhl. Dopaminergic Dynamics ... Contributing to Social Behavior. Lisa A. Gunaydin and Karl Deisseroth. ...
*  History of Panama (to 1821) - Wikipedia
Social hierarchy in the colony was rigid. The most prestigious and rewarding positions were reserved for the peninsulares , ...
*  Pirahã - Wikipedia
There appears to be no social hierarchy; the Pirahã have no formal leaders. Their social system can thus be labeled as ...
*  World Without End (Follett novel) - Wikipedia
Joby Wigleigh: lowest in Wigleigh social hierarchy; landless laborer; missing one hand from when caught stealing; lies, cheats ... despite the great difference in their social class. She is raped by Ralph and marries Wulfric once he cannot marry Annet. ...

Genetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.Anglo-Saxon royal genealogies: Anglo-Saxon royal genealogies refer collectively to the genealogies of the pre-Viking Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Britain. These trace the royal families through legendary kings and heroes and usually an eponymous ancestor of their clan, and in most cases converge on the god-hero of the Anglo-Saxon peoples, Woden.Fritz Heider: Fritz Heider (February 19, 1896 – January 2, 1988)American Psychologist., "Fritz Heider (1896 - 1988)".Relative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.Brendan Gahan: Brendan Gahan is an American social media marketer, public speaker, and YouTube marketing expert. He is the former Director of Social Media for the creative agency Mekanism where he was responsible for creating viral campaigns for clients including Pepsi, Virgin Mobile, Axe, and 20th Century Fox.Urban Services Department: Urban Services Department () was a government department in Hong Kong. It carried out the policies and managed the facilities of the former Urban Council.Vinnytsia Institute of Economics and Social Sciences: Vinnytsia Institute of Economics and Social Sciences – structural unit of Open International University of Human Development “Ukraine” (OIUHD “Ukraina”).Okurigana: are kana] suffixes following [[kanji stems in Japanese written words. They serve two purposes: to inflect adjectives and verbs, and to force a particular kanji to mean a specific idea and be read a certain way.Social history of England: The social history of England evidences many social changes the centuries. These major social changes have affected England both internally and in its relationship with other nations.Swadeshi Jagaran Manch: The Swadeshi Jagaran Manch or SJM is an economic wing of Sangh Parivar that again took the tool of Swadeshi advocated in India before its independence to destabilize the British Empire. SJM took to the promotion of Swadeshi (indigenous) industries and culture as a dote against LPG.Supplemental Security Income: Supplemental Security Income (SSI) is a United States government program that provides stipends to low-income people who are either aged (65 or older), blind, or disabled.(SSA "Supplemental Security Income (SSI)" p.Dutch profanity: Dutch profanity can be divided into several categories. Often, the words used in profanity by speakers of Dutch are based around various names for diseases.List of social psychology theoriesFreiwirtschaft: (German for "free economy") is an economic idea founded by Silvio Gesell in 1916. He called it (natural economic order).Sunshine Social Welfare Foundation: Sunshine Social Welfare Foundation (Chinese: 陽光社會福利基金會) is a charity established in 1981 in Taiwan to provide comprehensive services for burn survivors and people with facial disfigurement.Injustice SocietyJean-Baptiste-Maximien Parchappe de Vinay: Jean-Baptiste-Maximien Parchappe de Vinay (October 21, 1800 – March 12, 1866) was a French psychiatrist who was a native of Épernay, Marne.Claustrophobia: Claustrophobia is the fear of having no escape and being in closed or small space or room It is typically classified as an anxiety disorder and often results in panic attack, and can be the result of many situations or stimuli, including elevators crowded to capacity, windowless rooms, and even tight-necked clothing. The onset of claustrophobia has been attributed to many factors, including a reduction in the size of the amygdala, classical conditioning, or a genetic predisposition to fear small spaces.Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health: The Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health is a peer-reviewed public health journal that covers all aspects of epidemiology and public health. It is published by the BMJ Group.Social marketing: Social marketing seeks to develop and integrate marketing concepts with other approaches to influence behaviors that benefit individuals and communities for the greater social good. It seeks to integrate research, best practice, theory, audience and partnership insight, to inform the delivery of competition sensitive and segmented social change programs that are effective, efficient, equitable and sustainable.Stressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Sexual motivation and hormones: Sexual motivation is influenced by hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, oxytocin, and vasopressin. In most mammalian species, sex hormones control the ability to engage in sexual behaviours.Hoya Corporation: TOPIX 100 ComponentSocial determinants of health in poverty: The social determinants of health in poverty describe the factors that affect impoverished populations’ health and health inequality. Inequalities in health stem from the conditions of people's lives, including living conditions, work environment, age, and other social factors, and how these affect people's ability to respond to illness.Charles Ottley Groom NapierMaster of Advanced Studies in Interaction Design (MAIND), SUPSISocial stigma of obesity: The social stigma of obesity has created negative psychosocial impacts and has caused disadvantages for overweight and obese people. The social stigma often spans one's entire life, starting from a young age and lasting into adulthood.Avoidance coping: In psychology, avoidance coping, escape coping, or cope and avoid is a maladaptive coping mechanism characterized by the effort to avoid dealing with a stressor. Coping refers to behaviors that attempt to protect oneself from psychological damage.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.All My Friends Are Funeral SingersSandra Sully (songwriter): Sandra Sully is a songwriter who co-wrote Bobby Womack's "If You Think You're Lonely Now". BMI Website, Songwriter Sandra Sully In 2006 she was credited as a co-writer of Mariah Carey's Grammy Award–winning song "We Belong Together" which incorporated part of "If You're Think You're Lonely Now".David Glass (sociologist): 1970sSelf-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingEmotion and memory: Emotion can have a powerful response on humans and animals. Numerous studies have shown that the most vivid autobiographical memories tend to be of emotional events, which are likely to be recalled more often and with more clarity and detail than neutral events.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Department of Rural Development and Land Reform: The Department of Rural Development and Land Reform is one of the departments of the South African government. It is responsible for topographic mapping, cadastral surveying, deeds registration, and land reform.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Neighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.Cognitive skill: Cognitive functioning is a term referring to a human’s ability to process to (thoughts) that should not deplete on a large scale in healthy individuals. Cognition mainly refers to things like memory, the ability to learn new information, speech, understanding of written material.Document-centric collaboration: Document-centric collaboration is a new approach to working together on projects online which puts the document and its contents at the centre of the process.Hypervigilance: Hypervigilance is an enhanced state of sensory sensitivity accompanied by an exaggerated intensity of behaviors whose purpose is to detect threats. Hypervigilance is also accompanied by a state of increased anxiety which can cause exhaustion.Loneliness: Loneliness is a complex and usually unpleasant emotional response to isolation or lack of companionship. Loneliness typically includes anxious feelings about a lack of connectedness or communality with other beings, both in the present and extending into the future.Atypical depressionPride and Prejudice and Zombies: Dawn of the Dreadfuls: Pride and Prejudice and Zombies: Dawn of the Dreadfuls (2010) is a parody novel by Steve Hockensmith. It is a prequel to Seth Grahame-Smith's 2009 novel Pride and Prejudice and Zombies, focusing on "the early life and training of Elizabeth Bennet, heroine of the earlier Pride and Prejudice and Zombies as she strove to become a gifted zombie hunter, with some mishaps in her early romantic encounters also included.Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Time-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities: Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the field of special education. The editors-in-chief are Alisa K.Coles PhillipsDog aggression: Dog aggression is a term used by dog owners and breeders to describe canine-to-canine antipathy. Aggression itself is usually defined by canine behaviorists as "the intent to do harm".MescalineInternet organizations: This is a list of Internet organizations, or organizations that play or played a key role in the evolution of the Internet by developing recommendations, standards, and technology; deploying infrastructure and services; and addressing other major issues.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Song control system: A song system, also known as a song control system (SCS), is a series of discrete brain nuclei involved in the production and learning of song in songbirds. It was first observed by Fernando Nottebohm in 1976 in a paper titled "Central control of song in the canary, Serinus canarius", published in the Journal of Comparative Neurology.NeuroeconomicsAge adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Preparedness 101: Zombie Apocalypse: "Preparedness 101: Zombie Apocalypse" is a blog post by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that uses a zombie apocalypse metaphor to raise public awareness of emergency preparedness. In a blog post titled "Preparedness 101: Zombie Apocalypse", the director of the CDC's Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Rear Admiral Ali S.International Committee on Aeronautical Fatigue and Structural IntegrityTalking CCTV: Talking CCTV is a CCTV surveillance camera that is equipped with a speaker to allow an operator to speak to the people at the CCTV-monitored site.David Budescu: David Budescu is a psychologist and academic. He is the Anne Anastasi Professor of Psychometrics and Quantitative Psychology at Fordham University.Rating scales for depression: A depression rating scale is a psychiatric measuring instrument having descriptive words and phrases that indicate the severity of depression for a time period. When used, an observer may make judgements and rate a person at a specified scale level with respect to identified characteristics.Hukou systemSemantic translation: Semantic translation is the process of using semantic information to aid in the translation of data in one representation or data model to another representation or data model. Semantic translation takes advantage of semantics that associate meaning with individual data elements in one dictionary to create an equivalent meaning in a second system.History of sociology: Sociology as a scholarly discipline emerged primarily out of enlightenment thought, shortly after the French Revolution, as a positivist science of society. Its genesis owed to various key movements in the philosophy of science and the philosophy of knowledge.Poverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.

(1/245) Recurrence risk of congenital anomalies--the impact of paternal, social, and environmental factors: a population-based study in Denmark.

The authors investigated the recurrence risk of congenital anomalies as a function of changes in genetic and environmental factors in single births following the birth of a child with an anomaly. The study is a population-based historical follow-up using the Danish Medical Birth registry, hospital discharge diagnoses, and Statistic Denmark's Fertility Database. The investigators identified 8,671 women who gave birth to a child with a diagnosed malformation between 1980 and 1992 and had a subsequent birth. Following the birth of an affected infant, 474 (5.5%) women gave birth to another child with a malformation, 155 of which (1.8%) were similar to the malformation of the older sib or half sib. When the father changed between the two births, the risk of a similar anomaly was significantly reduced (odds ratio (OR) = 0.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11, 0.65). Higher social status at enrollment was associated with a lower recurrence risk (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.45, 0.99, for the middle status group and OR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.30, 0.81, for the highest status group), independently of partner change. A rise in social status between the two births was marginally associated with a decline in the recurrence risk. No variation in the recurrence risk associated with change of municipality or occupation was seen.  (+info)

(2/245) Use of trainer animals to improve performance and health of newly arrived feedlot calves.

Four trials were conducted to determine the efficacy of using trainer animals to improve the health and performance of newly arrived feedlot calves. For all trials, trainer animals were given 3 wk to adapt to the feedlot before arrival of the feeder calves and initiation of the trials. Trainer animals were present with newly received feedlot calves for 14 d after arrival and then were removed from the pens for the remaining 14 d of the experiments. In Trial 1, trainer animals were six crossbred beef steers and six mature cull beef cows. Newly received calves were allotted to 18 pens with 10 calves/pen. Six pens contained a trainer steer and six pens contained a trainer cow. Similar procedures were used for the subsequent three trials, except 12 trainer cows and 24 pens were used, and in Trial 4 half of the calves were allotted to pasture paddocks for 14 d before placement in their feedlot pens. During wk 1 of Trial 1, calves with trainer cows and steers gained weight more rapidly (P < .10) than those without a trainer animal (1.12 vs .67 kg/d, respectively). During wk 2, this trend was reversed and overall gains did not differ (P > .20) among treatment groups. Morbidity was 16.7 for control calves, 28.3% for calves with trainer steers, and 8.3% for calves with trainer cows. Four of six trainer steers required antibiotic treatment for respiratory disease. On d 1, a greater (P < .05) percentage of calves in the trainer cow group (81.7%) were observed eating during the first 30 min after feeding compared with either the steer trainer group (60%) or the control group containing no trainer animal (48.3%). This trend continued on d 2 but was not evident on d 3 or 7. In Trial 2, overall gains were 10% greater (P < .06) and final BW was higher (P < .01) for calves with trainer cows than for those without trainers. Trainer cows resulted in a substantial reduction (P < .01) in calf morbidity compared with calves housed alone. In Trial 3, trainer cows did not improve performance or health of newly received calves. More (P < .07) calves with trainers than without were eating 5 min after feeding on d 1, 2, 4, and 8. In Trial 4, the presence of trainer cows the first 2 wk did not affect (P > .27) gains. However, calves placed on pasture after arrival had lower (P < .03) gains during wk 1 than those housed in the feedlot. Calves placed in pasture paddocks upon arrival had more than twice (P < .01) the incidence of morbidity of those placed directly in the feedlot. In these trials, trainer cows had a significant effect on eating behavior of newly received calves, but health and performance benefits were variable.  (+info)

(3/245) Complex social structure, alliance stability and mating access in a bottlenose dolphin 'super-alliance'.

Large brain size in mammals has been related to the number and complexity of social relationships, particularly social alliances within groups. The largest within-group male alliance known outside of humans is found in a social network (> 400) of Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Shark Bay Western Australia. Members of this dolphin 'super-alliance' cooperate against other alliances over access to females. Males within the super-alliance form temporary trios and occasionally pairs in order to consort with individual females. The frequent switching of alliance partners suggests that social relationships among males within the super-alliance might be relatively simple and based on an equivalence rule', thereby allowing dolphins to form large alliances without taxing their 'social intelligence'. The equivalence model predicts that the 14 males in the super-alliance should not exhibit differences in alliance stability or partner preferences. However, data from 100 consortships do not support the equivalence hypothesis. The 14 males exhibited striking differences in alliance stability and partner preferences suggesting that the super-alliance has a complex internal structure. Further, within the super-alliance, alliance stability correlates with consortship rate, suggesting that differentiated relationships within the super-alliance are based on competition for access to females.  (+info)

(4/245) Evolution of cooperation through indirect reciprocity.

How can cooperation through indirect reciprocity evolve and what would it be like? This problem has previously been studied by simulating evolution in a small group of interacting individuals, assuming no gene flow between groups. In these simulations, certain 'image scoring' strategies were found to be the most successful. However, analytical arguments show that it would not be in an individual's interest to use these strategies. Starting with this puzzle, we investigate indirect reciprocity in simulations based on an island model. This has an advantage in that the role of genetic drift can be examined. Our results show that the image scoring strategies depend on very strong drift or a very small cost of giving help. As soon as these factors are absent, selection eliminates image scoring. We also consider other possibilities for the evolution of indirect reciprocity. In particular, we find that the strategy of aiming for 'good standing' has superior properties. It can be an evolutionarily stable strategy and, even if not, it usually beats image scoring. Furthermore, by introducing quality variation among individuals into the model, we show that the standing strategy can be quality revealing, adding a new dimension to indirect reciprocity. Finally, we discuss general problems with currently popular modelling styles.  (+info)

(5/245) Theoretical and perceived balance of power inside Spanish public hospitals.

BACKGROUND: The hierarchical pyramid inside Spanish public hospitals was radically changed by the Health Reform Law promulgated in 1986. According to it, the manpower of the hospitals was divided into three divisions (Medical, Nursing, General Services/Administration), which from then on occupied the same level, only subject to the general manager. Ten years after the implementation of the law, the present study was designed in order to investigate if the legal changes had indeed produced a real change in the balance of power inside the hospitals, as perceived by the different workers within them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was administered to 1,027 workers from four different public hospitals (two university-based and two district hospitals). The participants belonged to all divisions, and to all three operative levels (staff, supervisory and managerial) within them. The questionnaire inquired about the perceived power inside each division and hierarchical level, as well as about that of the other divisions and hierarchical levels. RESULTS: Every division attributed the least power to itself. The Nursing and the Administrative division attributed the highest power to the physicians, and these attributed the highest power to the General Services/Administrative division. All hierarchical levels (including the formal top of the pyramid) attributed significantly more power to the other than to them. CONCLUSIONS: More than ten years after the implementation of the new law, the majority of workers still perceive that the real power within the hospitals is held by the physicians (whereas these feel that it has shifted to the administrators). No division or hierarchical level believes it holds any significant degree of power, and this carries with it the danger of also not accepting any responsibility.  (+info)

(6/245) The organisational and human resource challenges facing primary care trusts: protocol of a multiple case study.

BACKGROUND: The study is designed to assess the organisational and human resource challenges faced by Primary Care Trusts (PCTs). Its objectives are to: specify the organisational and human resources challenges faced by PCTs in fulfilling the roles envisaged in government and local policy; examine how PCTs are addressing these challenges, in particular, to describe the organisational forms they have adopted, and the OD/HR strategies and initiatives they have planned or in place; assess how effective these structures, strategies and initiatives have been in enabling the PCTs to meet the organisational and human resources challenges they face; identify the factors, both internal to the PCT and in the wider health community, which have contributed to the success or failure of different structures, strategies and initiatives. METHODS: The study will be undertaken in three stages. In Stage 1 the key literature on public sector and NHS organisational development and human resources management will be reviewed, and discussions will be held with key researchers and policy makers working in this area. Stage 2 will focus on detailed case studies in six PCTs designed to examine the organisational and human resources challenges they face. Data will be collected using semi-structured interviews, group discussion, site visits, observation of key meetings and examination of local documentation. The findings from the case study PCTs will be cross checked with a Reference Group of up to 20 other PCG/Ts, and key officers working in organisational development or primary care at local, regional and national level. In Stage 3 analysis of findings from the preparatory work, the case studies and the feedback from the Reference Group will be used to identify practical lessons for PCTs, key messages for policy makers, and contributions to further theoretical development.  (+info)

(7/245) Influence of gene action across different time scales on behavior.

Genes can affect natural behavioral variation in different ways. Allelic variation causes alternative behavioral phenotypes, whereas changes in gene expression can influence the initiation of behavior at different ages. We show that the age-related transition by honey bees from hive work to foraging is associated with an increase in the expression of the foraging (for) gene, which encodes a guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG). cGMP treatment elevated PKG activity and caused foraging behavior. Previous research showed that allelic differences in PKG expression result in two Drosophila foraging variants. The same gene can thus exert different types of influence on a behavior.  (+info)

(8/245) Gender-based barriers to primary health care provision in Pakistan: the experience of female providers.

In common with several countries in South Asia, the Pakistan government health system has introduced cadres of community-based female health and family planning workers as a response to gender-based constraints on women's access to services. However, the recruitment, training and retention of such female workers has been difficult. This finding points to the obvious but neglected fact that female health workers must operate within the same gender systems that necessitate their appointment in the first place. The present study used qualitative methods to increase our understanding of the experience of female staff working at the community level and in particular the gender-based constraints that they face. Important problems identified include: abusive hierarchical management structures; disrespect from male colleagues; lack of sensitivity to women's gender-based cultural constraints; conflict between domestic and work responsibilities; and poor infrastructural support. The findings highlight the interconnectedness of women's public and private lives and the interplay of class and gender hierarchies in the patterning of women's employment experiences. The study's conclusions suggest ways in which the organizational functioning of the government health services might be modified to better facilitate the work of female staff.  (+info)

  • humans
  • The prefrontal cortex, a region that is highly developed in humans, was particularly important when participants were learning about the power of people in their own social group, as compared to that of another person. (
  • Indeed, sophisticated social interactions necessitate distinguishing one's own thoughts, goals, and preferences from those of other people--a cognitive function we know humans in particular excel at. (
  • The goal of the Barchas family in providing the endowment is that the recipient of the award be an individual (or more than one individual if they constitute a team) who is making or has made significant contributions to the study of the ways in which social behavior impacts on the physiology of the body in humans or in animals. (
  • signals of social
  • In an fMRI study published December 7 in Neuron , researchers at DeepMind and University College London provide new insights into how we acquire knowledge about social hierarchies, reveal the specific mechanisms at play when that hierarchy is our own (as compared to that of another person), and demonstrate that the brain automatically generates signals of social rank even when they're not needed to perform a task. (
  • Herein, we investigate neurobehavioural signals manifest in small ( n = 5) groups using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a 'ranked group IQ task' where implicit signals of social status are broadcast and differentiate individuals based on their expression of cognitive capacity. (
  • order
  • In order to determine how we learn about social hierarchies, the authors asked 30 healthy college students to perform a task in the fMRI scanner. (
  • Pecking order or peck order is the colloquial term for the hierarchical system of social organization. (
  • She looks at how Ambrosiaster's attitudes to social and political order were formed on the basis of theological concepts and the interpretation of scripture, and shows that he espoused a rigid hierarchical and monarchical organization in the church, society, and the Roman empire. (
  • By the late 17th century the prosperity and growth of Edo had begun to produce unforeseen changes in the Tokugawa social order. (
  • example
  • For example, if chickens can predict the fighting ability of others simply by assessing their body size, they will be able to maintain the hierarchy whilst avoiding a fight which could cause injury and will be energetically costly. (
  • Paleoconservativism's concerns overlap those of the Old Right that opposed the New Deal in the 1930s and 1940s as well as American social conservatism of the late 20th century expressed, for example, in the book Single Issues by Joseph Sobran. (
  • system
  • Their social system can thus be labeled as primitive communism, in common with many other hunter-gatherer bands in the world, although rare in the Amazon because of a history of agriculture before Western contact (see history of the Amazon). (
  • levels
  • That is, when male mice received cage-switch stress and eliminated due to their social subclass, significantly higher levels of OT release were found in subordinates compared with ordinates. (
  • bottom
  • The chōnin, who were theoretically at the bottom of the Edo hierarchy (shinōkōshō, samurai-farmers-craftsmen-merchants, with chōnin encompassing the two latter groups), flourished socially and economically at the expense of the daimyōs and samurai, who were eager to trade rice (the principal source of domainal income) for cash and consumer goods. (
  • Life
  • This document illustrates a new approach to literary criticism based on the premise that great literature represents in story form truths of human action, individual character, social character, the character of life and spiritual evolution. (
  • The results of action in the story are an expression not only of human initiative, individual and social character, but also of the character of life itself. (
  • Human action, individual character, social character and the character of life combining and interacting generate a set of results. (
  • society
  • This is also a story of the accomplishment of English society, a society that chose an evolutionary path to social progress in preference to a destructive revolutionary movement like that which wracked France at the time. (
  • higher
  • Smaller wasps are higher up in social hierarchy. (
  • Smaller bodied wasps pass through age polytheism and are kept in the nest longer because they seem to have a higher social position in the colony while the larger bodied wasps are viewed as subordinates. (
  • including previous
  • A prisoner's place in the hierarchy is determined by a wide array of factors including previous crimes, access to contraband, affiliation with prison gangs, and physical or sexual domination of other prisoners. (