Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Herbicide Resistance: Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.Atrazine: A selective triazine herbicide. Inhalation hazard is low and there are no apparent skin manifestations or other toxicity in humans. Acutely poisoned sheep and cattle may show muscular spasms, fasciculations, stiff gait, increased respiratory rates, adrenal degeneration, and congestion of the lungs, liver, and kidneys. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic Acid: A powerful herbicide used as a selective weed killer.Linuron: A selective pre- and post-emergence herbicide. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Plant Weeds: A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with strong irritant properties. Use of this compound on rice fields, orchards, sugarcane, rangeland, and other noncrop sites was terminated by the EPA in 1985. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Acetolactate Synthase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetolactate from 2 moles of PYRUVATE in the biosynthesis of VALINE and the formation of acetohydroxybutyrate from pyruvate and alpha-ketobutyrate in the biosynthesis of ISOLEUCINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.18.Trifluralin: A microtubule-disrupting pre-emergence herbicide.Simazine: A triazine herbicide.3-Phosphoshikimate 1-Carboxyvinyltransferase: An enzyme of the shikimate pathway of AROMATIC AMINO ACID biosynthesis, it generates 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate and ORTHOPHOSPHATE from PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE and shikimate-3-phosphate. The shikimate pathway is present in BACTERIA and PLANTS but not in MAMMALS.Weed Control: The prevention of growth and or spread of unwanted plants.Paraquat: A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.Picloram: A picolinic acid derivative that is used as a herbicide.Dicamba: A chlorinated organic herbicide.Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase: A membrane-bound flavoenzyme that catalyzes the oxygen-dependent aromatization of protoporphyrinogen IX (Protogen) to protoporphyrin IX (Proto IX). It is the last enzyme of the common branch of the HEME and CHLOROPHYLL pathways in plants, and is the molecular target of diphenyl ether-type herbicides. VARIEGATE PORPHYRIA is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with deficiency of protoporphyrinogen oxidase.Diuron: A pre-emergent herbicide.Triazines: Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.Lolium: Common member of the Gramineae family used as cattle FODDER. It harbors several fungi and other parasites toxic to livestock and people and produces allergenic compounds, especially in its pollen. The most commonly seen varieties are L. perenne, L. multiflorum, and L. rigidum.Delftia acidovorans: A species of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria found ubiquitously and formerly called Comamonas acidovorans and Pseudomonas acidovorans. It is the type species of the genus DELFTIA.ToluidinesDefoliants, Chemical: Herbicides that remove leaves from trees and growing plants. They may be either organic or inorganic. Several of the more persistent types have been used in military operations and many are toxic. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Chlorophenols: Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Sulfonylurea CompoundsAminobutyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate plus oxygen to homogentisic acid and carbon dioxide. EC 1.13.11.27.Methylurea Compounds: Urea compounds which are substituted with one or more methyl groups.Propanil: A chlorinated anilide that is used as an herbicide.Phenyl Ethers: Ethers that are linked to a benzene ring structure.Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Diquat: A contact herbicide used also to produce desiccation and defoliation. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Heterocyclic Compounds, 2-Ring: A class of organic compounds containing two ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Fungicides, Industrial: Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Glycolates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID which contain an hydroxy group attached to the methyl carbon.Cyclohexanones: Cyclohexane ring substituted by one or more ketones in any position.Amaranthus: A plant genus, in the family AMARANTHACEAE, best known as a source of high-protein grain crops and of Red Dye No. 2 (AMARANTH DYE). Tumbleweed sometimes refers to Amaranthus but more often refers to SALSOLA.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase: A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.Alismatidae: A plant subclass of the class Liliopsida (monocotyledons) in the Chronquist classification system. This is equivalent to the Alismatales order in the APG classification system. It is a primitive group of more or less aquatic plants.Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.

*  Monsanto cooperating with SEC herbicide probe - MarketWatch

The company's herbicide business suffered during that period, thanks to a flood of cheap generic imports from China. Last year ... MON, +0.72% is cooperating with a Securities and Exchange Commission investigation into its glyphosate herbicide business, but ... The incentives in question were limited to the herbicide business and in no way tied to seed sales, Grant said. ...
marketwatch.com/story/monsanto-cooperating-with-sec-herbicide-probe-2011-06-29

*  Herbicide Resistance

Herbicide Resistance. Herbicide Resistance. As a service to producers around Australia, CSU conducts screening of weed ... Identifying herbicide-resistant weeds enables producers to avoid using herbicides that are no longer effective against ... Questions about the herbicide resistance screening program should be directed to John Broster. ... This information is essential to efforts to limit the development and spread of herbicide resistance. ...
csu.edu.au/weedresearchgroup/herbicide-resistance

*  Herbicide price decreases drag down Monsanto profit - MarketWatch

Price decreases for its stable of herbicides offset higher volume and seed sales, dragging down Monsanto's fiscal third-quarter ... Sales fell to $2.96 billion from $3.16 billion as price decreases for Roundup and other glyphosate-based herbicides led to the ... NEW YORK (MarketWatch) -- Price decreases for its stable of herbicides offset higher volume and seed sales, dragging down ...
marketwatch.com/story/herbicide-price-drops-drag-down-monsanto-profit-2010-06-30

*  Herbicides (DIHE)

Fax: (514)-398-7621 Email: info@eap.mcgill.ca. To report problems or otherwise comment on the structure of this site, send mail to the Webmaster ...
eap.mcgill.ca/Indices/Disbenefits_of_convent/DIHE.htm

*  The Horrific Truth About Monsanto's Roundup Herbicide

While Monsanto insists that Roundup herbicide is as safe to humans as aspirin, Seneff and Samsel's research tells a different ... Monsanto's Roundup Herbicide May Be Most Important Factor in Development of Autism and Other Chronic Disease. ... In 2009, a French court found Monsanto guilty of lying; falsely advertising its Roundup herbicide as "biodegradable," " ... the active ingredient in Monsanto's broad-spectrum herbicide Roundup, which is generously doused on genetically engineered (GE ...
https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2013/06/09/monsanto-roundup-herbicide.aspx?e_cid=20130609_SNL_Art_1&utm_source=snl&utm_medium=email&utm_content=art1&utm_campaign=20130609

*  California to list herbicide as cancer-causing; Monsanto vows fight | Reuters

... an herbicide and the active ingredient in Monsanto Co's popular Roundup weed killer, will be added to California's list of ... Reuters) - Glyphosate, an herbicide and the active ingredient in Monsanto Co's popular Roundup weed killer, will be added to ...
https://reuters.com/article/us-usa-glyphosate-california-idUSKBN19H2K1

*  Special Issue of Weed Science Explores Human Aspects of Herbicide Resistance

Weeds that evolve resistance to herbicides are a serious threat to global agricultural production. In this Special ... Full text of the article 'Human Dimensions of Herbicide Resistance' is now available in Weed Science Vol. 64 sp1, 2016. ... Several papers in this Special Issue are based on presentations at the 2014 Second Summit on Herbicide Resistance organized by ... The special issue of Weed Science examines the economic and social factors that affect herbicide resistance. In the issue, ...
prweb.com/releases/wees_special_issue/2016/prweb13578473.htm

*  Safely Using and Applying Glyphosate Herbicides | Garden Guides

Saftey information on Glyphosate Herbicides. Safely using and applying glyphosate herbicides is an important part of ... Safely Using and Applying Glyphosate Herbicides. Comments (. ) , , Text size: a A , Report Abuse , Print ... Glyphosate herbicides are most effectively used on green, actively growing plants and weeds. Remember that glyphosate is a non- ... Depending on the type of product you purchase, you'll either need to mix a small amount of glyphosate herbicide according to ...
gardenguides.com/892-safely-using-applying-glyphosate-herbicides-information.html

*  How lawn chemicals and herbicides affect dogs | MNN - Mother Nature Network

How to avoid or lessen dog exposure to herbicides Dr. Tina Wismer, medical director at the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center, ... There are guidelines for the application of herbicides, but can you be sure that your neighbor has read and followed the ... With proper applications of herbicides, the health risks to our dogs is minimal, but you can't guarantee that your neighbors or ... How lawn chemicals and herbicides affect dogs. Studies indicate possible link between common lawn treatment spray and bladder ...
https://mnn.com/family/pets/stories/how-lawn-chemicals-and-herbicides-affect-dogs

*  Herbicides | OregonForests

Herbicide use is highly regulated. Throughout Oregon, forest herbicides account for just four percent of all pesticide use. ... Herbicides are typically applied on any piece of ground just two to four times within 40 or 50 years. By the time young trees ... Foresters use herbicides as sparingly and safely as possible. The chemicals are the same or similar to chemicals available to ... By giving young trees an early advantage, herbicides can speed the time it takes to develop a mature forest. After a few early ...
oregonforests.org/Herbicides

*  Herbicide options for weed control in herbicide resistant canola cultivars with particular reference to glufosinate ammonium

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Glufosinate ammonium is one of the most widely-applied broad-spectrum herbicides, controlling weeds in a huge variety of crops worldwide. Farmers rely on glufosinate ammonium because it ensures a high degree of crop safety, as it only affects the parts of the plant where it is applied. It is effective against a broad range of weeds, eliminating the need to apply several herbicides to control different weeds in a given crop. Its unique mode of action makes it ideal to be used in rotation with other herbicides to mitigate weed resistance. Despite these favourable attributes for weed control glufosinate ammonium has its shortcomings. Glufosinate ammonium is a post emergence herbicide and its efficacy is not exempt from the effect of environmental/climatic conditions and the growth stage of weeds. The possible effect of these factors on the performance of the herbicide was investigated in a glasshouse study using ryegrass (Lolium spp) as the ...
scholar.sun.ac.za/handle/10019.1/97088

*  A Review of the Herbicide Program in South Vietnam

The review includes a history and early development of the use of herbicides in modern warfare. Also included in the report is: A summary of herbicide test and evaluation programs; current operations; defoliation aircraft attrition; assessment of psychological effects of the crop destruction program; and results of herbicide operations in Vietnam.
dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0779797

*  Study shows herbicides can affect potato yields | Green Right Now

By Barbara Kessler Green Right Now For years we've been told that pesticides and herbicides are necessary for big agricultural operations because they increase
greenrightnow.com/2009/01/08/study-shows-herbicides-can-affect-potato-yields/

*  Test Your Herbicide Mode of Action Knowledge! - Crops and Soils - Penn State Extension

Speaking of herbicides and weed resistance, test your knowledge of herbicide modes of action with the short 9-question quiz found below. The quiz is anonymous, and you'll get to view the answers at the end.
extension.psu.edu/plants/crops/news/2017/08/test-your-herbicide-mode-of-action-knowledge

*  Herbicide Market Share And Growth | Global and United States Industry Forecasts To 2022 By Hexa Reports | Georgia News Desk

The "Global and United States Herbicide Market" report shares the history data information from 2012 to 2016, and forecast from 2017 to 2022. And this report mainly introduces volume and value market share by players, by regions, by product type, by consumers and also their price change details. As a Depth Research Report, it covers all details inside analysis and opinion in Herbicide industry.. This report focus United States market, it covers details players regions product type and other details as following:. Major Companies. • Monsanto(US ...
georgianewsdesk.com/story/106906/herbicide-market-share-and-growth-global-and-united-states-industry-forecasts-to-2022-by-hexa-reports.html

*  Tyler Morning Telegraph - Growing your own vegetables trying, but rewarding, experience

Another tomato problem we often see is plants showing excessive twisting, curling and deformed shoots and leaves. This could be either one of the tomato viruses, or exposure to hormone-type broadleaf herbicides. One plant here and there randomly affected would indicate a viral disease, whereas a whole section or row of tomato plants affected would point to herbicide injury. There is nothing that can be done for virus-infected plants other than to pull them from the garden to prevent the further spread of the disease. Herbicide injury can be from direct exposure to drift, or, as often is the case, from hay used as mulch from a pasture recently treated with broadleaf herbicides. Even manure can be the source of herbicide if the cattle had recently grazed treated hay. Spider mites can also plague tomatoes. Almost invisible, mites feeding results in yellow stipple leaves as they suck out cell sap. If mites get really bad, fine webbing can be seen. Routine use of insecticides, ...
tylerpaper.com/TP-Gardening/180364/growing-your-own-vegetables-trying-but-rewarding-experience

*  Towards Better Health: Study: Roundup Disrupts Male Reproductive Functions By Triggering Calcium-Mediated Cell Death in Rat...

Glyphosate is the primary active constituent of the commercial pesticide Roundup. The present results show that acute Roundup exposure at low doses (36 ppm, 0.036 g/L) for 30 min induces oxidative stress and activates multiple stress-response pathways leading to Sertoli cell death in prepubertal rat testis. The pesticide increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration by opening L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels as well as endoplasmic reticulum IP3 and ryanodine receptors, leading to Ca(2+) overload within the cells, which set off oxidative stress and necrotic cell death. Similarly, 30 min incubation of testis with glyphosate alone (36 ppm) also increased (45)Ca(2+) uptake. These events were prevented by the antioxidants Trolox and ascorbic acid. Activated protein kinase C, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and the mitogen-activated protein kinases such as ERK1/2 and p38MAPK play a role in eliciting Ca(2+) influx and cell death. Roundup decreased the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and ...
mieuxprevenir.blogspot.com/2014/03/study-roundup-disrupts-male.html

*  Document sobre els herbicides

A continuació hi ha la informació que farem rodar per a donar els motius sobrats per a la nova campanya de Som lo que Sembrem contra l'ús d'herbicides basats en glifosat. L'argumentari de Som lo que Sembrem sobre els herbicides amb glifosat es pot descarregar editat en format pdf a aquest enllaç. aquest enllaç [actualització…
https://sembremvalles.wordpress.com/2012/04/17/informacions-per-a-rebutjar-els-herbicides-amb-glifosat/

*  Glyphosate Degradation Pathway

This pathway was started by Robyn Wiersema and completed by Michael Burns and Doug Hershberger, University of Minnesota.. Glyphosate, also known by the trade name Roundup, is a broad-spectrum herbicide widely used in the United States and elsewhere. It is moderately biodegradable, largely due to soil microorganisms. It is representative of a broad class of compounds, known as phosphonic acids, which contain a direct carbon-to-phosphorus (C-P) bond. Although the C-P bond is chemically very stable, many bacteria, even enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli, have the ability to enzymatically cleave the bond to liberate inorganic phosphate. In almost all studies of glyphosate metabolism, it was the sole source of phosphorous. However the organisms investigated were not capable of using it as a source of carbon or nitrogen. Because the pathway utilizing the intermediate aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) (pathway shown on the right below) has been found in organisms archived prior to the ...
eawag-bbd.ethz.ch/gly/gly_map.html

*  Will Glyphosate Kill My Lawn? | Home Guides | SF Gate

Glyphosate kills lawn grass, weeds and most other plants. A systemic herbicide that moves through plants, killing them from the roots up, glyphosate breaks down quickly in soil, so it's effective ...
homeguides.sfgate.com/glyphosate-kill-lawn-101334.html

*  Monsanto Under Fire After Claims That Roundup Weedkiller Causes Cancer

Monsanto came under fire after recent claims that their Roundup Weedkiller causes cancer, but the company says there's no proof glyphosate is carcinogenic
newsblaze.com/usnews/national/monsanto-under-fire-for-claims-that-weedkiller-roundup-causes-cancer_79547/

*  USIP News Roundup: USIP's Science, Technology & Peacebuilding Roundup

If technology advisers to online activists have their way, the mobile phones in the pockets of the democracy protesters reshaping the Middle East will have circumvention and anonymity tools built in to them. These are the kinds of ideas that the State Department says it wants to fund. But it's just not clear how nimble the department can really be in dishing out money responsibly - a good-government encumbrance, remember - or even what it really means by a 'venture capital approach,' says Sheldon Himelfarb, a technology expert at the U.S. Institute of Peace ...
usipnewsroundup.blogspot.com/2011/02/usips-science-technology-peacebuilding_24.html

*  Results - Biology Online

The same concentration of the three herbicides used in the experiments triggers different changes in distinct physiological processes that underlie
biology-online.org/articles/stress-physiological-reactions-green-alga-scenedesmus/results.html

*  PS Vita Roundup: July 2014

In the chart, Freedom Wars has now passed 300,000 sales if you add in the 35,000 digital downloads Sony mentioned recently, while Oreshika 2 crosses the 100,000 mark in its second week. Operation Abyss and Corpse Drive make solid if unspectacular entries. Demon Gaze managed 25K sales on its launch, so Operation Abyss has some catching up to do. Corpse Party did similar numbers to previous games in the series, so all looks good for ...
psp2roundup.blogspot.de/2014/07/

*  Personal Finance this weekend | Financial Post

Did you miss anything in this weekend's Personal Finance section of the Financial Post? Here's a round-up of our coverage, just in case
business.financialpost.com/personal-finance/personal-finance-this-weekend-6/wcm/242a3d00-654a-41f9-b7b2-d4eb2a6957bb

Herbicide: Herbicide(s), also commonly known as weedkillers, are pesticides used to control unwanted plants. Selective herbicides control specific weed species, while leaving the desired crop relatively unharmed.List of varieties of genetically modified maize: This is a partial list of varieties of maize that have been modified.Atrazine chlorohydrolase: Atrazine Chlorohydrolase (AtzA) is an enzyme (E.C.Chromotropic acidMCPAAuxin: Auxins (plural of auxin ) are a class of plant hormones (or plant growth substances) with some morphogen-like characteristics. Auxins have a cardinal role in coordination of many growth and behavioral processes in the plant's life cycle and are essential for plant body development.Phenylacetylcarbinol: -PAC(R)-PACTrifluralinSimazineEPSP synthaseWeed control: Weed control is the botanical component of pest control, which attempts to stop weeds, especially noxious or injurious weeds, from competing with domesticated plants and livestock. Many strategies have been developed in order to contain these plants.Paraquat murders: The paraquat murders were a series of indiscriminate poisonings carried out in Japan in 1985. Police were unable to gather any evidence about the murders other than they were caused by a poisoned beverage that was left inside or around vending machines.PicloramDicambaAcifluorfenDimethylureaTriazine: A triazine is class of nitrogen-containing heterocycles. The parent molecules' molecular formula is 333.DimethylanilineU.S.-Vietnam Dialogue Group on Agent Orange/Dioxin: The U.S.DichlorophenolPesticides in the United States: Pesticides in the United States are used predominantly by the agricultural sector,Kellogg RL, Nehring R, Grube A, Goss DW, and Plotkin S (February 2000), Environmental indicators of pesticide leaching and runoff from farm fields. United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service.GliquidoneChilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Tyrosinemia type IIIMonolinuronPropanilAllyl phenyl etherAgrochemical F.C.: James Omondi|DiquatPlant perception (physiology): Plant perception is the ability of plants to sense and respond to the environment to adjust their morphology, physiology and phenotype accordingly. Other disciplines such as plant physiology, ecology and molecular biology are used to assess this ability.Pesticide residues in New Zealand: Pesticide residues are of concern in New Zealand and foods are regularly checked to see if they are within set limits.Glycine (plant): Glycine is a genus in the bean family Fabaceae. The best known species is the soybean (Glycine max).Basic aromatic ring: Basic aromatic rings are aromatic rings in which the lone pair of electrons of a ring-nitrogen atom is not part of the aromatic system and extends in the plane of the ring. This lone pair is responsible for the basicity of these nitrogenous bases, similar to the nitrogen atom in amines.Plant breeders' rights: Plant breeders' rights (PBR), also known as plant variety rights (PVR), are rights granted to the breeder of a new variety of plant that give the breeder exclusive control over the propagating material (including seed, cuttings, divisions, tissue culture) and harvested material (cut flowers, fruit, foliage) of a new variety for a number of years.Fungicide: Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill or inhibit fungi or fungal spores.Interaction of 2,4,5-trich|orophenylsulphonylmethyl thiocyanate with fungal spores Fungi can cause serious damage in agriculture, resulting in critical losses of yield, quality, and profit.BiodegradationCyclohexanone monooxygenase: Cyclohexanone monooxygenase (, cyclohexanone 1,2-monooxygenase, cyclohexanone oxygenase, cyclohexanone:NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (6-hydroxylating, 1,2-lactonizing)) is an enzyme with system name cyclohexanone,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (lactone-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionAgnes Benidickson Tricolour Award: The Tricolour Award and induction into the Tricolour Society is the highest tribute that can be paid to a student of Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario for valuable and distinguished service to the University in non-academic and non-athletic activities. Such service may have been confined to a single field, or it may have taken the form of a significant contribution over a wide range of activities.PyromorphiteDimethylacetamideACACB: Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 also known as ACC-beta or ACC2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ACACB gene.Posidonia Shale

(1/1376) Semiautomated preparation of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol in human urine using a Zymate XP laboratory robot with quantitative determination by gas chromatography-negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

A rapid and sensitive semiautomated method was developed for quantitation of the chlorpyrifos metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) in human urine. A Zymark Zymate XP laboratory robotics system was used to mix urine samples, transfer aliquots, add the stable-isotope-labeled TCP internal standard (13C2- or 13C2,15N-), and liberate conjugates of TCP from urine via acid hydrolysis. Samples were manually extracted into toluene, derivatized, and analyzed by gas chromatography-negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Determination of the metabolic TCP was performed by selected ion monitoring of the dichloropyridinol fragment ions: m/z 161 for TCP and m/z 165 for 13C2-TCP or m/z 168 for 13C2,15N-TCP. Interday precision and accuracy were demonstrated over 3 years of analyses using the 13C2-TCP internal standard, with an average recovery from fortified urine samples of 93+/-12% (N = 54, concentration range 1-140 ng/mL). The method was found to be linear over the range of 0.5 to 200 ng/mL, and the limit of detection for TCP in urine was estimated to be 0.2 ng/mL with a limit of quantitation of 1 ng/mL. The effect of solids distribution on the concentration of TCP in the thawed urine samples was examined, and the results indicated that homogeneous distribution is critical for quantitation. The precision and accuracy of the automated method with respect to the transfer of homgeneous urine aliquots and delivery of internal standard yielded equivalent or improved results over the manual techniques. Overall, this method is more simple than existing methodologies, and it yields results with improved precision, accuracy, and sensitivity over previously developed methods.  (+info)

(2/1376) Effect of phenylurea herbicides on soil microbial communities estimated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and community-level physiological profiles.

The effect of three phenyl urea herbicides (diuron, linuron, and chlorotoluron) on soil microbial communities was studied by using soil samples with a 10-year history of treatment. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used for the analysis of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA). The degree of similarity between the 16S rDNA profiles of the communities was quantified by numerically analysing the DGGE band patterns. Similarity dendrograms showed that the microbial community structures of the herbicide-treated and nontreated soils were significantly different. Moreover, the bacterial diversity seemed to decrease in soils treated with urea herbicides, and sequence determination of several DGGE fragments showed that the most affected species in the soils treated with diuron and linuron belonged to an uncultivated bacterial group. As well as the 16S rDNA fingerprints, the substrate utilization patterns of the microbial communities were compared. Principal-component analysis performed on BIOLOG data showed that the functional abilities of the soil microbial communities were altered by the application of the herbicides. In addition, enrichment cultures of the different soils in medium with the urea herbicides as the sole carbon and nitrogen source showed that there was no difference between treated and nontreated soil in the rate of transformation of diuron and chlorotoluron but that there was a strong difference in the case of linuron. In the enrichment cultures with linuron-treated soil, linuron disappeared completely after 1 week whereas no significant transformation was observed in cultures inoculated with nontreated soil even after 4 weeks. In conclusion, this study showed that both the structure and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities were clearly affected by a long-term application of urea herbicides.  (+info)

(3/1376) Cytotoxic effect of paraquat on rat C6 glioma cells: evidence for the possibility of non-oxidative damage to the cells.

Although paraquat has been shown to cause oxidative damage to neuronal cells, little is known about its effect on glial cells. Thus the effect of paraquat on glial cells was examined using rat C6 glioma cells as a model system. Paraquat reduced cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and this toxic effect was not significantly attenuated by various kinds of antioxidants. Furthermore, paraquat failed to increase 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine formation in the cells. These results indicate that paraquat can be toxic to glial cells and suggest that this cytotoxic effect may not be associated with the oxidative damage to the cells.  (+info)

(4/1376) High-performance liquid chromatography column switching applied to the trace determination of herbicides in environmental and drinking water samples.

A selective and sensitive coupled-column high-performance liquid chromatographic method is developed for the simultaneous determination of 5 phenylurea herbicides (monuron, linuron, isoproturon, monolinuron, and diuron) in environmental and drinking water samples. Sample clean-up is performed automatically by means of a column switching technique. Using 2 octadecyl silica columns connected via two programmable 6-port valves and ultraviolet detection at 244 nm, the aforementioned compounds can be determined at the low concentration levels required for pesticide residue analysis in water samples. A mobile phase consisting of a mixture of methanol-water (55:45, v/v) is pumped at 1 mL/min. For the 5 phenylureas, high recoveries ranging from 94.9 to 101.6%, good reproducibility with relative standard deviations lower than 5%, and wide linear ranges up to 20 micrograms/L are observed with determination limits of 0.05 microgram/L. The method is successfully applied to the screening of different environmental water samples such as surface, ground, rain, and drinking water.  (+info)

(5/1376) Construction and characterization of a functional mutant of Synechocystis 6803 harbouring a eukaryotic PSII-H subunit.

A Synechocystis 6803 mutant carrying a chimaeric photosystem II (PSII), in which the Zea mays PsbH subunit (7.7 kDa calculated molecular mass) replaces the cyanobacterial copy (7.0 kDa), was constructed. With the exception of the N-terminal 12 amino acid extension, which has a phosphorylatable threonine, the eukaryotic polypeptide is 78% homologous to its bacterial counterpart. Biochemical characterization of this mutant shows that it expresses the engineered gene correctly and is competent for photoautotrophic growth. Fluorescence analysis and oxygen evolution measurements in the presence of exogenous acceptors indicate that the observed phenotype results from a chimaeric PSII rather than from the absence of function associated with PsbH, suggesting that the heterologous protein is assembled into a functional PSII. Inhibition of oxygen evolution by herbicides belonging to different classes shows that the sensitivity of the mutant PSII is changed only towards phenolic compounds. This result indicates slight conformational modification of the QB/herbicide binding pocket of the D1 polypeptide caused by the bulky PsbH protein in the mutant, and also suggests close structural interaction of the D1 and PsbH subunits in the topological arrangement of PSII.  (+info)

(6/1376) A comparison of electron-capture GLC, electrolytic-conductivity GLC and UV-absorption HPLC for the analysis of some herbicides in foods.

A comparison of gas chromatography with electron-capture or electrolytic-conductivity (nitrogen mode) detection, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV-absorption detection (254 nm) was carried out for the analysis of several herbicides in foods. Linuron, propanil, terbacil, benzoylprop-ethyl, and the fungicide DCNA in samples of cabbage, corn, potato, and wheat spiked at 2 and 0.2 ppm were examined. The pesticides were extracted with acetone, partitioned into petroleum ether-methylene chloride, and cleaned up on a 2% deactivated Florisil column before direct chromatographic analysis. Electron-capture gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) was most suitable for DCNA and benzoylprop-ethyl while UV-absorption HPLC was best for terbacil analysis. Linuron and propanil gave similar results for both electron-capture GLC and HPLC. Electrolytic-conductivity GLC could detect all pesticides at the 0.2 ppm level and exhibited the least number of extraneous peaks in the chromatograms.  (+info)

(7/1376) Selected phenolic compounds in cultivated plants: ecologic functions, health implications, and modulation by pesticides.

Phenolic compounds are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. Plant tissues may contain up to several grams per kilogram. External stimuli such as microbial infections, ultraviolet radiation, and chemical stressors induce their synthesis. The phenolic compounds resveratrol, flavonoids, and furanocoumarins have many ecologic functions and affect human health. Ecologic functions include defense against microbial pathogens and herbivorous animals. Phenolic compounds may have both beneficial and toxic effects on human health. Effects on low-density lipoproteins and aggregation of platelets are beneficial because they reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. Mutagenic, cancerogenic, and phototoxic effects are risk factors of human health. The synthesis of phenolic compounds in plants can be modulated by the application of herbicides and, to a lesser extent, insecticides and fungicides. The effects on ecosystem functioning and human health are complex and cannot be predicted with great certainty. The consequences of the combined natural and pesticide-induced modulating effects for ecologic functions and human health should be further evaluated.  (+info)

(8/1376) Induction of the multispecific organic anion transporter (cMoat/mrp2) gene and biliary glutathione secretion by the herbicide 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid in the mouse liver.

The canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter, cMoat, is an ATP-binding-cassette protein expressed in the canalicular domain of hepatocytes. In addition to the transport of endo- and xenobiotics, cMoat has also been proposed to transport GSH into bile, the major driving force of bile-acid-independent bile flow. We have shown previously that the herbicide 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), a peroxisome-proliferator agent, significantly increases bile-acid-independent bile flow in mice. On this basis, the effect of the herbicide on cMoat gene expression was studied. A 3.6-fold increase in cMoat mRNA levels and a 2.5-fold increase in cMoat protein content were observed in the liver of mice fed on a diet supplemented with 0.125% 2,4,5-T. These effects were due to an increased rate of gene transcription (3.9-fold) and were not associated with peroxisome proliferation. Significant increases in bile flow (2.23+/-0.39 versus 1.13+/-0.15 microl/min per g of liver; P<0.05) and biliary GSH output (7.40+/-3.30 versus 2.65+/-0.34 nmol/min per g of liver; P<0.05) were observed in treated animals. The hepatocellular concentration of total glutathione also increased in hepatocytes of treated mice (10.95+/-0.84 versus 5.12+/-0.47 mM; P<0.05), because of the induction (2.4-fold) of the heavy subunit of the gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS-HS) gene. This is the first model of co-induction of cMoat and GCS-HS genes in vivo in the mouse liver, associated with increased glutathione synthesis and biliary glutathione output. Our observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the cMoat transporter plays a crucial role in the secretion of biliary GSH.  (+info)



weeds


  • Identifying herbicide-resistant weeds enables producers to avoid using herbicides that are no longer effective against herbicide-resistant weeds, and provides valuable information to researchers about the incidence of herbicide resistance. (edu.au)
  • efforts to inform growers about resistance management have failed to prevent rapid increases in herbicide resistant weeds in the U.S. and elsewhere. (prweb.com)
  • Weeds that evolve resistance to herbicides are a serious threat to global agricultural production. (prweb.com)
  • Recent research has provided insights into the biology of herbicide resistance and identified what farmers can do to control resistant weeds in their fields, but efforts to inform growers about resistance management have failed to prevent rapid increases in herbicide resistant weeds in the U.S. and elsewhere. (prweb.com)
  • Highly effective at killing weeds, glyphosate is a broad-spectrum, non-selective systemic herbicide that eradicates grasses, annuals, perennials and woody plants. (gardenguides.com)
  • Glyphosate herbicides are most effectively used on green, actively growing plants and weeds. (gardenguides.com)
  • The economics of managing herbicide resistance in weeds has focused on cost-effective responses by growers to the development of resistance at the individual farm and field level. (repec.org)
  • Weeds can be controlled prior to planting corn or soybean by using preplant tillage, herbicides, or both. (farmindustrynews.com)
  • Weeds can be controlled prior to planting corn or soybean by using preplant tillage, herbicides, or both, according to Aaron Hager, associate professor of weed science at the University of Illinois. (farmindustrynews.com)

glyphosate herbicide


  • Monsanto Co. MON, +0.72% is cooperating with a Securities and Exchange Commission investigation into its glyphosate herbicide business, but cannot comment further, Chief Executive Hugh Grant said. (marketwatch.com)
  • Depending on the type of product you purchase, you'll either need to mix a small amount of glyphosate herbicide according to label directions or utilize a ready-to-use glyphosate product. (gardenguides.com)
  • Safely using and applying glyphosate herbicide can be done by wearing rubber gloves and eye protection to avoid contact with the liquid. (gardenguides.com)
  • In tight spots, use a small applicator like a child's paintbrush or small sponge to safely use and apply a glyphosate herbicide. (gardenguides.com)

landowners use herbicides


  • That's why private forest landowners use herbicides to control competing plants and let the trees get a head start. (oregonforests.org)
  • Timber companies and smaller landowners use herbicides to kill plants that compete with pines for nutrients and sunlight. (wral.com)

Monsanto


  • Reuters) - Glyphosate, an herbicide and the active ingredient in Monsanto Co's popular Roundup weed killer, will be added to California's list of chemicals known to cause cancer effective July 7, the state's Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) said on Monday. (reuters.com)

Roundup


  • Sales fell to $2.96 billion from $3.16 billion as price decreases for Roundup and other glyphosate-based herbicides led to the 6% decline. (marketwatch.com)
  • In recent weeks, we've learned some very disturbing truths about glyphosate, the active ingredient in Monsanto's broad-spectrum herbicide Roundup, which is generously doused on genetically engineered (GE) Roundup Ready crops. (mercola.com)
  • falsely advertising its Roundup herbicide as "biodegradable," "environmentally friendly" and claiming it "left the soil clean. (mercola.com)

Resistance


  • As a service to producers around Australia, CSU conducts screening of weed populations for resistance to commonly used herbicides. (edu.au)
  • This information is essential to efforts to limit the development and spread of herbicide resistance. (edu.au)
  • Questions about the herbicide resistance screening program should be directed to John Broster . (edu.au)
  • The special issue of Weed Science examines the economic and social factors that affect herbicide resistance. (prweb.com)
  • In the issue, economists, sociologists, and policy experts join forces with weed scientists to focus attention on human dimensions of the herbicide resistance epidemic. (prweb.com)
  • This Special Issue takes a different approach: contributing authors examine economic and social factors affecting grower decisions, explore the roles of policy and educational outreach in herbicide resistance management, and propose future approaches. (prweb.com)
  • Several papers in this Special Issue are based on presentations at the 2014 Second Summit on Herbicide Resistance organized by the Weed Science Society of America in collaboration with the National Research Council. (prweb.com)
  • Full text of the article ' Human Dimensions of Herbicide Resistance ' is now available in Weed Science Vol. 64 sp1, 2016. (prweb.com)
  • Social costs and externalities associated with herbicide resistance have not generally been considered by economists. (repec.org)
  • In this paper we argue that the increasing possibility of widespread glyphosate resistance presents a case where social costs associated with glyphosate resistance need to be considered when assessing optimal use of this herbicide resource at the farm level. (repec.org)

Monsanto's


  • NEW YORK (MarketWatch) -- Price decreases for its stable of herbicides offset higher volume and seed sales, dragging down Monsanto's fiscal third-quarter profit, the chemical giant said Wednesday. (marketwatch.com)

researchers


  • Researchers at Purdue University and the University of North Carolina applied herbicides to grass plots under different conditions (e.g., green, dry brown, wet, and recently mowed grass) and tested for their presence up to 72 hours after the lawn treatment. (mnn.com)
  • In 2004, researchers from Purdue University (several of whom also worked on the current study) found that Scottish terriers (shown at right) exposed to lawn and garden herbicides (specifically the aforementioned 2,4-D) had an occurrence of bladder cancer between four and seven times higher than Scottish terriers not exposed to herbicides. (mnn.com)

pesticide


  • Still, while glyphosate is less toxic than other herbicides and pesticide, it's important to safely use and apply glyphosate herbicides. (gardenguides.com)
  • Throughout Oregon, forest herbicides account for just four percent of all pesticide use. (oregonforests.org)

exposure


  • Potatoes were chosen for the project because scientists suspected that their plant structure would provide an easy way to check on the effects of herbicide exposure a during a plant's reproductive cycle. (greenrightnow.com)

vegetation


  • Dicamba is another growth-regulator herbicide used to control existing vegetation before planting. (farmindustrynews.com)

threat


  • But the two side differ on the potential environmental threat the herbicides pose. (wral.com)

biologist


  • In the February 10 issue of the New Yorker, Rachel Aviv has an outstanding piece on Tyrone Hayes, the University of California-Berkeley biologist whose research found that atrazine, a widely used herbicide, caused extreme sexual-development problems in frogs at very low levels. (motherjones.com)
  • As a deer biologist, it's disconcerting for me to hear things over and over again about how minimal herbicide is used and what minimal effect it has on the forest," said Cumberland. (cbc.ca)

risks


  • With proper applications of herbicides, the health risks to our dogs is minimal, but you can't guarantee that your neighbors or the lawn crew you hire will read and follow label directions. (mnn.com)
  • Social costs associated with the loss of glyphosate efficacy include potential failure of herbicide-resistant crop systems, reduced use of conservation tillage techniques, and a potential greater reliance on herbicides with greater health and environmental risks. (repec.org)

chemicals


  • Some common herbicides - specifically 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxypropionic acid (MCPP), and dicamba - remained detectable on grass for at least 48 hours after application, and the chemicals persisted even longer on grass under certain environmental conditions. (mnn.com)

safely


  • Safely using and applying glyphosate herbicides is an important part of responsible gardening. (gardenguides.com)
  • Safely use and apply glyphosate by surrounding the weed with a bottomless cardboard box prior applying the herbicide. (gardenguides.com)
  • Foresters use herbicides as sparingly and safely as possible. (oregonforests.org)

application


  • There are guidelines for the application of herbicides, but can you be sure that your neighbor has read and followed the directions on the packaging? (mnn.com)
  • Weed control may be improved when more than one active herbicide ingredient is included in the burndown application. (farmindustrynews.com)

control


  • Those seeking 100-percent control may opt for synthetic herbicides. (hortmag.com)

Plants


  • Remember that glyphosate is a non-selective herbicide, so it will kill almost any living plant it comes into contact with, including woody plants. (gardenguides.com)
  • Recent research on potatoes showed that low levels of herbicides, which did not result in obvious damage to the plants above ground, negatively affected their underground growth, reducing yields. (greenrightnow.com)
  • Oust, an herbicide authorized for use in ditches and road right-of-ways, was found to have a significant effect on the potato plants, causing deformed tubers and reduced yield, said lead researcher Dr. Thomas Pfleeger, a plant physiologist with the EPA. (greenrightnow.com)

affect


  • Seven different herbicides were tested and applied at certain times in the plant's development - and found to affect the size and number of the potato tubers produced, according to a news release about the study by the American Society of Agronomy . (greenrightnow.com)

corn


  • Can you tell me about an organic herbicide made from corn gluten? (hortmag.com)
  • Patented by the university in 1991, corn gluten meal is now available as an herbicide under a variety of names including Safe 'n Simple (Blue Seal Feeds) and Concern Weed Prevention Plus (Necessary Organics, Inc.). It is labeled as a preemergent herbicide for use on turfgrass, field crops, and home gardens. (hortmag.com)
  • Corn gluten meal herbicide (which contains 10% nitrogen by weight) must be applied at a higher rate than conventional "weed-and-feed" herbicides. (hortmag.com)
  • Nevertheless, gardeners in search of an organic herbicide may want to experiment with corn gluten meal, trying it on small areas to see if they are pleased with the results. (hortmag.com)

applications


  • After a few early applications, foresters rarely use herbicides again until harvest. (oregonforests.org)
  • Burndown applications often include growth-regulator herbicides, such as 2,4-D. Both amine and ester formulations of 2,4-D are labeled for preplanting burndown applications, but the ester formulation is usually preferred over the amine formulation. (farmindustrynews.com)

Several


  • At that point, there's no need to apply herbicides until the next harvest several decades later. (oregonforests.org)

article


  • The article notes that American agriculture's dependence on herbicides - a multi-billion dollar industry that annually dumps about 500 million pounds of herbicides on the land at last count - is worth evaluating because of "potential risk are non-targeted crops, rare and endangered plant species, native plant communities, and organisms that are dependent on natural plant communities for food and shelter. (greenrightnow.com)

apply


  • It is illegal to apply herbicides when weather conditions would cause the product to drift off-target. (oregonforests.org)

Highly


amount


  • If we're going to increase the amount of plantation and herbicide use, we've seen what's happened in the last 20 years. (cbc.ca)

Oregon


  • In some dry-forest types in eastern Oregon, herbicides are rarely if ever used. (oregonforests.org)

seen


  • Gastrointestinal upset is the most common sign seen when ingestion of fertilizer and herbicide occurs," she says. (mnn.com)

Issue


  • The groups hope to make herbicide spraying an issue in this year's provincial election - questioning if it's forcing deer out of public forests and into being nuisances in suburbs and farms. (cbc.ca)

Department


  • Now retired from the Natural Resources department, Cumberland is speaking out against herbicide spraying in the province's forests. (cbc.ca)

times


  • Herbicides are typically applied on any piece of ground just two to four times within 40 or 50 years. (oregonforests.org)

sales


  • The incentives in question were limited to the herbicide business and in no way tied to seed sales, Grant said. (marketwatch.com)

forest


  • Join Mike Cloughesy and Nicole Strong as they discuss why foresters use herbicides in a newly planted forest. (oregonforests.org)
  • By giving young trees an early advantage, herbicides can speed the time it takes to develop a mature forest. (oregonforests.org)
  • The government maintains that herbicide doesn't harm wildlife because only one per cent of the forest is sprayed each year. (cbc.ca)