Hep G2 Cells: A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Hempa: A chemosterilant agent that is anticipated to be a carcinogen.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Propyl Gallate: Antioxidant for foods, fats, oils, ethers, emulsions, waxes, and transformer oils.Emetics: Agents that cause vomiting. They may act directly on the gastrointestinal tract, bringing about emesis through local irritant effects, or indirectly, through their effects on the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the postremal area near the medulla.Plasminogen Inactivators: Important modulators of the activity of plasminogen activators. The inhibitors belong to the serpin family of proteins and inhibit both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA-Reductases, NADP-dependent: Specific hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductases that utilize the cofactor NAD. In liver enzymes of this class are involved in cholesterol biosynthesis.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Lovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Artificial Organs: Devices intended to replace non-functioning organs. They may be temporary or permanent. Since they are intended always to function as the natural organs they are replacing, they should be differentiated from PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS and specific types of prostheses which, though also replacements for body parts, are frequently cosmetic (EYE, ARTIFICIAL) as well as functional (ARTIFICIAL LIMBS).Asialoglycoprotein Receptor: A C-type lectin that is a cell surface receptor for ASIALOGLYCOPROTEINS. It is found primarily in the LIVER where it mediates the endocytosis of serum glycoproteins.Carboxypeptidase H: A ZINC-containing exopeptidase primarily found in SECRETORY VESICLES of endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. It catalyzes the cleavage of C-terminal ARGININE or LYSINE residues from polypeptides and is active in processing precursors of PEPTIDE HORMONES and other bioactive peptides.Receptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Hepatoblastoma: A malignant neoplasm occurring in young children, primarily in the liver, composed of tissue resembling embryonal or fetal hepatic epithelium, or mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tissues. (Stedman, 25th ed)Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Organosilicon Compounds: Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Oxaloacetic Acid: A dicarboxylic acid ketone that is an important metabolic intermediate of the CITRIC ACID CYCLE. It can be converted to ASPARTIC ACID by ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE.Moraceae: The mulberry plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have milky latex and small, petalless male or female flowers.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Hydroxycholesterols: Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Mevalonic AcidCholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Primaquine: An aminoquinoline that is given by mouth to produce a radical cure and prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malarias following treatment with a blood schizontocide. It has also been used to prevent transmission of falciparum malaria by those returning to areas where there is a potential for re-introduction of malaria. Adverse effects include anemias and GI disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeia, 30th ed, p404)Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.PhenylenediaminesOleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Asialoglycoproteins: Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional: Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.Tunicamycin: An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.Apolipoprotein A-II: The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Albumins: Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.Chenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Apolipoprotein B-100: A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Carboxypeptidases: Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Prealbumin: A tetrameric protein, molecular weight between 50,000 and 70,000, consisting of 4 equal chains, and migrating on electrophoresis in 3 fractions more mobile than serum albumin. Its concentration ranges from 7 to 33 per cent in the serum, but levels decrease in liver disease.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.FucoseChloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.Intracellular Fluid: The fluid inside CELLS.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Protein PrecursorsRecombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.TriglyceridesMitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.

*  Infliximab exerts no direct hepatotoxic effect on HepG2 cells in vitro.
Cell Survival / drug effects*. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Hep G2 Cells / drug effects*. Hepatoblastoma / chemically ... Cell survival of HepG2 cells after exposure to various concentrations of infliximab for 24, 48 or 72 h. Cell survival was ... Effect of thiopurines and methotrexate on HepG2 cell viability. HepG2 cells were incubated with various concentrations of IBD ... HepG2) cell line, which is very stable, easy to handle and previously used in drug toxicity studies [9]. HepG2 cells were ...
*  Copper overload affects copper and iron metabolism in Hep-G2 cells | Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
DMT1 protein level in Hep-G2 cells exposed to Cu. A: Western blots of DMT1. Hep-G2 cells were grown in 24-mm plates for 4 days ... Cell culture and Cu treatments.. Hep-G2 cells, a model of hepatic cells (9, 51, 52), were cultured as described previously (19 ... Cells were processed as described (3, 10, 19). Briefly, for cell-associated metal content determination, 1-2 × 106 Hep-G2 cells ... The cells were plated in 24-well plates at 0.1 × 106 cells/well and treated 24 h after plating. Hep-G2 cells showed ,90% ...
*  Mitochondrial dysfunction represses HIF-1α protein synthesis through AMPK activation in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. - PubMed -...
Hep G2 Cells. *Humans. *Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/biosynthesis*. *Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/ ... Human hepatoma HepG2 cells were treated with various mitochondrial respiration inhibitors and an uncoupler, respectively, and ... Mitochondrial dysfunction represses HIF-1α protein synthesis through AMPK activation in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.. Hsu CC1, ... Mitochondrial dysfunctions resulted in reduced HIF-1α protein synthesis through AMPK-dependent manner in HepG2 cells. ...
*  HepG2 (human liver; hepatocellular carcinoma) cell line slides | GeneTex
HepG2 (human liver; hepatocellular carcinoma) cell line slides, GTX25530, Applications: ICC/IF; Immunocytochemistry/ ... Hep G2 cell line slides (human: liver; hepatocellular carcinoma), ... Hep G2 (liver; hepatocellular carcinoma). Human Hep G2 cells were cultured in Minimum Essential Medium (Eagle) with 2 mM L- ... The Hep G2 cells were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and arrayed on a 12-well (5 mm) adhesive coated slide, with each wellis ...
*  Influence of triacylglycerol biosynthesis rate on the assembly of apoB-100-containing lipoproteins in Hep G2 cells. |...
Influence of triacylglycerol biosynthesis rate on the assembly of apoB-100-containing lipoproteins in Hep G2 cells.. J Borén, S ... Apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) appears in three forms in the endoplasmic reticulum of Hep G2 cells: (1) tightly bound to the ... Influence of triacylglycerol biosynthesis rate on the assembly of apoB-100-containing lipoproteins in Hep G2 cells. ... Influence of triacylglycerol biosynthesis rate on the assembly of apoB-100-containing lipoproteins in Hep G2 cells. ...
*  Estrogen Increases Apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I Secretion in Hep G2 Cells by Modulating Transcription of the Apo A-I Gene Promoter ...
Effect of estrogen and ER-α on the expression of an ERE plasmid in Hep G2 cells. Hep G2 cells were transfected with 3 μg of a ... E2 increases apo A-I concentrations in the media of Hep G2 cells. Hep G2 cells were grown as described in the Methods section. ... Time course of estrogen effect on apo A-I accumulations in the media of Hep G2 cells. Media from Hep G2 cells treated with 10 ... Cell Culture. Hep G2 cells were grown in high-glucose DMEM (BioWhittaker) supplemented with 10% FBS (Hyclone) and 100 U/mL ...
*  Differential UGT1A1 Induction by Chrysin in Primary Human Hepatocytes and HepG2 Cells | Journal of Pharmacology and...
Extensive metabolism of the flavonoid chrysin by human Caco-2 and Hep G2 cells. Xenobiotica 29: 1241-1256. ... A, CHRY induction of UGT1A1 in HepG2 cell line. HepG2 cells were dosed consecutively for 3 days with 0.1% DMSO (CTL), 1 μM 3-MC ... Metabolites of CHRY in HepG2 Cells and HH. Suspensions of HepG2 cells or human hepatocytes were incubated with 0.5 μM CHRY over ... and HepG2 cells. Cell suspensions consisting of 0.5 × 106 viable cells/incubation were diluted in serum-free DMEM supplemented ...
*  In vitro, in HEP G2 cell line, tauroursodeoxycholic acid has a protective effect against ethanol-induced human hepatocellular...
... in HEP G2 cell line, tauroursodeoxycholic acid has a protective effect against ethanol-induced human hepatocellular damage ... In vitro, in HEP G2 cell line, tauroursodeoxycholic acid has a protective effect against ethanol-induced human hepatocellular ... Cameron, R.G.; Neuman, M.G.; Shear, N.H.; Bellentani, S.; Tiribelli, C., 1994: In vitro, in HEP G2 cell line, ... Watanabe, A., 1995: Early diagnosis for hepatitis severity and fulminant hepatitis in patients with acute hepatitis(type B): ...
*  Growth requirements and expression of LDL receptor and HMG-CoA reductase in Hep G2 hepatoblastoma cells cultured in a...
Unlike rodent hepatoma lines, Hep G2 cells in serum-free medium have an absolute requirement for lipoprotein lipids (either low ... Growth requirements and expression of LDL receptor and HMG-CoA reductase in Hep G2 hepatoblastoma cells cultured in a ... Growth requirements and expression of LDL receptor and HMG-CoA reductase in Hep G2 hepatoblastoma cells cultured in a ... Growth requirements and expression of LDL receptor and HMG-CoA reductase in Hep G2 hepatoblastoma cells cultured in a ...
*  Protein Kinase C Signaling as a Survival Pathway against CYP2E1-Derived Oxidative Stress and Toxicity in HepG2 Cells | Journal...
Chen Q and Cederbaum AI (1998) Cytotoxicity and apoptosis produced by cytochrome P450 2E1 in Hep G2 cells. Mol Pharmacol 53: ... Chen Q and Cederbaum AI (1997) Menadione cytotoxicity to Hep G2 cells and protection by activation of nuclear factor-kappaB. ... Cell Culture. This study was carried out using as a model the human hepatoma E47-HepG2 cell subline (Chen and Cederbaum, 1998 ... E47 cells were selected from HepG2 cells transfected with a pCI-2E1 plasmid (Chen and Cederbaum, 1998), so the constitutive ...
*  Biotin requirements are lower in human Jurkat lymphoid cells but homeostatic mechanisms are similar to those of HepG2 liver...
Hep G2 Cells. Hepatocytes / metabolism*. Histones / metabolism. Homeostasis / physiology*. Humans. Jurkat Cells. Lymphocytes / ... HepG2 cells) and lymphoid tissues (Jurkat cells). Cells were cultured in biotin-defined media, representing deficient (D), ... Biotinylation of carboxylases depended on biotin availability in both cell types, but HepG2 cells required 3 times more biotin ... Biotin requirements are lower in human Jurkat lymphoid cells but homeostatic mechanisms are similar to those of HepG2 liver ...
*  Functional genomics analysis of low concentration of ethanol in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Role of genes...
Effects of doxorubicin, mitomycin C, and ethanol on Hep-G2 cells in vitro. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 1999 ;125:1-8 ... in HepG2 cells compared to HepG2 cells not exposed to ethanol (control cells) using cDNA microarrays. We identified four ... Each set consist of two groups as follow: group 1, HepG2 treated cells with 1 mM ethanol for 6 h; and group 2, HepG2 cells ... HepG2 cells can be used to analyze the effect of ethanol on gene expression in HCC, based on the fact that HepG2 cells retain ...
*  Hep G2 - Wikipedia
Cellosaurus entry for Hep G2 Hep G2 is a hepatoblastoma-derived cell line CellBank Australia Sales Page for Hep G2". ... Hep G2 is a human liver cancer cell line. Hep G2 is a perpetual cell line which was derived from the liver tissue of a 15-year- ... Sigma Aldrich Sales Page for Hep G2" ATCC Sales Page for Hep G2" ... HepG2 cells are a suitable in vitro model system for the study ... HepG2 cells are also employed in trials with bio-artificial liver devices[citation needed]. Hep G2, American Type Culture ...
*  Lipoprotein(a) - Wikipedia
... in stably transfected Hep G2 cells". Biochemistry. 37 (16): 5417-25. doi:10.1021/bi972761t. PMID 9548923. Brunner C, Lobentanz ... affects its processing and secretion by HepG2 cells". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (50): 32403-10. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.50.32403. PMID ... which attract inflammatory cells to vessel walls and leads to smooth muscle cell proliferation. Moreover, Lp(a) also is ... Apo(a) is expressed by liver cells (hepatocytes), and the assembly of apo(a) and LDL particles seems to take place at the outer ...
*  IGFBP1 - Wikipedia
1988). "Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein complementary deoxyribonucleic acid from human HEP G2 hepatoma cells: ... Basal promoter activity in HEP G2 cells depends upon liver factor B1". J. Biol. Chem. 265 (34): 21185-93. PMID 1701175. ... Binding of this protein prolongs the half-life of the IGFs and alters their interaction with cell surface receptors. Alternate ... 1993). "Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 stimulates cell migration and binds to the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin by ...
*  Gamma-glutamyltransferase 1 - Wikipedia
Tate SS, Galbraith RA (1988). "In vitro translation and processing of human hepatoma cell (Hep G2) gamma-glutamyl ... Several 5' UTR transcript variants of the type I gene have been identified in different tissues and cancer cells. Cluster of ...
*  Bisphenol F - Wikipedia
In addition, another study found BPF to be genotoxic when introduced to Hep G2 cells. A literature review of in vivo studies of ... Different cell types have a bias towards which metabolite gets produced, with the human hepatoma cell line primarily ... and its derivatives in the HepG2 cell line". Toxicology. 255 (1-2): 15-24. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2008.09.024. ISSN 0300-483X. PMID ... methane-bisphenol F-metabolism by the HepG2 human hepatoma cell line and cryopreserved human hepatocytes". Drug and Chemical ...
*  Human herpesvirus 6 - Wikipedia
"Human herpesvirus 6 induces IL-8 gene expression in human hepatoma cell line, Hep G2". Journal of Medical Virology. 49 (1): 34- ... "CD46 on glial cells can function as a receptor for viral glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell fusion". Glia. 52 (3): 252-8. doi: ... described five cell lines that can be infected by the newly discovered HBLV. They published that HSB-2, a particular T-cell ... Various medulloblastoma cell lines as well as the cells of other brain tumors have been demonstrated to express the CD46 ...
*  Wei-Shou Hu - Wikipedia
Nyberg, SL; Remmel, RP; Mann, HJ; Peshwa, MV; Hu, WS; Cerra, FB (July 1994). "Primary hepatocytes outperform Hep G2 cells as ... He is the author of the books, Bioseparations, Cell Culture Technology for Pharmaceutical and Cell-Based Therapies and Cell ... In addition to his work with Chinese hamster ovary cells, his work has enabled the use of process engineering for cell therapy ... "Multipotent adult progenitor cells from bone marrow differentiate into functional hepatocyte-like cells". The Journal of ...
*  Tissue expression of MAPK3 - Staining in kidney - The Human Protein Atlas
Hep G2. HHSteC. HL-60. HMC-1. HSkMC. HTCEpi. HTEC/SVTERT24-B. HTERT-HME1. HUVEC TERT2. K-562. Karpas-707. LHCN-M2. MCF7. MOLT-4 ... Cell cycle intensity correlation. Cell cycle spatial correlation. Cell cycle biologically. Custom data cell cycle dependant. - ... Cells in tubules: 60. Cells in glomeruli: 20. Fibroblasts: 5. Other cell types: 15. ... Cells in tubules: 70. Cells in glomeruli: 15. Fibroblasts: 10. Other cell types: 5. ...
*  Tissue expression of AFP - Summary - The Human Protein Atlas
Hep G2. HHSteC. HL-60. HMC-1. HSkMC. HTCEpi. HTEC/SVTERT24-B. HTERT-HME1. HUVEC TERT2. K-562. Karpas-707. LHCN-M2. MCF7. MOLT-4 ... Cell cycle intensity correlation. Cell cycle spatial correlation. Cell cycle biologically. Custom data cell cycle dependant. - ... Hep G2. HHSteC. HL-60. HMC-1. HSkMC. HTCEpi. HTEC/SVTERT24-B. HTERT-HME1. HUVEC TERT2. K-562. Karpas-707. LHCN-M2. MCF7. MOLT-4 ... Cell category (RNA). Cancer category (RNA). Tissue detectable (RNA). Cell line detectable (RNA). Cancer detectable (RNA). ...
*  CARG: Coronary Artery Rehabilitation Group Blog: Twenty-five people take it in turns to perform CPR for 1.5 hours to keep man...
Stem cell therapy can reduce heart size, scar tiss.... *CARG's Board of Directors, 2010-2011 ... Jetstream G2 NXT Coronary Drill (1) * Jett Travolta (1) * Jimmy Neighbour (1) ... Hepatitis C (1) * Herceptin (1) * Hibiscus (1) * HIFA2015 (1) * High Blood Pressure (10) ...
*  Tissue expression of SUGP2 - Staining in adrenal gland - The Human Protein Atlas
Hep G2. HHSteC. HL-60. HMC-1. HSkMC. HTCEpi. HTEC/SVTERT24-B. HTERT-HME1. HUVEC TERT2. K-562. Karpas-707. LHCN-M2. MCF7. MOLT-4 ... Cell cycle intensity correlation. Cell cycle spatial correlation. Cell cycle biologically. Custom data cell cycle dependant. - ... Hep G2. HHSteC. HL-60. HMC-1. HSkMC. HTCEpi. HTEC/SVTERT24-B. HTERT-HME1. HUVEC TERT2. K-562. Karpas-707. LHCN-M2. MCF7. MOLT-4 ... Cell category (RNA). Cancer category (RNA). Tissue detectable (RNA). Cell line detectable (RNA). Cancer detectable (RNA). ...
*  Faculty Briefs - 2011
"Gap junction-mediated import of microRNA from bone marrow stromal cells can elicit cell cycle quiescence in breast cancer cells ... 2011). "LRRK2 G2)19S mutations may be increased in Puerto Ricans." Movement Disorders 26(9): 1771-1773.. Sayan, O., M. Bond, J ... 2011). "Induction of CXCR3-and CCR5-associated chemokines during acute hepatitis C virus infection." Journal of Hepatology 55(3 ... 2011). "Distinctions between adult t-cell leudemia-lymphoma (ATLL) secondary to human t-cell lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV1) and ...
*  Gentaur Molecular :Sceti K.K. \ E 64 \ 4096
BCL10 CIPER CLAP] B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 10 (B-cell CLL/lymphoma 10) (Bcl-10) (CARD-containing molecule enhancing NF-kappa-B ... 28870347] In vitro inhibitory analysis of consensus siRNAs against NS3 gene of hepatitis C virus 1a genotype.. ... ADGRG2 GPR64 HE6 TM7LN2] Adhesion G-protein coupled receptor G2 (G-protein coupled receptor 64) (Human epididymis-specific ... Cells Cloning Elisa Kits microRNA Analysis Multiplex Cytokine Assays PCR Peptides Proteins Transfection Viral Systems ...

Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinomaMetastatic liver disease: A liver metastasis is a malignant tumor in the liver that has spread from another organ affected by cancer. The liver is a common site for metastatic disease because of its rich, dual blood supply (the liver receives blood via the hepatic artery and portal vein).HexamethylphosphoramideChemoreceptor trigger zone: The chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) is an area of the medulla oblongata that receives inputs from blood-borne drugs or hormones, and communicates with other structures in the vomiting center to initiate vomiting. The CTZ is located within the area postrema, which is on the floor of the fourth ventricle and is outside of the blood–brain barrier.LovastatinLiver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIApolipoprotein O: Apolipoprotein O also known as protein FAM121B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOO gene. APOO is a member of the apolipoprotein family.Artificial organZinc carboxypeptidase: A:127-412 A:128-415 E:128-406YWTD domain of low-density lipoprotein receptor: The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) regulates cholesterol homeostasis in mammalian cells. LDLR binds cholesterol-carrying LDL, associates with clathrin-coated pits, and is internalized into acidic endosomes where it separates from its ligand.HepatoblastomaHydrogen silsesquioxane: [T8 Cube.png|200px|thumbnail|right| Hydrogen silsesquioxane (R = H).Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Dioxosuccinic acidKhekadaengoside: Khekadaengoside is any one of several chemical compounds isolated from certain plants, notably Trichosanthes tricuspidata. They can be seen as derivatives of the triterpene hydrocarbon cucurbitane (), more specifically from cucurbitacins H and L.AtherosclerosisVitellogenin lipid transport domain: A:18-588HMG-CoA reductase: HMG-CoA reductase (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, officially abbreviated HMGCR) is the rate-controlling enzyme (NADH-dependent, ; NADPH-dependent, ) of the mevalonate pathway, the metabolic pathway that produces cholesterol and other isoprenoids. Normally in mammalian cells this enzyme is suppressed by cholesterol derived from the internalization and degradation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) via the LDL receptor as well as oxidized species of cholesterol.HMG-CoACholesterolBurst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".PrimaquineRetigabineEthyl oleateWeigel Motors: Weigel Motors Ltd was a British automobile manufacturer from 1907-1910 at Coswell Road in London. The company built the first British cars to participate in Grand Prix Racing when it entered 2 cars in the 1907 French Grand Prix at Dieppe, driven by Gregor Laxen and Pryce Harrison.CycloheximideApolipoprotein A2: Apolipoprotein A-II is an apolipoprotein found in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in plasma.RNA transfection: RNA transfection is the process of deliberately introducing RNA into a living cell. RNA can be purified from cells after lysis or synthesized from free nucleotides either chemically, or enzymatically using an RNA polymerase to transcribe a DNA template.CDCa1: CDCa1 is a protein product of the human genome. The gene that codes for this protein is found on chromosome 1, from 150,076,963-150,079,657.Eukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.Vitamin K reactionSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Mediated transportColes PhillipsTumor-associated glycoprotein: Tumor-associated glycoproteins (TAGs) are glycoproteins found on the surface of many cancer cells. They are mucin-like molecules with a molar mass of over 1000 kDa.GC box: In molecular biology, a GC box is a distinct pattern of nucleotides found in the promoter region of some eukaryotic genes upstream of the TATA box and approximately 110 bases upstream from the transcription initiation site. It has a consensus sequence GGGCGG which is position dependent and orientation independent.Molar mass distribution: In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value. The molar mass distribution (or molecular weight distribution) in a polymer describes the relationship between the number of moles of each polymer species (Ni) and the molar mass (Mi) of that species.Margaret Jope: Margaret Jope (1913–2004) was a Scottish biochemist, born as Henrietta Margaret Halliday in Peterhead, Scotland.Carboxypeptidase A inhibitor: In molecular biology, the carboxypeptidase A inhibitor family is a family of proteins which is represented by the well-characterised metallocarboxypeptidase A inhibitor (MCPI) from potatoes, which belongs to the MEROPS inhibitor family I37, clan IE. It inhibits metallopeptidases belonging to MEROPS peptidase family M14, carboxypeptidase A.Very low-density lipoprotein: Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) is a type of lipoprotein made by the liver. VLDL is one of the five major groups of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, low-density lipoprotein, intermediate-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein) that enable fats and cholesterol to move within the water-based solution of the bloodstream.Transthyretin: Transthyretin (TTR) is a serum and cerebrospinal fluid carrier of the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) and retinol-binding protein bound to retinol. This is how transthyretin gained its name, transports thyroxine and retinol.Bile acid malabsorptionFucoseDNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Chlorophyllase: Chlorophyllase (klawr-uh-fil-eys)chlorophyllase - Definitions from Dictionary.com is the key enzyme in chlorophyll metabolism.Affinity chromatography: Affinity chromatography is a method of separating biochemical mixtures based on a highly specific interaction such as that between antigen and antibody, enzyme and substrate, or receptor and ligand.MethionineFibrinogenLactate dehydrogenase elevating virus: Lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus, or LDV for short, belongs to part of the arteriviridae family and the nidovirales order. Also included in the nidovirales order are the coronaviridae.Protein synthesis inhibitor: A protein synthesis inhibitor is a substance that stops or slows the growth or proliferation of cells by disrupting the processes that lead directly to the generation of new proteins.Endocytosis: Endocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell ([+ cytosis]) by engulfing them in an [[energy-using process. Endocytosis and its counterpart, exocytosis, are used by all cells because most chemical substances important to them are large polar molecules that cannot pass through the hydrophobic plasma or cell membrane by passive means.Apolipoprotein L: Apolipoprotein L (Apo L) belongs to the high density lipoprotein family that plays a central role in cholesterol transport. The cholesterol content of membranes is important in cellular processes such as modulating gene transcription and signal transduction both in the adult brain and during neurodevelopment.Eagle's minimal essential medium: Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM) is a cell culture medium developed by Harry Eagle that can be used to maintain cells in tissue culture.TroloxTriparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.Concentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Glycosylation: Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.KIAA0895L: Uncharacterized protein KIAA0895-like also known as LOC653319, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KIAA0895L gene.

(1/2073) Apoptosis of human hepatoma cell lines induced by transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) correlates with p53 and Smad4 activation.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationships between apoptosis induced by transforming growth factor beta 1(TGF-beta1) and Smad in human hepatoma cell lines. METHODS: Three human hepatic carcinoma cell lines, involving different status of the p53 gene respectively, were used in this study. TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis in hepatic carcinoma cell lines was quantitated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. For identification of the mechanism of apoptosis induced by TGF-beta1, these cell lines were transfected with a TGF-beta1-inducible luciferase reporter plasmid containing Smad binding elements (SBE) and luciferase gene using LF2000, then were treated with TGF-beta1. Relative luciferase activity was assayed respectively. RESULTS: Among three cell lines studied with TUNEL assay, addition of TGF-beta1 induced apoptosis only in HepG2 cells (wild type p53). In contrast, Huh-7 (mutant p53) and Hep3B (deleted p53) cell lines lacked apoptosis. The detection of luciferase activity indicated that HepG2 cells dramatically increased the response to TGF-beta1 induction, Huh-7 and Hep3B cell lines significantly lowered luciferase expression. CONCLUSION: HepG2 cells were highly susceptible to TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis compared with Hep3B and Huh-7 cell lines. Smad4 may be a central mediator of the TGF-beta1 signaling transduction pathway.  (+info)

(2/2073) Effect of the venom of the spider Macrothele raveni on the expression of p21 gene in HepG2 cells.

This paper focuses on the effect of the venom of the spider Macrothele raveni on the proliferation of human hepatocelluar carcinoma cell line HepG2 and the related molecular mechanism. XTT test showed that the proliferation of HepG2 cells in vitro was inhibited by the spider venom (P<0.05) in a concentration-dependent manner. By using flow cytometry, it was found that the spider venom caused selective G(2)/M cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells. RT-PCR and Western blot indicated the expressions of p21 mRNA and protein in HepG2 cells were obviously up-regulated by the spider venom. The venom of the spider Macrothele raveni inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells. These results suggest that the possible mechanism of the spider venom is to activate the expressions of p21 gene and protein and to cause selective cell cycle arrest at G(2)/M phase, leading to HepG2 cell apoptosis.  (+info)

(3/2073) Host gene expression profiling of dengue virus infection in cell lines and patients.

BACKGROUND: Despite the seriousness of dengue-related disease, with an estimated 50-100 million cases of dengue fever and 250,000-500,000 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome each year, a clear understanding of dengue pathogenesis remains elusive. Because of the lack of a disease model in animals and the complex immune interaction in dengue infection, the study of host response and immunopathogenesis is difficult. The development of genomics technology, microarray and high throughput quantitative PCR have allowed researchers to study gene expression changes on a much broader scale. We therefore used this approach to investigate the host response in dengue virus-infected cell lines and in patients developing dengue fever. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using microarray and high throughput quantitative PCR method to monitor the host response to dengue viral replication in cell line infection models and in dengue patient blood samples, we identified differentially expressed genes along three major pathways; NF-kappaB initiated immune responses, type I interferon (IFN) and the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Among the most highly upregulated genes were the chemokines IP-10 and I-TAC, both ligands of the CXCR3 receptor. Increased expression of IP-10 and I-TAC in the peripheral blood of ten patients at the early onset of fever was confirmed by ELISA. A highly upregulated gene in the IFN pathway, viperin, was overexpressed in A549 cells resulting in a significant reduction in viral replication. The upregulation of genes in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway prompted the testing of proteasome inhibitors MG-132 and ALLN, both of which reduced viral replication. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Unbiased gene expression analysis has identified new host genes associated with dengue infection, which we have validated in functional studies. We showed that some parts of the host response can be used as potential biomarkers for the disease while others can be used to control dengue viral replication, thus representing viable targets for drug therapy.  (+info)

(4/2073) Structural antitumoral activity relationships of synthetic chalcones.


(5/2073) Malathion-induced oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity in human liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells.


(6/2073) The antitumoral effect of Paris Saponin I associated with the induction of apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway.


(7/2073) Activation of PXR induces hypercholesterolemia in wild-type and accelerates atherosclerosis in apoE deficient mice.


(8/2073) Vitamin K2 suppresses proliferation and motility of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by activating steroid and xenobiotic receptor.

Vitamin K2, known as a cofactor for gamma-carboxylase, also serves as a ligand of a nuclear receptor, Steroid and Xenobiotic Receptor (SXR). Several clinical trials revealed that vitamin K2 reduced de novo formation and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To examine the role of SXR in HCC as a receptor activated by vitamin K2, the cells stably overexpressing SXR were established using a HCC cell line, HuH7. Overexpression of SXR resulted in reduced proliferation and motility of the cells. Further suppression of proliferation and motility was observed when SXR overexpressing clones were treated with vitamin K2. These results suggest that the activation of SXR could contribute to tumor suppressive effects of vitamin K2 on HCC cells.  (+info)

  • incubation
  • METHODS: Cell survival curves and the half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) were obtained after 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation in HepG2 cells with the IBD drugs azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine, methotrexate or infliximab by using the WST-1 cytotoxicity assay. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Incubation of the cells with oleic acid had no significant effect on the rate of initiation of the apoB-100-containing lipoproteins, nor did it influence the amount of apoB-100 that was associated with the membrane or the turnover of apoB-100 in the membrane. (ahajournals.org)
  • This effect was probably mediated by Ca 2+ , because incubation of cells with 20 mmol/L CaCl 2 abolished the E 2 response. (ahajournals.org)
  • liver
  • Because the liver has an essential role in body Cu homeostasis, we examined the potential involvement of Cu in the regulation of DMT1 expression and activity in Hep-G2 cells. (physiology.org)
  • 1 2 3 This inverse association is present in both men and women and is due to the important role played by HDL in the reverse cholesterol transfer pathway, in which HDL functions as an acceptor of excess cholesterol from peripheral cells and transports it back to the liver for removal. (ahajournals.org)
  • 9 12 13 In humans, the apo A-I gene is expressed in both liver and intestine, and studies in Hep G2 cells, a human hepatoma cell line, have demonstrated that estrogen can increase apo A-I concentration in the medium of these cells in a dose-dependent manner. (ahajournals.org)
  • The culture system described provides a basis for studying the regulation of hepatocyte-specific functions by soluble factors (either plasma- or cell-derived) and cell-substratum interactions in a human liver cell line. (biologists.org)
  • Hep G2 is a human liver cancer cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can be important for the study of human liver diseases that are caused by an incorrect subcellular distribution of cell surface proteins, e.g., hepatocanalicular transport defects such as Dubin-Johnson Syndrome and progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC), and familial hypercholesterolemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] HepG2 cells and their derivatives are also used as a model system for studies of liver metabolism and toxicity of xenobiotics, the detection of environmental and dietary cytotoxic and genotoxic (and thus cytoprotective, anti-genotoxic, and cogenotoxic) agents, understanding hepatocarcinogenesis[citation needed], and for drug targeting studies[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • HepG2 cells are also employed in trials with bio-artificial liver devices[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apo(a) is expressed by liver cells (hepatocytes), and the assembly of apo(a) and LDL particles seems to take place at the outer hepatocyte surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Abstract -Estrogen administration to postmenopausal women has been shown to increase plasma levels of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. A human hepatoma cell line, Hep G2, was used to test the hypothesis that estrogen increases the hepatic production of apo A-I by modulating gene expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • In conclusion, E 2 increases apo A-I production in hepatic cells by increasing the transcription of the apo A-I gene. (ahajournals.org)
  • Several 5' UTR transcript variants of the type I gene have been identified in different tissues and cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxicity
  • Cells were exposed to arachidonic acid (AA) plus Fe, which has been previously reported to cause a synergistic toxicity in E47 cells by a mechanism dependent on CYP2E1 activity and involving oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • TPA also protected against the toxicity caused by AA alone, or by iron alone, in the E47 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In conclusion, PKC activation by TPA prevents CYP2E1-derived acute oxidative stress and toxicity in HepG2 cells, and this appears to involve maintenance of the intracellular redox homeostasis via PKC signal transduction. (aspetjournals.org)
  • proliferation
  • Lp(a) carries cholesterol and binds atherogenic proinflammatory oxidized phospholipids as a preferential carrier of oxidized phospholipids in human plasma, which attract inflammatory cells to vessel walls and leads to smooth muscle cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lines
  • Because studies in humans were limited, other investigators examined disposition, metabolism, and induction potential of chrysin in clinical studies or immortalized human cell lines. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, when human cell lines were tested and a Comet assay was conducted, BPF caused DNA fragmentation when introduced to the cells at non-cytotoxic concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • viability
  • Phorbol ester 12- O -tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), but not the inactive analog 4-α-TPA, prevented lipid peroxidation, glutathione depletion, and loss of viability produced by AA + Fe in E47 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • grown
  • Cells exposed to 10 μM Cu exhibited a 22-fold increase in Cu content and a twofold decrease in Fe content compared with cells maintained in 0.4 μM Cu. 64 Cu uptake in Cu-deficient Hep-G2 cells showed a twofold decrease in K m compared with cells grown in 10 μM Cu. The decreased K m may represent an adaptive response to Cu deficiency. (physiology.org)
  • medium
  • Fraction I is not secreted into the medium, but it disappears with time from the cell, suggesting that it is degraded. (ahajournals.org)
  • When Hep G2 cells were treated for 24 hours with E 2 , the apo A-I content in the medium increased 4.3±1.0-fold at 10 μmol/L E 2 and 1.8±0.4-fold at 1 μmol/L E 2 compared with untreated cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Expression of the LDL receptor and HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A) reductase genes was comparable in Hep G2 cells cultured in CDM and serum-containing medium. (biologists.org)
  • surface
  • The Hep G2 cells were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and arrayed on a 12-well (5 mm) adhesive coated slide, with each wellis surface specifically treated to enhance cellular attachment and to minimize background staining. (genetex.com)
  • Hepatitis B virus surface antigens have not been detected. (wikipedia.org)