Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Helicobacter Infections: Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.Helicobacter: A genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from the intestinal tract of mammals, including humans. It has been associated with PEPTIC ULCER.Gastritis: Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Urease: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC Ulcer: Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Clarithromycin: A semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic derived from ERYTHROMYCIN that is active against a variety of microorganisms. It can inhibit PROTEIN SYNTHESIS in BACTERIA by reversibly binding to the 50S ribosomal subunits. This inhibits the translocation of aminoacyl transfer-RNA and prevents peptide chain elongation.Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Dyspepsia: Impaired digestion, especially after eating.Anti-Ulcer Agents: Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.Omeprazole: A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Stomach Diseases: Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.Gastritis, Atrophic: GASTRITIS with atrophy of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS, and the mucosal glands leading to ACHLORHYDRIA. Atrophic gastritis usually progresses from chronic gastritis.Bismuth: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Bi, atomic number 83 and atomic weight 208.98.Pyloric Antrum: The region between the sharp indentation at the lower third of the STOMACH (incisura angularis) and the junction of the PYLORUS with the DUODENUM. Pyloric antral glands contain mucus-secreting cells and gastrin-secreting endocrine cells (G CELLS).Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Duodenal Ulcer: A PEPTIC ULCER located in the DUODENUM.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Stomach Ulcer: Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Helicobacter hepaticus: A species of HELICOBACTER that colonizes the CECUM and COLON of several strains of MICE, and is associated with HEPATITIS and carcinogenesis.Gastroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Helicobacter heilmannii: A species of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria found in the gastric mucosa that is associated with chronic antral gastritis. This bacterium was first discovered in samples removed at endoscopy from patients investigated for HELICOBACTER PYLORI colonization.Lansoprazole: A 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxypyridyl derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS. Lansoprazole is a racemic mixture of (R)- and (S)-isomers.2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles: Compounds that contain benzimidazole joined to a 2-methylpyridine via a sulfoxide linkage. Several of the compounds in this class are ANTI-ULCER AGENTS that act by inhibiting the POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE found in the PROTON PUMP of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Proton Pump Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Tinidazole: A nitroimidazole antitrichomonal agent effective against Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia lamblia infections.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Metaplasia: A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.Pepsinogen A: This is one of 2 related pepsinogen systems in humans and is also known as pepsinogen. (The other is PEPSINOGEN C.) This includes isozymogens Pg1-Pg5 (pepsinogens 1-5, group I or products of PGA1-PGA5 genes). This is the main pepsinogen found in urine.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Ranitidine: A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.Duodenitis: Inflammation of the DUODENUM section of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL). Erosive duodenitis may cause bleeding in the UPPER GI TRACT and PEPTIC ULCER.Furazolidone: A nitrofuran derivative with antiprotozoal and antibacterial activity. Furazolidone acts by gradual inhibition of monoamine oxidase. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p514)Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Gastrins: A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gastric Acid: Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone: Extranodal lymphoma of lymphoid tissue associated with mucosa that is in contact with exogenous antigens. Many of the sites of these lymphomas, such as the stomach, salivary gland, and thyroid, are normally devoid of lymphoid tissue. They acquire mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type as a result of an immunologically mediated disorder.Pepsinogens: Proenzymes secreted by chief cells, mucous neck cells, and pyloric gland cells, which are converted into pepsin in the presence of gastric acid or pepsin itself. (Dorland, 28th ed) In humans there are 2 related pepsinogen systems: PEPSINOGEN A (formerly pepsinogen I or pepsinogen) and PEPSINOGEN C (formerly pepsinogen II or progastricsin). Pepsinogen B is the name of a pepsinogen from pigs.Antacids: Substances that counteract or neutralize acidity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Pepsinogen C: This is one of the 2 related pepsinogen systems in humans. It is found in prostate and seminal fluid whereas PEPSINOGEN A is not.Antitrichomonal Agents: Agents used to treat trichomonas infections.Nitroreductases: Enzymes which reduce nitro groups (NITRO COMPOUNDS) and other nitrogenous compounds.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Rabeprazole: A 4-(3-methoxypropoxy)-3-methylpyridinyl derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Pylorus: The region of the STOMACH at the junction with the DUODENUM. It is marked by the thickening of circular muscle layers forming the pyloric sphincter to control the opening and closure of the lumen.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Gastric Mucins: Mucins that are found on the surface of the gastric epithelium. They play a role in protecting the epithelial layer from mechanical and chemical damage.Gastric Juice: The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sulfoxides: Organic compounds that have the general formula R-SO-R. They are obtained by oxidation of mercaptans (analogous to the ketones). (From Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 4th ed)Endoscopy, Digestive System: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Achlorhydria: A lack of HYDROCHLORIC ACID in GASTRIC JUICE despite stimulation of gastric secretion.Parietal Cells, Gastric: Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Gastroesophageal Reflux: Retrograde flow of gastric juice (GASTRIC ACID) and/or duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the distal ESOPHAGUS, commonly due to incompetence of the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Genomic Islands: Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".Peptic Ulcer Hemorrhage: Bleeding from a PEPTIC ULCER that can be located in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).RNA, Ribosomal, 23S: Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Azure Stains: PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Campylobacter: A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Histamine H2 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Esophagitis: INFLAMMATION, acute or chronic, of the ESOPHAGUS caused by BACTERIA, chemicals, or TRAUMA.Benzimidazoles: Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Nickel: A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.Gastric Acidity Determination: Gastric analysis for determination of free acid or total acid.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Esophagitis, Peptic: INFLAMMATION of the ESOPHAGUS that is caused by the reflux of GASTRIC JUICE with contents of the STOMACH and DUODENUM.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Levofloxacin: The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.ColombiaDuodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Esomeprazole: The S-isomer of omeprazole.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Cardia: That part of the STOMACH close to the opening from ESOPHAGUS into the stomach (cardiac orifice), the ESOPHAGOGASTRIC JUNCTION. The cardia is so named because of its closeness to the HEART. Cardia is characterized by the lack of acid-forming cells (GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS).Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Helicobacter felis: A species of HELICOBACTER that colonizes in the STOMACH of laboratory MICE; CATS; and DOGS. It is associated with lymphoid follicular hyperplasia and mild GASTRITIS in CATS.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.BulgariaRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Flagellin: A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.

*  Role of Helicobacter Pylori and Its Toxins in Lung and Digestive System Diseases - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

... and other toxins are produced by Helicobacter pylori. We hypothesize that H. pylori, VacA toxin, and other toxins within the ... Role of Helicobacter Pylori and Its Toxins in Lung and Digestive System Diseases. This study has been completed. ... Helicobacter pylori VacA, a paradigm for toxin multifunctionality. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2005 Apr;3(4):320-32. Review. ... pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric inflammation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2001 Sep;15(9):1271-90. Review. ...

*  British Library EThOS: Screening for Helicobacter pylori : studies in two population samples from central England

If it is clearly demonstrated that eradicating Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) in asymptomatic subjects would lead to a ... Screening for Helicobacter pylori : studies in two population samples from central England ... Consideration was given to compliance at each stage, also to the association between dyspepsia and H. pylori and to risk ... A serological screening test for infection with H. pylori was offered in two community programmes in Market Harborough and ...

*  Relation of Helicobacter pylori Infection to 13-Year Mortality and Incident Ischemic Heart Disease in the Caerphilly...

Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter pylori is a chronic infection of the human stomach that is an established cause of gastritis ... Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with coronary heart disease: study shows association between H pylori infection ... Helicobacter pylori infection and coronary heart disease in the North Glasgow MONICA population. Eur Heart J. 1997;18:1257-1260 ... Helicobacter pylori infection does not influence the risk of acute myocardial infarction. Heart. 1996;76:308-311. ...

*  Efficacy of 10-day and 14-day Sequential Therapy Versus Triple Therapy on the Eradication of Helicobacter Pylori - Full Text...

Taiwan Helicobacter Consortium. Sequential versus triple therapy for the first-line treatment of Helicobacter pylori: a ... Background: Helicobacter pylori infection has been shown to be associated with the development of gastric cancer and peptic ... Efficacy of 10-day and 14-day Sequential Therapy Versus Triple Therapy on the Eradication of Helicobacter Pylori. This study ... H. Pylori Infection Drug: Sequential therapy for 14 days Drug: Sequential therapy for 10 days Drug: Triple therapy for 14 days ...

*  New pig model developed to study immune responses to Helicobacter pylori infection | MIEP

New pig model developed to study immune responses to Helicobacter pylori infection. BLACKSBURG, Va., August 31, 2013 - ... In addition to its role as a pathogen, H. pylori has beneficial effects. Researchers have found that H. pylori can prevent ... have developed a new large animal model to study immune system interactions with the stomach bacterium Helicobacter pylori. The ... H. pylori is found in over half the world's population. While most people do not develop disease, some experience chronic ...

*  The effect of Helicobacter pylori infection and eradication in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: A parallel...

This study aimed to resolve controversy regarding the effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy and H. pylori ... This study aimed to resolve controversy regarding the effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy and H. pylori ... The effect of Helicobacter pylori infection and eradication in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: A parallel- ... H. pylori-positive patients were randomized to receive either antibiotics or placebo for 7 days. H. pylori-negative patient ...

*  Efficacy and Safety of InSan Bamboo Salt on Improvement of Helicobacter Pylori Infection - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Helicobacter Pylori Infection Dietary Supplement: InSan Bamboo Salt Dietary Supplement: Placebo Phase 2 Phase 3 ... Efficacy and Safety of InSan Bamboo Salt on Improvement of Helicobacter Pylori Infection. The recruitment status of this study ... The investigators measured improvement of Helicobacter pylori infection parameters , including 14C-UBT(Urea breath test), and ... placebo-controlled human trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of InSan Bamboo Salt on improvement of Helicobacter pylori ...

*  Helicobacter pylori (Marshall et al.) Goodwin et al. ATCC ® 700824

Genomic DNA from Helicobacter pylori strain J99 TypeStrain=False Application: ... Helicobacter pylori (Marshall et al.) Goodwin et al. Strain Designations Genomic DNA from Helicobacter pylori strain J99 [ATCC® ... Helicobacter pylori (Marshall et al.) Goodwin et al. (ATCC® 700824D-5™) Strain Designations: Genomic DNA from Helicobacter ...

*  Chapter 151. Helicobacter pylori Infections | Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 18e | AccessPharmacy | McGraw-Hill...

... pylori, possibly acquired as zoonoses. Whether these non-pylori gastric helicobacters cause disease remains controversial. In ... Helicobacter pylori Infections." Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 18e Longo DL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, ... Helicobacter pylori Infections. In: Longo DL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Jameson J, Loscalzo J. Longo D.L., Fauci A.S., ... Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomachs of ∼50% of the world's human population throughout their lifetimes. Colonization ...

*  Diagnosis of helicobacter pylori infection with the 13C-urea breath test : analysis by means of gas chromatography with mass...

Diagnosis of helicobacter pylori infection with the 13C-urea breath test : analysis by means of gas chromatography with mass ... Diagnosis of helicobacter pylori infection with the 13C-urea breath test : analysis by means of gas chromatography with mass ...

*  Past rifampicin dosing determines rifabutin resistance of Helicobacter pylori.

Rifabutin (RFB) is one of the possible candidates for H. pylori eradication. In the present study, the RFB minimum inhibitory ... the number of Helicobacter pylori isolates showing antibiotic resistance has been increasing. ... Helicobacter pylori caga and vaca cytotoxin genes in changsha, china.. 15557006 - Metastability of helicobacter pylori bab ... Helicobacter Infections / drug therapy, microbiology*. Helicobacter pylori / drug effects*, genetics, isolation & purification ...

*  Helicobacter Pylori Infection | Orange Park Medical Center

Learn more about Helicobacter Pylori Infection at Orange Park Medical Center DefinitionCausesRisk ... T114484/Helicobacter-pylori-infection: Fuccio L, Zagari RM, Eusebi LH. Meta-analysis: Can Helicobacter pylori eradication ... Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a type of bacteria that can infect the stomach and intestines. It can lead to: * Gastritis- ... Weyermann M, Rothenbacher D, Brenner H. Acquisition of Helicobacter pylori infection in early childhood: independent ...

*  Biohit GastroPanel - for diagnosis of atrophic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection from Biohit Healthcare |...

... for diagnosis of atrophic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection from Biohit Healthcare on SelectScience ... Helicobacter pylori IgG ELISA. When GastroPanel examination gives a normal result, any stomach symptoms are caused by ... On the basis of the results of the GastroPanel test panel it is possible to assess the need for Helicobacter pylori treatment ... Biohit GastroPanel - for diagnosis of atrophic gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection. Biohit GastroPanel - for diagnosis ...

*  Gentaur Molecular :AIC \ Helicobacter pylori CagA protein, antibody \ 5-HpA

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*  Helicobacter Pylori Infection - Hello..I was diagnosed with H-Pylori last week, Started the meds 3?

... helicobacter pylori infection, infections, vertigo - Answer: You could have an ulcer. That would cause the symptoms. You don't ... Helicobacter Pylori Infection.... Helicobacter Pylori Infection - Hello..I was diagnosed with H-Pylori last week, Started the ... Helicobacter Pylori Infection - My son was diagnosed with H. Pylori in August. We think he's had it?. Posted 3 Jan 2015 • 4 ... Helicobacter Pylori Infection - My 12 year old was diagnosed with h.pylori last year. It was?. Posted 22 Apr 2016 • 1 answer ...

*  Relation Between vacA Subtypes, Cytotoxin Activity, and Disease in Helicobacter pylori-Infected Patients From The Netherlands

OBJECTIVE: The vacuolating cytotoxin of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is encoded by vacA, of which allelic variation has been ... Discusses the mechanisms of action of Helicobacter (H.) pylori. Causal relationship of H. pylori to upper gastrointestinal ... pylori (p = 0.003). This difference was not significant when only cagA+ H. pylori were considered. H. pylori isolates with the ... HELICOBACTER PYLORI: CONSENSUS REACHED: PEPTIC ULCER IS ON THE WAY TO BECOMING AN HISTORIC DISEASE. Peura, David A.; Graham, ...

*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | Structural Analysis of Hypothetical Proteins from Helicobacter pylori: An Approach to Estimate...

Based on genomic research of H. pylori, over 1600 genes have been functionally identified so far. However, H. pylori possess ... pylori) have a unique ability to survive in extreme acidic environments and to colonize the gastric mucosa. It can cause ... pylori. Thus, there are still a lot of genes to be biologically or biochemically characterized to understand the whole picture ... pylori. In addition, we show some successful approaches of elucidating the function of unknown proteins based on their ...

*  Vacuolating cytotoxin and variants in Atg16L1 that disrupt autophagy promote Helicobacter pylori infection in humans

... ... Vacuolating cytotoxin and variants in Atg16L1 that disrupt autophagy promote Helicobacter pylori infection in humans ' ...

*  The Preventive Effect of Helicobacter Pylori Eradication on the Development of Gastric Cancer - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials...

The Effect of Helicobacter Pylori Eradication on the Development of Gastric Cancer and the Medical Care Cost in Iijima Town. ... The Preventive Effect of Helicobacter Pylori Eradication on the Development of Gastric Cancer. This study is ongoing, but not ... Recently, the preventive effect of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) eradication treatment on the incidence of gastric cancer has been ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00596401?recr=Open&cond="Stomach Diseases"&rank=13

*  Histidine Residue 94 Is Involved in pH Sensing by Histidine Kinase ArsS of Helicobacter pylori

Conclusions/Significance We show that H94 in the input domain of ArsS is crucial for acid perception in H. pylori 26695. In ... Orthologs of the ArsRS two-component system are also present in H. pylori's close relatives H. hepaticus, Campylobacter jejuni ... By the construction and analysis of H. pylori mutants carrying arsS allels from the related ε-proteobacteria we demonstrate ... Methodology/Principal Findings In order to investigate the mechanism of acid perception by ArsS, derivatives of H. pylori 26695 ...

*  Detoxification of 7-dehydrocholesterol fatal to Helicobacter pylori is a novel role of cholesterol glucosylation.

H. pylori cells with glucosylated FC are capable of evading host immune systems, such as phagocytosis by ... by Helicobacter pylori cells has various biological significances for the survival of this bacterium. ... by Helicobacter pylori cells has various biological significances for the survival of this bacterium. H. pylori cells with ... pylori is capable of absorbing this toxic sterol via glucosylation. In contrast to the case with 7dFC, no toxicity to H. pylori ...

*  Helicobacter pylori infection in North-Eastern peninsular Malaysia : evidence for an unusually low prevalence. | Base...

The H. pylori infection rate ascertained by microbiologic examination of multiple gastric antral biopsy specimens was 50% 17 of ... The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was determined in peptic ulcer patients, in non-ulcer dyspepsia NUD patients, ... Helicobacter pylori infection in North-Eastern peninsular Malaysia : evidence for an unusually low prevalence. R f. 80233 ... The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was determined in peptic ulcer patients, in non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) patients ...

*  Helicobacter pylori Eradication Improves Gastric Atrophy and Intestinal Metaplasia in Long-Term Observation.

Helicobacter pylori has been shown to cause atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia (IM), both of which are precancerous ... To clarify the mechanism by which H. pylori eradication prevents gastric cancer, we monitored at ... Background and Aim:Helicobacter pylori has been shown to cause atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia (IM), both of which ... 0.07 ± 0.04; p , 0.05). Conclusion: We were able to monitor the gastric mucosa for a mean of 8.6 years after H. pylori ...

*  Apitherapy News: South African Honey Shows Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity

Eradication of Helicobacter pylori by triple therapy often results in a failure rate of 10-20%; thus, there is a need to seek ... South African Honey Shows Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity Selected South African Honeys and Their Extracts Possess In Vitro ... Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity. Archives of Medical Research, Volume 41, Issue 5, July 2010, Pages 324-331. Background and ... The aim of this study was to screen selected South African honeys for their anti-H. pylori activity, to extract the ...

*  pH-Dependent Protein Profiles of Helicobacter pylori Analyzed by Two-Dimensional Gels - Slonczewski - 2000 - Helicobacter -...

Background.Helicobacter pylori survives transient exposure to extreme acid prior to adherence and growth on the gastric ... I. Nilsson, M. Utt, Separation and surveys of proteins of Helicobacter pylori, Journal of Chromatography B, 2002, 771, 1-2, 251 ... Next article in issue: Lymphocytic Gastritis and Helicobacter pylori: Reluctant Mucosal Partners? Next article in issue: ... pH-Dependent Protein Profiles of Helicobacter pylori Analyzed by Two-Dimensional Gels. Authors. *. Joan L. Slonczewski,. * ...

CagA: Helicobacter pylori virulence factor CagA (cytotoxin-associated gene A) is a 120–145kDa protein encoded on the 40kb cag pathogenicity island (PAI). H.Helicobacter pullorum: Helicobacter pullorum is a bacterium in the Helicobacteraceae family, Campylobacterales order. It was isolated from the liver, duodenum, and caecum of broiler and layer chickens, and from humans with gastroenteritis.GastritisGastric mucosal barrier: The gastric mucosal barrier is the property of the stomach that allows it to contain acid.Dodecameric protein: A dodecameric protein has a quaternary structure consisting of 12 protein subunits in a complex. Dodecameric complexes can have a number of subunit 'topologies', but typically only a few of the theoretically possible subunit arrangements are observed in protein structures.John Lykoudis: John Lykoudis (1910 in Missolonghi – 1980) was a general practitioner in Greece who treated patients suffering from peptic ulcer disease with antibiotics long before it was commonly recognized that bacteria were a dominant cause for the disease.ClarithromycinTolevamerStomach diseaseAmoxicillinNepean HospitalOmeprazoleFerric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Reactive gastropathy: In gastroenterology, reactive gastropathy, also chemical gastropathy, is an abnormality in the stomach caused by chemicals, e.g.Sodium bismuthateGastrin: Gastrin is a peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid (HCl) by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility. It is released by G cells in the pyloric antrum of the stomach, duodenum, and the pancreas.Erythromycin breath test: The erythromycin breath test (ERMBT) is a method used to measure metabolism (oxidation and elimination from the system) by a part of the cytochrome P450 system. Erythromycin is tagged with carbon-14 and given as an intravenous injection; after 20 minutes the subject blows up a balloon and the carbon dioxide exhaled that is tagged with carbon-14 shows the activity of the CYP3A4 isoenzyme on the erythromycin.Gastric erosion: Gastric erosion occurs when the mucous membrane lining the stomach becomes inflamed. Some drugs, as tablets, can irritate this mucous membrane, especially drugs taken for arthritis and muscular disorders, steroids, and aspirin.BacitracinFetor hepaticusLansoprazoleProton-pump inhibitorCombination therapy: Combination therapy or polytherapy is therapy that uses more than one medication or modality (versus monotherapy, which is any therapy taken alone). Typically, these terms refer to using multiple therapies to treat a single disease, and often all the therapies are pharmaceutical (although it can also involve non-medical therapy, such as the combination of medications and talk therapy to treat depression).TinidazoleIntestinal metaplasia: 200px|right|thumb|Intestinal metaplasia (top middle of image) of the gastric antrum and [[stomach cancer|adenocarcinoma of the stomach (left/centre of image). H&E stain.Brain biopsyRanitidineUrea reduction ratio: For the Scottish river see: Urr WaterDuodenitisFurazolidoneThermal cyclerCholesterol-dependent cytolysin: Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDC) are a family of β-barrel pore-forming exotoxins that are secreted by Gram-positive bacteria. CDC are secreted as water-soluble monomers of 50-70 kDa, that once bound to the target cell, will form a circular homo-oligomeric complex containing up to 40 monomers, although it is possible that some may incorporate more monomers.Little gastrin IColes PhillipsSecretagogue: A secretagogue is a substance that causes another substance to be secreted. One example is gastrin,secretagogue at eMedicine Dictionary which stimulates the H/K ATPase in the parietal cells (increased gastric acid production by the stomach).Nodal marginal zone B cell lymphomaAntacidAntitrichomonal agent: An antitrichomonal agent is an antiprotozoal agent that acts on trichomonas parasites.E. coli nitroreductase: E. coli nitroreductase is a flavoprotein found in the bacteria Escherichia coli.Extended-spectrum penicillin: The extended-spectrum penicillins are a group of antibiotics that have the widest antibacterial spectrum of all penicillins.Comprehensive Pharmacy Review, Leon Shargel, 6th edition, p917 Some sources identify them with antipseudomonal penicillins,Elsevier's Integrated Review Pharmacology, By Mark Kester, Kelly Dowhower Karpa, Kent E.RabeprazoleCD4 immunoadhesin: CD4 immunoadhesin is a recombinant fusion protein consisting of a combination of CD4 and the fragment crystallizable region.Virulence: Virulence is, by MeSH definition, the degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of parasites as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenicity of an organism - its ability to cause disease - is determined by its virulence factors.Gentamicin protection assay: The gentamicin protection assay or survival assay or invasion assay is a method used in microbiology. It is used to quantify the ability of pathogenic bacteria to invade eukaryotic cells.Metallocene: A metallocene is a compound typically consisting of two cyclopentadienyl anions (Cp, which is C5H5−) bound to a metal center (M) in the oxidation state II, with the resulting general formula (C5H5)2M. Closely related to the metallocenes are the metallocene derivatives, e.SulfoxideFunctional gastrointestinal disorder: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) include a number of separate idiopathic disorders which affect different parts of the gastrointestinal tract and involve visceral hypersensitivity and impaired gastrointestinal motility. Heightened mast cell activation is a common factor among all FGIDs that contributes to visceral hypersensitivity as well as epithelial, neuromuscular, and motility dysfunction.Eva Engvall: Eva Engvall, born 1940, is one of the scientists who invented ELISA in 1971.Eva Engvall, The Scientist 1995, 9(18):8Seroprevalence: Seroprevalence is the number of persons in a population who test positive for a specific disease based on serology (blood serum) specimens; often presented as a percent of the total specimens tested or as a proportion per 100,000 persons tested. As positively identifying the occurrence of disease is usually based upon the presence of antibodies for that disease (especially with viral infections such as Herpes Simplex and HIV), this number is not significant if the specificity of the antibody is low.AchlorhydriaGastric acid: Gastric acid is a digestive fluid, formed in the stomach. It is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl) .Trimeric autotransporter adhesin: In molecular biology, trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs), are proteins found on the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Bacteria use TAAs in order to infect their host cells via a process called cell adhesion.Stretta procedure: Stretta is a minimally invasive endoscopic procedure for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). A catheter is used to deliver radiofrequency energy to the lower esophageal sphincter, muscle and gastric cardia.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Forrest classification: Forrest classification is a classification of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage used for purposes of comparison and in selecting patients for endoscopic treatment.http://books.Squamous epithelial cell: In anatomy, squamous epithelium (squama- + -ous) is that whose outermost (apical) layer consists of thin, flat cells called squamous epithelial cells. The epithelium may be composed of one layer of these cells, in which case it is referred to as simple squamous epithelium, or it may possess multiple layers, referred to then as stratified squamous epithelium.Resistome: The resistome is a proposed expression by Gerard D. Wright for the collection of all the antibiotic resistance genes and their precursors in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria.Giemsa stainGlobal microbial identifier: The genomic epidemiological database for global identification of microorganisms or global microbial identifier (GMI) is a platform for storing whole genome sequencing (WGS) data of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect and track-and-trace infectious disease outbreaks and emerging pathogens. The database holds two types of information: 1) genomic information of microorganisms, linked to, 2) metadata of those microorganism such as epidemiological details.Campylobacter concisus: Campylobacter concisus is a Gram-negative, spiral, and microaerophilic bacteria. Motile, with either unipolar or bipolar flagella, the organisms have a characteristic spiral/corkscrew appearance and are oxidase-positive.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Endoscopy unit: An endoscopy unit refers to a dedicated area where medical procedures are performed with endoscopes, which are cameras used to visualize structures within the body, such as the digestive tract and genitourinary system. Endoscopy units may be located within a hospital, incorporated within other medical care centres, or may be stand-alone in nature.Non-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).

(1/6695) The significance of cagA and vacA subtypes of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of inflammation and peptic ulceration.

AIMS: To assess the significance of cagA and vacA subtypes of Helicobacter pylori in relation to inflammation and density of bacterial colonisation in vivo within a dyspeptic UK population. METHODS: Dyspeptic patients who were Helicobacter pylori positive had antral samples taken for histology and culture. Gastroduodenal pathology was noted. The grade of bacterial density and inflammation was assessed using the Sydney system. Bacterial DNA was extracted and the vacA alleles and the cagA/gene typed using PCR. RESULTS: 120 patients were studied. There was high rate of cagA positive strains in this population. Bacterial density did not correlate with the presence of peptic ulceration. There was a significant association between cagA positive strains and increased inflammation and bacterial density. The vacA s1 type independently correlated with extensive chronic inflammation but there was no association with bacterial density. The vacA m type did not correlate with extent of inflammation or bacterial density. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that cagA is important in the pathogenesis of inflammation and peptic ulceration. These findings are in keeping with the hypothesis that cagA acts as a marker for a cag pathogenicity island which encodes several genes involved in inflammation. The vacA s1 allele correlates with inflammation independently of cagA, possibly through its enhanced ability to produce the vacuolating cytotoxin.  (+info)

(2/6695) Chemokine mRNA expression in gastric mucosa is associated with Helicobacter pylori cagA positivity and severity of gastritis.

AIM: To investigate the association between the quantity of gastric chemokine mRNA expression, severity of gastritis, and cagA positivity in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis. METHODS: In 83 dyspeptic patients, antral and corpus biopsies were taken for semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and histological grading of gastritis. Gastritis was evaluated by visual analogue scales. Quantities of chemokine (IL-8, GRO alpha, ENA-78, RANTES, MCP-1) RT-PCR products were compared with G3PDH products. Each sample was also evaluated for the presence of cagA and ureA mRNA by RT-PCR. RESULTS: mRNA expression of all five chemokines was significantly greater in H pylori positive than in H pylori negative mucosa. In H pylori positive patients, in the antrum C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive patients than in cagA negative patients, but there were no significant differences in C-C chemokine mRNA expression. In H pylori positive patients, chemokine mRNA expression in the corpus was less than in the antrum. In contrast to the antrum, only GRO alpha mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive infection. Polymorphonuclear cell infiltration was correlated with C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. Significant correlations were also found between bacterial density and C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. CONCLUSIONS: In H pylori infection, C-X-C chemokines may play a primary role in active gastritis. Infection with cagA positive H pylori induces greater gastric chemokine mRNA expression in the antral mucosa, which may be relevant to the increased mucosal damage associated with cagA positive H pylori infection.  (+info)

(3/6695) Helicobacter pylori infection, garlic intake and precancerous lesions in a Chinese population at low risk of gastric cancer.

BACKGROUND: Cangshan County of Shandong Province has one of the lowest rates of gastric cancer (GC) in China. While intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS) are less common in Cangshan than in areas of Shandong at high risk of GC, these precursor lesions nevertheless affect about 20% of adults age > or = 55. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: In order to evaluate determinants of IM and DYS in Cangshan County, a low risk area of GC a survey was conducted among 214 adults who participated in a gastroscopic screening survey in Cangshan County in 1994. METHOD: A dietary interview and measurement of serum Helicobacter pylori antibodies were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of H. pylori was lowest (19%) among those with normal gastric mucosa, rising steadily to 35% for superficial gastritis (SG), 56% for chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), 80% for IM, and 100% for DYS. The prevalence odds of precancerous lesions were compared with the odds of normal histology or SG. The odds ratio (OR) or CAG associated with H. pylori positivity was 4.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.7-10.0), while the OR of IM/DYS associated with H. pylori positivity was 31.5 (95% CI: 5.2-187). After adjusting for H. pylori infection, drinking alcohol was a risk factor for CAG (OR = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.1-9.2) and IM/DYS (OR = 7.8, 95% CI: 1.3-47.7). On the other hand, consumption of garlic showed non-significant protective effects and an inverse association with H. pylori infection. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that infection with H. pylori is a risk factor and garlic may be protective, in the development and progression of advanced precancerous gastric lesions in an area of China at relatively low risk of GC.  (+info)

(4/6695) Structure of cag pathogenicity island in Japanese Helicobacter pylori isolates.

BACKGROUND: cag pathogenicity island (PAI) is reported to be a major virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori. AIM: To characterise cagA and the cag PAI in Japanese H pylori strains. METHODS: H pylori isolates from Japanese patients were evaluated for CagA by immunoblot, for cagA transcription by northern blot, and for cagA and 13 other cag PAI genes by Southern blot. cagA negative strains from Western countries were also studied. Induction of interleukin-8 secretion from gastric epithelial cells was also investigated. RESULTS: All Japanese strains retained cagA. Fifty nine of 63 (94%) strains had all the cag PAI genes. In the remaining four, cag PAI was partially deleted, lacking cagA transcripts and not producing CagA protein. Details of the PAI of these strains were checked; three lacked cagB to cagQ (cagI) and continuously cagS to cag13 (cagII), and the remaining one lacked cagB to cag8. Western cagA negative strains completely lacked cag PAI including cagA. Nucleotide sequence analysis in one strain in which the cag PAI was partially deleted showed that the partial deletion contained 25 kb of cag PAI and the cagA promoter. Interleukin-8 induction was lower with the cag PAI partial deletion strains than with the intact ones. All Japanese cag PAI deleted strains were derived from patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia, whereas 41 of 59 (70%) CagA-producing strains were from patients with peptic ulcers or gastric cancer (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Most Japanese H pylori strains had the intact cag PAI. However, some lacked most of the cag PAI in spite of the presence of cagA. Thus the presence of the cagA gene is not an invariable marker of cag PAI related virulence in Japanese strains.  (+info)

(5/6695) Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus: population based study of coronary heart disease.

OBJECTIVE: To study possible associations between coronary heart disease and serological evidence of persistent infection with Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus. DESIGN: Population based, case-control study, nested within a randomised trial. SETTING: Five general practices in Bedfordshire, UK. INDIVIDUALS: 288 patients with incident or prevalent coronary heart disease and 704 age and sex matched controls. RESULTS: High concentrations of serum IgG antibodies to H pylori were present in 54% of cases v 46% of controls, with corresponding results for C pneumoniae seropositivity (33% v 33%), and cytomegalovirus seropositivity (40% v 31%). After adjustments for age, sex, smoking, indicators of socioeconomic status, and standard risk factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for coronary heart disease of seropositivity to these agents were: 1.28 (0.93 to 1.75) for H pylori, 0.95 (0.66 to 1.36) for C pneumoniae, and 1.40 (0.96 to 2. 05) for cytomegalovirus. CONCLUSIONS: There is no good evidence of strong associations between coronary heart disease and serological markers of persistent infection with H pylori, C pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus. To determine the existence of moderate associations between these agents and disease, however, larger scale studies will be needed that can keep residual confounders to a minimum.  (+info)

(6/6695) Multiplex sequence analysis demonstrates the competitive growth advantage of the A-to-G mutants of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori.

Clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori is due to point mutation within the 23S rRNA. We examined the growth rates of different types of site-directed mutants and demonstrated quantitatively the competitive growth advantage of A-to-G mutants over other types of mutants by a multiplex sequencing assay. The results provide a rational explanation of why A-to-G mutants are predominantly observed among clarithromycin-resistant clinical isolates.  (+info)

(7/6695) Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin forms anion-selective channels in planar lipid bilayers: possible implications for the mechanism of cellular vacuolation.

The Helicobacter pylori VacA toxin plays a major role in the gastric pathologies associated with this bacterium. When added to cultured cells, VacA induces vacuolation, an effect potentiated by preexposure of the toxin to low pH. Its mechanism of action is unknown. We report here that VacA forms anion-selective, voltage-dependent pores in artificial membranes. Channel formation was greatly potentiated by acidic conditions or by pretreatment of VacA at low pH. No requirement for particular lipid(s) was identified. Selectivity studies showed that anion selectivity was maintained over the pH range 4.8-12, with the following permeability sequence: Cl- approximately HCO3- > pyruvate > gluconate > K+ approximately Li+ approximately Ba2+ > NH4+. Membrane permeabilization was due to the incorporation of channels with a voltage-dependent conductance in the 10-30 pS range (2 M KCl), displaying a voltage-independent high open probability. Deletion of the NH2 terminus domain (p37) or chemical modification of VacA by diethylpyrocarbonate inhibited both channel activity and vacuolation of HeLa cells without affecting toxin internalization by the cells. Collectively, these observations strongly suggest that VacA channel formation is needed to induce cellular vacuolation, possibly by inducing an osmotic imbalance of intracellular acidic compartments.  (+info)

(8/6695) The vacuolating toxin from Helicobacter pylori forms hexameric pores in lipid bilayers at low pH.

Pathogenic strains of Helicobacter pylori secrete a cytotoxin, VacA, that in the presence of weak bases, causes osmotic swelling of acidic intracellular compartments enriched in markers for late endosomes and lysosomes. The molecular mechanisms by which VacA causes this vacuolation remain largely unknown. At neutral pH, VacA is predominantly a water-soluble dodecamer formed by two apposing hexamers. In this report, we show by using atomic force microscopy that below pH approximately 5, VacA associates with anionic lipid bilayers to form hexameric membrane-associated complexes. We propose that water-soluble dodecameric VacA proteins disassemble at low pH and reassemble into membrane-spanning hexamers. The surface contour of the membrane-bound hexamer is strikingly similar to the outer surface of the soluble dodecamer, suggesting that the VacA surface in contact with the membrane is buried within the dodecamer before protonation. In addition, electrophysiological measurements indicate that, under the conditions determined by atomic force microscopy for membrane association, VacA forms pores across planar lipid bilayers. This low pH-triggered pore formation is likely a critical step in VacA activity.  (+info)


  • Background: Helicobacter pylori infection has been shown to be associated with the development of gastric cancer and peptic ulcer diseases. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Eradication of H. pylori infection could reduce the occurence or recurrence of these diseases. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In recent years, the concept of sequential therapy has been advocated in the treatment of H. pylori infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The investigators performed a 4-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled human trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of InSan Bamboo Salt on improvement of Helicobacter pylori infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The investigators measured improvement of Helicobacter pylori infection parameters , including 14C-UBT(Urea breath test), and subjects' symptoms, and monitored their blood pressure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Objective: H. pylori infection and gastrointestinal symptoms may occur in patients with or without peptic ulcer disease (PUD). (ebscohost.com)
  • It mentions about referral guidelines for endoscopy and treatment of Helicobacter Pylori infection. (ebscohost.com)
  • Helicobacter pylori infection in North-Eastern peninsular Malaysia : evidence for an unusually low prevalence. (ehesp.fr)
  • The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was determined in peptic ulcer patients, in non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) patients, and in the general adult population. (ehesp.fr)
  • The H. pylori infection rate ascertained by microbiologic examination of multiple gastric antral biopsy specimens was 50% (17 of 34) in duodenal ulcer (DU), 5% (1 of 22) in gastric ulcer, and 9% (15 of 159) in NUD patients. (ehesp.fr)
  • H. pylori infection is relatively uncommon and does not appear to be the predominant factor in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease in the area. (ehesp.fr)

peptic ulcer

  • In the U.S., H. pylori strains with the signal sequence allele s1a are associated with enhanced gastric inflammation and with peptic ulcer disease (PUD). (ebscohost.com)
  • Presence or absence of peptic ulcer disease does not affect H. pylori eradication rates with rabeprazole-based triple therapy. (ebscohost.com)
  • Significance of the eradication of H. pylori to patients with peptic ulcer. (ebscohost.com)


  • Antimicrobial effectiveness of ketoconazole against metronidazole-resistant Helicobacter pylori isolates from Iranian dyspeptic patients. (ketoconazole.com)
  • The aim of this study was to establish whether vacA types among H. pylori isolates from Dutch patients are associated with disease. (ebscohost.com)
  • METHODS: The cytotoxin activity of the H. pylori isolates from 34 PUD patients and 46 patients with functional dyspepsia (FD) was assessed by an in vitro assay using HeLa cells as indicator cells. (ebscohost.com)
  • H. pylori isolates with the m1 vacA type exhibited a higher cytotoxin activity, independent of cagA ( p = 0.006). (ebscohost.com)


  • OBJECTIVE: The vacuolating cytotoxin of Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) is encoded by vacA , of which allelic variation has been described. (ebscohost.com)
  • vacA s1-type H. pylori displayed cytotoxin activity more frequently than s2 vacA -type H. pylori ( p = 0.003). (ebscohost.com)


  • Clinicians who are treating patients with uncomplicated dyspepsia should acquire a serum Helicobacter pylori titer and prescribe eradication therapy if the titer is positive. (ebscohost.com)
  • H. pylori eradication rates in PUD and non-PUD (NPUD) patients were evaluated in a large, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, controlled US trial of rabeprazole-based. (ebscohost.com)


  • The authors aimed to investigate whether the exposure to different forms of tobacco influences upper gastrointestinal symptoms, histology and frequency of Helicobacter. (ebscohost.com)


  • Ninety-four percent (32/34) of the PUD patients and 74% (34/46) of the FD patients were infected with s1 vacA -type H. pylori ( p = 0.04). (ebscohost.com)


  • Is the Subject Area "Helicobacter pylori" applicable to this article? (plos.org)