Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Minority Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of members of minority groups.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Minority Groups: A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.United StatesVision Disparity: The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Depth Perception: Perception of three-dimensionality.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Vision, Binocular: The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Convergence, Ocular: The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE established in 1990 to "provide indexing, abstracting, translating, publishing, and other services leading to a more effective and timely dissemination of information on research, demonstration projects, and evaluations with respect to health care to public and private entities and individuals engaged in the improvement of health care delivery..." It supersedes the National Center for Health Services Research. The United States Agency for Health Care Policy and Research was renamed Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) under the Healthcare Research and Quality Act of 1999.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Cultural Diversity: Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Cultural Competency: Cultural and linguistic competence is a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals that enables effective work in cross-cultural situations. Competence implies the capacity to function effectively as an individual and an organization within the context of the cultural beliefs, behaviors, and needs presented by consumers and their communities.Asian Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Institute of Medicine (U.S.): Identifies, for study and analysis, important issues and problems that relate to health and medicine. The Institute initiates and conducts studies of national policy and planning for health care and health-related education and research; it also responds to requests from the federal government and other agencies for studies and advice.

*  National Healthcare Disparities Report 2004: Data Tables

... tracks disparities in both quality of and access to health care in the United States for both the general population and for ... National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2004 This information is for reference purposes only. It was current when produced and ... You Are Here: AHRQ Archive Home , National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2004 , Data Tables ... Key: API: Asian or Pacific Islander; AI/AN: American Indian or Alaska Native; CSHCN: Children with special health care needs; ...
https://archive.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr04/fullreport/Data_Tables/DD_172a.htm

*  National Healthcare Disparities Report 2005: Appendix C. Measure Specifications

... tracks disparities in both quality of and access to health care in the United States for both the general population and for ... National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2005 This information is for reference purposes only. It was current when produced and ... You Are Here: AHRQ Archive Home , National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2005 , Appendix C. Measure Specifications ... Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality 5600 Fishers Lane Rockville, MD 20857 Telephone: (301) 427-1364 ...
https://archive.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr05/fullreport/PapSme.htm

*  Racial disparities in outcomes of military and civilian births in California.

To examine racial disparities in prenatal care utilization, birth weight, and fetal and neonatal mortality in a population for ... CONCLUSIONS: In populations with decreased financial barriers to health care, racial disparities in prenatal care use and low ... However, the racial disparity in low birth weight was significantly smaller in the military group (P , .01 and P , .001, ... However, the scale of the disparity in prenatal care utilization was significantly smaller (P , .001) in the military group. ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Racial-disparities-in-outcomes-military/8859139.html

*  National Healthcare Disparities Report 2004: Data Tables

... tracks disparities in both quality of and access to health care in the United States for both the general population and for ... National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2004 This information is for reference purposes only. It was current when produced and ... You Are Here: AHRQ Archive Home , National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2004 , Data Tables ... Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, State Inpatient Databases, ...
https://archive.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr04/fullreport/Data_Tables/DD_33a.htm

*  National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2006: Table 220b

... tracks disparities in both quality of and access to health care in the United States for both the general population and for ... National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2006 This information is for reference purposes only. It was current when produced and ... You Are Here: AHRQ Archive Home , , National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2006 , Appendix D , Data Tables ... Key: CSHCN: children with special health care needs; SE: standard error.. Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, ...
https://archive.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr06/access/utilization/T220B.htm

*  National Healthcare Disparities Report 2004: Data Tables

... tracks disparities in both quality of and access to health care in the United States for both the general population and for ... National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2004 This information is for reference purposes only. It was current when produced and ... You Are Here: AHRQ Archive Home , National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2004 , Data Tables ... Key to Symbols Used in Quality of Health Care Tables::. =: Group and comparison group receive about same quality of health care ...
https://archive.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr04/fullreport/Data_Tables/TSoctxt.htm

*  National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2003: Data Tables

... tracks disparities in both quality of and access to health care in the United States for both the general population and for ... You Are Here: AHRQ Archive Home , National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2003 , Data Table ... Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality 5600 Fishers Lane Rockville, MD 20857 Telephone: (301) 427-1364 ...
https://archive.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr03/fullreport/Appendix_D/Data_Tables/DD_142B.htm

*  Insurers, elected officials and the media can also help reduce healthcare disparities | MSR News Online

Insurers, elected officials and the media can also help reduce healthcare disparities. May 28, 2014. by MSR Online Leave a ... Finally, the media can help in the effort to reduce healthcare disparities by running regular stories on the importance of a ... and pharmaceutical companies can help reduce healthcare disparities. This week we look at three other players who can ... The Affordable Care Act is adding millions of new healthcare consumers to the market but adds no new doctors to serve them. ...
spokesman-recorder.com/2014/05/28/communities-of-color-bear-the-brunt-of-environmental-hazards/

*  National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2006: Table 163

... tracks disparities in both quality of and access to health care in the United States for both the general population and for ... National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2006 This information is for reference purposes only. It was current when produced and ... You Are Here: AHRQ Archive Home , , National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2006 , Appendix D , Data Tables ... Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Center for Delivery, Organization, and Markets, Healthcare Cost and ...
https://archive.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr06/quality/safety/T163.htm

*  National Healthcare Disparities Report 2004: Data Tables

... tracks disparities in both quality of and access to health care in the United States for both the general population and for ... National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2004 This information is for reference purposes only. It was current when produced and ... You Are Here: AHRQ Archive Home , National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2004 , Data Tables ... Key: CSHCN: Children with special health care needs; SE: Standard error.. Note: The population categories used in this table ...
https://archive.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr04/fullreport/Data_Tables/DD_173b.htm

*  National Healthcare Disparities Report 2004: Data Tables

... tracks disparities in both quality of and access to health care in the United States for both the general population and for ... National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2004 This information is for reference purposes only. It was current when produced and ... You Are Here: AHRQ Archive Home , National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2004 , Data Tables ... Table 239b: Children with special health care needs with current insurance whose insurance is not adequate, by ethnicity, 2001a ...
https://archive.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr04/fullreport/Data_Tables/DD_239b.htm

*  National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2003: Data Tables

... tracks disparities in both quality of and access to health care in the United States for both the general population and for ... You Are Here: AHRQ Archive Home , National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2003 , Data Table ... Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases,16-State ... Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality 5600 Fishers Lane Rockville, MD 20857 Telephone: (301) 427-1364 ...
https://archive.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr03/fullreport/Appendix_D/Data_Tables/DD_51a.htm

*  Money remains at the root of healthcare disparities | FierceHealthcare

The Affordable Care Act helped narrow the gap in one of three areas ofhealth disparities--health insurance--but has had only ... The Affordable Care Act (ACA) helped narrow the gap in one of three areas of health disparities--health insurance--but has had ... Money, or rather the lack of it, is still the biggest factor in health disparities, according to the article, which noted that ... But the ACA could work against efforts to reduce health disparities by unfairly penalizing urban safety-net hospitals, which ...
fiercehealthcare.com/healthcare/money-remains-at-root-healthcare-disparities

*  National Healthcare Disparities Report 2005: Appendix C. Measure Specifications

... tracks disparities in both quality of and access to health care in the United States for both the general population and for ... National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2005 This information is for reference purposes only. It was current when produced and ... You Are Here: AHRQ Archive Home , National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2005 , Appendix C. Measure Specifications ... AHRQ, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), State Inpatient Databases, disparities analysis file. ...
https://archive.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr05/fullreport/Gastro.htm

*  National Healthcare Disparities Report 2004: Table

... tracks disparities in both quality of and access to health care in the United States for both the general population and for ... National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2004 This information is for reference purposes only. It was current when produced and ... You Are Here: AHRQ Archive Home , National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2004 , Table ... Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality 5600 Fishers Lane Rockville, MD 20857 Telephone: (301) 427-1364 ...
https://archive.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr04/fullreport/C2T2_6B.htm

*  National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2006: Table 28a

... tracks disparities in both quality of and access to health care in the United States for both the general population and for ... National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2006 This information is for reference purposes only. It was current when produced and ... You Are Here: AHRQ Archive Home , , National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2006 , Appendix D , Data Tables ... Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality 5600 Fishers Lane Rockville, MD 20857 Telephone: (301) 427-1364 ...
https://archive.ahrq.gov/qual/nhdr06/quality/effectiveness/esrd/T28A.htm

*  CDPH Home

Health Care Facility Licenses. *. Health Care Professionals. *. Laboratory. *. Medical Waste. *. Pet ... Disparities. *Men's Health. *Women's Health. *CDPH Climate Change and Health Profile Reports ... CDPH Releases Reports on Healthcare-Associated Infections, Influenza Vaccination Rates Among Healthcare Personnel ... Healthcare-Associated Infections. *. Cancer. *. Communicable Diseases. *. Diabetes. *. Disease ...
https://cdph.ca.gov/

*  Endometriosis and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease | Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes

... and healthcare utilization rate (a cumulative score was calculated based on the answers to several questions that asked whether ... Call for Papers: Global Cardiovascular Health Disparities. *All Issues. *Subjects*All Subjects ...
circoutcomes.ahajournals.org/content/9/3/257/tab-figures-data

*  JEJUNAL DIVERTICULA | JAMA Surgery | The JAMA Network

An Oral History Genomics and Precision Health Health Disparities Hypertension Guidelines JAMA Network Audio Med Men Medical ... Shock Income and Life Expectancy in the US JNC 8 Guideline for Management of High Blood Pressure President Obama on US Health Care ...
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamasurgery/article-abstract/551954

*  2001 Release: ST7 Tumor Suppressor Gene - National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI)

Genomic Medicine and Health Care. *Genomic Medicine Working Group. *New Horizons and Research ... Genomics and Health Disparities. *Genetic Discrimination. *Human Subjects Research. *Informed Consent for Genomics Research ...
https://genome.gov/10002159/2001-release-st7-tumor-suppressor-gene/

*  Örjan Sundin

International journal of healthcare, insurance and equity, vol. 2: 1 Collste, O. , Tornvall, P. , Sundin, Ö. , Alam,l, M. & ... Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, Gunther, A. C. , Schandl, A. R. , Bernhardsson, J. , Bjärtå, A. , Wållgren, M ... Sexual & Reproductive HealthCare, vol. 13, ss. 75-82. Abbasi, S. H. , Sundin, Ö. , Jalali, A. , Soares, J. & Macassa, G. (2017 ... Toth, O. & Barros, H. (2014). Forgone healthcare and intimate partner violence : A study in six European urban centres. Paper ...
https://miun.se/Personal/orjansundin/

*  Democratic Republic of the Congo vs. Uganda - Country Comparison

... health care, housing, and basic services. The country's north and northeast lag even further behind developmentally than the ... with substantial regional and rural/urban disparities. Fertility remains high at almost 5 children per woman and is likely to ... of Ugandan doctors and nurses due to low wages is a particular concern given the country's shortage of skilled health care ...
indexmundi.com/factbook/compare/democratic-republic-of-the-congo.uganda

*  Readers Write: (June 21): Surveillance, pay equity, dietary habits - StarTribune.com

The Mars-Venus trope perpetuates disparity. In Harvey Mackay's June 17 column, a quote from the book "Work With Me," by Barbara ... Readers Write: Vietnam War documentary and 'No Single Truth,' school choice, health care, bike lanes, gender bias, stereotypes ... Readers Write: Cargill and veterans, nuclear weapons, the situation in Myanmar, Amazon's second HQ, health care policy • ... Readers Write: Public safety in downtown Minneapolis, health care policy, DWI Court, green energy • Letters ...
startribune.com/readers-write-june-21-surveillance-pay-equity-dietary-habits/212405071/

*  'simian immunodeficiency virus' Protocols and Video...

1Center for AIDS Health Disparities Research, Meharry Medical College, 2Department of Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, Meharry ... 4Veteran Affairs New York Harbor Healthcare System ...
https://jove.com/keyword/simian immunodeficiency virus

*  https://www.cancer.gov/types/ovarian/patient/ovarian-germ-cell-treatment-pdq

It does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care. ...
https://cancer.gov/types/ovarian/patient/ovarian-germ-cell-treatment-pdq

Injustice SocietyEthnic groups in the United Kingdom: People from various ethnic groups reside in the United Kingdom. Migration from Northern Europe has been happening for millennia, with other groups such as British Jews also well established.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Stereopsis: Stereopsis (from the Greek στερεο- [meaning "solid", and ὄψις] opsis, "appearance, [[visual perception|sight") is a term that is most often used to refer to the perception of depth and 3-dimensional structure obtained on the basis of visual information deriving from two eyes by individuals with normally developed binocular vision.African-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.Binocular vision: Binocular vision is vision in which creatures having two eyes use them together. The word binocular comes from two Latin roots, bini for double, and oculus for eye.Global Health Delivery ProjectConvergence of measures: In mathematics, more specifically measure theory, there are various notions of the convergence of measures. For an intuitive general sense of what is meant by convergence in measure, consider a sequence of measures μn on a space, sharing a common collection of measurable sets.Pride and Prejudice and Zombies: Dawn of the Dreadfuls: Pride and Prejudice and Zombies: Dawn of the Dreadfuls (2010) is a parody novel by Steve Hockensmith. It is a prequel to Seth Grahame-Smith's 2009 novel Pride and Prejudice and Zombies, focusing on "the early life and training of Elizabeth Bennet, heroine of the earlier Pride and Prejudice and Zombies as she strove to become a gifted zombie hunter, with some mishaps in her early romantic encounters also included.Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project: The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP, pronounced "H-Cup") is a family of health care databases and related software tools and products from the United States that is developed through a Federal-State-Industry partnership and sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). What is HCUP?Relative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.Poverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Halfdan T. MahlerBusiness Model of Intercultural Analysis: The Business Model of Intercultural Analysis (BMIA) is a tool developed to address cross-cultural problems. The BMIA framework uses six comprehension lenses to analyze cross-cultural interaction in the business environment.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.

(1/2110) Variation in hepatitis C services may lead to inequity of heath-care provision: a survey of the organisation and delivery of services in the United Kingdom.

BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C infection (CHC) is a major healthcare problem. Effective anti-viral therapy is available. To maximise population effectiveness, co-ordinated services for detection and management of patients with CHC are required. There is a need to determine patterns of healthcare delivery to plan improvements. A study was conducted to determine workload, configuration and care processes of current UK services available to manage patients with CHC. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of consultant members of British Association for the Study of the Liver (n = 53), Infectious Disease consultants (n = 43), and a 1 in 5 sample of Genito-Urinary Medicine (n = 48) and gastroenterologists (n = 200). RESULTS: Response rate was 70%. 40% of respondents provided a comprehensive service (included treatment and follow-up): speciality of clinical leads identified as Hepatology (37%); Gastroenterology (47%); and Infectious Disease (16%). The estimated number of patients managed by respondents was about 23,000 with an upward trend over the previous 3 years. There was variation between comprehensive service providers, including unit size, eligibility criteria for treatment, and drug regimes. Key barriers to quality of care identified were staffing capacity, funding of treatment and patient non-attendance. Most English strategic health authorities had at least one comprehensive service provider. CONCLUSION: There was significant variation in all aspects of the patient pathway which may contribute to inequity of health care provision. Services need to be expanded to form geographical clinical networks, and properly resourced to ensure greater uptake and more equitable delivery of services if the future burden of chronic liver disease is to be reduced.  (+info)

(2/2110) Health care provision for illegal migrants: may health policy make a difference?

Illegal migrants in Europe are, generally, only entitled to emergency care and services for children and pregnant women. In 2002 legal changes in Spain made accessible medical cards and free medical care for illegal migrants in similar terms than the legal migrants or the Spanish population. We interviewed 380 migrants to assess whether there were differences on health services utilization by legal status. We did not find differences in the utilization of health services when ill between legal and illegal migrants. However, a significantly lower utilization of health services was associated with less education (RP = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2-0.9).  (+info)

(3/2110) Ethnic segregation in Kosovo's post-war health care system.

BACKGROUND: Seven years after the end of war in Kosovo, Final Status Negotiations have begun to determine the long-term political future of the province. This article provides an overview of the present situation regarding ethnic groups and their relations in Kosovo's health care system that might be helpful in preparing for the array of potential ramifications and repercussions that could arise at the conclusion of the negotiations. METHODS: A review of the literature (including grey) was performed, and 16 interviews and two focus groups with key informants were conducted in Kosovo during October and November 2004. In addition, six informal discussions were held in-person or by telephone in London. Information collected in 2004 was re-confirmed and partially updated in October and November 2005, when three additional interviews were conducted in Kosovo. RESULTS: Ongoing ethnic tensions in Kosovo, mainly between the Albanian and Serb populations, perpetuate a rigidly segregated health care system. Some other minority communities, such as the Roma, Ashkali and Egyptians, are afflicted by the double burden of getting caught up in the middle of these ethnic disputes and at the same time suffering from poverty and discrimination. CONCLUSION: While efforts have been put forward to promote peace-building within Kosovo's post-war health sector, very little progress has been achieved in fostering ethnic integration, reconciliation, cooperation or even co-existence. This failure reflects Kosovo's broader unresolved inter-ethnic problems. Final Status Negotiations are one of the last opportunities for the international community to address the problems of ethnic segregation in the province.  (+info)

(4/2110) Motivation and relevance of emergency room visits among immigrants and patients of Danish origin.

BACKGROUND: We investigated the extent to which immigrants and patients of Danish origin have different motivations for seeking emergency room (ER) treatment, and differences in the relevance of their claims. METHODS: Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of walk-in patients and their caregivers at four Copenhagen ERs. The patient survey was available in nine languages, and addressed patient-identified reasons for using the ER. Caregivers were asked if the claim was appropriate to the ER. 3809 patients and 3905 caregivers responded. The response rate among patients was 54%. Only questionnaires in which both patient and caregiver had responded, and in which data on the patient's nationality were available, were included in the analyses (n = 3426). The effect of region of origin was examined using bivariate, stratified analyses and tested for independence. RESULTS: More among immigrant patients than among patients of Danish origin had considered contacting a primary caregiver before visiting the ER, and more immigrants reported going to the ER because they could not contact a general practitioner, or could not explain their problem on the telephone. Compared to immigrants, more patients of Danish origin explained that the ER was most relevant to their need. A higher proportion of claims among immigrants were seen by caregivers as not being appropriate to the ER. CONCLUSION: Migrants have more irrelevant ER claims, presumably because of barriers in access to primary care. Access to primary care should be facilitated for these groups. Alternatively, ERs could include primary care activities as part of their services.  (+info)

(5/2110) End-of-life care for nursing home residents dying from cancer in Nova Scotia, Canada, 2000-2003.

INTRODUCTION: With our population aging, an increasing proportion of cancer deaths will occur in nursing homes, yet little is known about their end-of-life care. This paper identifies associations between residing in a nursing home and end-of-life palliative cancer care, controlling for demographic factors. METHODS: For this population-based study, a data file was created by linking individual-level data from the Nova Scotia Cancer Centre Oncology Patient Information System, Vital Statistics, and the Halifax and Cape Breton Palliative Care Programs for all persons 65 years and over dying of cancer from 2000 to 2003. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare nursing home residents to nonresidents. RESULTS: Among the 7,587 subjects, 1,008 (13.3%) were nursing home residents. Nursing home residents were more likely to be female [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-1.7], older (for > or = 90 vs 65-69 years OR 5.4, CI 4.1-7.0), rural (OR 1.5, CI 1.2-1.8), have only a death certificate cancer diagnosis (OR 4.2, CI 2.8-6.3), and die out of hospital (OR 8.5, CI 7.2-10.0). Nursing home residents were less likely to receive palliative radiation (OR 0.6, CI 0.4-0.7), medical oncology consultation (OR 0.2, CI 0.1-0.4), and palliative care program enrollment (Halifax OR 0.2, CI 0.2-0.3; Cape Breton OR 0.4, CI 0.3-0.7). CONCLUSION: Demographic characteristics and end-of-life services differ between those residing and those not residing in nursing homes. These inequalities may or may not reflect inequities in access to quality end-of-life care.  (+info)

(6/2110) Statins prescribing for the secondary prevention of ischaemic heart disease in Torino, Italy. A case of ageism and social inequalities.

BACKGROUND: Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics can influence statins prescribing for the secondary prevention of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). We studied the determinants of the prescription of statins in people with IHD in a population in Italy, the country with the lowest prescribing rate in Europe. METHODS: All 2001/2002 residents in Torino, aged 30-85 years, with a hospital discharge diagnosis of IHD were linked to the regional Database of Drug Prescriptions to identify those persons who, within 3 months after discharge, had been prescribed statins. Log-binomial models were used to test statins prescription associations with clinical and socio-demographic characteristics. RESULTS: Statins were prescribed to 31.0% of 7446 patients. Among persons >74 years of age, the prescription rate was 40% lower than that found for younger persons. A positive association was also found for: female gender, being married, a main discharge diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, revascularization, diabetes and discharge from a cardiology ward. Age was an important effect modifier of the relationship between the prescribing rate and social, but not clinical, determinants. CONCLUSIONS: The prevention of IHD with statins is influenced by age, clinical and social factors. The prescribing rate is higher among population groups for whom statins are of proven efficacy. Among patients for whom the efficacy is uncertain, the decision to prescribe is influenced by non-clinical factors, suggesting that there exist both age-based and social-based mechanisms of rationing. Age and social determinants act in concert to further reduce the propensity of physicians to prescribe statins.  (+info)

(7/2110) Gender and health promotion: a multisectoral policy approach.

Women and men are different as regards their biology, the roles and responsibilities that society assigns to them and their position in the family and community. These factors have a great influence on causes, consequences and management of diseases and ill-health and on the efficacy of health promotion policies and programmes. This is confirmed by evidence on male-female differences in cause-specific mortality and morbidity and exposure to risk factors. Health promoting interventions aimed at ensuring safe and supportive environments, healthy living conditions and lifestyles, community involvement and participation, access to essential facilities and to social and health services need to address these differences between women and men, boys and girls in an equitable manner in order to be effective. The aim of this paper is to (i) demonstrate that health promotion policies that take women's and men's differential biological and social vulnerability to health risks and the unequal power relationships between the sexes into account are more likely to be successful and effective compared to policies that are not concerned with such differences, and (ii) discuss what is required to build a multisectoral policy response to gender inequities in health through health promotion and disease prevention. The requirements discussed in the paper include i) the establishment of joint commitment for policy within society through setting objectives related to gender equality and equity in health as well as health promotion, ii) an assessment and analysis of gender inequalities affecting health and determinants of health, iii) the actions needed to tackle the main determinants of those inequalities and iv) documentation and dissemination of effective and gender sensitive policy interventions to promote health. In the discussion of these key policy elements, we use illustrative examples of good practices from different countries around the world.  (+info)

(8/2110) Community capacity building and health promotion in a globalized world.

In this paper, community capacity building (CCB) is seen as part of a long-standing health promotion tradition involving community action in health promotion. The conceptual context of the term CCB is presented, and compared with other community approaches. The usage of the term is variable. It is submitted that its common features are (i) the concepts of capacity and empowerment (versus disease and deficiency), (ii) bottom-up, community-determined agendas and actions and (iii) processes for developing competence. A brief literature review looks at some of the main contributions from the 1990 s on, which reveal an emphasis on building competencies, the measurement of community capacity and the attempt to break CCB down into operational components. Academic research on the impact of CCB on health is lacking, but multiple case studies documented in the 'grey literature' suggest CCB is highly effective, as does research in related areas, such as community empowerment. Five contemporary case studies submitted by the contributing authors show both the range and efficacy of CCB applications. The concluding synthesis and recommendations say that what is needed for health promotion in a globalized world is a balance between global macro (policy, regulatory, etc.) actions and those of the human and local scale represented by CCB. It is concluded that action centred on empowered and capable communities, in synergistic collaboration with other key players, may be the most powerful instrument available for the future of health promotion in a globalized world.  (+info)



Cost and Utilization Project


  • Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, State Inpatient Databases, disparities analysis file, 2001. (ahrq.gov)

heath disparities


  • My notion from reading this study is that the heath disparities are likely the same in every inter-city within major cities across America and food desserts in these communities coupled with other factors are what's culpable. (jbhe.com)
  • Health care journalists, providers and administrators seeking research on interventions to address heath disparities now have access to the most. (prnewswire.com)

Humans


  • Health care (or healthcare) is the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans. (bioportfolio.com)

determinants


  • While notable achievements have seen real time clinical data captured and medical records digitalised, the very determinants responsible for actual health and social disparities are equally responsible for disparities is access to e-healthcare. (igi-global.com)
  • Below are discussions of specific poorer health outcomes and ethnic and racial disparities which can be a result of social determinants. (medicareadvocacy.org)
  • But even after adjusting for these determinants, disparities often persist. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • Driven by new care and payment models, a growing number of healthcare organizations are starting to take a hard look at how they can influence factors outside the delivery system-social determinants-to impact community health. (modernhealthcare.com)

Report


  • In a report issued in September, 2009, the Urban Institute calculated that the Medicare program would save $15.6 billion per year if health disparities were eliminated. (medicareadvocacy.org)
  • HHS Action Plan to Reduce Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities: Implementation Progress Report 2011-2014. (medicareadvocacy.org)
  • The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) has released the 2016 edition of its Congressionally-mandated National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Report (QDR). (cossa.org)
  • The Georgetown University School of Nursing and Health Studies has released a new report showing stark racial disparities in health among residents of the District of Columbia. (jbhe.com)
  • The report, The Health of the African American Community in the District of Columbia: Disparities and Recommendations may be accessed here . (jbhe.com)
  • Given the magnitude of the body of disparities research, we do not intend to create an exhaustive report that simply presents existing data. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • In a report this week, the National Quality Forum laid out a road map for healthcare organizations so they can better measure patients' social risk factors. (modernhealthcare.com)
  • The CDC Health Disparities & Inequalities Report - United States, 2011, is the first in a series of periodic, consolidated assessments that highlight health disparities by sex, race, and ethnicity, income, education, disability status and other social characteristics in the U.S. (hcfgkc.org)

racial and ethnic


  • An analysis of the root causes of racial and ethnic disparities and what can be done to eliminate them can serve this end goal. (medicareadvocacy.org)
  • It is important to address how racial and ethnic disparities are not only morally wrong and fiscally unwise, but stress our health infrastructure, including programs such as Medicare and Medicaid. (medicareadvocacy.org)
  • As the representation of Latinos and African Americans in the general population increases, health care costs could be reduced even further by addressing racial and ethnic health disparities. (medicareadvocacy.org)
  • Current research on racial and ethnic disparities documents widespread failings in both access to care and the quality of care for millions of minority children. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • If quality-of-care interventions were supported through publicly funded health programs such as SCHIP and Medicaid, they would have a strong impact on racial and ethnic disparities in quality, the author writes. (commonwealthfund.org)

ethnicity


  • Disparities in Coverage provides a snapshot of why insurance coverage varies by race and ethnicity. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • Identifying race and ethnicity, the author notes, would improve the ability to track minority child health disparities during the process of monitoring the quality of care of all children. (commonwealthfund.org)

Mortality


  • Disparities in Health Status and Mortality addresses disparities in a number of the focus areas of the Healthy People 2010 Initiative. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • Colorectal cancer model of health disparities: understanding mortality differences in minority populations. (springer.com)

outcomes


  • But the ACA could work against efforts to reduce health disparities by unfairly penalizing urban safety-net hospitals, which serve large populations of poor people with chronic conditions, for poor outcomes, according to the article. (fiercehealthcare.com)
  • Losing this relationship is not good for healthcare outcomes: When people have a good relationship with a doctor, health improves and disparities decrease. (spokesman-recorder.com)
  • While we need meaningful information about healthcare outcomes, how many more patients could be served during that time? (spokesman-recorder.com)
  • There is a growing realization among healthcare researchers, clinicians, and advocates that a focus on health care disparities is an important aspect of improving healthcare outcomes and that activities toward improvement must bring together many elements of our healthcare delivery system. (medicareadvocacy.org)
  • When this term is applied to certain ethnic and racial social groups, it describes the increased presence and severity of certain diseases, poorer health outcomes, and greater difficulty in obtaining healthcare services for these races and ethnicities. (medicareadvocacy.org)
  • Previous studies have also documented disparities in both access to care and cardiovascular outcomes according to race, insurance, and socioeconomic status. (biomedsearch.com)

estimates


  • A 2011 study estimates that the economic costs of health disparities due to race for African Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinos from 2003 thru 2006 was a little over $229 billion. (medicareadvocacy.org)

Minorities


  • The term 'health disparities' is often defined as 'a difference in which disadvantaged social groups such as the poor, racial/ethnic minorities, women and other groups who have persistently experienced social disadvantage or discrimination systematically experience worse health or greater health risks than more advantaged social groups. (medicareadvocacy.org)
  • This chartbook also reflects emerging evidence that disparities may be a function of the overall performance of the health system where one lives, or of the quality of providers that care for many minorities. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • Hence, some disparities observed in national analyses may be due to failures in the health care system that result in barriers to care for minorities. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • Other disparities may be due to minorities disproportionately living in regions where quality is suboptimal or receiving care from providers whose quality similarly needs improvement. (commonwealthfund.org)

coverage


  • Arranged into discrete categories, this volume contains comprehensive coverage, both historical and current, of the healthcare disparity crisis currently plaguing our country in hopes of leading us all to a brighter future. (alibris.com)
  • Sign up for free enewsletters and alerts to receive breaking news and in-depth coverage of healthcare events and trends, as they happen, right to your inbox. (modernhealthcare.com)

minority


  • Disparities in Access to Health Care offers a picture of the challenges minority Americans face in receiving needed health care. (commonwealthfund.org)

improves


  • Joyce says that's whether Obamacare improves healthcare quality and lowers costs -- something we won't know by today's deadline. (marketplace.org)

clinicians


  • The work of individual clinicians and other health care providers can lessen racial disparities in health care, notes Beal. (commonwealthfund.org)

AHRQ


  • Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Prevention Quality Indicators (PQI). (ahrq.gov)

Differences


  • Differences in disparities between HMO members and non-HMO members reached statistical significance for influenza vaccination and showed a trend for mental health visits (P = .06). (bepress.com)
  • This racial disparity in CRCS adherence was explained by race differences in demographic, health, and environmental factors but not by cognitive factors. (springer.com)

Blacks


  • We found that disparities in CRCS are greatly attenuated in the VA system and both Whites and Blacks have substantially higher rates of CRCS than the national average. (springer.com)

Patients


  • By limiting their patients' access to physicians, the health plans contend they save money, but in doing so, they restrict everyone from choosing their own doctor and ultimately perpetuate the health disparities. (spokesman-recorder.com)
  • As research brings to light the real effectiveness of e-healthcare programmes across the globe, this paper explores how e-healthcare has been implemented worldwide and how populations have been served by an innovation in Information Technology and healthcare that has sought to bring health services to remote areas, improve access to healthcare and narrow the divide between healthcare providers and patients. (igi-global.com)
  • Maximizing resection rates for appropriate patients may be an important component in reducing outcome disparities for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. (bepress.com)

barriers


  • Many studies have pointed to the role of bias, miscommunication, lack of trust, and financial and access barriers in allowing disparities to occur. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • In this study, we conducted focus groups to assess individual and community health status, environmental health mediators, and systematic barriers to healthcare among African American residents of the unincorporated town, Fresno, Texas. (biomedsearch.com)

research


  • Patient stereotyping also has a role in health disparities, according to previous research. (fiercehealthcare.com)
  • Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. (ahrq.gov)
  • and Carolyn Clancy, M.D., director of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (commonwealthfund.org)

efforts


  • As healthcare providers increase their population health management efforts, learning how to identify and sustain meaningful relationships with community stakeholders is key to successful interventions. (modernhealthcare.com)
  • Efforts to address this disparity should focus on the patient-provider level. (biomedsearch.com)

systematic


  • Social disparities across the continuum of colorectal cancer: a systematic review. (springer.com)

hospitals


  • Researchers have found that limited access to high-quality hospitals is largely to blame for racially based health disparities, FierceHealthcare previously reported. (fiercehealthcare.com)

Affordable Care Act


  • The Affordable Care Act (ACA) helped narrow the gap in one of three areas of health disparities--health insurance--but has had only limited success in ensuring access to good medical care and in improving the health of diverse groups, according to an article in the Harvard Gazette . (fiercehealthcare.com)
  • The Affordable Care Act is adding millions of new healthcare consumers to the market but adds no new doctors to serve them. (spokesman-recorder.com)
  • Monday is the deadline to sign up for healthcare under the Affordable Care Act, or risk paying a penalty. (marketplace.org)

national


  • An examination of these disparities at the local and national levels is important in order to highlight the widespread nature of these health inequities. (medicareadvocacy.org)

among


  • Disparities in receipt of preventive care by educational level were smaller among HMO members. (bepress.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: There are appreciable disparities in receipt of preventive care by education among nonelderly insured persons. (bepress.com)

services


  • The infrastructure, readiness and literacy levels required for the effective delivery of e-healthcare services may be prohibitive in providing access to those most in need. (igi-global.com)
  • HMO membership is associated with smaller disparities for some services. (bepress.com)

Quality


  • It is important, then, to frame health care disparities as a quality issue, Beal says. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • Unfortunately, current child health care quality measures are not designed to monitor racial disparities. (commonwealthfund.org)

researchers


  • The goal of this chartbook is to create an easily accessible resource that can help policy makers, teachers, researchers, and practitioners begin to understand disparities in their communities and to formulate solutions. (commonwealthfund.org)

exist


  • Rather we seek to prompt thinking about why these disparities may exist, and more importantly, what may be done to eliminate these gaps. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • If surgical disparities exist, then they may provide insight into outcome discrepancies. (bepress.com)

reduce


  • Last week in this column we discussed how community programs, physicians and medical schools, and pharmaceutical companies can help reduce healthcare disparities. (spokesman-recorder.com)
  • This will increase access, reduce disparities, and improve overall health. (spokesman-recorder.com)
  • Finally, the media can help in the effort to reduce healthcare disparities by running regular stories on the importance of a Personal Health Plan (PHP) and sticking to it. (spokesman-recorder.com)

Studies


  • Brian Floyd, assistant dean of academic affairs at the Georgetown University School of Nursing and Health Studies, notes that "sharing evidence of the devastating effects of health disparities in DC, as well as offering solutions to improve health for all, was our goal. (jbhe.com)

issue


  • In this book, Dr. Richard Allen Williams has assembled the very best scholars on healthcare disparities to raise the public consciousness of this issue. (alibris.com)

Cancer


  • We examined the presence and correlates of Black/White racial disparities in adherence to guidelines for colorectal cancer screening (CRCS). (springer.com)
  • Examining racial disparities in colorectal cancer care. (springer.com)
  • Disparities in colorectal cancer screening: a guideline-based analysis of adherence. (springer.com)

medical


  • The ACA requirement that insurance companies cover people regardless of pre-existing conditions has reduced disparities in medical care and health status between people of different income levels, according to the article. (fiercehealthcare.com)

article


  • Money, or rather the lack of it, is still the biggest factor in health disparities, according to the article, which noted that life expectancy across the country varies by up to 30 years between the richest and poorest counties. (fiercehealthcare.com)