Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Dental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.United StatesGreat BritainRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.EnglandRegression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.IndiaNunavut: A self-governing territory formed from the central and eastern portions of the Northwest Territories. It was officially established April 1, 1999. The capital is Iqaluit.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.EuropeCohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.BrazilBody Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Bias (Epidemiology): Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.NorwaySeverity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Sickness Impact Profile: A quality-of-life scale developed in the United States in 1972 as a measure of health status or dysfunction generated by a disease. It is a behaviorally based questionnaire for patients and addresses activities such as sleep and rest, mobility, recreation, home management, emotional behavior, social interaction, and the like. It measures the patient's perceived health status and is sensitive enough to detect changes or differences in health status occurring over time or between groups. (From Medical Care, vol.xix, no.8, August 1981, p.787-805)Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Telephone: An instrument for reproducing sounds especially articulate speech at a distance. (Webster, 3rd ed)State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Self Disclosure: A willingness to reveal information about oneself to others.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Diagnostic Self Evaluation: A self-evaluation of health status.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.TaiwanHealth Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.JapanAsthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Self-Assessment: Appraisal of one's own personal qualities or traits.Sampling Studies: Studies in which a number of subjects are selected from all subjects in a defined population. Conclusions based on sample results may be attributed only to the population sampled.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.BostonUniversal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.

*  Wythe County, VA Architectural Survey

The final presentation of the comprehensive architectural survey of Wythe County VA 2011-2013 with highlights of resources ... Survey Themes • Domestic • Subsistence/Agriculture • Government/Law/Political • Health Care/Medicine • Education • Military/ ... Survey Extent The number of properties surveyed in the course of this project will be no less than 375; 355 of which must be ... Wythe County, VA Architectural Survey * 1. Wythe County Architectural Survey * 2. Why? Though sporadic studies have occurred, ...
https://slideshare.net/mrhanbury/wythe-county-va-architectural-survey

*  Variance inflation factors in the analysis of complex survey data | RTI

Thus, collinearity among the covariates is an inevitable problem in the analysis of survey data. Although many books and ... survey literature has not provided appropriate diagnostic tools to evaluate its impact on regression estimation when the survey ... Survey data are often used to fit linear regression models. The values of covariates used in modeling are not controlled as ... Illustrations of these methods are given using a probability sample from a household survey of health and nutrition. ...
https://rti.org/publication/variance-inflation-factors-analysis-complex-survey-data

*  National Health Interview Survey, 1999

... health, health behavior, health care, health care services, health policy, health problems, hospitalization, household ... National Health Interview Survey, 1999 (ICPSR 3397) Principal Investigator(s): United States Department of Health and Human ... National Center for Health Statistics. National Health Interview Survey, 1999. ICPSR03397-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university ... The purpose of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is to obtain information about the amount and distribution of ...
icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/NAHDAP/series/40/studies/3397?q=crime&paging.startRow=1

*  4364.0 - National Health Survey: Summary of Results, 2007-2008 (Reissue)

4364.0 - National Health Survey: Summary of Results, 2007-2008 (Reissue) Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 25/ ... removal of the 'National Health Survey: Summary of Results' Adobe PDF file (note that all information previously included in ... Private health insurance *Government health card *Household structure *Table 14 *Average duration of walking *Average duration ... Total persons with a mental health condition *Table 10 *Labour force status *Private health insurance *Source of personal ...
abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/4364.0History of Changes02007-2008

*  Member Survey Shows Biggest Concerns Health, Financial

Results are in for AARP's largest mail survey on member interests, concerns and experience with AARP. The results may surprise ... Member Survey Shows Biggest Concerns Health, Financial Nevadans top concerns somewhat of a surprise. AARP Nevada, November 5, ... In most AARP surveys members express concerns about health and financial security. And with Nevada's economy still struggling, ... Nevada members told us that staying sharp mentally was in fact their top health concern with some 78 percent identifying brain ...
aarp.org/politics-society/advocacy/info-11-2010/member_survey_shows_nv.html

*  QuickStats: Percentage of Adults Reporting Joint Pain or Stiffness, --- National Health Interview Survey,|SUP| |/SUP| United...

QuickStats: Percentage of Adults* Reporting Joint Pain or Stiffness, --- National Health Interview Survey,§ United States, 2006 ... population and are derived from the National Health Interview Survey sample adult component. ... SOURCE: National Health Interview Survey, 2006, public use data file. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis.htm. ... Health and Human Services.. References to non-CDC sites on the Internet are provided as a service to MMWR readers and do not ...
https://cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5717a9.htm

*  Integrated Public Health Surveys, 2010-2011

Subject Terms: community health, health care services, health departments, health planning, public health ... 2011 National Profile Survey of Local Boards of Health, a survey of local boards of health conducted by the National ... 2010 State and Territorial Public Health Survey, a survey of state and United States territory health departments conducted by ... Universe: ASTHO survey: state health departments. NACCHO survey: LHDs. NALBOH survey: LBHs. ...
icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/NAHDAP/studies/33822?q="substance abuse treatment"&recency=YEAR&paging.startRow=1

*  Austria - World Health Survey 2003

"A global assessment of the gender gap in self-reported health with survey data from 59 countries." BMC public health 16, no. 1 ... "Journal of epidemiology and community health 69, no. 12 (2015): 1141-1146. ...
apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata/index.php/catalog/117/related_citations

*  OPAL Tree Health Survey (Forest Research)

OPAL Tree Health Survey public contributing to tree health helping to identify pest and diseases affecting trees ... More information on OPAL and the Tree Health Survey can be found on the OPAL website; survey packs are also available for ... The OPAL Tree Health Survey also includes a guide to six of the 'Most Unwanted' pests and diseases which could spell disaster ... Forest Research and the Food and Environment Research Agency (Fera) are partners in a Tree Health Survey organised by OPAL ( ...
https://forestry.gov.uk/fr/infd-97nles

*  2017 Food & Health Survey: Food Confusion

The 2017 Food & Health Survey [2] gives a new perspective on conflicting nutrition information and how it affects Americans' ... www.foodinsight.org/food-and-health-survey-2017-food-confusion ... Health Survey: Food Confusion. 2017 Food & Health Survey: Food ... Survey findings also suggest that this preponderance of conflicting information may stem from a disconnect between the sources ...
foodinsight.org/print/9279

*  DPH: State Releases Latest School Health Survey Results

Poor academic performance strongly linked to risky health behaviors ... State Releases Latest School Health Survey Results Abstract: Teen alcohol use declining; ... State Releases Latest School Health Survey Results. State health and education officials today released results of the state s ... Survey Background. The Connecticut School Health Survey is administered in two sections: the Youth Behavior Component (YBC) and ...
ct.gov/dph/cwp/view.asp?A=4575&Q=546606

*  Designing and conducting health surveys : a comprehensive guide. (Book, 1991) [WorldCat.org]

Designing and conducting health surveys : a comprehensive guide.. [Lu Ann Aday] ... Health surveys. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Health surveys"@en ;. .. ... Designing and conducting health surveys : a comprehensive guide.. Author:. Lu Ann Aday. ... schema:name "Designing and conducting health surveys : a comprehensive guide."@en ;. schema:productID "248548446" ;. schema: ...
worldcat.org/title/designing-and-conducting-health-surveys-a-comprehensive-guide/oclc/248548446

*  New York City Community Health Survey, 2002

The survey is conducted to inform health program decisions, to increase the understanding of the relationship between health ... The survey is conducted to inform health program decisions, to increase the understanding of the relationship between health ... The New York City Community Health Survey (CHS) is a telephone survey conducted annually by the New York City Department of ... The New York City Community Health Survey (CHS) is a telephone survey conducted annually by the New York City Department of ...
icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/NAHDAP/studies/27064?keyword[0]=alcohol&q="mental health"&geography[0]=New York

*  National Family Health Survey (MCH and Family Planning): Jammu Region of ... - Bashir Ahmad Bhat - Google Books

Survey_MCH_and_Fa.html?id=cffrAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareNational Family Health Survey (MCH and Family Planning). ... National Family Health Survey (MCH and Family Planning): Jammu Region of .... Snippet view - 1995. ... National Family Health Survey (MCH and Family Planning): Jammu Region of Jammu and Kashmir, 1993. ... National Family Health Survey (MCH and Family Planning): Jammu Region of Jammu and Kashmir, 1993. ...
https://books.google.com/books?id=cffrAAAAMAAJ&q=mass media&dq=related:UOM39015038416387&source=gbs_word_cloud_r&hl=en

*  National Pregnancy and Health Survey: Drug Use Among Women Delivering Live Births, 1992

National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse. National Pregnancy and Health Survey: Drug Use Among Women ... National Pregnancy and Health Survey: Drug Use Among Women Delivering Live Births, 1992 (ICPSR 2835) Alternate Title: NPHS 1992 ... National Pregnancy and Health Survey: Drug Use Among Women Delivering Live Births, 1992 - Download All Files (23.52 MB) ... The primary objective of the National Pregnancy and Health Survey (NPHS) was to produce national annual estimates of the ...
icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/ICPSR/studies/2835?keyword=drug use&permit[0]=AVAILABLE&paging.startRow=51

*  AHS Community Health Needs Survey

Create your own online survey now with SurveyMonkey's expert certified FREE templates. ... 33% of survey complete. Thank you for taking the time to complete our survey. It will take no more than ten minutes to complete ... Your participation is important to learn about your health needs. The completion of this survey will help Adena Medical Center ... Chillicothe and Adena Pike Medical Center develop services and programs to better serve the health needs in our community. ...
https://surveymonkey.com/r/WRX5K8Z?sm=7YG410YAMXN8KdtBXm2P0Q==

*  Shields and Gerson Survey Health Care Outlook, Economy | PBS NewsHour

... including a key vote on health care in the Senate Finance Committee, bank earning reports and conflicting data about the health ... Shields and Gerson Survey Health Care Outlook, Economy. October 16, 2009 at 12:00 AM EDT ... Barack Obama Economy HEALTH CARE REFORM max baucus olympia snowe public option recession Senate finance committee Shields and ... Columnists Mark Shields and Michael Gerson sort through the top news of the past week, including a key vote on health care in ...
pbs.org/newshour/bb/politics-july-dec09-shieldsgerson_10-16/

*  RDC - Geocodes - National Health Interview Survey

National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) Geocodes chart. Variable Description. Variable Name. Column Number. Year. File. Notes. ... The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is representative at the national and Census Region level. Each public use annual ... In response to demand for geocode information for recent National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data files, NCHS established ... of survey respondents. (For more information about the "area frame", consult the Procedures and Methodology document. ...
https://cdc.gov/rdc/geocodes/geowt_nhis.htm

*  Do Statins Affect Androgen Levels in Men? Results from the Boston Area Community Health Survey | Cancer Epidemiology,...

Do Statins Affect Androgen Levels in Men? Results from the Boston Area Community Health Survey. Susan A. Hall, Stephanie T. ... Measuring the urologic iceberg: design and implementation of the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey. Eur J Urol 2007;52 ... Do Statins Affect Androgen Levels in Men? Results from the Boston Area Community Health Survey ... Do Statins Affect Androgen Levels in Men? Results from the Boston Area Community Health Survey ...
cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/16/8/1587.full

*  Health Interview Survey, 1981

... (ICPSR 8319) Principal Investigator(s): United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... National Center for Health Statistics. Health Interview Survey, 1981. ICPSR08319-v4. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium ... Subject Terms: chronic disabilities, chronic illnesses, disabilities, doctor visits, families, health, health care, health care ... The purpose of the Health Interview Survey is to obtain information about the amount and distribution of illness, its effects ...
icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/ICPSR/series/40/studies/8319?q=american time use survey

*  Health Interview Survey, 1970

... (ICPSR 7838) Principal Investigator(s): United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... Ycas, Martynas A. Recent trends in health near the age of retirement: new findings from the health interview survey. Social ... National Center for Health Statistics. Health Interview Survey, 1970. ICPSR07838-v4. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium ... Subject Terms: chronic disabilities, chronic illnesses, disabilities, doctor visits, families, health, health care, health care ...
icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/NAHDAP/studies/7838

*  Health outcomes survey - Silicone Breast Implants Organization

average symtoms due to silicone breast implants.
https://sites.google.com/site/siliconebreastimplantsorg/home/medical-questions/health-issues/chart-average-symptoms

*  Center for Public Health Policy Survey (Web version)

Create your own online survey now with SurveyMonkey's expert certified FREE templates. ... Please help us continue to improve the resources and services we provide by completing our survey. The survey will only take ... Toolkits and guidebooks (e.g., Transportation and Health online toolkit, Climate Change: Mastering the Public Health Role ... A critical investment in the nation's physical and fiscal health (2012), The Farm Bill and Public Health: A Primer for Public ...
https://surveymonkey.com/r/T5JK3HS?sm=qSQQD5+fbXYM1cM70mpDAw==

*  Global 3D CAD Industry

Lifestyle & Health * Consumer Products & Retail * All Consumer Products & Retail Consumer Products & Retail Overview * Animals ... Surveys, Polls and Research. You just read:. Global 3D CAD Industry. News provided by ...
prnewswire.com/news-releases/global-3d-cad-industry-300352227.html

*  Colorimetric Analyzer equipment (Colorimetry) in Minnesota | Monitoring and Testing - Environmental XPRT

Health & Safety Products (weekly). View last issue Newsletters (weekly). View last issue ...
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Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Global Health Delivery ProjectHealth policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Halfdan T. MahlerBehavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.Time-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Canadian Organ Replacement Registry: The Canadian Organ Replacement Registry CORR is a health organisation was started by Canadian nephrologists and kidney transplant surgeons in 1985 in order to develop the care of patients with renal failure. In the early 1990s data on liver and heart transplantation were added to the registry.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Women's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Comprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.Relative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}Maternal Health Task ForceNeighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.Mental disorderHealthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:Poverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.Non-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Minati SenSharon Regional Health System: Sharon Regional Health System is a profit health care service provider based in Sharon, Pennsylvania. Its main hospital is located in Sharon; additionally, the health system operates schools of nursing and radiography; a comprehensive pain management center across the street from its main hospital; clinics in nearby Mercer, Greenville, Hermitage, and Brookfield, Ohio; and Sharon Regional Medical Park in Hermitage.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Resource leak: In computer science, a resource leak is a particular type of resource consumption by a computer program where the program does not release resources it has acquired. This condition is normally the result of a bug in a program.Northeast Community Health CentreGeneralizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Red Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Essence (Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics): Essence is the United States Department of Defense's Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics. Essence's goal is to monitor health data as it becomes available and discover epidemics and similar health concerns before they move out of control.Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityNunavut: (Inuktitut)"Nunavut Sannginivut""Our land, our strength"

(1/10474) Physician advice and individual behaviors about cardiovascular disease risk reduction--seven states and Puerto Rico, 1997.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) (e.g., heart disease and stroke) is the leading cause of death in the United States and accounted for 959,227 deaths in 1996. Strategies to reduce the risk for heart disease and stroke include lifestyle changes (e.g., eating fewer high-fat and high-cholesterol foods) and increasing physical activity. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and the American Heart Association (AHA) recommend that, as part of a preventive health examination, all primary-care providers counsel their patients about a healthy diet and regular physical activity. AHA also recommends low-dose aspirin use as a secondary preventive measure among persons with existing CVD. To determine the prevalence of physician counseling about cardiovascular health and changes in individual behaviors, CDC analyzed data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for seven states and Puerto Rico. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicate a lower prevalence of counseling and behavior change among persons without than with a history of heart disease or stroke.  (+info)

(2/10474) Risk-adjusted capitation based on the Diagnostic Cost Group Model: an empirical evaluation with health survey information.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictive accuracy of the Diagnostic Cost Group (DCG) model using health survey information. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Longitudinal data collected for a sample of members of a Dutch sickness fund. In the Netherlands the sickness funds provide compulsory health insurance coverage for the 60 percent of the population in the lowest income brackets. STUDY DESIGN: A demographic model and DCG capitation models are estimated by means of ordinary least squares, with an individual's annual healthcare expenditures in 1994 as the dependent variable. For subgroups based on health survey information, costs predicted by the models are compared with actual costs. Using stepwise regression procedures a subset of relevant survey variables that could improve the predictive accuracy of the three-year DCG model was identified. Capitation models were extended with these variables. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: For the empirical analysis, panel data of sickness fund members were used that contained demographic information, annual healthcare expenditures, and diagnostic information from hospitalizations for each member. In 1993, a mailed health survey was conducted among a random sample of 15,000 persons in the panel data set, with a 70 percent response rate. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The predictive accuracy of the demographic model improves when it is extended with diagnostic information from prior hospitalizations (DCGs). A subset of survey variables further improves the predictive accuracy of the DCG capitation models. The predictable profits and losses based on survey information for the DCG models are smaller than for the demographic model. Most persons with predictable losses based on health survey information were not hospitalized in the preceding year. CONCLUSIONS: The use of diagnostic information from prior hospitalizations is a promising option for improving the demographic capitation payment formula. This study suggests that diagnostic information from outpatient utilization is complementary to DCGs in predicting future costs.  (+info)

(3/10474) Correlates of sexually transmitted bacterial infections among U.S. women in 1995.

CONTEXT: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) of bacterial origin such as gonorrhea and chlamydial infection can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and infertility. Identifying behaviors and characteristics associated with infection may assist in preventing these often asymptomatic diseases and their sequelae. METHODS: Data from 9,882 sexually active women who participated in the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth describe the characteristics of women who report a history of infection with a bacterial STD or of treatment for PID. Multivariate analysis is used to determine which demographic characteristics and sexual and health-related behaviors affect the likelihood of infection or the occurrence of complications. RESULTS: Overall, 6% of sexually active women reported a history of a bacterial STD, and 8% reported a history of PID. Women who first had sexual intercourse before age 15 were nearly four times as likely to report a bacterial STD, and more than twice as likely to report PID, as were women who first had sex after age 18. Having more than five lifetime sexual partners also was associated with both having an STD and having PID. PID was more common among women reporting a history of a bacterial STD (23%) than among women who reported no such history (7%). In multivariate analyses, age, race, age at first intercourse and lifetime number of sexual partners had a significant effect on the risk of a bacterial STD. Education, age, a history of IUD use, douching and a history of a bacterial STD had a significant impact on the risk of PID, but early onset of intercourse did not, and lifetime number of partners had only a marginal effect. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of characteristics and behaviors that place women at risk of infection with bacterial STDs is not uniform among groups of women. Further, the level of self-reported PID would suggest higher rates of gonorrhea and chlamydial infection than reported.  (+info)

(4/10474) Condom use and HIV risk behaviors among U.S. adults: data from a national survey.

CONTEXT: How much condom use among U.S. adults varies by type of partner or by risk behavior is unclear. Knowledge of such differentials would aid in evaluating the progress being made toward goals for levels of condom use as part of the Healthy People 2000 initiative. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the 1996 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse, an annual household-based probability sample of the noninstitutionalized population aged 12 and older that measures the use of illicit drugs, alcohol and tobacco. The personal behaviors module included 25 questions covering sexual activity in the past year, frequency of condom use in the past year, circumstances of the last sexual encounter and HIV testing. RESULTS: Sixty-two percent of adults reported using a condom at last intercourse outside of an ongoing relationship, while only 19% reported using condoms when the most recent intercourse occurred within a steady relationship. Within ongoing relationships, condom use was highest among respondents who were younger, black, of lower income and from large metropolitan areas. Forty percent of unmarried adults used a condom at last sex, compared with the health objective of 50% for the year 2000. Forty percent of injecting drug users used condoms at last intercourse, compared with the 60% condom use objective for high-risk individuals. Significantly, persons at increased risk for HIV because of their sexual behavior or drug use were not more likely to use condoms than were persons not at increased risk; only 22% used condoms during last intercourse within an ongoing relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial progress has been made toward national goals for increasing condom use. The rates of condom use by individuals at high risk of HIV need to be increased, however, particularly condom use with a steady partner.  (+info)

(5/10474) Thyroid volumes and urinary iodine in Swiss school children, 17 years after improved prophylaxis of iodine deficiency.

Salt iodine content in Switzerland was raised from 7.5 to 15 mg per kg in 1980, and since then dietary iodine intake has been considered to be sufficient, even though a slight decrease due to imported food has recently been reported. The aim of this study was to establish normal values for thyroid volumes of school children who can be assumed to have had a sufficient iodine intake all their lifetime. Moreover. the present investigation was undertaken to verify that iodine sufficiency had been achieved equally in two regions each served by one of the two Swiss salt producers. Mean iodine concentration in urine spot samples from school children was 16.1 microg/dl, and it was identical in both the city of Lausanne (n=215) and the city of Solothurn (n=208). Thus it can be stated that in both cities (served by two different salt producers) iodine intake is equal and sufficient. Accordingly, thyroid volumes measured by ultrasound in school children aged 6 to 16 years were the same in both Lausanne (n=202) and Solothurn (n=207). Moreover, the age-adjusted median volumes at the 97th percentiles closely agree with and validate provisional international reference values recently proposed by the World Health Organisation and by the International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disease.  (+info)

(6/10474) Stress and morale in general practice: a comparison of two health care systems.

BACKGROUND: Poor morale and high levels of stress among general practitioners (GPs) are causing concern. Little research has previously been carried out to study possible differences in morale and stress between GPs working in two different but geographically similar health care systems. AIM: To compare perceived levels of stress and morale between GPs working in two different health care systems--one having a state monopoly (Northern Ireland) and the other having mixed private and state funding (Republic of Ireland)--and to look for factors that might help explain any differences in stress levels and morale between the two systems. METHOD: Anonymous and confidential questionnaires were sent to all 986 National Health Service (NHS) GPs in Northern Ireland (NI) and a random sample of 900 GPs in the Republic of Ireland (ROI). A common set of core questions on demographic details, partners and work patterns, perceived levels of stress and morale, safety, violence, and complaints were asked. RESULTS: Response rates were high in both areas: 91% in NI and 78% in the ROI. GPs in NI had significantly higher stress levels and significantly lower levels of morale than GPs in the ROI. The NI sample expect matters to get worse over the following year. Doctors in the ROI were more likely to be single handed and to work from two sites. Also, more GPs in ROI had fears for their safety and had been the subject of physical violence, but fewer had received complaints and medico-legal actions than in NI. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of both groups of doctors report feeling highly stressed but GPs in NI appear more unhappy and have a poorer outlook for the future. It is suggested that the structure, management, and expectations of the NHS have taken a severe toll on its GPs, whereas a system in which doctors have less practice support but more control is good for morale.  (+info)

(7/10474) Trends in body weight among American Indians: findings from a telephone survey, 1985 through 1996.

OBJECTIVES: This study compared trends in body mass index for American Indian men and women across selected regions of the United States. METHODS: Self-reported data were collected from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. RESULTS: Among women in the Dakotas, New Mexico and Arizona, and Washington and Oregon, average adjusted body mass index increased significantly by 0.1 to 0.2 units per year. Among men in Alaska and the Dakotas, average adjusted body mass index also increased significantly by 0.1 to 0.2 units each year. CONCLUSIONS: Because of rapid increases in average body mass index, some American Indian populations could be burdened by an increased incidence of chronic disease.  (+info)

(8/10474) Sexual problems: a study of the prevalence and need for health care in the general population.

BACKGROUND: There has been little research carried out on the prevalence and types of sexual dysfunction in the general population, although the indications are that such problems are relatively common. Most common sexual problems are potentially treatable. However GPs have estimated the prevalence of sexual problems to be far lower than survey estimates. OBJECTIVE: To provide an estimate of the prevalence of sexual problems in the general population, and assess the use of and need for professional help for such problems. METHODS: We used an anonymous postal questionnaire survey. The study was set in four general practices in England*, and the study population was a stratified random sample of the adult general population (n = 4000). The subjects were 789 men and 979 women who responded to the questionnaire. The main outcome measures were the presence and type of current sexual problems in men and women, and the provision and use of treatments for sexual problems. RESULTS: A response rate of 44% was obtained. The median age of the responders was 50 years. A third of men (34%) and two-fifths of women (41 %) reported having a current sexual problem. The most common problems were erectile dysfunction (n = 170) and premature ejaculation (n = 88) in men; in women the most widely reported problems were vaginal dryness (n = 186) and infrequent orgasm (n = 166). In men, the proportion of responders reporting sexual problems increased with age, but there was no similar trend in women. Of those responders who reported a sexual problem, 52% said that they would like to receive professional help for this problem, but only one in ten of these people (n = 50) had received such help. CONCLUSION: Among responders there was a high level of reported sexual problems. The most frequently reported problems (vaginal dryness, erectile problems) may be amenable to physical treatment in practice, and yet few had sought or received help. However, many said that they would like to receive help. These figures suggest that there may be an important burden of potentially reversible sexual problems in the general population.  (+info)



infrastructure


  • Medical managers in 49 'designated' hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) were surveyed on infrastructure, staffing, administrative requirements and mental health care user case load pertaining to the Act for the month of July 2009. (scielo.org.za)

nationally


  • These studies, generally known as Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC), are based on nationally independent surveys of school-aged children in as many as 30 participating countries. (umich.edu)
  • For its report, the center surveyed a nationally representative random sample of U.S. physicians from the American Medical Association's Master File about their attitudes toward the ACA and how they think the law will impact the practice of medicine. (medpagetoday.com)

Behavior


  • The study also examines a person's health and health behaviors such as eating habits, depression, injuries, anti-social behavior including questions concerning bullying, fighting, using weapons, and how one deals with anger. (umich.edu)
  • Also included are questions regarding child behavior, the use of mental health services, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). (umich.edu)

increasing priority


  • Improving the safety of patients is an increasing priority for health policy and health services. (bmj.com)

NATIONAL HEALTH INTERVIEW SURVEY


  • The purpose of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is to obtain information about the amount and distribution of illness, its effects in terms of disability and chronic impairments, and the kinds of health services people receive. (umich.edu)
  • Estimates are based on household interviews with a sample of the civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S. population and are derived from the National Health Interview Survey sample adult component. (cdc.gov)
  • National Health Interview Survey, 2006, public use data file. (cdc.gov)

adult


  • Included in the 1999 NHIS are periodic questions that provide additional detail on topics such as Adult Conditions (ACN), Adult Access and Utilization (AAU), Child Conditions, Limitation of Activity and Health Status (CHS), and Child Access and Utilization (CAU). (umich.edu)
  • A randomly-selected adult in each family was interviewed for the Sample Adult File (Part 4) regarding respiratory conditions, renal conditions, AIDS, joint symptoms, health status, limitation of daily activities, and behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. (umich.edu)

disability


  • 1 Neuropsychiatric disorders contribute significantly to disability and health care cost in society, 2 and rank third in their contribution to burden of disease in SA. (scielo.org.za)

public


  • 1 Mental health was a low priority on South Africa's public health agenda, the lack of an action plan being one of the shortcomings. (scielo.org.za)
  • Most U.S. doctors believe that healthcare reform will increase use of public health insurance programs but will not reduce costs, according to results from a survey of 500 physicians by the Deloitte Center for Health Solutions. (medpagetoday.com)

Population


  • As part of the European project VINTAGE, a systematic review of scientific literature was undertaken to document the evidence base on the impact of alcohol on the health and well-being of older people, and on effective policies and preventive approaches to face the problem in this steadily increasing segment of the population. (scielosp.org)

medicine


  • Doctors don't have a rosy view of the future of medicine: seven out of 10 surveyed said they think healthcare reform will make potential doctors reconsider entering the field of medicine. (medpagetoday.com)

care


  • 1996 Benchmarks of Fairness for Health Care Reform - Oxford University Press. (slideserve.com)
  • The South African Mental Health Care Act (the Act) No. 17 of 2002 stipulated that regional and district hospitals be designated to admit, observe and treat mental health care users (MHCUs) for 72 hours before they are transferred to a psychiatric hospital. (scielo.org.za)
  • 3 To ensure adequate access and treatment for mental health care users (MHCUs), human, social and financial resources are necessary. (scielo.org.za)
  • The Mental Health Care Act No. 17 of 2002 (the Act) 8 introduced radical changes. (scielo.org.za)
  • Petersen expressed concern that de-institutionalisation and comprehensive integrated mental health care in South Africa were hampered by a lack of resources for mental health care as well as the inefficient use of existing mental health resources. (scielo.org.za)

mental health s


  • 6 Scarce resources, inequity of distribution and inefficiency of resource use characterise mental health services in low- and middle-income countries. (scielo.org.za)
  • Historically, mental health services in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) had been centred on a few large mental hospitals and stand-alone clinics. (scielo.org.za)
  • 50 (70.4%) of the district and regional hospitals have been designated to provide mental health services and admit involuntary and assisted MHCUs for 72-hour observations. (scielo.org.za)

services


  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. (umich.edu)
  • Use of trade names and commercial sources is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (cdc.gov)
  • References to non-CDC sites on the Internet are provided as a service to MMWR readers and do not constitute or imply endorsement of these organizations or their programs by CDC or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (cdc.gov)

Department


  • 10 In KZN, 0.03% of the total health budget is spent on mental health, a figure that has not increased in the last decade (personal communication, KZN Department of Health). (scielo.org.za)

social


  • First, much less is known about the health, social and economic impacts of alcohol use in older people compared to younger adults. (scielosp.org)

promotion


  • The first objective is to monitor health-risk behaviors and attitudes in youth over time to provide background and identify targets for health promotion initiatives. (umich.edu)

total


  • 4 Internationally, 32% of 191 countries surveyed did not have a specified budget for mental health, 5 and 36% of countries spent less than 1% of their total health budgets on mental health. (scielo.org.za)

countries


  • The United States was one of three countries chosen to implement the survey out of cycle. (umich.edu)

Europe


  • Since 1982, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe has sponsored a cross-national, school-based study of health-related attitudes and behaviors of young people. (umich.edu)

people


  • As the 2009 council of the European Union conclusions on Alcohol and Health noted , there are a number of reasons to consider reviewing the impact of alcohol on older people in the European Union (EU) and what can be done about it [4, (scielosp.org)
  • Research suggests that older people might be more sensitive to alcohol's negative health effects compared to younger adults, which could mean that more harm results from equivalent amounts of consumption by older people. (scielosp.org)

provide


  • The second objective is to provide researchers with relevant information to understand and explain the development of health attitudes and behaviors through early adolescence. (umich.edu)