Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.United States Public Health Service: A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Home Care Services: Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Great BritainHealth Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.United States Indian Health Service: A division of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that is responsible for the public health and the provision of medical services to NATIVE AMERICANS in the United States, primarily those residing on reservation lands.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.United StatesAttitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.EnglandOccupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Contract Services: Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Personal Health Services: Health care provided to individuals.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Architectural Accessibility: Designs for approaching areas inside or outside facilities.Student Health Services: Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Emergency Medical Services: Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Diagnostic Services: Organized services for the purpose of providing diagnosis to promote and maintain health.Maternal-Child Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Medically Underserved Area: A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Privatization: Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Social Work: The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.LondonOrganizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Library Services: Services offered to the library user. They include reference and circulation.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Comprehensive Health Care: Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Nursing Services: A general concept referring to the organization and administration of nursing activities.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Utilization Review: An organized procedure carried out through committees to review admissions, duration of stay, professional services furnished, and to evaluate the medical necessity of those services and promote their most efficient use.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Continuity of Patient Care: Health care provided on a continuing basis from the initial contact, following the patient through all phases of medical care.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Genetic Services: Organized services to provide diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of genetic disorders.Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.BrazilHospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Community Mental Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of psychologic and psychiatric services to people living in a neighborhood or community.Hospitals, Public: Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Health Planning Support: Financial resources provided for activities related to health planning and development.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Resource Allocation: Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.Financing, Personal: Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Telemedicine: Delivery of health services via remote telecommunications. This includes interactive consultative and diagnostic services.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Organizations: Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.New South Wales: A state in southeastern Australia. Its capital is Sydney. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1770 and first settled at Botany Bay by marines and convicts in 1788. It was named by Captain Cook who thought its coastline resembled that of South Wales. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p840 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p377)Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Administrative Personnel: Individuals responsible for the development of policy and supervision of the execution of plans and functional operations.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Health Services Misuse: Excessive, under or unnecessary utilization of health services by patients or physicians.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (U.S.): A component of the Department of Health and Human Services to oversee and direct the Medicare and Medicaid programs and related Federal medical care quality control staffs. Name was changed effective June 14, 2001.Oceanic Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.United States Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to substance abuse and mental health. It is commonly referred to by the acronym SAMHSA. On 1 October 1992, the United States Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA) became SAMHSA.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.

*  The impact of health service variables on healthcare access in a low resourced urban setting in the Western Cape, South Africa
Accessibility of primary care physician practice sites in South Carolina for people with disabilities. Disabil Health J. 2008;1 ... Disability and health service utilization among old Koreans. Health [serial online]. 2014;6(5):404-409. doi:10.4236/health. ... Sofaer S, Firminger K. Patient perceptions of the quality of health services. Annu Rev Public Health. [serial online]. 2005 [ ... Ensor T, Cooper S. Overcoming barriers to health service access: Influencing the demand side. Health Policy Plan [serial online ...
  http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-29362015000100030&lng=es&nrm=iso
*  Accessibility - Ireland's Health Service
For questions about health services, your entitlements, or how to access HSE health or social services in your area? ... The Health Service Executive policy on web accessibility requires that all HSE related sites be at least minimally accessible ... Our definition of minimal accessibility is based upon the World Wide Web Consortium's guidelines "Web Content Accessibility ... The HSE policy on web accessibility also covers any sites provided by external partners that bear the HSE's name and symbols, ...
  https://www.hse.ie/eng/accessibility/
*  Accessibility | Parliamentary and Health Service Ombudsman (PHSO)
Breaking down the barriers: Older people and complaints about health care * Performance against our Service Charter Q3 (October ... Ignoring the alarms: How NHS eating disorder services are failing patients * Performance against our Service Charter 2017/18 ... Our website meets the W3C web accessibility standards (AA) and has Disability Accessibility Centre (DAC) accreditation. ... We are looking at putting in place a live chat service to help people using our website or filling in our online form ...
  https://www.ombudsman.org.uk/accessibility
*  Deaf scots urged to share views on accessibility of health services | Action on Hearing Loss
Delia Henry, Director of Action on Hearing Loss Scotland, said: "We want to find out about how well health services are meeting ... health centre and GP services. Action on Hearing Loss Scotland has produced a short questionnaire to gather information about ... Guidance for hospitals and other urgent and emergency care services * Guidance for supporting older people with hearing loss in ... Guidance for hospitals and other urgent and emergency care services * Guidance for supporting older people with hearing loss in ...
  https://www.actiononhearingloss.org.uk/about-us/media/latest-press-releases/deaf-scots-urged-to-share-views-on-accessibility-of-health-services/
*  Accessibility - Wellpoint Health Services
Please find a copy of Wellpoint Health's Accessibility Policy by clicking here. ... and we will do so by preventing and removing barriers to accessibility and meeting legislative accessibility requirements. ... Wellpoint Health Ltd. is committed to treating all stakeholders, including our clients/customers, employees, job applicants, ... Wellpoint welcomes feedback regarding the way in which the company provides services to persons with disabilities. Wellpoint ...
  https://wellpointhealth.ca/accessibility/
*  The accessibility paradox in health services: global and individual costs - Artigos Científicos - Titton
A company's health and safe ...Company's Health and Safety policy A health and safety policy sets out your general approach and ... The Accessibility Paradox in Health Services: Global and Individual Costs. Prof. Luiz Antonio Titton, Universidade de São Paulo ... The accessibility paradox in health services: global and individual costs. Disponível somente no TrabalhosFeitos ... The-Accessibility-Paradox-In-Health-Services\/55963.html","pagesPerLoad":50,"userType":"member_guest","ct":null,"ndocs":"2.400. ...
  http://www.trabalhosfeitos.com/ensaios/The-Accessibility-Paradox-In-Health-Services/55963.html
*  Comparing alternative approaches to measuring the geographical accessibility of urban health services: Distance types and...
This is especially so if accessibility measures to health services or health-related resources are to be included as a ... Most studies examining the geographical accessibility of health care and health-related services have been concerned with ... Because the accessibility of health services may be more problematic in suburban areas than in more central urban areas, ... d bs = distance between spatial unit b and service s.. Z. i. b. =. ∑. b. ∈. i. W. b. ∑. j. ∈. S. S. j. ∑. b. ∈. i. W. b. ,. ...
  https://ij-healthgeographics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1476-072X-7-7
*  Assessing potential spatial accessibility of health services in rural China: a case study of Donghai county | International...
... have higher potential spatial accessibility of health services. The potential spatial accessibility scores of health services ... As a measure for determining areas with insufficient health services, spatial accessibility of health services refers to the ... Revealed spatial accessibility of health services refers to the actual use of health care services in a given location, whereas ... relative access to health services in a given location [13, 14]. Spatial accessibility of health services is influenced ...
  https://equityhealthj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-9276-12-35
*  Access Ability: Good article about Disability Service and Mental Health professionals
Access+Ability = Accessibility. Positive attitude and positive change are what Access Ability is all about. For background, I ... Access Ability A blog serving higher education professionals in the Disability Support Service (DSS) field. A public forum ... However, I believe it is one which could serve a broad population when applied in the world of Disability Support Services.. ... Being that the article is written by a mental health professional, it is presented with a good understanding of the ADA and ...
  http://accessability.blogspot.com/2007/05/good-article-about-disability-service.html
*  Saúde Pública - Outpatient health service utilization and associated factors: a population-based study Outpatient health...
Keywords: Health services, utilization. Health services accessibility. Equity in access. Socioeconomic factors. ... Most of the health services used by the population are part of the Unified Health System (SUS). ... The variable distance to health facility, an important factor of health services utilization, was not analyzed in this occasion ... Health insurance was considered positive if the subject had any other health insurance besides the SUS one. Health needs were ...
  https://scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S0034-89102003000300017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt
*  Building Community-Based Service Systems for Children with Special Health Care Needs: Campaign '88, Surgeon General's ...
Community Health Services Health Services Accessibility Exhibit Category: Congenital Birth Defects and the Medical Rights of ... Building Community-Based Service Systems for Children with Special Health Care Needs: Campaign '88, Surgeon General's ... Building Community-Based Service Systems for Children with Special Health Care Needs: Campaign '88, Surgeon General's ... National Institutes of Health, Department of Health & Human Services. USA.gov, Copyright, Privacy, Accessibility ...
  https://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/ps/retrieve/ResourceMetadata/QQBBJF
*  Cisco Blog
Bairnsdale Regional Health Service: Enhancing Accessibility of Regional Care. Healthcare Brendan Lovelock - January 30, 2017 - ... Neurology, behavioral health, cardiology, dermatology, post-procedure follow-up, acute care, home care, evaluation and ...
  https://blogs.cisco.com/tag/telehealth
*  The Emergency Department as Usual Source of Medical Care: Estimates from the 1998 National Health Interview Survey - Walls -...
Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Relationship Between the Use of Health Care Services and Functional Disability: The Health and ... health services accessibility. Publication History. *Issue online: 8 January 2008. *Version of record online: 8 January 2008. ... This analysis uses the 1998 National Health Interview Survey to estimate the number of Americans who name the ED as their usual ... The Emergency Department as Usual Source of Medical Care: Estimates from the 1998 National Health Interview Survey. Authors. * ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1197/aemj.9.11.1140/abstract
*  Outcome Evaluation of Minority AIDS Initiative Programs in the New York EMA - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Health Services Accessibility. Quality of Life. Additional relevant MeSH terms: HIV Infections. Lentivirus Infections. ... Identify services or constellations of services and intensity of services associated with change in functional health status. ... Functional health status. Functional Health Status is used in this evaluation as the primary measure of final client "outcomes ... getting people who would benefit from health care to use it and (2) getting people who do use health care to do so more ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00273403?order=291
*  Tuberculosis treatment: integration between hospitals and public health care clinics in the city of São Paulo, Brazil
Keywords: Tuberculosis; Health services accessibility; Inpatients; Outpatients.. Introduction. Tuberculosis (TB) is an ... This suggests that, in some regions in the city of São Paulo and in neighboring cities, the network of health care services ( ... Public policies for TB treatment, which are focused on primary health care services, neglect the great number of patients ... There are 127 hospitals and 382 primary health care (PHC) clinics distributed into five regional health districts. The study ...
  http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-37132009001100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  Equity in community care.
The implementation of the NHS and Community Care Act 1990 made local authority social services departments responsible for the ... Health Care Rationing / economics, standards*. Health Policy. Health Services Accessibility. Humans. Social Justice. Social ... One consequence is that the relevance of equity (a guiding principle of the 1946 National Health Service Act, but relatively ... Community Health Services / economics, standards*, supply & distribution. Great Britain. ...
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Equity-in-community-care/8019286.html
*  Law Document English View | Ontario.ca
a) performance goals and objectives, roles and responsibilities, service quality, accessibility of services, related health ... "insured service" means a service that is an insured service under the. Health Insurance Act. and the. regulations made under it ... i) the service or services are or would be rendered by a physician, practitioner or hospital, or the service or services are or ... the Health Insurance Act. , the Independent Health Facilities Act. , the Regulated Health Professions Act. , 1991 or a health ...
  https://www.ontario.ca/laws/statute/04c05/v9?search=Commitment+to+the++Future+of+Medicare+Act%2C+2004
*  Dynamics and constraints of early infant diagnosis of HIV infection in Rural Kenya.
To explore service providers and care givers knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of the EID process, observations ... Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice*. Health Services Accessibility. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Infectious Disease ... The service is offered free of charge in more than 190 centers including private health centers, government clinics and public ... Importantly, some caregivers reported being motivated to come back for care as they also come for other health care services ...
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Dynamics-Constraints-Early-Infant-Diagnosis/21213034.html
*  Emergency contraception: a review.
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice. Health Services Accessibility. Humans. Intrauterine Devices*. Chemical. Reg. No./ ... Title: The European journal of contraception & reproductive health care : the official journal of the European Society of ... Nlm Unique ID: 9712127 Medline TA: Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care Country: England ... Contraception Volume: 13 ISSN: 1362-5187 ISO Abbreviation: Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care Publication Date: 2008 Mar ...
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Emergency-contraception-review/18283598.html
*  5 'eureka' moments created from multi-dimensional thinking with GIS | ITProPortal
... accessibility of health services; and identifying, understanding and finding solutions to reduce health inequalities. ... Public Health England (PHE) use GIS to better understand health information, including: the risk from and spread of disease (e. ... 2) Public Health England - Improving our nation's health. Imagine having the ability to foresee the spread of disease. Using a ... PHE uses a wide variety of geographic information to gain a multi-dimensional perspective of complex health issues, ensuring ...
  https://www.itproportal.com/2016/04/18/5-eureka-moments-created-multi-dimensional-thinking-gis/
*  Saúde Pública - Blood pressure control, hypertension, awareness, and treatment in adults with diabetes in the United States...
... health services accessibility; border health; United States; Mexico. ... and lower access to health insurance and preventive services (19, 20). All of these factors lead to poorer health and health ... general health status, access to health care, and health care behaviors. Participants also underwent a health assessment that ... Fam Community Health. 2009;32(1):2 3. 19. United States-Mexico Border Health Commission. Topic brief: health care reform: ...
  https://scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S1020-49892010000900006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  Patients' age as a determinant of care received following acute stroke: A systematic review | BMC Health Services Research |...
... quality of health care; quality; process indicator; access; health services accessibility. An example of the MEDLINE search ... To determine whether access to stroke care, delivery of health services, and clinical outcomes after stroke are affected by age ... Age disparities in stroke quality of care and delivery of health services. Stroke. 2009, 40: 3328-3335. 10.1161/STROKEAHA. ... Am J Public Health. 2008, 98: 1241-1247. 10.2105/AJPH.2007.114397.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar. ...
  http://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com.preview-live.oscarjournals.springer.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6963-11-161
*  Sub-optimal delivery of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy in Nigeria: influence of provider factors.
Health Services Accessibility / statistics & numerical data. Health Services Research*. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Malaria / ... WHO Health Services Coverage Statistics: Antenatal Care Coverage (Percentage)Year: 2012Geneva: World Health Organization. ... Each health facility has an ANC/maternity unit that has responsibility for providing ANC, family planning and delivery services ... This level also serves as the primary point of delivery of ANC services. In Udi and Enugu, 17 and 11 of such public health ...
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Sub-optimal-delivery-intermittent-preventive/22958539.html
*  Basic concepts in population health and health care | Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health
Accessibility (of health services): aspects of the structure of health services or health facilities that enhance the ability ... Health services components. (1). Structure (of health systems or health facilities): aspects of the design of health services ... Access (to health services): the perceptions and experiences of people as to their ease in reaching health services or health ... Inequity in receipt of health services:inequalities in the receipt of health services for equal health needs and/or failure to ...
  http://jech.bmj.com/content/55/7/452.long

National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Global Health Delivery ProjectSelf-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}Comprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Maternal Health Task ForceHalfdan T. MahlerCommunity mental health service: Community mental health services (CMHS), also known as Community Mental Health Teams (CMHT) in the United Kingdom, support or treat people with mental disorders (mental illness or mental health difficulties) in a domiciliary setting, instead of a psychiatric hospital (asylum). The array of community mental health services vary depending on the country in which the services are provided.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Basic Occupational Health Services: The Basic Occupational Health Services are an application of the primary health care principles in the sector of occupational health. Primary health care definition can be found in the World Health Organization Alma Ata declaration from the year 1978 as the “essential health care based on practical scientifically sound and socially accepted methods, (…) it is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work (…)”.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.United States Public Health ServiceNational Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Northwest Portland Area Indian Health Board: The Northwest Portland Area Indian Health Board (NPAIHB) is a non-profit tribal advisory organization in Portland, Oregon, run and organized by participating tribes. It was established in 1972 to focus on four areas as they pertain to the health of Native people: health promotion and disease prevention, legislative and policy analysis, training and technical assistance, and surveillance and research.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Mental disorderClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Sharon Regional Health System: Sharon Regional Health System is a profit health care service provider based in Sharon, Pennsylvania. Its main hospital is located in Sharon; additionally, the health system operates schools of nursing and radiography; a comprehensive pain management center across the street from its main hospital; clinics in nearby Mercer, Greenville, Hermitage, and Brookfield, Ohio; and Sharon Regional Medical Park in Hermitage.Integrated catchment management: Integrated catchment management is a subset of environmental planning which approaches sustainable resource management from a catchment perspective, in contrast to a piecemeal approach that artificially separates land management from water management.Red Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Resource leak: In computer science, a resource leak is a particular type of resource consumption by a computer program where the program does not release resources it has acquired. This condition is normally the result of a bug in a program.Minati SenNortheast Community Health CentreStandard evaluation frameworkEssex School of discourse analysis: The Essex School constitutes a variety of discourse analysis, one that combines theoretical sophistication – mainly due to its reliance on the post-structuralist and psychoanalytic traditions and, in particular, on the work of Lacan, Foucault, Barthes, Derrida, etc. – with analytical precision, since it focuses predominantly on an in-depth analysis of political discourses in late modernity.Healthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:Women's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.Referral (medicine): In medicine, referral is the transfer of care for a patient from one clinician to another.García Olmos L, Gervas Camacho J, Otero A, Pérez Fernández M.Craig HospitalBrooks College of Health: The Brooks College of Health is a college at the University of North Florida. About 1,900 students are enrolled in the school,http://www.Poundage quota: A poundage quota, also called a marketing quota, is a quantitative limit on the amount of a commodity that can be marketed under the provisions of a permanent law. Once a common feature of price support programs, this supply control mechanism ended with the quota buyouts for peanuts in 2002 and tobacco in 2004.Private healthcareEuropean Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Paramedic: A paramedic is a healthcare professional, predominantly in the pre-hospital and out-of-hospital environment, and working mainly as part of emergency medical services (EMS), such as on an ambulance.Opinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010: Opinion polling (popularly known as surveys in the Philippines) for the 2010 Philippine presidential election is managed by two major polling firms: Social Weather Stations and Pulse Asia, and several minor polling firms. The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.

(1/7828) Cancer mortality by educational level in the city of Barcelona.

The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between educational level and mortality from cancer in the city of Barcelona. The data were derived from a record linkage between the Barcelona Mortality Registry and the Municipal Census. The relative risks (RR) of death and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) according to level of education were derived from Poisson regression models. For all malignancies, men in the lowest educational level had a RR of death of 1.21 (95% CI 1.13-1.29) compared with men with a university degree, whereas for women a significant decreasing in risk was observed (RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.74-0.90). Among men, significant negative trends of increasing risk according to level of education were present for cancer of the mouth and pharynx (RR 1.70 for lowest vs. highest level of education), oesophagus (RR 2.14), stomach (RR 1.99), larynx (RR 2.56) and lung (RR 1.35). Among women, cervical cancer was negatively related to education (RR 2.62), whereas a positive trend was present for cancers of the colon (RR 0.76), pancreas (RR 0.59), lung (RR 0.55) and breast (RR 0.65). The present study confirms for the first time, at an individual level, the existence of socioeconomic differences in mortality for several cancer sites in Barcelona, Spain. There is a need to implement health programmes and public health policies to reduce these inequities.  (+info)

(2/7828) Provider attitudes toward dispensing emergency contraception in Michigan's Title X programs.

 (+info)

(3/7828) Challenges in securing access to care for children.

Congressional approval of Title XXI of the Social Security Act, which created the State Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), is a significant public effort to expand health insurance to children. Experience with the Medicaid program suggests that eligibility does not guarantee children's enrollment or their access to needed services. This paper develops an analytic framework and presents potential indicators to evaluate CHIP's performance and its impact on access, defined broadly to include access to health insurance and access to health services. It also presents options for moving beyond minimal monitoring to an evaluation strategy that would help to improve program outcomes. The policy considerations associated with such a strategy are also discussed.  (+info)

(4/7828) Mental health/medical care cost offsets: opportunities for managed care.

Health services researchers have long observed that outpatient mental health treatment sometimes leads to a reduction in unnecessary or excessive general medical care expenditures. Such reductions, or cost offsets, have been found following mental health treatment of distressed elderly medical inpatients, some patients as they develop major medical illnesses, primary care outpatients with multiple unexplained somatic complaints, and nonelderly adults with alcoholism. In this paper we argue that managed care has an opportunity to capture these medical care cost savings by training utilization managers to make mental health services more accessible to patients whose excessive use of medical care is related to psychological factors. For financial reasons, such policies are most likely to develop within health care plans that integrate the financing and management of mental health and medical/surgical benefits.  (+info)

(5/7828) The health impact of economic sanctions.

Embargoes and sanctions are tools of foreign policy. They can induce a decline in economic activity in addition to reducing imports and untoward health effects can supervene, especially among older persons and those with chronic illnesses. Often, violations of the rights of life, health, social services, and protection of human dignity occur among innocent civilians in embargoed nations. This paper examines the effects of embargoes and sanctions against several nations, and calls for studies to determine ways in which economic warfare might be guided by the rule of humanitarian international law, to reduce the effects on civilians. It suggests that the ability to trade in exempted goods and services should be improved, perhaps by establishing uniform criteria and definitions for exemptions, operational criteria under which sanctions committees might function, and methods for monitoring the impact of sanctions on civilian populations in targeted states, particularly with regard to water purity, food availability, and infectious-disease control. Prospective studies are advocated, to generate the data needed to provide better information and monitoring capacity than presently exists.  (+info)

(6/7828) User charges for health care: a review of recent experience.

This paper reviews recent experiences with increases in user charges and their effect on the utilization of health care. Evidence from several countries of differences in utilization between rich and poor is presented, and recent accounts of sharp, and often sustained, drops in utilization following fee increases, are presented and discussed. Fee income, appropriately used, represents a small but significant additional resource for health care. Recent national experiences appear to have concentrated on achieving cost recovery objectives, rather than on improving service quality and health outcomes. Appraisal of financing changes must be linked to probable health outcomes. Successful large-scale experience in linking these two is in short supply.  (+info)

(7/7828) Are we ignoring population density in health planning? The issues of availability and accessibility.

Availability of health facilities is commonly expressed in terms of the number of persons dependent on one unit. Whether that unit is actually accessible to those persons depends, however, on the population density. Some examples illustrate the precise relationship. A measure of accessibility is obtained by expressing the availability of facilities as 'one unit within x km distance' (for the average--or, preferably, the median--person). This measure is therefore to be preferred.  (+info)

(8/7828) Medical technology and inequity in health care: the case of Korea.

There has been a rapid influx of high cost medical technologies into the Korean hospital market. This has raised concerns about the changes it will bring for the Korean health care sector. Some have questioned whether this diffusion will necessarily have positive effects on the health of the overall population. Some perverse effects of uncontrolled diffusion of technologies have been hinted in recent literature. For example, there is a problem of increasing inequity with the adoption of expensive technologies. Utilization of most of the expensive high technology services is not covered by national health insurance schemes; examples of such technologies are Ultra Sonic, CT Scanner, MRI, Radiotherapy, EKG, and Lithotripter. As a result, the rich can afford expensive high technology services while the poor cannot. This produces a gradual evolution of classes in health service utilization. This study examines how health service utilization among different income groups is affected by the import of high technologies. It discusses changes made within the health care system, and explains the circumstances under which the rapid and excessive diffusion of medical technologies occurred in the hospital sector.  (+info)



  • Ministry of Hea
  • On 25 March 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that Guinea's Ministry of Health had reported an outbreak of Ebola virus disease in four southeastern districts, with suspected cases in the neighbouring countries of Liberia and Sierra Leone being investigated. (wikipedia.org)
  • We wish to thank the Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria, and the staff of the Ebola Emergency Centre who coordinated the management of cases, containment of outbreaks and treatment protocols in Nigeria. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Laos, the Ministry of Health partnered with CapacityPlus and the WHO to apply the Rapid Retention Survey Toolkit (developed by CapacityPlus using the WHO recommendations) and iHRIS Retain costing software to assess which of the recommendations would be most effective in the Laotian context and subsequently inform a new national policy for recruiting and retaining health workers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ministry of Health and Public Hygiene (Guinea) Mohamed Saliou Camara (2007). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ministry is created from the former Ministry of Health and National Population and Family Planning Commission. (wikipedia.org)
  • http://www.casy.org/Chindoc/mohprofile.htm National Health and Family Planning Commission National Health and Family Planning Commission (in Chinese) Ministry of Health The State Council Ministry of Health (in Chinese) "Critical health literacy: a case study from China in schistosomiasis control" "Children's Health and Care" in China. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relationship with China's Ministry of Health and the Chinese Nursing Association" in the University of Michigan. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998
  • This analysis uses the 1998 National Health Interview Survey to estimate the number of Americans who name the ED as their usual source of care, and compares their characteristics with those who have a usual source of care other than the ED. Poverty, lack of insurance, younger age, male gender, and minority race or ethnicity predicted identifying the ED as the usual source of care. (wiley.com)
  • In 1998, the per capita total health care expenditure amount spent on immigrants was 55% lower than that spent on their U.S.-born counterparts and 74% lower for their children. (wikipedia.org)
  • morbidity
  • The reasons that lead people to visit a doctor come from a complex interaction of different factors such as demographic, socioeconomic, and psychological aspects, morbidity profiles, and health services availability. (scielosp.org)
  • The great challenge of those studies are how to quantify, for example, the life of a person, its health status or some morbidity condition, in order to compare the cost of a treatment to the benefit in terms of health, cure or death avoidance. (un.org)
  • expenditure
  • Cost benefits studies were developed to evaluate the economic gain related to the expenditure for a specific treatment or health care method. (un.org)
  • Ethnographic research conducted in rural and urban areas of the Republic of Guinea explored perceived distinctions between biomedical and traditional health practices and found that these distinctions shape parental decisions in seeking infant health care, with 93% of all health expenditure taking place outside the state sector. (wikipedia.org)
  • System
  • Sérgio Arouca - ENSP Disciplina: Análise comparada de sistemas de saúde na perspectiva da atenção primária Professora: Ligia Giovanella Resenha I "Values and Structure in the German Health Care System" DONALD W. LIGHT Referência: Light D W. Values and Structure in the German Health Care Systems. (trabalhosfeitos.com)
  • 2,5 The effect and relative importance of each factor are affected by cultural background, health policies and health care system available. (scielosp.org)
  • In Brazil, a universal decentralized and free of charge health care system was created, the Unified Health System (SUS), following the promulgation of the 1988 Federal Constitution. (scielosp.org)
  • Illuminating this from the perspective of the next of kin may provide valuable insights into how the health and social care system operates with reference to providing care for this vulnerable group. (lu.se)
  • A THC unit can collect data on vital signs and health information from patients who entered values into the system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patient participation in health policy can impact many different levels of the health care system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medicare (French: assurance-maladie) is the national health care system of Canada. (wikipedia.org)
  • Canada has a publicly funded, single-payer health care system consisting of 13 provincial and territorial health insurance plans that provides universal health care coverage to Canadian citizens, permanent residents and certain temporary residents. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formal terminology for the insurance system is provided by the Canada Health Act and the health insurance legislation of the individual provinces and territories. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quebec offers primary health care teams through its CLSC system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Nigerian health care system is continuously faced with a shortage of doctors known as 'brain drain', because of emigration by skilled Nigerian doctors to North America and Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Working with the Dominican Republic to compare health worker payrolls with facility staffing, CapacityPlus helped identify over 10,000 ghost workers and helped the government save $7 million per year in lost wages that are now being reinvested in the Dominican health system to increase health worker wages and eliminate service fees. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) provides statistical and other data relating to rural and remote health system performance, health status and determinants of health. (wikipedia.org)
  • involves
  • The intense control over little resources on hospital-physician context demands an adequate medical service that involves decision makings based on planning and resources management (HARPER, 2002), Hospital financing limitations bring along the need to findefficient ways to manage (utilize and allocate) lack of resources (AKTAS et al. (trabalhosfeitos.com)
  • This worries with researches based oncosts related to health also interferes on Brazil, what is reflected when it's perceived that 69% of researches from Economic Healthcare done in the country involves in some way the analysis of costs from hospital management (ANDRADE et al. (trabalhosfeitos.com)
  • It involves the delivery of healthcare services to patients at home through the use of telecommunications technologies, which enable the interaction of voice, video, and health-related data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patient participation, as it pertains to the formation of health policy, is a process that involves patients as stakeholders, advisors and shared decision makers. (wikipedia.org)
  • policy
  • The Health Service Executive policy on web accessibility requires that all HSE related sites be at least minimally accessible to our visitors with disabilities. (hse.ie)
  • The HSE policy on web accessibility also covers any sites provided by external partners that bear the HSE's name and symbols, and are designated as official HSE services. (hse.ie)
  • Please find a copy of Wellpoint Health's Accessibility Policy by clicking here . (wellpointhealth.ca)
  • From the 1950 s to the 1970 s, health and education expenditures were considered social investment by policy makers. (un.org)
  • Though health policy academicians identified with and understood the IOM framework, policy makers found its highly conceptual language difficult to apply. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the context, patient participation in health policy can refer to informed decision making, health advocacy, program development, policy implementation, and evaluation of services. (wikipedia.org)
  • When solicited for participation by policymakers and industry leaders, patients can have an impact on health policy, and both groups benefit from collaboration on goal setting and outcome measurement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lester B. Pearson's government subsequently expanded this policy to universal health care with the Medical Care Act in 1966. (wikipedia.org)
  • With input from applications in Ghana, Nigeria, and several other countries, CapacityPlus refined its Human Resources Management (HRM) Assessment Approach to guide policy-makers, managers, and HR practitioners toward better understanding and responding to HRM challenges facing their health systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rural health care policy is driven by a combination of Commonwealth (Federal), State or Territory and Local Government. (wikipedia.org)
  • access to health
  • Increases in income and the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) pilot program are reducing financial factors that limit access to health services in rural China, while the geographical location of rural citizens is playing an increasingly important role. (biomedcentral.com)
  • expenditures
  • Health, education and other social expenditures were reduced suddenly in developing countries. (un.org)
  • Approximately 70% of expenditures for health care in Canada come from public sources, with the rest paid privately (both through private insurance, and through out-of-pocket payments). (wikipedia.org)
  • differences
  • Gender was recognized as an important determinant in health as seen in differences in health outcome between women and men. (un.org)
  • On the other hand, findings from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey indicate that no significant differences have been found in the diagnoses of undocumented immigrants for diabetes, heart disease, or high blood pressure compared to documented immigrants, naturalized citizens or U.S.-born citizens. (wikipedia.org)
  • physician
  • Telehomecare for patients with multiple chronic illnesses Pilot study Can Fam Physician 2008;54:58-65 Health Canada. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meanwhile, US-born Latinos with U.S. citizenship were more likely to self-report their health as good or excellent and more likely to have visited a physician in the last year. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, approximately 99% of physician services, and 90% of hospital care, are paid by publicly funded sources, whereas almost all dental care is paid for privately. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunization
  • National Program for Family Planning & Primary Health Care (LHW) Program LHW Program is the world's largest community based primary health care program delivering services through 96,000 LHWs in their own communities Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) EPI is aimed at immunizing children against Childhood Tuberculosis, Poliomyelitis, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Measles, Tetanus and also their mothers against Tetanus. (wikipedia.org)
  • geographical
  • Operationalising and computing geographical accessibility measures depend on a set of four parameters, namely definition of residential areas, a method of aggregation, a measure of accessibility, and a type of distance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although errors associated to the choice of distance types and aggregation method are only important for about 10% of census tracts located mainly in suburban areas, we should not avoid using the best estimation method possible for evaluating geographical accessibility. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Commonwealth Department of Health utilises a similar classification structure called the Australian Standard Geographical Classification - Remoteness Area which was created by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. (wikipedia.org)
  • policies
  • Develop policies and plans that support individual and community health efforts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patient participation has driven the development of a variety of health policies, ranging from the expansion of hospital visitation hours to the implementation of patient-centered bedside rounding by hospital medical teams. (wikipedia.org)
  • social
  • For questions about health services, your entitlements, or how to access HSE health or social services in your area? (hse.ie)
  • The deterioration of education and health services as well as other social basic services such as nutrition, employment, housing and others. (un.org)
  • Women s social and economic role in society has a negative impact on their health. (un.org)
  • however, telehomecare is not strictly patient monitoring because it incorporates a range of health care delivery through education, emotional and social support, information dissemination, and self-care help and suggestions. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • The present study focused on these issues, and examined the characteristics of people who had visited a doctor within two months from the interview, and assessed the system's equity by examining prevalence ratios of visit to a doctor across socioeconomic groups in the highest level of health needs, defined as those patients with chronic diseases. (scielosp.org)
  • study
  • 2012, Graduate Research, Homeless Shelters in Alabama: A Study of Women's Health Services. (cmich.edu)
  • The study published by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1996 stated: 'While the industrialized countries are expected to grow richer still in coming decades, most developing regions are likely to see more modest income growth. (un.org)
  • The aim of this study was to explore the care accessed by older people during the last phase of their life from the perspective of the next of kin and to conceptually test the behavioural model of health services use. (lu.se)
  • According to study conducted using data from the 2003 California Health Interview Survey, of the Mexicans and other Latinos surveyed, undocumented immigrants had the lowest rates of health insurance and healthcare usage and were the youngest in age overall. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, this same study from the 2003 California Health Interview Survey found that both undocumented groups-Mexican and Other Latino-were more likely to report negative experiences with healthcare providers and less likely to have a regular source of care because of such experiences. (wikipedia.org)
  • outbreak
  • Lacking a sufficient response from the international community during the Ebola outbreak, the health infrastructure was augmented through laboratories and hospital facilities through non-governmental actors such as Doctors without Borders, UC Rusal, or the Ebola Private Sector Mobilisation Group (EPSMG). (wikipedia.org)
  • people
  • The relation between economic growth and development and health, education and other basic needs of people is well recognized and studied since the beginning of this century. (un.org)
  • Inform, educate, and empower people about health issues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of a community may not always see the work done by local health departments, but people live healthier lives and are safer because of the work of local health departments. (wikipedia.org)
  • In recent reports, the AIHW noted findings that "compared with those in Major Cities, people in regional and remote areas were less likely to report very good or excellent health", with life expectancy decreasing with increasing remoteness: "[c]ompared with Major Cities, the life expectancy in regional areas is 1-2 years lower and in remote areas is up to 7 years lower. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since its inception, the IDRM has released a series of reports that draw a comparative analysis of living conditions, legal protections, education, employment, accessibility, health and housing services for people with disabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • areas
  • HSE.ie works at all times to use plain, understandable English, particularly in areas of the site that describe services for the public. (hse.ie)
  • Some areas of our website are designed for use by clinical and health professionals and as such may contain more technical language where necessary. (hse.ie)
  • There is a great health services disparity between urban and rural areas in China. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most of villages are in underserved health services areas. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Local health departments help create and maintain conditions in communities that support healthier choices in areas such as diet, exercise, and tobacco. (wikipedia.org)
  • A comprehensive approach strategy was extended to all areas of health care, with subsequent improvement in the health care indicators and improvement in health care efficiency and cost. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Health Organization issued 16 global recommendations for improving the recruitment and retention of health workers in rural areas-a challenge faced by most countries and a barrier to universal health coverage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers note that the health of those living in rural areas is quantitatively and qualitatively different to those living in major metropolitan areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • measures
  • This is especially so if these measures are to be included as a dimension of the built environment in studies investigating residential area effects on health. (biomedcentral.com)
  • If these measures are not sufficiently precise, this could lead to errors or lack of precision in the estimation of residential area effects on health. (biomedcentral.com)
  • critical
  • The approach enables schools to identify critical bottlenecks to providing quality pre-service education for health workers and prioritize affordable actions for increasing the quantity of graduates while maintaining or improving the quality of education. (wikipedia.org)
  • education
  • A blog serving higher education professionals in the Disability Support Service (DSS) field. (blogspot.com)
  • Results suggest the existence of health inequity in the poorest group that could be overcome with education. (scielosp.org)
  • Research
  • Research for new insights and innovative solutions to health problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several divisions are present in the department which include: Biological Evaluation and Research Controlled Drugs Drug Licensing Health and OTC Products (non-drugs) Medical Devices and Medicated Cosmetics Pharmacy Services Pharmaceutical Evaluations & Registration Quality Assurance and Laboratory Testing A separate cell was created in 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • program
  • Several municipalities in the United States offer health care coverage for undocumented immigrants, including Los Angeles County's My Health LA program, and San Francisco's Healthy San Francisco. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although in theory all Canadians should qualify for coverage, each province or territory operates its own health insurance program, and provinces and territories have enacted qualification rules which effectively exclude many Canadians from coverage. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ministry directly runs several federal health programs nationwide: National AIDS Control Program (NACP) was established in 1986-87. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1995
  • The Platform for Action adopted at the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, 1995) established five strategic objectives for women health. (un.org)
  • Ebola
  • On 6 August 2014, the Nigerian health minister told reporters, "Yesterday the first known Nigerian to die of Ebola was recorded. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 22 September 2014, the Nigeria health ministry announced, "As of today, there is no case of Ebola in Nigeria. (wikipedia.org)
  • help
  • To help health professional schools improve their management, CapacityPlus co-developed with schools a series of management tools as well as the Dean's Dashboard, free open source school management software. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Patient participation in health technology assessment (HTA) is an approach to HTA which aims to include patients in the process of HTA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some local health departments programs include: Helping ensure clean drinking water, access to safe and healthy foods, and children's safety through use of car seats. (wikipedia.org)