Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.United States Health Resources and Services Administration: A component of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that provides leadership related to the delivery of health services and the requirements for and distribution of health resources, including manpower training.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Resource Allocation: Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Government Publications as Topic: Discussion of documents issued by local, regional, or national governments or by their agencies or subdivisions.Reference Books: Books designed by the arrangement and treatment of their subject matter to be consulted for definite terms of information rather than to be read consecutively. Reference books include DICTIONARIES; ENCYCLOPEDIAS; ATLASES; etc. (From the ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Bibliography as Topic: Discussion of lists of works, documents or other publications, usually with some relationship between them, e.g., by a given author, on a given subject, or published in a given place, and differing from a catalog in that its contents are restricted to holdings of a single collection, library, or group of libraries. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.United StatesHealth Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Databases, Bibliographic: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Health Fairs: Community health education events focused on prevention of disease and promotion of health through audiovisual exhibits.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.United States Public Health Service: A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.National Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Medically Underserved Area: A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Value of Life: The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Library AssociationsProgram Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Libraries, MedicalUrban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Great BritainPoverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Health Planning Support: Financial resources provided for activities related to health planning and development.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Comprehensive Health Care: Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Health Communication: The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Health Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)EnglandPregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.

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*  Consumer health Resources - Mayo Clinic

Be informed and ask questions of your health care providers. ... Take charge of your health. Know your options. Use medications ... nccih.nih.gov/health/integrative-health/. Accessed Oct. 19, 2016.. *AskMayoExpert. Complementary and alternative medicine. ... Newsletter: Mayo Clinic Health Letter. Mayo Clinic research. *Mayo Clinic Center for Individualized Medicine: Personalized ... Quality CareFind out why Mayo Clinic is the right place for your health care. Make an appointment.. ...
https://mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/resources/hlv-20049491?footprints=mine

*  Health Resources at CPCC - CPCC

For online resources, search the catalog by topic, and then look for items labeled E-BOOK. For streaming videos on many health ... CPCC Family Resource Center and Student Life. The Family Resource Center and Student Life partner to offer programming and ... CPCC Health and Physical Education. CPCC's Health and Physical Education department offers wellness classes for faculty and ... The Family Resource Center also offers:. *A warm, welcoming environment with access to a variety of educational materials, such ...
cpcc.edu/bewell/CPCC-health-resources/be-well-resources-at-cpcc

*  Health Resource Center - Health Benefits

... their beneficiaries and caregivers regarding VA health benefits, eligibility, billing and pharmacy-related inquiries. ... VA's Health Resource Center (HRC) provides world class customer service and support to Veterans, ... Health Resource Center. Caring for our nation's Veterans is the highest honor and privilege for the men and women who serve ... The Health Resource Center (HRC) holds a site certification from the International Customer Management Institute (ICMI), a well ...
https://va.gov/HEALTHBENEFITS/resources/hrc.asp

*  Health resources | HealthEd

Brought to you by the Health Promotion Agency and the Ministry of Health ... Women's health (5) Apply Women's health filter *Child health (2) Apply Child health filter ...
https://healthed.govt.nz/search?mode=picture-view&type=resource&f[0]=language:ja&sort_by=field_resource_item_title

*  Health Data: Public and Community Health Resources - RWJF

A collection of health data programs leveraging numerous forms of public and community statistics to help advance efforts to ... County Health Rankings. County Health Rankings & Roadmaps uses county-level data to show how health is influenced by where we ... National Health Security Preparedness Index (NHSPI). The annual Index provides a national and state-level view of health ... New Effort Will Give Researchers Access to Valuable Health Datasets. April 24, 2017 , Blog Post Health Data for Action, a ...
https://rwjf.org/en/library/collections/better-data-for-better-health.html?p=program_areas:1141

*  Lobbying Spending Database-Texas Health Resources, 2011 | OpenSecrets

Explore the billions of dollars special interest groups are spending on lobbying in Washington, D.C., -- and on what -- at OpenSecrets.org.
https://opensecrets.org/lobby/clientissues.php?id=D000057536&year=2011

*  Public health resources and services - SCIE

Integration: Health and Wellbeing Boards This film introduces health and wellbeing boards, a new statutory approach to the ...
https://scie.org.uk/atoz/?f_az_subject_thesaurus_terms_s=public health&st=atoz

*  Mental Health: Alternative Mental Health Resources | Psych Central

... support and online resources pertaining to alternative mental health. ... Alternative Mental Health Online Top Rated The largest internet site on alternative mental health, containing articles, ... Lots of dream resources out there -- this is one of the better ones. Information and resources on dream translation techniques ... Green Mountain Natural Health focuses on naturopathic, alternative & holistic medicine. Their ultimate goal is to use natural ...
https://psychcentral.com/resources/Mental_Health/Alternative_Mental_Health/

*  Health Resources

... Maury Regional Health offers a variety of health resources at our facilities throughout the region, including ... To view resources by area of interest, visit Classes & Events.. Regional Health Resources. *Local and Regional Health ... 2017 Maury Regional Health , Serving our region with clinical excellence and compassionate care ...
mauryregional.com/community-health-events/health-resources/health-resources

*  Chartwell Health Resources | UW Health | Madison, WI

... contracts with the following managed care organizations for medical management and care coordination of home health, home ... Chartwell Health Resources (CHR) contracts with the following managed care organizations for medical management and care ... Donations to UW Health are managed by the University of Wisconsin Foundation, a publicly supported charitable organization ... coordination of home health, home infusion, and respiratory therapy/durable medical equipment (RT/DME) services:. *Unity Health ...
uwhealth.org/chartwell-health-resources/chartwell-health-resources/48599

*  Student Health Resources | School of Pharmacy | Memorial University of Newfoundland

Student Health Centre - Clinicians working at Student Health have expertise in the diagnosis and management of health concerns ... Student Health Resources. Memorial University offers a suite of services to students to ensure a healthy student-life balance. ... Provincial Resources. Newfoundland and Labrador Healthline - 1-888-709-2929, offered 24-7.. Mental Health Services Crisis Line ... common to university students, including contraception, sexually transmitted infections, women's health, mood disorders - among ...
mun.ca/pharmacy/programs/bsc/currentstudentshealthresourcess.php

*  UAB - Sparkman Center for Global Health - Global Health Resources

Consortium of Universities for Global Health. http://www.cugh.org/. Global H.E.E.D (Health, Education, Economic Development). ... UAB Sparkman Center for Global Health. 517 RPHB 1665 University Blvd. Birmingham, Alabama 35205 ... Kaiser Foundation's US Global Health Policy Gateway. http://kff.org/global-health-policy/. ... Centre for Global Health Research. http://www.cghr.org/. ... International Studies Commission on Smart Global Health Policy ...
uab.edu/sparkmancenter/global-health-resources

*  Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Grants | Samuel Merritt University

Home , Admission to Samuel Merritt University , Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Grants ... The grant money - distributed by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) - is available to SMU students ... Is a member of an underrepresented minority in health care as defined by HRSA. These minorities are African-American or Black, ...
https://samuelmerritt.edu/admission/hrsa

*  TASC | National Rural Health Resource Center

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https://ruralcenter.org/category/lexicon/tasc

*  Women's Health Resource Center at California Pacific Medical Center

For more information on birth control contact the Women's Health Resource Center at 415-600-0500 or the Community Health ... Sutter Health is a registered trademark of Sutter Health®, Reg. U.S. Patent. & Trademark office. CPMC serves patients from the ... Your health care provider or other health care professional can provide you with information about each method. ... its cost and availability and its potential effects on other aspects of your health. Birth control methods are not barriers to ...
cpmc.org/services/women/health/birth-control.html

*  National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center

... responds to state and community needs by addressing current and ... The National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center (OHRC) provides support to the maternal and child health community ... With funding from the Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration ... National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center • Georgetown University. Contact Us • Feedback • Accessibility • ...
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*  Workforce Services | National Rural Health Resource Center

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https://ruralcenter.org/workforce

*  NAMI Mass Compass: Your Guide to Mental Health Resources | NAMI Massachusetts

dmh-resource-guide (2015) (Word). If you are looking for substance use treatment in Massachusetts, you can use this search ... Please give us a call or send an email to COMPASS@namimass.org so we can help you find additional resources.. If you or your ... If you are a client of the Department of Mental Health (DMH) and need to get in touch with your case manager, use this DMH Site ... The Legal Resource Finder will give you contact information for legal aid programs, other non profits, government agencies and ...
namimass.org/resources/compass

*  Global 3D CAD Industry

Lifestyle & Health * Consumer Products & Retail * All Consumer Products & Retail Consumer Products & Retail Overview * Animals ... Human Resource & Workforce Management * Licensing * New Products & Services * Obituaries * Outsourcing Businesses * Overseas ...
prnewswire.com/news-releases/global-3d-cad-industry-300352227.html

Resource leak: In computer science, a resource leak is a particular type of resource consumption by a computer program where the program does not release resources it has acquired. This condition is normally the result of a bug in a program.Ryan WhiteSelf-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Global Health Delivery ProjectHealth policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Funiculaire de Saint-Hilaire du TouvetChristopher Hitchens bibliography: Christopher Hitchens (April 13, 1949 – December 15, 2011) was a prolific English-American author, political journalist and literary critic. His books, essays, and journalistic career spanned more than four decades.Halfdan T. MahlerRock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Emanuel syndrome: Derivative 22 syndrome, or der(22), is a rare disorder associated with multiple congenital anomalies, including profound mental retardation, preauricular skin tags or pits, and conotruncal heart defects. It can occur in offspring of carriers of the constitutional chromosomal translocation t(11;22)(q23;q11), owing to a 3:1 meiotic malsegregation event resulting in partial trisomy of chromosomes 11 and 22.Emergency Digital Information Service: Emergency Digital Information Service (EDIS) is a wireless datacast based emergency and disaster information service operated by the State of California Governor's Office of Emergency Services. In operation since 1990 the system was upgraded in 1999 to support image and sound capabilities via satellite broadcast.UM Department of Community Service: The UM Department of Community Service (DOCS) is a student-run organization at the University of Miami's Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine.Comprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.Companies OfficeJournal of Aging and Health: The Journal of Aging and Health (JAH) is a medical journal covering aging published by SAGE Publications. It covers research on gerontology, including diet/nutrition, prevention, behaviors, health service utilization, longevity, and mortality.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.List of youth publications: __NOTOC__Internet organizations: This is a list of Internet organizations, or organizations that play or played a key role in the evolution of the Internet by developing recommendations, standards, and technology; deploying infrastructure and services; and addressing other major issues.United States Public Health ServiceBehavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Dalian PX protest: The Dalian PX protest (locally called the 8-14 event; ) was a peaceful public protest in People's Square, Dalian, to protest against a paraxylene (PX) chemical factory—Dalian Fujia Dahua Petrochemical (大連福佳大化石油化工)—built in Dalian city. The protest took place in August 14, 2011.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.Pavement life-cycle cost analysis: In September 1998, the United States Department of Transportation (DoT) introduced risk analysis, a probabilistic approach to account for the uncertainty of the inputs of the cost/benefit evaluation of pavement projects, into its decision-making policies. The traditional (deterministic) approach did not consider the variability of inputs.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Biological pathway: A biological pathway is a series of actions among molecules in a cell that leads to a certain product or a change in a cell. Such a pathway can trigger the assembly of new molecules, such as a fat or protein.Q Services Corps (South Africa): The establishment of the 'Q' Services Corps as part of the South African Permanent Force was promulgated in the Government Gazette dated 10 November 1939.Typed copy of Proclamation 276 of 1939British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease: The British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers six times a year in the field of Cardiovascular medicine. The journal's editors are Clifford J Bailey (Aston University), Ian Campbell (Victoria Hospital) and Christoph Schindler (Dresden University of Technology).Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is a statistic used in cost-effectiveness analysis to summarise the cost-effectiveness of a health care intervention. It is defined by the difference in cost between two possible interventions, divided by the difference in their effect.Australian National BL classWomen's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.Henry Charlton Bastian: Henry Charlton Bastian (26 April 1837 in Truro, Cornwall, England – 17 November 1915 in Chesham Bois, Buckinghamshire) was an English physiologist and neurologist. Fellow of Royal Society in 1868.Standard evaluation frameworkEuropean Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.University of Sydney Library: The University of Sydney Library is the library system of the University of Sydney. According to its publications, it is the largest academic library in the southern hemisphere (circa 2005), with a print collection of over 5.List of geographic information systems software: GIS software encompasses a broad range of applications which involve the use of a combination of digital maps and georeferenced data. GIS software can be sorted into different categories.Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}Healthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:Time-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Sharon Regional Health System: Sharon Regional Health System is a profit health care service provider based in Sharon, Pennsylvania. Its main hospital is located in Sharon; additionally, the health system operates schools of nursing and radiography; a comprehensive pain management center across the street from its main hospital; clinics in nearby Mercer, Greenville, Hermitage, and Brookfield, Ohio; and Sharon Regional Medical Park in Hermitage.Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System: The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) provides clinicians and researchers access to reliable, valid, and flexible measures of health status that assess physical, mental, and social well–being from the patient perspective. PROMIS measures are standardized, allowing for assessment of many patient-reported outcome domains—including pain, fatigue, emotional distress, physical functioning and social role participation—based on common metrics that allow for comparisons across domains, across chronic diseases, and with the general population.Lucas paradox: In economics, the Lucas paradox or the Lucas puzzle is the observation that capital does not flow from developed countries to developing countries despite the fact that developing countries have lower levels of capital per worker.}}Northeast Community Health CentreMinati SenPenalized present value: The Penalized Present Value (PPV) is a method of Capital Budgeting under risk developed by Fernando Gómez-Bezares in the 1980s.

(1/1148) The economic burden of asthma: direct and indirect costs in Switzerland.

Asthma mortality increased in Switzerland between 1980 and 1994. This study aimed to assess the economic burden of asthma in this country. Chart reviews were conducted for the last five patients seen for asthma in physician practices in 1996 and 1997. Direct expenditures and indirect costs for asthma-related morbidity were determined. A total of 589 patient charts were completely analysed, including 117 children's charts, obtained from 120 office-based physicians. The annual direct medical costs were CHF 1,778 and the mean annual indirect costs were CHF 1,019 per patient for all patients. The total estimated cost of asthma in Switzerland in 1997 was nearly CHF 1,252 million. Direct medical expenditures approached CHF 762 million, or 61% of the total. In 1997, the indirect costs for asthma were estimated to have exceeded CHF 490 million. Of these costs CHF 123 million (25%) was associated with morbidity and nearly CHF 368 million (75%) was associated with looking after asthmatic patients who had to be cared for at home. This study provides evidence that asthma is a major healthcare cost factor in Switzerland, amounting to approximately CHF 1,200 million per year. The data suggest that cost savings can be achieved by improving primary care for asthma in an ambulatory setting.  (+info)

(2/1148) Systematic review of day hospital care for elderly people. The Day Hospital Group.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of day hospital attendance in prolonging independent living for elderly people. DESIGN: Systematic review of 12 controlled clinical trials (available by January 1997) comparing day hospital care with comprehensive care (five trials), domiciliary care (four trials), or no comprehensive care (three trials). SUBJECTS: 2867 elderly people. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Death, institutionalisation, disability, global "poor outcome," and use of resources. RESULTS: Overall, there was no significant difference between day hospitals and alternative services for death, disability, or use of resources. However, compared with subjects receiving no comprehensive care, patients attending day hospitals had a lower odds of death or "poor" outcome (0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.53 to 0.99; P<0.05) and functional deterioration (0.61, 0.38 to 0.97; P<0.05). The day hospital group showed trends towards reductions in hospital bed use and placement in institutional care. Eight trials reported treatment costs, six of which reported that day hospital attendance was more expensive than other care, although only two analyses took into account cost of long term care. CONCLUSIONS: Day hospital care seems to be an effective service for elderly people who need rehabilitation but may have no clear advantage over other comprehensive care. Methodological problems limit these conclusions, and further randomised trials are justifiable.  (+info)

(3/1148) Efficiency and quality in the public and private sectors in Senegal.

It is often argued that the private sector is more efficient than the public sector in the production of health services, and that government reliance on private provision would help improve the efficiency and equity of public spending in health. A review of the literature, however, shows that there is little evidence to support these statements. A study of government and non-governmental facilities was undertaken in Senegal, taking into account case mix, input prices, and quality of care, to examine relative efficiency in the delivery of health services. The study revealed that private providers are highly heterogeneous, although they tend to offer better quality services. A specific and important group of providers--Catholic health posts--were shown to be significantly more efficient than public and other private facilities in the provision of curative and preventive ambulatory services at high levels of output. Policies to expand the role of the private sector need to take into account variations in types of providers, as well as evidence of both high and low quality among them. In terms of public sector efficiency, findings from the study affirm others that indicate drug policy reform to be one of the most important policy interventions that can simultaneously improve efficiency, quality and effectiveness of care. Relationships that this study identified between quality and efficiency suggest that strategies to improve quality can increase efficiency, raise demand for services, and thereby expand access.  (+info)

(4/1148) Prepaid capitation versus fee-for-service reimbursement in a Medicaid population.

Utilization of health resources by 37,444 Medicaid recipients enrolled in a capitated health maintenance organization was compared with that of 227,242 Medicaid recipients enrolled in a traditional fee-for-service system over a 1-year period (1983-1984) in the state of Kentucky. Primary care providers in the capitated program had financial incentives to reduce downstream costs like specialist referral, emergency room use, and hospitalizations. The average number of physician visits was similar for both groups (4.47/year in the capitated program; 5.09/year in the fee-for-service system). However, the average number of prescriptions (1.9 versus 4.9 per year), average number of hospital admissions per recipient (0.11 versus 0.22 per year), and average number of hospital days per 1,000 recipients (461 versus 909 per year) were 5% to 60% lower in the capitated group than in the fee-for-service group. The Citicare capitated program resulted in a dramatic reduction in healthcare resource utilization compared with the concurrent fee-for-service system for statewide Medicaid recipients.  (+info)

(5/1148) The validity and usage of resource utilization data among a group of primary care physicians.

The use of individual resource utilization scores to compare primary care physicians (PCPs) has become more commonplace as managed care organizations (MCOs) increase their penetration into the US healthcare market. This study looks at the validity and usage of these scores among a group of PCPs within a multispecialty clinic that is part of an integrated managed care network. Personal interviews were conducted with PCPs; and reviews were done of the practice site paper charts, the computerized visit record system of the clinic and affiliated hospital, and the MCO-supplied resource utilization data on the 25 patients of each PCP on whom the most healthcare dollars were spent in 1995. As of October 1996, few PCPs had done more than a cursory review of their resource utilization data. None had identified the patients who use the most resources or developed any methods to proactively manage those patients with a history of high utilization. The clinic's communication systems alerted the PCPs less than 50% of the time when patients for whom they were responsible had high utilization of services. Patients appeared to be assigned to the incorrect PCP more than 20% of the time. All players in this managed care network--PCPs, clinic administration, and the MCO--must work together to improve the current system before resource utilization data are considered valid and are incorporated more fully into clinical practice.  (+info)

(6/1148) The cost-effectiveness of ibutilide versus electrical cardioversion in the conversion of atrial fibrillation and flutter to normal rhythm.

Atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter are cardiac rhythm disorders that are often symptomatic and may interfere with the heart's function, limiting its effectiveness. These arrhythmias are responsible for a large number of hospitalizations at a significant cost to the healthcare system. Electrical cardioversion (EC) is the most common nonpharmacologic intervention used to convert atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter to normal rhythm. Electrical cardioversion is highly successful in converting patients to normal rhythm; however, it is more traumatic and resource intensive than pharmacologic treatment. Recently, a new rapid-acting drug, ibutilide, was approved for the conversion of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. Ibutilide is administered through intravenous infusion and does not require anesthetization of the patient, as is required for EC. A decision-tree model was developed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of ibutilide therapy compared with EC therapy. Clinical outcomes were based on a phase III trial of ibutilide, and resource use was based on the literature and physician clinical judgment. A stepped conversion regimen of first-line ibutilide followed by EC for patients who fail to convert is less expensive and has a higher conversion rate than first-line EC. Sensitivity analysis shows that our results are robust to changes in cost and effectiveness estimates.  (+info)

(7/1148) Private health care provision in developing countries: a preliminary analysis of levels and composition.

While the importance of the private sector in providing health services in developing countries is now widely acknowledged, the paucity of data on numbers and types of providers has prevented systematic cross-country comparisons. Using available published and unpublished sources, we have assembled data on the number of public and private health care providers for approximately 40 countries. This paper presents some results of the analysis of this database, looking particularly at the determinants of the size and structure of the private health sector. We consider two different types of dependent variable: the absolute number of private providers (measured here as physicians and hospital beds), and the public-private composition of provision. We examine the relationship between these variables and income and other socioeconomic characteristics, at the national level. We find that while income level is related to the absolute size of the private sector, the public-private mix does not seem to be related to income. After controlling for income, certain socioeconomic characteristics, such as education, population density, and health status are associated with the size of the private sector, though no causal relationship is posited. Further analysis will require more complete data about the size of the private sector, including the extent of dual practice by government-employed physicians. A richer story of the determinants of private sector growth would incorporate more information about the institutional structure of health systems, including provider payment mechanisms, the level and quality of public services, the regulatory structure, and labour and capital market characteristics. Finally, a normative analysis of the size and growth of the private sector will require a better understanding of its impact on key social welfare outcomes.  (+info)

(8/1148) Public hospital resource allocations in El Salvador: accounting for the case mix of patients.

National hospitals in developing countries command a disproportionate share of medical care budgets, justified on the grounds that they have a more difficult patient case mix and higher occupancy rates than decentralized district hospitals or clinics. This paper empirically tests the hypothesis by developing direct measures of the severity of patient illness, hospital case-mix and a resource intensity index for each of El Salvador's public hospitals. Based on an analysis of inpatient care staffing requirements, national hospitals are found to receive funding far in excess of what case-mix and case-load considerations would warrant. The findings suggest that significant system-wide efficiency gains can be realized by allocating hospital budgets on the bases of performance-related criteria which incorporate the case-mix approach developed here.  (+info)



expenditure


  • Health expenditure, private (% of GDP) in Canada was reported at 3.0377 % in 2014, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. (tradingeconomics.com)
  • Private health expenditure includes direct household (out-of-pocket) spending, private insurance, charitable donations, and direct service payments by private corporations. (tradingeconomics.com)
  • Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds. (tradingeconomics.com)
  • Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditure. (tradingeconomics.com)

Services Administration


  • Acting Administrator of the Health Resources and Services Administration: Who Is Jim Macrae? (allgov.com)
  • Jim Macrae, a long-time employee of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), became acting administrator of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) in April 2015 upon the departure of Mary Wakefield to become acting Deputy Director of HHS. (allgov.com)
  • Did you get an Associate's Degree, Health & Medical Services Administration? (payscale.com)