Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Community Networks: Organizations and individuals cooperating together toward a common goal at the local or grassroots level.Consumer Advocacy: The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Social Marketing: Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.Power (Psychology): The exertion of a strong influence or control over others in a variety of settings--administrative, social, academic, etc.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Primary Prevention: Specific practices for the prevention of disease or mental disorders in susceptible individuals or populations. These include HEALTH PROMOTION, including mental health; protective procedures, such as COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL; and monitoring and regulation of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS. Primary prevention is to be distinguished from SECONDARY PREVENTION and TERTIARY PREVENTION.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Preventive Medicine: A medical specialty primarily concerned with prevention of disease (PRIMARY PREVENTION) and the promotion and preservation of health in the individual.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Journalism: The collection, preparation, and distribution of news and related commentary and feature materials through such media as pamphlets, newsletters, newspapers, magazines, radio, motion pictures, television, and books. While originally applied to the reportage of current events in printed form, specifically newspapers, with the advent of radio and television the use of the term has broadened to include all printed and electronic communication dealing with current affairs.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Great BritainHealth Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Health Communication: The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Community-Based Participatory Research: Collaborative process of research involving researchers and community representatives.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Holistic Health: Health as viewed from the perspective that humans and other organisms function as complete, integrated units rather than as aggregates of separate parts.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Public-Private Sector Partnerships: An organizational enterprise between a public sector agency, federal, state or local, and a private sector entity. Skills and assets of each sector are shared to deliver a service or facility for the benefit or use of the general public.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Victoria: A state in southeastern Australia, the southernmost state. Its capital is Melbourne. It was discovered in 1770 by Captain Cook and first settled by immigrants from Tasmania. In 1851 it was separated from New South Wales as a separate colony. Self-government was introduced in 1851; it became a state in 1901. It was named for Queen Victoria in 1851. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1295 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, p574)Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Fitness Centers: Facilities having programs intended to promote and maintain a state of physical well-being for optimal performance and health.Schools: Educational institutions.Volunteers: Persons who donate their services.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)EnglandPatient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Persuasive Communication: A mode of communication concerned with inducing or urging the adoption of certain beliefs, theories, or lines of action by others.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Professional Role: The expected function of a member of a particular profession.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Planning Techniques: Procedures, strategies, and theories of planning.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.United StatesPopulation Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Oceanic Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Health Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Comprehensive Health Care: Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Administrative Personnel: Individuals responsible for the development of policy and supervision of the execution of plans and functional operations.SwedenSocial Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Intervention Studies: Epidemiologic investigations designed to test a hypothesized cause-effect relation by modifying the supposed causal factor(s) in the study population.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.EuropeCultural Characteristics: Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Students, Nursing: Individuals enrolled in a school of nursing or a formal educational program leading to a degree in nursing.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Psychology, Social: The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.Healthy People Programs: Healthy People Programs are a set of health objectives to be used by governments, communities, professional organizations, and others to help develop programs to improve health. It builds on initiatives pursued over the past two decades beginning with the 1979 Surgeon General's Report, Healthy People, Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives, and Healthy People 2010. These established national health objectives and served as the basis for the development of state and community plans. These are administered by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP). Similar programs are conducted by other national governments.Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Occupational Health Nursing: The practice of nursing in the work environment.Firefighters: Professional or volunteer members of a fire department who are trained to suppress fire and respond to related emergency.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.
Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Global Health Delivery ProjectBehavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Basic Occupational Health Services: The Basic Occupational Health Services are an application of the primary health care principles in the sector of occupational health. Primary health care definition can be found in the World Health Organization Alma Ata declaration from the year 1978 as the “essential health care based on practical scientifically sound and socially accepted methods, (…) it is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work (…)”.Comprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.Halfdan T. MahlerStandard evaluation frameworkAging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.Healthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.Women's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Opinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010: Opinion polling (popularly known as surveys in the Philippines) for the 2010 Philippine presidential election is managed by two major polling firms: Social Weather Stations and Pulse Asia, and several minor polling firms. The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Implementation research: Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the uptake of research findings. Often research projects focus on small scale pilot studies or laboratory based experiments, and assume that findings can be generalised to roll out into a practice based domain with few changes.European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}FlexirentSharon Regional Health System: Sharon Regional Health System is a profit health care service provider based in Sharon, Pennsylvania. Its main hospital is located in Sharon; additionally, the health system operates schools of nursing and radiography; a comprehensive pain management center across the street from its main hospital; clinics in nearby Mercer, Greenville, Hermitage, and Brookfield, Ohio; and Sharon Regional Medical Park in Hermitage.Social marketing: Social marketing seeks to develop and integrate marketing concepts with other approaches to influence behaviors that benefit individuals and communities for the greater social good. It seeks to integrate research, best practice, theory, audience and partnership insight, to inform the delivery of competition sensitive and segmented social change programs that are effective, efficient, equitable and sustainable.Essex School of discourse analysis: The Essex School constitutes a variety of discourse analysis, one that combines theoretical sophistication – mainly due to its reliance on the post-structuralist and psychoanalytic traditions and, in particular, on the work of Lacan, Foucault, Barthes, Derrida, etc. – with analytical precision, since it focuses predominantly on an in-depth analysis of political discourses in late modernity.Australian National BL classChronic care: Chronic care refers to medical care which addresses pre-existing or long term illness, as opposed to acute care which is concerned with short term or severe illness of brief duration. Chronic medical conditions include asthma, diabetes, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, congestive heart disease, cirrhosis of the liver, hypertension and depression.Instruments used in preventive medicine: Instruments used specially in preventive medicine are as follows:Social history of England: The social history of England evidences many social changes the centuries. These major social changes have affected England both internally and in its relationship with other nations.Document-centric collaboration: Document-centric collaboration is a new approach to working together on projects online which puts the document and its contents at the centre of the process.Northeast Community Health CentreOutline of environmental journalism: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to environmental journalism:Resource leak: In computer science, a resource leak is a particular type of resource consumption by a computer program where the program does not release resources it has acquired. This condition is normally the result of a bug in a program.High-intensity interval training: High-intensity interval training (HIIT), also called high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) or sprint interval training (SIT), is an enhanced form of interval training, an exercise strategy alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise with less-intense recovery periods. HIIT is a form of cardiovascular exercise.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.RightOnCanada.ca: RightOnCanada.ca is an independent research and advocacy group based in Ottawa, Canada and is affiliated with the Rideau Institute.Open Fuel Standard Coalition: The Open Fuel Standard Coalition is a bipartisan group in the United States actively working for passage of H.R.Minati SenPoverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.
(1/7064) Latino children's health and the family-community health promotion model.
A majority of Latino children in the US live in poverty. However, unlike other poor children, Latino children do not seem to have a consistent association between poverty and poor health. Instead, many poor Latino children have unexpectedly good health outcomes. This has been labeled an epidemiologic paradox. This paper proposes a new model of health, the family-community health promotion model, to account for this paradox. The family-community health promotion model emphasizes the family-community milieu of the child, in contrast to traditional models of health. In addition, the family-community model expands the outcome measures from physical health to functional health status, and underscores the contribution of cultural factors to functional health outcomes. In this paper, we applied the family-community health promotion model to four health outcomes: low birthweight, infant mortality, chronic and acute illness, and perceived health status. The implications of this model for research and policy are discussed. (+info)
(2/7064) Prizes for weight loss.
A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. (+info)
(3/7064) Risky single-occasion drinking amongst young people--definition, correlates, policy, and intervention: a broad overview of research findings.
Risky single-occasion drinking (RSOD) has dire consequences upon health and well-being including unplanned pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV/AIDS, crime, and car accidents. The prevalence of RSOD among young people is alarming. Despite this, as yet, a review of existing literature on RSOD amongst young people is lacking. This article will provide an overview of this area of research focusing on the definition of RSOD, its prevalence among young people, health and behavioural effects of RSOD, the perceived risk of RSOD among young people, and interventions to reduce RSOD in young people. In addition, recommendations are made for health educators interested in reducing the incidence of RSOD in young people. (+info)
(4/7064) Restructuring the primary health care services and changing profile of family physicians in Turkey.
A new health-reform process has been initiated by Ministry of Health in Turkey. The aim of that reform is to improve the health status of the Turkish population and to provide health care to all citizens in an efficient and equitable manner. The restructuring of the current health system will allow more funds to be allocated to primary and preventive care and will create a managed market for secondary and tertiary care. In this article, we review the current and proposed primary care services models and the role of family physicians therein. (+info)
(5/7064) Dietary isoflavones: biological effects and relevance to human health.
Substantial evidence indicates that diets high in plant-based foods may explain the epidemiologic variance of many hormone-dependent diseases that are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Western populations. There is now an increased awareness that plants contain many phytoprotectants. Lignans and isoflavones represent two of the main classes of phytoestrogens of current interest in clinical nutrition. Although ubiquitous in their occurrence in the plant kingdom, these bioactive nonnutrients are found in particularly high concentrations in flaxseeds and soybeans and have been found to have a wide range of hormonal and nonhormonal activities that serve to provide plausible mechanisms for the potential health benefits of diets rich in phytoestrogens. Data from animal and in vitro studies provide convincing evidence for the potential of phytoestrogens in influencing hormone-dependent states; although the clinical application of diets rich in these estrogen mimics is in its infancy, data from preliminary studies suggest beneficial effects of importance to health. This review focuses on the more recent studies pertinent to this field and includes, where appropriate, the landmark and historical literature that has led to the exponential increase in interest in phytoestrogens from a clinical nutrition perspective. (+info)
(6/7064) Breastfeeding promotion and priority setting in health.
An increase in exclusive breastfeeding prevalence can substantially reduce mortality and morbidity among infants. In this paper, estimates of the costs and impacts of three breastfeeding promotion programmes, implemented through maternity services in Brazil, Honduras and Mexico, are used to develop cost-effectiveness measures and these are compared with other health interventions. The results show that breastfeeding promotion can be one of the most cost-effective health interventions for preventing cases of diarrhoea, preventing deaths from diarrhoea, and gaining disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The benefits are substantial over a broad range of programme types. Programmes starting with the removal of formula and medications during delivery are likely to derive a high level of impact per unit of net incremental cost. Cost-effectiveness is lower (but still attractive relative to other interventions) if hospitals already have rooming-in and no bottle-feeds; and the cost-effectiveness improves as programmes become well-established. At an annual cost of about 30 to 40 US cents per birth, programmes starting with formula feeding in nurseries and maternity wards can reduce diarrhoea cases for approximately $0.65 to $1.10 per case prevented, diarrhoea deaths for $100 to $200 per death averted, and reduce the burden of disease for approximately $2 to $4 per DALY. Maternity services that have already eliminated formula can, by investing from $2 to $3 per birth, prevent diarrhoea cases and deaths for $3.50 to $6.75 per case, and $550 to $800 per death respectively, with DALYs gained at $12 to $19 each. (+info)
(7/7064) Do tailored behavior change messages enhance the effectiveness of health risk appraisal? Results from a randomized trial.
Health risk appraisal (HRA) remains one of the most widely used health promotion tools despite only equivocal evidence for its effectiveness. Theories of behavior change predict conventional HRA's ineffectiveness because risk information alone is seldom sufficient to change complex behaviors. In this study, a randomized trial compared the effects of feedback from an enhanced HRA with a typical HRA and a control group among adult patients from eight family medicine practices. The enhanced HRA assessed behavior-specific psychosocial factors and provided patients with computer-generated, individually-tailored behavior change information in addition to typical HRA risk feedback. Changes in seven behaviors were assessed at a 6 month follow-up. Overall, patients receiving enhanced HRA feedback were 18% more likely to change at least one risk behavior than were patients receiving typical HRA feedback or no feedback (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.39). The enhanced HRA feedback appeared to promote changes in cholesterol screening, dietary fat consumption and physical activity, but not in smoking, seat belt use, mammography and Pap smears. We conclude that the addition of theory-based, individually-tailored behavior change information may improve the effectiveness of HRA. (+info)
(8/7064) Implementing a nationwide insecticide-impregnated bednet programme in The Gambia.
Earlier studies in The Gambia suggested that the use of impregnated bednets might prove to be a useful malaria control strategy. Based on the results of these studies, in 1992 the Government of The Gambia was encouraged to initiate a National Impregnated Bednet Programme (NIBP) as part of the National Malaria Control Programme Strategy. This paper describes the implementation process/procedure of the NIBP. Evaluation results showed that, overall, 83% of the bednets surveyed has been impregnated, and 77% of children under the age of five years and 78% of women of childbearing age were reported to be sleeping under impregnated bednets. (+info)