Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Policy: A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.United StatesSocioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Health Transition: Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Consumer Advocacy: The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Social Control Policies: Decisions for determining and guiding present and future objectives from among alternatives.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Great BritainDental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Resource Allocation: Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Democracy: A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Administrative Personnel: Individuals responsible for the development of policy and supervision of the execution of plans and functional operations.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Health Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.BrazilMental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Power (Psychology): The exertion of a strong influence or control over others in a variety of settings--administrative, social, academic, etc.EuropeBudgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.Public Health Dentistry: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)National Health Insurance, United StatesInformation Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Capital Financing: Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Diffusion of Innovation: The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Smoke-Free Policy: Prohibition against tobacco smoking in specific areas to control TOBACCO SMOKE POLLUTION.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Family Planning Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Sociology, Medical: The study of the social determinants and social effects of health and disease, and of the social structure of medical institutions or professions.Privatization: Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.IndiaLegislation, Dental: Laws and regulations pertaining to the field of dentistry, proposed for enactment or recently enacted by a legislative body.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Lobbying: A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.Empirical Research: The study, based on direct observation, use of statistical records, interviews, or experimental methods, of actual practices or the actual impact of practices or policies.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.

*  Schoen, E.J., Wiswell, T.E. and Moses, S. (2000) New policy on circumcision-Cause for concern. Pediatrics, 105, 620-623. doi10...

New policy on circumcision-Cause for concern. Pediatrics, 105, 620-623. doi10.1542/peds.105.3.620 ... KEYWORDS: Male Circumcision; Public Health; Infant Infections; Sexually Transmitted Infections; Cervical Cancer ... TITLE: Infant male circumcision: An evidence-based policy statement. AUTHORS: Brian J. Morris, Alex D. Wodak, Adrian Mindel, ... Schoen, E.J., Wiswell, T.E. and Moses, S. (2000) New policy on circumcision-Cause for concern. Pediatrics, 105, 620-623. doi: ...

*  New ZERO TO THREE Report: How States are Nurturing Change in Infant-Early Childhood Mental Health Policies • ZERO TO THREE

State Strategies for Improving Infant and Early Childhood Mental Health. ... the Policy Center released the next paper in this series, Nurturing Change: ... Policy Resource. New ZERO TO THREE Report: How States are Nurturing Change in Infant-Early Childhood Mental Health Policies. ... A focus on infant and early childhood mental health (I-ECMH), which provides critical grounding for later mental health, ...

*  WHO | Priorities for research to take forward the health equity policy agenda

... characteristics of the health care system that influence health equity and (5) effective policy interventions to reduce health ... Priorities for research to take forward the health equity policy agenda. WHO Task Force on Research Priorities for Equity in ... Despite impressive improvements in aggregate indicators of health globally over the past few decades, health inequities between ... global factors and processes that affect health equity and/or constrain what countries can do to address health inequities ...

*  Health policy - Wikipedia

... including global health policy, public health policy, mental health policy, health care services policy, insurance policy, ... Health Policy, accessed 22 March 2011. Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Health Policy and Management About Health ... Disease mongering Evidence-based policy Health care reform Health crisis Health economics Health insurance Health promotion ... health care Universal health care Unnecessary health care Vaccination policy World Health Report series on global health policy ...

*  Health Policy (journal) - Wikipedia

Health Policy is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering health policy and health care. It was established in 1979 as ... "Health Policy". 2014 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2015. Official website. ... Health Policy and Education, obtaining its current name in 1984. It is published by Elsevier and the editor-in-chief is ...

*  Environmental health policy - Wikipedia

... but environmental health policies are often not on the policy agenda since it is relatively well controlled. In 2011, policies ... Environmental Health Policy is the combination between the environment and the health of citizens in a defined area. When ... Environmental health policy is the interplay between the environment and health, and how the environment can affect human ... Goals 3, 6, and 11 have an impact on environmental health policy. Goal 3 is to ensure good health and well-being, which affects ...

*  Health policy in Bangladesh - Wikipedia

The Health Policy has 19 goals and objectives, 16 policy principles and 39 strategies. The Bangladesh health policy document ... The Cabinet on 14 Aug 2000 approved the National Health Policy. The health care are designated to meet the health needs of the ... World Health Organization. 2012. Retrieved 21 March 2012. Staff (2011). "Health Policy 2011" (PDF). Ministry of Health & Family ... The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare assembled a Committee in 1996 for the purpose of preparing a health policy, with ...

*  World Medical & Health Policy - Wikipedia

Health Policy is a quarterly e-only peer-reviewed academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Policy Studies ... The journal focuses on public health and public policy. It aims to improve access to medical knowledge via policymakers. ...

*  Health policy and management - Wikipedia

Health care administrators are considered health care professionals. Health policy and management or health systems management ... Health policy and management is the field relating to leadership, management, and administration of public health systems, ... McGinnis, JM (2002). "The case for more active policy attention to health promotion". Health Affairs. 21 (2): 78-93. doi: ... As a field, health policy and management seeks to improve access, reduce costs, and improve outcomes for individuals with ...

*  Health Policy and Technology - Wikipedia

Health Policy and Technology is a quarterly peer-reviewed medical journal that was established in 2012 and is published by ... It covers health policy, and development, assessment of clinical and cost effectiveness and implementation of all types of ...

*  Health policy in Slovenia - Wikipedia

The National Health Insurance Institute is bound by law to give compulsory health insurance to all of its citizens. When a new ... This paved the way for the adoption of the Health Care and Health Insurance Act of 1992. One of the features that it included ... "OECD Health Statistics in 2014" (PDF). OECD. OECD. 2014. Retrieved November 28, 2016. "REFORMING HEALTH AND LONG-TERM CARE TO ... Like many other nations, the amount of health spending went negative in real terms of 2010. While health spending has gone up ...

*  Journal of Public Health Policy - Wikipedia

It covers the field of public health and is the official journal of the National Association for Public Health Policy. The ... The Journal of Public Health Policy is a peer-reviewed medical journal established in 1980 by Milton Terris. ... "Journals Ranked by Impact: Health Care Sciences & Services". 2011 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). ... access-date= requires ,url= (help) "Journals Ranked by Impact: Public, Environmental & Occupational Health". 2011 Journal ...

*  Office of Rural Health Policy - Wikipedia

The Office of Rural Health Policy (ORHP) is a part of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), of the United ... HRSA Office of Rural Health Policy Rural Assistance Center National Rural Health Association. ... Rural health clinics, and other rural providers of health care. In addition, the office serves as a "policy voice" within HHS ... HRSA supports rural health research centers to conduct short and long-term studies on rural health issues. The centers study ...

*  Barbara Jordan Health Policy Scholars - Wikipedia

... health policy issues in Washington, D.C. During the week, scholars meet with a wide range of health policy experts and hill ... Health Policy Scholars Program is to facilitate the development of leadership and critical thinking skills in health policy by ... National Institutes of Health, etc. Scholars are also required to complete a policy memo and a group policy presentation as ... Topics include health policy concerns such as HIV/AIDS, Medicaid, the uninsured, and Medicare. The group meets again in early ...

*  Manitoba Centre for Health Policy - Wikipedia

Health Act CIHI Health care in Canada Knowledge translation Manitoba Health Metadata Social determinants of health Health and ... MCHP provides and uses population-based administrative data to inform health policy, social policy and health and social ... Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP) is a public, not-for-profit research unit in the Department of Community Health ... Manitoba Centre for Health Policy EvidenceNetwork.ca Government of Manitoba website Personal Health Information Act (PHIA). ...

*  Health Policy

AOFAS September 8, 2015 Comments on the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) proposed rule, Medicare Program: Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement Payment Model for Acute Care Hospitals Furnishing Lower Extremity Joint Replacement (CCJR): AOFAS_Comments-CCJR-2015-09-08.pdf​ ...

*  National Association for Public Health Policy - Wikipedia

The National Association of Public Health Policy has issued policy statements to influence national health policy and the ... The purpose of the Association is "to improve the health of the people of the United States by helping to develop health policy ... and supporting measures to strengthen the public health services." It sponsors the Journal of Public Health Policy and the ... Outspoken advocate for progressive public health policy. American Journal of Public Health, 101(2), 253. Pepper, M. (2007). In ...

*  Mental health policies in Nigeria - Wikipedia

Federal, Ministry of Health. "National Policy for Mental Health Services Delivery" (PDF). www.cheld.org. Retrieved 22 January ... Federal, Ministry of Health. "National Policy for Mental Health Services Delivery" (PDF). www.cheld.org. Retrieved 22 January ... Mental health policies is a framework of the government highlighting its vision towards dealing with mental and neurological ... "Mental health policy, planning & service development". who.int. Retrieved 17 January 2017. Gureje, Oye (2006). 2 WHO-AIMS R ...

*  Population health policies and interventions - Wikipedia

... and policies and interventions". Policies and Interventions define the methods in which health outcomes and patterns of health ... Policy for population health "sets priorities" and are a "guide to action to change what would otherwise occur". Policies are ... Population health Community health Economic inequality Health disparities Health impact assessment Inequality in disease List ... Policies can include "necessary community and personal social and health services" as well as taxes on alcohol and soft drinks ...

*  Yale Journal Health Policy, Law, and Ethics - Wikipedia

The Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law, and Ethics is a biannual publication of the Yale Law School, Yale School of Medicine, ... "Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law, and Ethics - Yale Law School". yale.edu. "Advisory Board - Yale Law School". yale.edu. ... Yale School of Public Health, and Yale School of Nursing. David A. Kessler, former Commissioner of the Food and Drug ...

*  Tuition | Penn Medical Ethics & Health Policy

Department of Medical Ethics & Health Policy. Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania ... Master of Health Care Innovation graduates will be better prepared to address the rapidly changing health care landscape. To ... Various types of loans, both federal and private, may be available to Master of Health Care Innovation students who are U.S. ... Tuition, general fees, and technology fees for the Master of Health Care Innovation are based upon credit units (CUs). Current ...

*  Alumni | Penn Medical Ethics & Health Policy

Shape health policy development and human behavior in health care.. *Compete for higher-level jobs with sharpened skills in ... Draw upon a global network of health policy resources as they assess and address inefficiencies to improve the processes of ... Department of Medical Ethics & Health Policy. Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania ... As graduates, alumni of Penn's Master of Health Care Innovation program will be prepared to do the following:. * ...

*  Foundations take active role on health policy - latimes

Foundations take active role on health policy. Nonprofits have dropped their usual detachment to crusade for healthcare reform ... The California Health Care Foundation, based in Oakland, has taken a less blunt tack since opening its Sacramento office, where ... When he starts later this month, Zingale will encourage policies the endowment favors, including ensuring that all children ... said foundations risk undermining the credibility of their research by wading into policy deliberations. ...

*  The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics - Wikipedia

The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the International ... Center of Mental Health Policy and Economics. It is the official journal of the Section on Mental Health Economics of the World ... "The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics". 2013 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Social Sciences ed.). ... Psychiatric Association.It covers topics related to mental health and health economics, and in particular the financing and ...

*  Mental Health Policy Forum | NICVA

The group shares ideas and develops responses to policy announcements and documents. ... The Forum brings together groups and staff working in the area of mental health. ... Mental Health Policy Forum. The Mental Health Policy Forum was formed in November 2013 is co-chaired by Iris Elliott of NIAMH ... Policy. As the lead body for the sector in Northern Ireland, we take our responsibility to look after our member's interests ...

Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Chronic care: Chronic care refers to medical care which addresses pre-existing or long term illness, as opposed to acute care which is concerned with short term or severe illness of brief duration. Chronic medical conditions include asthma, diabetes, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, congestive heart disease, cirrhosis of the liver, hypertension and depression.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Global Health Delivery ProjectRock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Opinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010: Opinion polling (popularly known as surveys in the Philippines) for the 2010 Philippine presidential election is managed by two major polling firms: Social Weather Stations and Pulse Asia, and several minor polling firms. The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.Halfdan T. MahlerAging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Healthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.State health agency: A state health agency (SHA), or state department of health, is a department or agency of the state governments of the United States focused on public health. The state secretary of health is a constitutional or at times a statutory official in several states of the United States.Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development: The Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development (ENVI) is a standing committee in the Canadian House of Commons.Minati SenComprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: The Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program is a system of "managed competition" through which employee health benefits are provided to civilian government employees and annuitants of the United States government.Whitehall Study: The original Whitehall Study investigated social determinants of health, specifically the cardiovascular disease prevalence and mortality rates among British male civil servants between the ages of 20 and 64. The initial prospective cohort study, the Whitehall I Study, examined over 18,000 male civil servants, and was conducted over a period of ten years, beginning in 1967.Rafat Hussain: Rafat Hussain اردو: ڈاکٹر رفعت حسین is an Associate Professor in Health Management and Deputy Head of the School of Rural Medicine at the University of New England in Armidale, New South Wales, Australia.Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}Injustice SocietyWomen's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.Implementation research: Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the uptake of research findings. Often research projects focus on small scale pilot studies or laboratory based experiments, and assume that findings can be generalised to roll out into a practice based domain with few changes.Healthy eating pyramid: The healthy eating pyramid is a nutrition guide developed by the Harvard School of Public Health, suggesting quantities of each food category that a human should eat each day. The healthy eating pyramid is intended to provide a superior eating guide than the widespread food guide pyramid created by the USDA.Resource leak: In computer science, a resource leak is a particular type of resource consumption by a computer program where the program does not release resources it has acquired. This condition is normally the result of a bug in a program.International Network of Prison Ministries: The International Network of Prison Ministries (INPM) is a Dallas, Texas based crime prevention and rehabilitation trans-national organization. INPM functions through a website that serves as a clearinghouse for information about various Christian prison ministries.FlexirentPsychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Mr. Bartender (It's So Easy): "Mr. Bartender (It's So Easy)" is a song by American rock band Sugar Ray.Standard evaluation frameworkBestbets: BestBETS (Best Evidence Topic Reports) is a system designed by emergency physicians at Manchester Royal Infirmary, UK. It was conceived as a way of allowing busy clinicians to solve real clinical problems using published evidence.Private healthcareThe Flash ChroniclesNational Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Public opinion on nuclear issues: Public opinion on nuclear issues is the aggregate of attitudes or beliefs held by the adult population concerning nuclear power, nuclear weapons and uranium mining.Maternal Health Task ForceCompanies OfficeLucas paradox: In economics, the Lucas paradox or the Lucas puzzle is the observation that capital does not flow from developed countries to developing countries despite the fact that developing countries have lower levels of capital per worker.}}Sharon Regional Health System: Sharon Regional Health System is a profit health care service provider based in Sharon, Pennsylvania. Its main hospital is located in Sharon; additionally, the health system operates schools of nursing and radiography; a comprehensive pain management center across the street from its main hospital; clinics in nearby Mercer, Greenville, Hermitage, and Brookfield, Ohio; and Sharon Regional Medical Park in Hermitage.Poverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.Criticisms of globalization: Criticism of globalization is skepticism of the claimed benefits of globalization. Many of these views are held by the anti-globalization movement.Essex School of discourse analysis: The Essex School constitutes a variety of discourse analysis, one that combines theoretical sophistication – mainly due to its reliance on the post-structuralist and psychoanalytic traditions and, in particular, on the work of Lacan, Foucault, Barthes, Derrida, etc. – with analytical precision, since it focuses predominantly on an in-depth analysis of political discourses in late modernity.

(1/4865) The use of targets to improve the performance of health care providers: a discussion of government policy.

The aim of this discussion paper is to examine the advantages and drawbacks of employing targets, or performance indicators, to improve the performance of those delivering health care services. The paper is based on an examination of two target-setting policies initiated by Government: the 1992 Health of the Nation strategy and the 1990 General Practitioners' Contract. It is argued that the introduction of both the General Practitioners' Contract and the Health of the Nation have indeed been accompanied by improvements in performance, however, there are a number of problems with targets. They tend to focus on those things that are most easily measured, and they may foster complacency on the part of providers who have already achieved upper target limits, and defensiveness on the part of those performing badly. National targets may skew local priorities; they may also be unrealistic and unattainable for particular, less privileged population groups. They may serve to widen inequalities in health, and can exacerbate the 'inverse care law' by encouraging providers to direct their efforts at the more advantaged sections of society, where such efforts are more likely to pay off in terms of overall improvements in the target level achieved. Finally, the achievement of some targets will not necessarily result in better health outcomes. The paper concludes that a target-setting approach to improving the quality of care must be based on the use of appropriate indicators, and must take account of differences between more and less advantaged sections of society.  (+info)

(2/4865) Cancer mortality by educational level in the city of Barcelona.

The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between educational level and mortality from cancer in the city of Barcelona. The data were derived from a record linkage between the Barcelona Mortality Registry and the Municipal Census. The relative risks (RR) of death and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) according to level of education were derived from Poisson regression models. For all malignancies, men in the lowest educational level had a RR of death of 1.21 (95% CI 1.13-1.29) compared with men with a university degree, whereas for women a significant decreasing in risk was observed (RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.74-0.90). Among men, significant negative trends of increasing risk according to level of education were present for cancer of the mouth and pharynx (RR 1.70 for lowest vs. highest level of education), oesophagus (RR 2.14), stomach (RR 1.99), larynx (RR 2.56) and lung (RR 1.35). Among women, cervical cancer was negatively related to education (RR 2.62), whereas a positive trend was present for cancers of the colon (RR 0.76), pancreas (RR 0.59), lung (RR 0.55) and breast (RR 0.65). The present study confirms for the first time, at an individual level, the existence of socioeconomic differences in mortality for several cancer sites in Barcelona, Spain. There is a need to implement health programmes and public health policies to reduce these inequities.  (+info)

(3/4865) Making Medicaid managed care research relevant.

OBJECTIVE: To help researchers better understand Medicaid managed care and the kinds of research studies that will be both feasible and of value to policymakers and program staff. The article builds on our experience researching Medicaid managed care to provide insight for researchers who want to be policy relevant. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We draw four lessons from our work on Medicaid managed care in seven states. First, these are complex programs that differ substantially across states. Second, each program faces common challenges and issues. The need to address common design elements involving program eligibility, managed care and provider contracting, beneficiary enrollment, education, marketing, and administration and oversight provides a vehicle that researchers can use to help understand states and to provide them with relevant insight. Third, well-designed case studies can provide invaluable descriptive insights. Such case studies suggest that providing effective descriptions of state programs and experience, monitoring information on program performance and tradeoffs, and insight on implementation and design are all valuable products of such studies that have considerable potential to be converted into policy-actionable advice. And fourth, some questions demand impact studies but the structure of Medicaid managed care poses major barriers to such studies. CONCLUSIONS: Many challenges confront researchers seeking to develop policy-relevant research on managed care. Researchers need to confront these challenges in turn by developing second-best approaches that will provide timely insight into important questions in a relatively defensible and rigorous way in the face of many constraints. If researchers do not, others will, and researchers may find their contributions limited in important areas for policy debate.  (+info)

(4/4865) Excess capacity: markets regulation, and values.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the conceptual bases for the conflicting views of excess capacity in healthcare markets and their application in the context of today's turbulent environment. STUDY SETTING: The policy and research literature of the past three decades. STUDY DESIGN: The theoretical perspectives of alternative economic schools of thought are used to support different policy positions with regard to excess capacity. Changes in these policy positions over time are linked to changes in the economic and political environment of the period. The social values implied by this history are articulated. DATA COLLECTION: Standard library search procedures are used to identify relevant literature. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Alternative policy views of excess capacity in healthcare markets rely on differing theoretical foundations. Changes in the context in which policy decisions are made over time affect the dominant theoretical framework and, therefore, the dominant policy view of excess capacity. CONCLUSIONS: In the 1990s, multiple perspectives of optimal capacity still exist. However, our evolving history suggests a set of persistent values that should guide future policy in this area.  (+info)

(5/4865) Provider attitudes toward dispensing emergency contraception in Michigan's Title X programs.

 (+info)

(6/4865) T

he pill in Japan: will approval ever come?  (+info)

(7/4865) Latino children's health and the family-community health promotion model.

A majority of Latino children in the US live in poverty. However, unlike other poor children, Latino children do not seem to have a consistent association between poverty and poor health. Instead, many poor Latino children have unexpectedly good health outcomes. This has been labeled an epidemiologic paradox. This paper proposes a new model of health, the family-community health promotion model, to account for this paradox. The family-community health promotion model emphasizes the family-community milieu of the child, in contrast to traditional models of health. In addition, the family-community model expands the outcome measures from physical health to functional health status, and underscores the contribution of cultural factors to functional health outcomes. In this paper, we applied the family-community health promotion model to four health outcomes: low birthweight, infant mortality, chronic and acute illness, and perceived health status. The implications of this model for research and policy are discussed.  (+info)

(8/4865) Disease eradication and health systems development.

This article provides a framework for the design of future eradication programmes so that the greatest benefit accrues to health systems development from the implementation of such programmes. The framework focuses on weak and fragile health systems and assumes that eradication leads to the cessation of the intervention required to eradicate the disease. Five major components of health systems are identified and key elements which are of particular relevance to eradication initiatives are defined. The dearth of documentation which can provide "lessons learned" in this area is illustrated with a brief review of the literature. Opportunities and threats, which can be addressed during the design of eradication programmes, are described and a number of recommendations are outlined. It is emphasized that this framework pertains to eradication programmes but may be useful in attempts to coordinate vertical and horizontal disease control activities for maximum mutual benefits.  (+info)



outcomes

  • Conceptual models can help show the flow from health-related policy development to health-related policy and program implementation and to health systems and health outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence-based policy relies on the use of science and rigorous studies such as randomized controlled trials to identify programs and practices capable of improving policy relevant outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Health systems management ensures that specific outcomes are attained, that departments within a health facility are running smoothly, that the right people are in the right jobs, that people know what is expected of them, that resources are used efficiently and that all departments are working towards a common goal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetics, social circumstances, environmental exposures, and behavioral patterns comprise the bulk of health determinants of health outcomes, which is increasingly considered when creating health policy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much of the U.S.-Mexico border is rural, and the few urban areas located on the border often face challenges similar to those affecting rural communities, such as ensuring an adequate workforce, infrastructure development and improving poor health outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Pathways to Health and Social Equity (PATHS) for Children research program is a five-year program comprising 15 inter-related projects that evaluate the impact of different interventions on the health and social outcomes of children in Manitoba. (wikipedia.org)
  • Policies and Interventions define the methods in which health outcomes and patterns of health determinants are implemented. (wikipedia.org)
  • Countries, states, provinces and providers across the globe are shifting towards better systems to respond to inconsistent health outcomes, mitigate decreasing margins and replace outdated methods such as fee-for-service health delivery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Payment model reforms, including the Accountable Care Organization (ACO), provide roadmaps for healthcare reform and drive many of its constituents towards more effective and innovative means for improving health outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Population health management is a common approach for resolving these challenges but it involves new methods, tools, systems and implementations to correct inefficiencies and improve health outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Policies are based on "social sciences of sociology, economics, demography, public health, anthropology, and epidemiology" and determine how outcomes can be accomplished are implemented at various levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Center for Health Policy (CHP) and the Center for Primary Care and Outcomes Research (PCOR) are jointly administered centers at Stanford University that offer educational programs and conduct research on critical issues of health policy and health care delivery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examine the influence of social, economic, behavioral and political factors on health outcomes. (jefferson.edu)

Perelman School of Medic

  • Guy David, PhD , is the Gilbert and Shelley Harrison Associate Professor of Health Care Management at The Wharton School, Associate Professor of Medical Ethics and Health Policy at the Perelman School of Medicine, and the Director of the Doctoral Program in Health Care Management and Economics at the University of Pennsylvania. (upenn.edu)
  • He teaches undergraduate, MBA, and PhD courses in Health Economics and Health Care Delivery at Wharton, and a graduate course in Health Economics at the Perelman School of Medicine. (upenn.edu)

determinants

  • At the federal level, policymakers are addressing social determinants through provisions in the Affordable Care Act, in which non-profit hospitals must conduct community health needs assessments and participate in community improvement projects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The creation of public-private partnerships by hospitals has occurred in many states, and has specifically addressed social determinants of health like education and housing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Future efforts within health policy can incorporate appropriate incentives and tactical funding for community-based initiatives that target known gaps in social determinants. (wikipedia.org)
  • MCHP also creates population-based research on health and the social determinants of health. (wikipedia.org)
  • The repository allows researchers to investigate the health, social and economic status of Manitobans, social determinants that influence health status and provision of appropriate health and social treatment and prevention services. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, the primary focus has been on Manitobans' health status and the social determinants of health. (wikipedia.org)

World Health Organ

  • The World Health Organization reports that every country in the world is party to at least one human rights treaty that addresses health-related rights, including the right to health as well as other rights that relate to conditions necessary for good health. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Health Organization estimates that only about three percent of the government's budget on health goes to mental health. (wikipedia.org)

Organization

  • World Medical & Health Policy is a quarterly e-only peer-reviewed academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Policy Studies Organization. (wikipedia.org)
  • For additional things that are not covered, the Mutual Health Insurance organization (Vzajemna zdravstvena zavarovalnica) was established in 1999. (wikipedia.org)
  • The application of population health is determined by the policies and interventions which can be implemented within an organization, city, state or country. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice (TDI) is an organization within Dartmouth College "dedicated to improving health care through education, research, policy reform, leadership improvement, and communication with patients and the public. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identify the key stakeholders in U.S. healthcare organization, delivery and financing, with a focus on policy-making bodies. (jefferson.edu)
  • By using state-of-the-art theoretical and empirical methods to study how individuals, firms, and regulators interact in health care markets, his research has yielded insights into the complex organization of health care delivery and also into deeper questions of firm behavior, regulatory design, and human capital formation. (upenn.edu)
  • His research interests include: the dynamics of mixed-ownership competition in health care markets, evaluation of policies towards nonprofit providers, industrial organization and regulation of post-acute care, the economics and organization of emergency medical services, division of labor along the care continuum, patient centered medical care, welfare effects of specialty hospitals and ambulatory surgery centers, and direct-to-consumer advertising and drug safety. (upenn.edu)

healthcare

  • Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a society. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many categories of health policies, including global health policy, public health policy, mental health policy, health care services policy, insurance policy, personal healthcare policy, pharmaceutical policy, and policies related to public health such as vaccination policy, tobacco control policy or breastfeeding promotion policy. (wikipedia.org)
  • They may cover topics of financing and delivery of healthcare, access to care, quality of care, and health equity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most political debates surround personal health care policies, especially those that seek to reform healthcare delivery, and can typically be categorized as either philosophical or economic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other countries have an explicit policy to ensure and support access for all of its citizens, to fund health research, and to plan for adequate numbers, distribution and quality of health workers to meet healthcare goals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many governments around the world have established universal health care, which takes the burden of healthcare expenses off of private businesses or individuals through pooling of financial risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are a variety of arguments for and against universal healthcare and related health policies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Healthcare is an important part of health systems and therefore it often accounts for one of the largest areas of spending for both governments and individuals all over the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many countries and jurisdictions integrate a human rights philosophy in directing their healthcare policies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, management of a single institution (e.g. a hospital) is also referred to as "Medical and health services management" "Healthcare management" or Health Administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Slovenian healthcare system is a conservative-health care model paid for through a mandatory insurance program called the Health Insurance Institute of Slovenia, HIIS (Zavod za zdravstveno zavarovanje Slovenije) that is paid by employers and employees. (wikipedia.org)
  • The National Health Insurance Institute oversees all healthcare services. (wikipedia.org)
  • The unemployed, elderly, long-term sickness patients, or people on maternity leave pay a fixed amount of healthcare contributions that depends on their health status. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bill makes provisions for access to mental healthcare and services, Voluntary and involuntary treatment, Accreditation of professional and facilities, Law enforcements and other judicial issues for people with mental illness, Mechanisms to oversee involuntary admission and mechanism to implement the provision of Mental health Legislations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sally Pipes, president of the Pacific Research Institute, a conservative think tank based in San Francisco that favors market approaches to healthcare, said foundations risk undermining the credibility of their research by wading into policy deliberations. (latimes.com)
  • Leaders are needed to plan and implement solutions to the complex challenges facing today's healthcare systems-rising costs, lack of universal access to basic health services and increasing concerns about the quality and safety of medical care. (jefferson.edu)
  • Responding to these challenges, the Jefferson College of Population Health's (JCPH) Health Policy program prepares graduates to assume policy analysis and advocacy roles in healthcare provider organizations, integrated healthcare delivery systems, government offices, academic institutions, health services research firms, pharmaceutical and medical device manufacturers, and community-based or advocacy organizations. (jefferson.edu)
  • Examine the intersection of health law and the U.S. healthcare delivery system, particularly in regards to policy decisions and reimbursement. (jefferson.edu)
  • Candidates should have a strong foundation and at least three to five years of experience in one or more key sectors of the healthcare or public health system. (jefferson.edu)

interventions

  • A supportive policy environment will facilitate the scale-up of health interventions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Policies and interventions are needed due to the inequalities amongst populations and the inconsistent way care is administered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interventions can include therapeutic or preventative health care and may also include actions taken by the individual or by someone on behalf of the individual. (wikipedia.org)

Fund's

  • The Commonwealth Fund's 2011 International Health Policy Survey will assess health care system performance and responsiveness from the perspective of adults who have chronic disease or other serious health problems, or who have had recent surgery or been hospitalized. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • The analysis of the findings, which will be presented at the Fund's 2011 International Symposium and discussed in an article submitted to Health Affairs, will examine the extent to which variations in experiences reflect different systems of care and insurance. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • The Fund's 1999 Multinational Health Policy Survey will explore the health care challenges faced by aging populations in industrialized nations. (commonwealthfund.org)

implement

  • International policies involve the cooperation of several states to implement the same policy to address larger environmental issues on health like pollution and climate change. (wikipedia.org)
  • Developing nations do not always have the same access to resources to implement policies that can improve the environment and health of their citizens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of the Association is "to improve the health of the people of the United States by helping to develop health policy, formulating and initiating legislation to implement such policy, and supporting measures to strengthen the public health services. (wikipedia.org)
  • Policies can include "necessary community and personal social and health services" as well as taxes on alcohol and soft drinks and implement smoking cessation policies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Policymakers can be classified as both private and public and are defined as someone who is in a position of authority to implement health policies. (wikipedia.org)

Master of Health Care Innovation

  • Master of Health Care Innovation graduates will be better prepared to address the rapidly changing health care landscape. (upenn.edu)
  • Tuition, general fees, and technology fees for the Master of Health Care Innovation are based upon credit units (CUs). (upenn.edu)
  • Various types of loans , both federal and private, may be available to Master of Health Care Innovation students who are U.S. citizens. (upenn.edu)
  • Alumni of the Master of Health Care Innovation will form a worldwide network of problem-solvers and potential collaborators, who access and develop innovative solutions to ongoing projects to improve the health care industry's response to rapid transformation. (upenn.edu)

practice

  • Medical practice variations are an important dimension of health policy and management - understanding the causes and effects of variations will guide policymakers to develop and improve upon existing policies. (wikipedia.org)

services

  • Operational policies are the rules, regulations, guidelines, and administrative norms that governments use to translate national laws and policies into programs and services. (wikipedia.org)
  • The policy process encompasses decisions made at a national or decentralized level (including funding decisions) that affect whether and how services are delivered. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also involves access to the latest information and evidence from research, including medical research and health services research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The problems in the health services multiplied in the absence of a clear policy. (wikipedia.org)
  • A further five sub-committees were formed to: Evaluate the existing health services and determining the goals Formulate policies to ensure essential services Formulate policies to ensure hospital-based services Design Strategies for HRD Integrate NGOs and the Private Sector and plan for resources and utilisation of funds The sub-committees worked for more than a year and submitted their efforts/recommendations. (wikipedia.org)
  • A) Primary level health care is delivered though USC or HFWC with one in each union domiciliary level, integrated health and family planning services through field workers for every 3000-4000 population and 31 bed capacities in hospitals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The medical industrial complex is the network of corporations which supply health care services and products for a profit. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Office of Rural Health Policy (ORHP) is a part of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). (wikipedia.org)
  • HRSA is the lead federal agency responsible for monitoring and improving historically scarce health care services for 60 million people living in rural areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • In financial year 2008, HRSA invested $175 million to improve health care in rural America, where access to medical services is often limited. (wikipedia.org)
  • The centers study critical trends facing rural communities in their quest to secure adequate, affordable, high-quality health services for their residents. (wikipedia.org)
  • HRSA oversees services provided by the University of North Dakota's Rural Health Information Hub - formerly the Rural Assistance Center. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lessons learned on the U.S.-Mexico border may provide insight to communities everywhere that seek to improve services amid changing demographics and forecasts of long-term health workforce shortages nationwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data in the repository provide information relating to health and health services use (e.g., diagnoses, prescriptions, emergency department visits), social services (e.g., income assistance, social housing, involvement with the justice system), education (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • National Policy for Mental Health Services Delivery" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Draw upon a global network of health policy resources as they assess and address inefficiencies to improve the processes of care and increase value of health care services. (upenn.edu)
  • It is the official journal of the Section on Mental Health Economics of the World Psychiatric Association.It covers topics related to mental health and health economics, and in particular the financing and organisation of psychiatry services. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is directed by Prof. Douglas Owens, a physician and health services researcher. (wikipedia.org)
  • An internationally recognized leader in health services research and health policy, Dr. Fisher is the James W. Squire Professor of Medicine and Community and Family Medicine at the Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth. (wikipedia.org)

Centers

  • ORHP is the lead office for coordinating and carrying out these grant activities, which help fund Critical Access Hospitals and other rural hospitals, Community Health Centers, Rural health clinics, and other rural providers of health care. (wikipedia.org)
  • HRSA supports rural health research centers to conduct short and long-term studies on rural health issues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The centers' research findings inform a wide audience of national, state and local decision-makers concerned with rural health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activities as part of this initiative have included expanding Community Health Centers sites to additional communities (there are now 31 in the border region), funding a technical assistance website on border health issues on the Rural Assistance Center website, and providing support funding for the National Rural Health Association's Border Health Initiative that is working to find policy challenges to provide care along the border. (wikipedia.org)
  • Variations in the Longitudinal Efficiency of AcademicMedical Centers,'' Health Affairs, 7 October 2004. (wikipedia.org)

research

  • RHIhub serves as an "information portal" to help rural communities and other rural stakeholders access the full range of available health care programs, funding and research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to gaining experience in a congressional office, Scholars participate in seminars and site visits to augment their knowledge of health care issues, and write and present a health policy research memo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP) is a public, not-for-profit research unit in the Department of Community Health Sciences within the Rady Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Manitoba (Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada). (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, there are five research projects commissioned every year by Manitoba Health, Seniors and Active Living that are released publicly as reports. (wikipedia.org)
  • Population health tools and computer systems include data exchange, large datasets, and advanced software which are used to supply data scientists and research teams with appropriate information which can then be used by policy makers and change agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Policies should be evidence based and require academic studies or research to support the approach. (wikipedia.org)
  • The California Health Care Foundation, based in Oakland, has taken a less blunt tack since opening its Sacramento office, where it employs a former legislative health expert who helps ensure that the foundation's research topics are relevant to legislative agendas. (latimes.com)
  • It will expand comparative-effectiveness research and accelerate the application of health information technology. (brookings.edu)
  • Graduates of the master's degree achieve deeper and more comprehensive proficiency in research methods and statistical techniques that support policy formulation and implementation. (jefferson.edu)
  • Design, conduct and evaluate health policy analyses and research. (jefferson.edu)
  • Prof. David is also a Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research, and the Director of Education at the Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania. (upenn.edu)
  • Going forward, the fund will support health policy research. (apta.org)
  • This most recent gift to the Foundation for Physical Therapy includes support for the campaign to establish a Center of Excellence for Health Policy Research. (apta.org)

Policymakers

  • Policymakers should take a comprehensive approach to align policies, leadership, and technology in order to effectively reduce unwarranted variations in care. (wikipedia.org)
  • Congress created the ORHP in 1987 and charged HRSA with advising the HHS Secretary on health care matters affecting rural hospitals, coordinating activities that related to rural health care, and maintaining a national information clearinghouse for state governments, federal policymakers, and providers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such guides determine laws, policies, and ordinances and are defined by policymakers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conducted in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Germany, and Japan, the survey will identify commonalities and differences across countries to provide policymakers with timely information on the health care experiences of the 65-and-older population. (commonwealthfund.org)

disparities

  • HRSA works with the Appalachian Regional Commission, the Delta Regional Authority, the Denali Commission, and the U.S.-Mexico Border Health Commission to improve service delivery and reduce health disparities. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the past, students have written policy memos about: The cost of prescription drugs, HIV/AIDS prevention, the uninsured, and racial/ethnic disparities in health care. (wikipedia.org)

organizations

  • In some jurisdictions and among different faith-based organizations, health policies are influenced by the perceived obligation shaped by religious beliefs to care for those in less favorable circumstances, including the sick. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other jurisdictions and non-governmental organizations draw on the principles of humanism in defining their health policies, asserting the same perceived obligation and enshrined right to health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Policies are created by governments and organizations where they see the issues arising in the health of their jurisdiction related to the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to their placement in a congressional office, scholars are required to attend weekly site visits to organizations such as the Institute of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Fury still remains a controversial figure, the news of his mental illness has made many sympathetic to his situation and has also opened up questions about how different sports organizations manage their athletes' mental health. (thehoya.com)

adequate

  • Every citizen has the basic right to adequate health care. (wikipedia.org)
  • The existence of unwarranted variations suggests that some individuals do not receive adequate care or that health resources are not being used appropriately. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has pursued a program of national policy founded on the three pillars of disease prevention, adequate living standards, and quality medical care for all. (wikipedia.org)

citizens

  • Environmental Health Policy is the combination between the environment and the health of citizens in a defined area. (wikipedia.org)
  • The State and the government are constitutionally obliged to ensure health care for its citizens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The National Health Insurance Institute is bound by law to give compulsory health insurance to all of its citizens. (wikipedia.org)

public

  • C) Tertiary Level health care is available at the medical college hospital, public health and medical institutes and other specialist hospitals at the national level where a mass wide range of specialised as well as better laboratory facilities are available. (wikipedia.org)
  • The journal focuses on public health and public policy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Health policy and management is the field relating to leadership, management, and administration of public health systems, health care systems, hospitals, and hospital networks. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Journal of Public Health Policy is a peer-reviewed medical journal established in 1980 by Milton Terris. (wikipedia.org)
  • It covers the field of public health and is the official journal of the National Association for Public Health Policy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The National Association for Public Health Policy was founded in 1980 by a group of past-presidents of the American Public Health Association led by Milton Terris, MD, MPH. (wikipedia.org)
  • It sponsors the Journal of Public Health Policy and the online journal NAPHP.ORG. (wikipedia.org)
  • The National Association of Public Health Policy has issued policy statements to influence national health policy and the health of the people of the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Milton Terris (1915-2002): Outspoken advocate for progressive public health policy. (wikipedia.org)
  • American Journal of Public Health, 101(2), 253. (wikipedia.org)
  • Journal of Public Health Policy, 28(1), 162-164 http://www.naphp.org/index.php/fuseaction/statements.main An Evening with Terence Carroll. (wikipedia.org)
  • A public policy maker could be a government official and a private policymaker could be a business owner or administrator. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such strategies include the creation of funds to support initiatives and the construction of strategies which limit conflicts of interest in the implementation of public policy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law, and Ethics is a biannual publication of the Yale Law School, Yale School of Medicine, Yale School of Public Health, and Yale School of Nursing. (wikipedia.org)
  • It grants Masters in Public Health degrees as well as Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy in Health Policy and Clinical Science degrees. (wikipedia.org)
  • The objective of the program is to afford selected student interns the opportunity to develop an understanding and operational knowledge of how federal health care policy is developed and how to effectively influence public policy formulation. (aacom.org)

Ministry of Hea

  • The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare assembled a Committee in 1996 for the purpose of preparing a health policy, with members drawn from civil society and professional bodies, including technocrats and bureaucrats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Federal, Ministry of Health. (wikipedia.org)

2000

  • The Cabinet on 14 Aug 2000 approved the National Health Policy. (wikipedia.org)

Innovation

  • Room, board, and conference activities for the Health Care Innovation Seminar will be covered by the program. (upenn.edu)

populations

  • When there are substantial changes to the environment, a populations health is vulnerable to potential risks. (wikipedia.org)

Interns

  • The group meets again in early June for a day of joint briefings on health issues with another program the Kaiser Foundation operates, the Kaiser Media Interns in Health Reporting. (wikipedia.org)

peer-reviewed

  • Health Policy is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering health policy and health care. (wikipedia.org)
  • Health Policy and Technology is a quarterly peer-reviewed medical journal that was established in 2012 and is published by Elsevier on behalf of the Fellowship of Postgraduate Medicine, for which it is one of two official journals, the other being the Postgraduate Medical Journal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the International Center of Mental Health Policy and Economics. (wikipedia.org)

economics

  • In addition, Prof. David is an associate editor of the American Journal of Health Economics and co-editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Health Economics and Management . (upenn.edu)
  • Prof. David is intrigued by the economics of increasingly important segments of the health care industry. (upenn.edu)

graduates

  • The program brings talented African American, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander college seniors and recent graduates to Washington, D.C., where they are placed in congressional offices and learn about health policy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Master of Science in Health Policy (MS-HP) prepares graduates to be health policy leaders and managers, who possess advanced analytic skills for problem identification and actionable policy solutions. (jefferson.edu)

population health

  • However, at present, population health receives only five percent of national health budgets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Federal, state, and local governments can improve population health by evaluating all proposed social and economic policies for potential health impacts. (wikipedia.org)
  • This method helps to set policies around population health as well as intervention strategies which are then used to respond to the needs of a population. (wikipedia.org)
  • The legally binding document is supported by numerous countries, government/nongovernment agencies and provides the necessary power to prevent negative influences on population health policies. (wikipedia.org)

program

  • Policy should be understood as more than a national law or health policy that supports a program or intervention. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two programs, the Delta States Rural Development Network Grant Program and the Delta Rural Hospital Improvement Project, target resources to improve health care in the Mississippi Delta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the nine-week program, scholars gain knowledge about federal legislative procedure and health policy issues, while further developing their critical thinking and leadership skills. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation established the Barbara Jordan Health Policy Scholars Program at Howard University to honor the legacy of former Foundation Trustee and Congresswoman Barbara Jordan and to expand the pool of students of color interested in the field of health policy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nine-week program starts with a week-long series of briefings on U.S. health policy issues in Washington, D.C. During the week, scholars meet with a wide range of health policy experts and hill staffers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scholars are also required to complete a policy memo and a group policy presentation as part of program. (wikipedia.org)
  • The goal of the Barbara Jordan Health Policy Scholars Program is to facilitate the development of leadership and critical thinking skills in health policy by helping students to gain knowledge about the federal legislative process as it relates specifically to health and the health of underserved communities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Visit the Osteopathic Health Policy Intern Program web page on the AACOM website for more information. (aacom.org)

delivery

  • Philosophical debates center around questions about individual rights, ethics and government authority, while economic topics include how to maximize the efficiency of health care delivery and minimize costs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Health care delivery system in Bangladesh based on PHC concept has got various Level of service delivery: Home and community level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the Outreach and Network Development grant programs, HRSA funds improve the delivery of rural health care by encouraging greater collaboration and the creation of networks among local health care providers. (wikipedia.org)
  • MCHP provides and uses population-based administrative data to inform health policy, social policy and health and social service delivery provincially, nationally and internationally. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, 41% thought neither candidate will be able to make any difference in delivery of health coverage. (plansponsor.com)

improve

  • The final outcome of good health care system is the changed health status or improve health status of the community which is expressed in terms of lives saved, death averted, disease prevented, disease treated, prolongation of life etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apply advanced management and leadership skills to develop policies that manage costs of health care and that improve access, quality and safety. (jefferson.edu)
  • As the conversation around mental health continues, it is important to create and improve these resources and make them easily accessible to the athletes who need them. (thehoya.com)

reform

  • Whatever the electoral outcome, the political battle over health care reform will continue into the 2012 presidential elections and probably beyond. (brookings.edu)

considered health care

  • Health care administrators are considered health care professionals. (wikipedia.org)

principles

  • The Health Policy has 19 goals and objectives, 16 policy principles and 39 strategies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Bangladesh health policy document was published in 2011 and adheres to the following principles: Health is defined as "A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. (wikipedia.org)

encompasses

  • To thrive in the changing landscape of health care, it is important to develop a broad view that encompasses all tiers along the health care continuum, from pre-hospital to post-acute care, as well as cross-tier perspective on integration, ownership structure, and coordination. (upenn.edu)

Americans

  • By proposing guidelines for leaders at the national, state, and local level, the Association promotes a progressive agenda aimed at improving the living standards, health, and welfare of all Americans, while preserving fundamental individual rights of privacy and self-determination. (wikipedia.org)
  • It will provide millions of Americans with subsidies tied to income and health insurance costs. (brookings.edu)

assess

  • Assess the role of information systems and data analysis in the policy-making process. (jefferson.edu)

chronic

  • When he starts later this month, Zingale will encourage policies the endowment favors, including ensuring that all children have health coverage and making doctors and hospitals focus more on disease prevention and the management of chronic ailments. (latimes.com)
  • Use Of Medicare Claims Data To Monitor Provider-Specific Performance Among Patients With Severe Chronic Illness: Analyses of seventy-seven of America's "best hospitals" document extensive variation in the amount of care provided to patients with three common chronic conditions'', Health Affairs, 7 Oct. 2004. (wikipedia.org)

adheres

  • On 18 February 2016, a neuro psychiatrist Dr. Memumah Yusuf Kadiri appealed to Nigerian lawmakers to expedite action on the mental health bill pointing out that Nigerians still see mental health as a taboo because the country still adheres to the lunatic act of colonial legacy. (wikipedia.org)

development

  • To ensure an effective health care system that responds to the need of a healthy nation, health policy provides the vision and mission for development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shape health policy development and human behavior in health care. (upenn.edu)
  • Construct system-wide approaches that consider market forces and multiple stakeholder positions in the development of actionable policy solutions. (jefferson.edu)

coverage

  • October 28, 2004 (PLANSPONSOR.com) - A survey of human resource and benefits managers overwhelmingly support President Bush's proposals for health coverage over those proposed by challenger John Kerry. (plansponsor.com)
  • The survey showed conclusively that managers favored individual responsibility and tax credits in their health care coverage, hallmarks of Bush health care proposals. (plansponsor.com)
  • Opinion on who would deliver the better health coverage was also heavily tilted in Bush's favor (48% to 14% for Kerry). (plansponsor.com)

congressional

  • The scholars then spend eight-weeks working in a congressional office with major health policy responsibilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stakes for health policy in the 2010 congressional elections are higher than they have ever been. (brookings.edu)

individuals

  • Rising sea levels is another environmental factor that affects the health of individuals in a given region. (wikipedia.org)
  • As well, funding for job training initiatives within communities with low employment would allow individuals to build their capacity to not only earn income, but also engage in health-seeking behaviors which typically are at an elevated cost. (wikipedia.org)

issues

  • She brought this passion to her work, inspiring others to become involved in addressing challenging health policy issues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mental health policies is a framework of the government highlighting its vision towards dealing with mental and neurological disorders in Nigeria Though there are policies aimed at addressing mental health issues in Nigeria, in-depth information on mental health service in Nigeria is non-existent. (wikipedia.org)
  • In effect, there is continued neglect of mental health issues as well as the many challenges that results from it in spite of existing government policy. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are aimed at reducing such things as childhood obesity, cardiovascular disease, smoking and mental health issues throughout society. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our work includes facilitating the policy fora, consulting and responding on a range of issues. (nicva.org)

system

  • Thus, attention must be paid to policies at multiple levels of the health system and over time to ensure sustainable scale-up. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are still problems that are facing the Slovene health system, mainly through the number of lines and wait times to see a doctor. (wikipedia.org)
  • WHO-AIMS Report on Mental Health System in Nigeria" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • If permitted to run its course, the ACA promises to transform the U.S. health care system. (brookings.edu)
  • The institute's largest policy product is the Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care, which documents unwarranted variation in the American health care system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only 14.4% favored the current system modified by government reinsurance, employer mandates, and providing individual access to the Federal Employees Health Benefit Plan as proposed by the presidential challenger. (plansponsor.com)

hospitals

  • Health policy and management or health systems management or health care systems management describes the leadership and general management of hospitals, hospital networks, and/or health care systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Congress was concerned that the proceeding decades had seen many rural hospitals close and that there was a lack of coordination within the Federal Government for rural health activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • HRSA funds state-run Offices of Rural Health in each of the 50 states to collect and disseminate health-related information about rural areas, provide technical assistance to rural providers and hospitals, and work with communities to recruit and retain health providers. (wikipedia.org)

makers

  • We produce reports for the benefit of sector organisations, researchers, policy makers and organisations interested in the sector. (nicva.org)

refers

  • The environment aspect of the term refers to the ecosystems and the environmental factors that can impact human health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Health refers to the human beings ability to function successfully when environmental factors are constantly changing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental Health Policy refers to the human impact on the environment, which in turn has an impact on human health and requires policy action. (wikipedia.org)

treaty

  • A political strategy implemented to limit the sale and exposure to tobacco products and restrict the tobacco company's ability to benefit politically from charitable donations is the creation of the World Health Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) treaty. (wikipedia.org)

Affairs

influence

  • There are many topics in the politics and evidence that can influence the decision of a government, private sector business or other group to adopt a specific policy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Air pollution is another environmental factor that has been proven to be an influence on health. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term was derived from the language that President Eisenhower had used ("military-industrial complex") when warning the nation, as he was retiring, about the growing influence of arms manufacturers over American political and economic policies. (wikipedia.org)

mental

  • Nigeria's mental health policy was first formulated in 1991. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2003, a bill for the establishment of Mental Health Act was introduced by Sen. Ibiabuye Martyns-Yellowe and Sen. Dalhatu Tafida but was later withdrawn in April 2009. (wikipedia.org)
  • p. http://www.who.int/mental_health/evidence/nigeria_who_aims_report.pdf. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Mental Health Policy Forum was formed in November 2013 is co-chaired by Iris Elliott of NIAMH and Siobhan Doherty from Aware Defeat Depression. (nicva.org)
  • The Forum brings together groups and staff working in the area of mental health. (nicva.org)
  • Professional sports put athletes under extremely high duress and it is not uncommon to find athletes suffering from mental health problems. (thehoya.com)
  • The NCAA Sport Science Institute has committed to providing resources for stakeholders at involved universities to help athletes with their mental health. (thehoya.com)
  • The NCAA's handbook even suggests that athletes with mental illness be considered "injured" in the same way that they would be injured from a physical ailment, highlighting the fact that mental health is just as important as physical health. (thehoya.com)

affordable

environmental

  • Environmental health policy is the interplay between the environment and health, and how the environment can affect human health. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several environmental factors that can contribute to health including air quality, climate change, toxic drinking water, and toxic chemical exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the region the policy is in, different environmental factors are going to be addressed in the policy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental health policy can be implemented at many levels of government, including the municipal, state and international levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Developing nations take a different approach to environmental health politics than developed nations. (wikipedia.org)
  • When defining Environmental Health policy it is best to break down the concept into three separate groups: environment, health and policy. (wikipedia.org)
  • One environmental factor that contributes to the health of the global community is climate change. (wikipedia.org)

unwarranted variations

  • Modifying Unwarranted Variations In Health Care: Shared Decision Making Using Patient Decision Aids: A review of the evidence base for shared decision making'', O'Connor, AM et al. (wikipedia.org)

Medicaid

  • Topics include health policy concerns such as HIV/AIDS, Medicaid, the uninsured, and Medicare. (wikipedia.org)

complex

  • Health-related policy and its implementation is complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thana level, Thana Health Complex (THC): This is the first referral level. (wikipedia.org)

programs

  • The Master's and Certificate programs in Health Policy are designed for working professionals seeking part-time educational opportunities. (jefferson.edu)