Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Health Planning Support: Financial resources provided for activities related to health planning and development.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Great BritainPolicy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Comprehensive Health Care: Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Health Fairs: Community health education events focused on prevention of disease and promotion of health through audiovisual exhibits.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Health Communication: The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.United States Public Health Service: A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Prepaid Health Plans: Contracts between an insurer and a subscriber or a group of subscribers whereby a specified set of health benefits is provided in return for a periodic premium.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Health Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Health Transition: Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)Occupational Health Nursing: The practice of nursing in the work environment.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Education, Public Health Professional: Education and training in PUBLIC HEALTH for the practice of the profession.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Social Determinants of Health: The circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics (http://www.cdc.gov/socialdeterminants/).Maternal-Child Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Holistic Health: Health as viewed from the perspective that humans and other organisms function as complete, integrated units rather than as aggregates of separate parts.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Dental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.National Health Insurance, United StatesEmployment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Medically Uninsured: Individuals or groups with no or inadequate health insurance coverage. Those falling into this category usually comprise three primary groups: the medically indigent (MEDICAL INDIGENCY); those whose clinical condition makes them medically uninsurable; and the working uninsured.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act: Public Law 104-91 enacted in 1996, was designed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the healthcare system, protect health insurance coverage for workers and their families, and to protect individual personal health information.EnglandHealth Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Personal Health Services: Health care provided to individuals.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Health Facility Administration: Management of the organization of HEALTH FACILITIES.Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.BrazilMedical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Public Health Dentistry: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Minority Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of members of minority groups.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Financing, Personal: Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Employer Health Costs: That portion of total HEALTH CARE COSTS borne by an individual's or group's employing organization.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.IndiaMaternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.

*  Kaiser Foundation Health Plan Earnings Support Investments in Member and Commun... ( OAKLAND Calif. Nov. 7 /- Kaiser F...)

Health,Plan,Earnings,Support,Investments,in,Member,and,Community,Health,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical ... 7 /- Kaiser Foundation Health P...KFHP/H's operating income for the third quarter was $449 million asc...In addition to ... Kaiser Foundation Health Plan Earnings Support Investments in Member and Community Health ... My health manager. The largest civilian electronic health record project in the United States, KP HealthConnect now supports ...
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*  Majority of students support multi-tiered health plan, UMSU survey | The Manitoban

... vice president internal Adam Pawlak presented a proposal for a multi-tiered health and dental plan at council ... Majority of students support multi-tiered health plan, UMSU survey. Potential plan will offer high-cost, high-coverage and low- ... According to the plan's framework, presented at the meeting, students will be able choose between a basic level of health and ... In June, UMSU council learned that a 58 per cent increase in the number of claims filed through its health and dental plan over ...
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*  Diabetes Support Group plans meeting Tuesday - Health - recordonline.com - Middletown, NY

A free Diabetes Support Group will be held at 6 p.m. Tuesday and continue on the first Tuesday of each month through Aug. 6, at ... Diabetes Support Group plans meeting Tuesday. Tuesday. Apr 2, 2013 at 2:00 AM Apr 3, 2013 at 11:29 AM ... TOWN OF WALLKILL - A free Diabetes Support Group will be held at 6 p.m. Tuesday and continue on the first Tuesday of each month ... TOWN OF WALLKILL - A free Diabetes Support Group will be held at 6 p.m. Tuesday and continue on the first Tuesday of each month ...
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*  A government health care plan everyone can support - Opinion - Brownwood Bulletin - Brownwood, TX

A government health care plan everyone can support. Tuesday. Sep 8, 2009 at 12:01 AM ... One hopes the president will be as forceful tonight calling the to date wayward Democratic troops to pull the trigger on health ... Choose the plan that's right for you. Digital access or digital and print delivery. ... This is government health care advice that we should be able to agree on, coming from even a Democratic president. ...
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*  Independent Support (EHCP) - Education, Health and Care Plan (EHCP)

Independent Support is a Government funded scheme running until March 2017. It will give extra help to young people and parents ... Who can use Independent Support?. Support will be offered to:. *Children, young people and their families being assessed for an ... 6. How are Education, Health and Care Plans working for you (POET) ... Independent Support (EHCP). Close Search Search. Search Tab to select Please use your native language to find items on this ...
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*  New GOP Health Plan Seeks Conservative Support

... 14 Juillet 2017 For conservatives, the bill has been tweaked to include Sen. ... Main » New GOP Health Plan Seeks Conservative Support. ... Reliance Jio Announces New 4G Plans with More Data. Chinese ... "Ready to work w/ GOP & Dem colleagues to fix flaws in ACA". Lindsey Graham, R-S.C., is floating his own plan. His plan would ... Ted Cruz's idea for allowing insurers meeting Obamacare standards to also offer plans being described as "skimpy" or "bare ...
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*  Planned Parenthood Joins Coalition in Delivering 135,000 Comments in Support of Obama Administration Action to Protect Access...

Supporters Urge HHS to Support New Title X Rule ... Planned Parenthood health centers play a critical role in ... and young people who depend on Planned Parenthood health centers for basic health care through the nation's family planning ... Planned Parenthood health centers are located in the communities where access to care is most needed. More than half of Planned ... In fact, 6 in 10 women who access care from a family planning health center consider it their main source of health care. For 4 ...
https://plannedparenthood.org/about-us/newsroom/press-releases/planned-parenthood-joins-coalition-in-delivering-135000-comments-in-support-of-obama-administration-action-to-protect-access-to

*  Rasmussen: Support for Repeal of Health Care Plan Up To 58% | Libertarian News

Rasmussen: Support for Repeal of Health Care Plan Up To 58% by Michael Suede • April 12, 2010. Mihn is displeased. ... Three weeks after Congress passed its new national health care plan, support for repeal of the measure has risen four points to ... don't like it when insurance companies wield the government's guns against them and force them to purchase insurance plans they ...
libertariannews.org/2010/04/12/rasmussen-support-for-repeal-of-health-care-plan-up-to-58/

*  Told my family of my plan, now regretting it. | Suicide Forum - Depression and Mental Health Support Forums and Chat - For...

I have been planning it for a few days. I got scared today and told my husband and mom. Now they're watching me... ... I had a plan to overdose this week. ... I had a plan to overdose this week. I have been planning it for ... Suicide Forum - Depression and Mental Health Support Forums and Chat - For People in Need ... Suicide Forum - Depression and Mental Health Support Forums and Chat - For People in Need ...
https://suicideforum.com/community/threads/told-my-family-of-my-plan-now-regretting-it.95365/

*  Plan to boost GP mental health role fails to win Govt support - doctorportal | doctorportal

Plan to boost GP mental health role fails to win Govt support. * April 17, 2015 ... commissioned review of the mental health system to boost the role of GPs and Primary Health Networks in providing mental health ... A leaked copy of the long-awaited National Mental Health Commission review of mental health care, obtained by the ABC's 7.30 ... Disability Support Pension income support to prevention and early intervention care provided by GPs and other primary health ...
https://doctorportal.com.au/plan-to-boost-gp-mental-health-role-fails-to-win-govt-support/

*  Thinking Spatially, Acting Collaboratively - A GIS-based Health Decision Support System for Improving the Collaborative Health...

A GIS-based Health Decision Support System for Improving the Collaborative Health-planning Practice. ... Some studies in the past have reported that the use of decision support systems (DSS) for planning healthy cities may lead to: ... Further, the findings help us to understand the potential role of the DSS to improve collaborative health planning practice. ... The field of collaborative health planning faces significant challenges due to the lack of effective information, systems and ...
https://research-repository.griffith.edu.au/handle/10072/42879

*  Plan to end it all by the end of the summer | Suicide Forum - Depression and Mental Health Support Forums and Chat - For People...

Suicide Forum - Depression and Mental Health Support Forums and Chat - For People in Need ... Suicide Forum - Depression and Mental Health Support Forums and Chat - For People in Need ... Plan to end it all by the end of the summer. Discussion in 'Suicidal Thoughts and Feelings' started by unigirl, May 10, 2015. ... Anyways, I hope you reconsider your plan. Does your therapist allow you to tell him/her these things? I ask because some don't ...
https://suicideforum.com/community/threads/plan-to-end-it-all-by-the-end-of-the-summer.117725/

*  Digital care and support planning survey now live | Professional Record Standards Body (PRSB) for Health and Social Care

By defining the standards for the structure of care and support plans, we aim to enable these plans to be shared and updated ... health and care professionals and industry representatives on the content of a standard for a digital care and support plan. ... The Professional Record Standards Body is currently working on the production of a digital care and support planning standard. ... The Professional Record Standards Body for health and social care (PRSB) aims to make sure that care records in the health and ...
theprsb.org/news/2017-08/70-digital-care-and-support-planning-survey-now-live

*  The Hidden Disease: Ulcerative Colitis Video - ABC News

Trump doesn't support bipartisan health care plan after all. Trump doesn't support bipartisan health care plan after all. After ... the president slashed $7 billion in subsidies meant to help working-class families afford health insurance, he showed support ...
abcnews.go.com/Health/Video/playerIndex?id=3278236

*  Fencing fun at FUS festival | News, Sports, Jobs - The Herald Star

Bipartisan health care plan gets strong support. Regional Roundup. WSX Management Club to meet WEIRTON - The Weirton Steel ...
heraldstaronline.com/news/local-news/2017/10/fencing-fun-at-fus-festival/

*  Trump Tax Plan Stands to Benefit the Man in the White House - NBC 7 San Diego

Among the likely winners in President Donald Trump's tax-cut plan would be a real estate developer turned reality TV star who ... Bipartisan Plan to Curb Health Premiums Gets Strong Support. Published at 1:47 PM PDT on Apr 27, 2017 , Updated at 6:47 PM PDT ... Trump Tax Plan Stands to Benefit the Man in the White House. The one-page proposal released Wednesday seems sure to benefit the ... The plan calls for the elimination of the Alternative Minimum Tax, which raises the federal tax bill of wealthy Americans like ...
nbcsandiego.com/news/national-international/Trump-Tax-Plan-Benefit-White-House-420655244.html

*  UK Model Allegedly 'Drugged, Handcuffed' in Pornography Human Trafficking Plot Back in Britain - NBC4 Washington

Bipartisan Plan to Curb Health Premiums Gets Strong Support. Then, on July 17, Ayling was dropped off at the British consulate ... Hundreds of protesters took to the streets in Gainesville, Florida ahead of a planned speech from white nationalist Richard ...
nbcwashington.com/news/national-international/Model-Drugged-Handcuffed-Human-Trafficking-Plot-439018453.html

*  Obesity cure possible after discovery of fat 'switch'

Bipartisan plan to curb health premiums gets strong support. Associated Press. *. WOWtv - Kim Kardashian Feeds the Homeless in ...
https://sg.news.yahoo.com/obesity-cure-possible-discovery-fat-163505539.html

*  Records Show Violent History for Ohio Nursing Home Gunman - NBC New York

Bipartisan Plan to Curb Health Premiums Gets Strong Support. Disario headed the Kirkersville Police Department for only about ...
nbcnewyork.com/news/national-international/Records-Show-Violent-History-for-Ohio-Nursing-Home-Gunman-422171533.html

*  Issue Position: Health Care - Public Statements - The Voter's Self Defense System - Vote Smart

I support a health plan that would cover all Minnesotans for all medical needs; a plan that would reduce the need for costly ... Issue Position: Health Care. Issue Position. By: Kevin Dahle Date: Jan. 1, 2012 Location: Unknown ... Hard working Minnesotans are having a hard time paying for health care costs. Premiums are increasing at an annual rate of 16 ... There are currently about 400,000 Minnesotans without any health insurance, and at least 1 million more who have insurance, but ...
https://votesmart.org/public-statement/732840/issue-position-health-care

*  Toward True Health: The truth about osteoporosis

This is done by instituting a lifestyle and an eating plan that supports health. ... A plan for good health, started young, keeps us well throughout the life cycle. It is never too early to care for your health. ... Because health is a choice!. Carolyn Guilford is a consulting nutritionist, health and wellness advocate, workshop organizer ... Toward True Health: The truth about osteoporosis. Osteoporosis not something to take lightly ...
savannahnow.com/column-accent/2012-07-24/toward-true-health-truth-about-osteoporosis?quicktabs_1=0

*  Advance Care Planning - Atlantic Health System, NJ

... living will or designate a health care proxy. Learn more about our advance care planning services. ... Atlantic Health System offers programs and events that can help you create an advance directive, ... Local Advance Care Planning Support Resources. *New Jersey Hospital Association - Practitioner Orders for Life-Sustaining ... Preparation is the key for every event in life and your health is no exception. An advance care plan ensures that you get the ...
atlantichealth.org/atlantic/health-education/support-resources/advance-care-planning.html

*  Dean Barkley on Health Care

Support a "managed competition" health care plan.*Provide tax incentives for small businesses to help provide health care to ... Supports medical savings accounts & managed competition Barkley supports the following principles regarding America's health ... Other candidates on Health Care:. Dean Barkley on other issues:. MN Gubernatorial:. Tim Pawlenty. MN Senatorial:. Al Franken. ... Health care now accounts for 16% of our Gross Domestic Product and continues to rise. Drug company lobbyists and health care ...
ontheissues.org/Social/Dean_Barkley_Health_Care.htm

*  Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) | Chronic Kidney Disease and Nutrition - familydoctor.org

Your family doctor can help you make a diet plan that supports your kidney health. This is important because your diet may need ... Family Health. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs from continued damage to your kidneys. It can ... These "good" fats are better for your cardiovascular health.. How can I track how my diet is affecting my kidneys?. A number of ... You need to take in the right amount of calories to maintain a healthy weight and support your body's functions. This can be ...
https://familydoctor.org/chronic-kidney-disease-ckd-chronic-kidney-disease-nutrition/

*  Hot Topics & Readers' Notes - 12-12-12

It is very important that you make no change in your healthcare plan or health support regimen without researching and ... FIBROMYALGIA HEALTH CENTER • Home • Definition • Diagnosis & Testing • Causes & Prognosis • Symptoms • Overlapping Conditions ... Podell's Blog • Ask the Doctor • Find a Support Group • Newsletters • Organizations • Blogs • Books/DVDs/CDs • Patient Advocacy ... As a fibro patient, I'm feeling a loss of support from you guys, especially when 4 facebook posts per day are all about ME/CFS ...
prohealth.com/fibromyalgia/library/showArticle.cfm?fontSize=medium&libid=17753

Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Global Health Delivery ProjectHealth policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Halfdan T. MahlerBehavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Women's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.Comprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Healthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}Sharon Regional Health System: Sharon Regional Health System is a profit health care service provider based in Sharon, Pennsylvania. Its main hospital is located in Sharon; additionally, the health system operates schools of nursing and radiography; a comprehensive pain management center across the street from its main hospital; clinics in nearby Mercer, Greenville, Hermitage, and Brookfield, Ohio; and Sharon Regional Medical Park in Hermitage.Minati SenResource leak: In computer science, a resource leak is a particular type of resource consumption by a computer program where the program does not release resources it has acquired. This condition is normally the result of a bug in a program.Northeast Community Health CentreMaternal Health Task ForceDenplanBasic Occupational Health Services: The Basic Occupational Health Services are an application of the primary health care principles in the sector of occupational health. Primary health care definition can be found in the World Health Organization Alma Ata declaration from the year 1978 as the “essential health care based on practical scientifically sound and socially accepted methods, (…) it is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work (…)”.Essence (Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics): Essence is the United States Department of Defense's Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics. Essence's goal is to monitor health data as it becomes available and discover epidemics and similar health concerns before they move out of control.Implementation research: Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the uptake of research findings. Often research projects focus on small scale pilot studies or laboratory based experiments, and assume that findings can be generalised to roll out into a practice based domain with few changes.Opinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010: Opinion polling (popularly known as surveys in the Philippines) for the 2010 Philippine presidential election is managed by two major polling firms: Social Weather Stations and Pulse Asia, and several minor polling firms. The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Integrated catchment management: Integrated catchment management is a subset of environmental planning which approaches sustainable resource management from a catchment perspective, in contrast to a piecemeal approach that artificially separates land management from water management.Open Fuel Standard Coalition: The Open Fuel Standard Coalition is a bipartisan group in the United States actively working for passage of H.R.Health management system: The health management system (HMS) is an evolutionary medicine regulative process proposed by Nicholas Humphrey reprinted fromGay Men's Health Crisis: The GMHC (formerly Gay Men's Health Crisis) is a New York City–based non-profit, volunteer-supported and community-based AIDS service organization whose mission statement is "end the AIDS epidemic and uplift the lives of all affected."Mental disorderPoverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health: The Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health is one of the eight colleges of Georgia Southern University, located in Statesboro, Georgia, in the United States.Standard evaluation frameworkInjustice SocietyTime-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Community mental health service: Community mental health services (CMHS), also known as Community Mental Health Teams (CMHT) in the United Kingdom, support or treat people with mental disorders (mental illness or mental health difficulties) in a domiciliary setting, instead of a psychiatric hospital (asylum). The array of community mental health services vary depending on the country in which the services are provided.Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.

(1/30) Donor funding for health reform in Africa: is non-project assistance the right prescription?

During the past 10 years, donors have recognized the need for major reforms to achieve sustainable development. Using non-project assistance they have attempted to leverage reforms by offering financing conditioned on the enactment of reform. The experience of USAID's health reform programmes in Niger and Nigeria suggest these programmes have proved more difficult to implement than expected. When a country has in place a high level of fiscal accountability and high institutional capacity, programmes of conditioned non-project assistance may be more effective in achieving reforms than traditional project assistance. However, when these elements are lacking, as they were in Niger, non-project assistance offers nothing inherently superior than traditional project assistance. Non-project assistance may be most effective for assisting the implementation of policy reforms adopted by the host government.  (+info)

(2/30) The state of health planning in the '90s.

The art of health planning is relatively new in many developing countries and its record is not brilliant. However, for policy makers committed to sustainable health improvements and the principle of equity, it is an essential process, and in need of improvement rather than minimalization. The article argues that the possibility of planning playing a proper role in health care allocative decisions is increasingly being endangered by a number of developments. These include the increasing use of projects, inappropriate decentralization policies, and the increasing attention being given to NGOs. More serious is the rise of New Right thinking which is undermining the role of the State altogether in health care provision. The article discusses these developments and makes suggestions as to possible action needed to counteract them.  (+info)

(3/30) Aid instruments and health systems development: an analysis of current practice.

There has been a clear shift in the policy of many donors in the health sector-away from discrete project assistance towards more broad-based sectoral support. This paper, based on interviews with officials in a number of bilateral and multilateral agencies, explores whether this shift in policy has been matched by similar changes in the form or range of aid instruments. The paper develops a framework for examining current practice in relation to the different objectives that donors seek to promote through technical and financial assistance. In particular, it looks in some detail at the advantages and disadvantages of budgetary support compared to more traditional forms of project assistance. It concludes that the debate should not be about whether one form of aid is better than another. Ideally, they should be complementary and the forms, channels and systems used for managing aid need to be assessed in relation to how they help to achieve the mix of development objectives that are most appropriate to the country concerned. The review demonstrates that this is a complex task and that to achieve an effective balance is not easy. The final section summarizes the main themes emerging from the discussion and suggests some preliminary conclusions and proposals for future action.  (+info)

(4/30) Helping the urban poor stay with antiretroviral HIV drug therapy.

Recent studies have documented dramatic decreases in opportunistic infections, hospitalizations, and mortality among HIV-infected persons, owing primarily to the advent of highly active antiretroviral medications. Unfortunately, not all segments of the population living with HIV benefit equally from treatment. In San Francisco, only about 30% of the HIV-infected urban poor take combination highly active antiretroviral medications, as compared with 88% of HIV-infected gay men. Practitioners who care for the urban poor are reluctant to prescribe these medications, fearing inadequate or inconsistent adherence to the complicated medical regimen. Persons typically must take 2 to 15 pills at a time, 2 to 3 times a day. Some of the medications require refrigeration, which may not be available to the homeless poor. Most homeless persons do not have food available to them on a consistent schedule. Therefore, they may have difficulty adhering to instructions to take medications only on an empty stomach or with food. Lack of a safe place to store medications may be an issue for some. In addition, many urban poor live with drug, alcohol, or mental health problems, which can interfere with taking medications as prescribed. Inconsistent adherence to medication regimens has serious consequences. Patients do not benefit fully from treatments, and they will become resistant to the medications in their regimen as well as to other medications in the same classes as those in their regimen. Development of resistance has implications for the broader public health, because inadvertent transmission of multidrug-resistant strains of HIV has been demonstrated. Concern that the urban poor will not adhere to highly active antiretroviral medication regimens has led to debate on the role of clinicians and public health officials in determining who can comply with these regimens. Rather than define the characteristics that would predict adherence to these regimens, the San Francisco Department of Public Health created a program to support adherence among those who may have the greatest difficulty complying with complicated highly active antiretroviral medication regimens. The program, dubbed the Action Point Adherence Project, was conceived through a community planning process in preparation for a city-wide summit on HIV/AIDS that took place in January 1998. Action Point is funded by the city and the county of San Francisco. Now in its 10th month, the program continues to show promising evidence of improving clients' biological and social indicators.  (+info)

(5/30) Benchmarking information needs and use in the Tennessee public health community.

OBJECTIVE: The objective is to provide insight to understanding public health officials' needs and promote access to data repositories and communication tools. METHODS: Survey questions were identified by a focus group with members drawn from the fields of librarianship, public health, and informatics. The resulting comprehensive information needs survey, organized in five distinct broad categories, was distributed to 775 Tennessee public health workers from ninety-five counties in 1999 as part of the National Library of Medicine-funded Partners in Information Access contract. RESULTS: The assessment pooled responses from 571 public health workers (73% return rate) representing seventy-two of ninety-five counties (53.4% urban and 46.6% rural) about their information-seeking behaviors, frequency of resources used, computer skills, and level of Internet access. Sixty-four percent of urban and 43% of rural respondents had email access at work and more than 50% of both urban and rural respondents had email at home (N = 289). Approximately 70% of urban and 78% of rural public health officials never or seldom used or needed the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Website. Frequency data pooled from eleven job categories representing a subgroup of 232 health care professionals showed 72% never or seldom used or needed MEDLINE. Electronic resources used daily or weekly were email, Internet search engines, internal databases and mailing lists, and the Tennessee Department of Health Website. CONCLUSIONS: While, due to the small sample size, data cannot be generalized to the larger population, a clear trend of significant barriers to computer and Internet access can be identified across the public health community. This contributes to an overall limited use of existing electronic resources that inhibits evidence-based practice.  (+info)

(6/30) Epidemiology's contribution to health service management and planning in developing countries: a missing link.

Two hypotheses are examined in the light of experience and the literature: (1) health service planning requires little epidemiological information, and (2) health services rarely get useful answers to relevant epidemiological questions. In the first hypothesis, the theoretical robustness of the concept of a minimum package of activities common to all facilities belonging to the same level of the system and the extent to which it is unaffected by variations in the frequencies of most diseases are examined. Semi-quantitative analyses and analysis of routine entries and participation suffice to adapt this package to the local context. Some of the methods which give a fundamental role to epidemiological information are criticized. With regard to the second hypothesis, the pertinent contributions epidemiology may make to health service organization are reviewed. These include identification of diseases that justify special activities (health maps and interepidemic surveillance), determination of the activities that should be added to the health centres, the political usefulness of rare impact assessments, and the relevant demographic elements. Finally an epidemiological agenda is proposed for specialized centres, districts, universities, and the central decision-making level of health ministries in developing countries.  (+info)

(7/30) Strengthening the public health system.

Although the American public health system has made major contributions to life expectancy for residents of this country over the past century, the system now faces more complex health problems that require comprehensive approaches and increased capacity, particularly in local and State public health agencies. To strengthen the public health system, concerted action is needed to meet these five critical needs: First, the knowledge base of public health workers needs to be supplemented through on-the-job training and continuing education programs. To this end, self-study courses will be expanded, and a network of regional training centers will be established throughout the country. Second, communities need dynamic leadership from public health officials and their agencies. To enhance leadership skills and expand the leadership role of public health agencies, focused personal leadership development activities, including a Public Health Leadership Institute, and national conferences will provide a vision of the future role of public health agencies. Third, local and State public health agencies need access to data on the current health status of the people in their communities and guidance from the nation's public health experts. To improve access to information resources, state-of-the-art technologies will be deployed to create integrated information and communication systems linking all components of the public health system. Fourth, local and State agencies need disease prevention and health promotion plans that target problems and develop strategies and the capacity to address them. To provide communities with structured approaches to this process, planning tools have been developed and distributed, and technical assistance will be provided to local and State health agencies to involve each community in planning,priority setting, and constituency building.Finally, public health agencies need adequate resources to fund prevention programs. To improve the use of existing Federal support and enhance the availability of new community resources, grant programs will be modified, and innovative approaches to local resource enhancement will be developed and shared.Activities in these five key areas are designed to improve the infrastructure of the public health system and its capacity to carry out effectively the core functions of public health assessment, policy development, and assurance of the availability of the benefits of public health. If the nation is to achieve the health objectives for the year 2000, the public health system-the individuals and institutions that, when working effectively together, promote and protect the health of the people-must be strengthened.  (+info)

(8/30) The prevention challenge and opportunity.

In the United States, more money is spent on treating diseases and their complications than on preventing them in the first place. Prevention is both undervalued and poorly supported in our health system. In this Perspective I discuss how the McKinlay model can be used to illustrate the three levels at which we need to increase our investment in prevention. I recognize the many challenges in implementing programs of prevention, but I also note that these programs represent opportunities to improve health, prevent unnecessary pain and suffering, and, in time, develop a health system that is balanced and affordable.  (+info)



practice


  • Nursing 435: Professional Practice in Mental Health Promotion This 16-week paced online course provides opportunities to integrate theory and develop further skills related to mental health promotion with a focus on individuals, families and groups experiencing mental health alterations. (athabascau.ca)

approaches


  • The 2018 NASPA Well-being and Health Promotion Leadership Conference will provide student affairs practitioners with the knowledge and skills to effectively address college student health and well-being through a variety of integrative approaches. (naspa.org)

care


  • 1996 Benchmarks of Fairness for Health Care Reform - Oxford University Press. (slideserve.com)

education


  • The NASPA Well-being and Health Promotion Leadership Conference will build attendees' knowledge and capacity around creating a culture of health and well-being, and inform future planning at institutions of higher education. (naspa.org)

Promotion


  • Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over, and improve, their health. (naspa.org)
  • Consideration will be given to mental health promotion with vulnerable aggregates and recognition of psychiatric mental health disorders that emerge across the lifespan. (athabascau.ca)
  • A major focus of the course is a mental health promotion project. (athabascau.ca)

content


  • The conference planning committee encourages program proposals regarding proven practices with content that will engage participants in fruitful discussions and provide meaningful content to bring back to their campuses. (naspa.org)