Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Health Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Great BritainRegional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.National Academy of Sciences (U.S.): A United States organization of distinguished scientists and engineers established for the purpose of investigating and reporting upon any subject of art or science as requested by any department of government. The National Research Council organized by NAS serves as the principal operating agency to stimulate and support research.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Accreditation: Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.American Heart Association: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Societies: Organizations composed of members with common interests and whose professions may be similar.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Advisory Committees: Groups set up to advise governmental bodies, societies, or other institutions on policy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Planning Support: Financial resources provided for activities related to health planning and development.EnglandPoverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Comprehensive Health Care: Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Health Fairs: Community health education events focused on prevention of disease and promotion of health through audiovisual exhibits.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Health Communication: The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.United States Public Health Service: A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Prepaid Health Plans: Contracts between an insurer and a subscriber or a group of subscribers whereby a specified set of health benefits is provided in return for a periodic premium.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Organizations, Nonprofit: Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Social Control, Formal: Control which is exerted by the more stable organizations of society, such as established institutions and the law. They are ordinarily embodied in definite codes, usually written.IndiaHealth Transition: Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Occupational Health Nursing: The practice of nursing in the work environment.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.BrazilInternship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.EuropeInternationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Education, Public Health Professional: Education and training in PUBLIC HEALTH for the practice of the profession.Voluntary Health Agencies: Non-profit organizations concerned with various aspects of health, e.g., education, promotion, treatment, services, etc.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Social Determinants of Health: The circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics (http://www.cdc.gov/socialdeterminants/).Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Maternal-Child Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.Health Impact Assessment: Combination of procedures, methods, and tools by which a policy, program, or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.

*  Mushroom Council plans first health summit | The Packer

The Mushroom Council will focus on the roles research and education play in growing the mushroom category at its inaugural ... Mushroom and Health Nutrition Summit from Sept. 9-10 in Washington, D.C. ... Also this October, for the fifth year, the Mushroom Council plans to conduct its in-store City of Hope Pink Campaign to support ... The Mushroom and Health Summit will bring together the world's top scientists, nutritionists and health professionals to ...
thepacker.com/fruit-vegetable-news/marketing-profiles/mushroom/Mushroom-Council--plans-first-health-summit-219948941.html?page=2

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On July 27, the HIV Planning Council approved budget amounts for service categories for the fiscal year that will begin March 1 ... This report combines the monthly meetings of the HIV Planning Council (HIVPC) and the South Florida AIDS Network (SFAN). The ... August Report from SFAN and the HIV Planning Council User Rating: 0 / 5. ... Category: Health 5 days 11 hours ago Double Discrimination: Pressure to follow binaries puts bi individuals at higher risk for ...
southfloridagaynews.com/Health/august-report-from-sfan-and-the-hiv-planning-council.html

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Strategic Planning. MHCC undertakes strategic planning across four key priorities and areas of activity:. *Sector Development. ... Monitoring the strategic plan. The MHCC Board is responsible for monitoring implementation of this plan. A full audit will be ... home contact mhcc sitemap privacy © 2017 mental health co-ordinating council inc ... There is an increasing focus on the delivery of mental health and other human services from a community base. MHCC actively ...
mhcc.org.au/home/strategic-directions/key-priority-areas.aspx

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The director of a Sheffield health service has praised the council's proposals to focus on early intervention for targeting ' ... Health service chief praises council plan. Shine Health Academy works with young people to tackle weight issues Alex Evans ... The director of a Sheffield health service has praised the council's proposals to focus on early intervention for targeting ' ... "The new commissioning plan will hopefully, in time, prevent children reaching this critical stage - but those requiring tier ...
thestar.co.uk/news/health/health-service-chief-praises-council-plan-1-6688644

*  County Durham Mental Health Implementation Plan - Durham County Council

No Health without Mental Health' sets out how we intend to develop and improve mental health services covering all ages across ... The County Durham Mental Health Implementation Plan for the national strategy ' ... County Durham Mental Health Implementation Plan The County Durham Mental Health Implementation Plan for the national strategy ' ... The plan has been developed through the County Durham Mental Health Partnership Board, a sub-group of the Health and Wellbeing ...
durham.gov.uk/article/6426/County-Durham-Mental-Health-Implementation-Plan

*  Tecumseh City Council OKs health plan - News - The Daily Telegram - Adrian, MI - Adrian, MI

... which addresses employee health care costs. Council took the action at a special meeting Monday night, City Manager Kevin Welch ... The Tecumseh City Council voted to opt out of Public Act 152, ... Tecumseh City Council OKs health plan. Thursday. Dec 26, 2013 ... The Tecumseh City Council voted to opt out of Public Act 152, which addresses employee health care costs. Council took the ... Welch wrote the city council will need to explore this option for 2015 along with a self funded plan that could benefit the ...
lenconnect.com/article/20131226/NEWS/131229585/0/news?rssfeed=true

*  Regional Public Health Plan | Alexandrina Council

Regional Public Health Plan. Live , Environmental Health , Regional Public Health Plan. Under the Public Health Act 2011, ... councils are required to have an approved regional public health plan.. Alexandrina Council participated in a regional ... The plan consists of a background report with supporting research and a directions report which includes action plans specific ... partnership to develop a regional public health plan with Southern and Hills Local Government Association. ...
https://alexandrina.sa.gov.au/page.aspx?u=2408

*  Joint Community Care Plan 2009-2011 Health and medical information - South Lanarkshire Council

Joint Community Care Plan 2009-2011 , Social care and health , Health and medical information ... Joint Community Care Plan 2009-2011. Download Now. *The Joint Community Care Plan sets out the health and social care ... Social care and health ... →*Health and medical information ... →*Joint Community Care Plan 2009-2011 ...
southlanarkshire.gov.uk/downloads/file/557/joint_community_care_plan_2009-2011

*  White House Launches Plan to Address Heroin Use | National Health Care for the Homeless Council

White House Launches Plan to Address Heroin Use. On Monday, August 17, the White House released its new plan to address the ... Copyright © 2017 National Health Care for the Homeless Council, Inc. PO Box 60427 , Nashville, TN 37206 , (615) 226-2292 ... Integrating Community Health Workers into Primary Care Practice: A Resource Guide for HCH Programs*CHWs and Health Care for the ... Integrating Community Health Workers into Primary Care Practice: A Resource Guide for HCH Programs*CHWs and Health Care for the ...
https://nhchc.org/2015/08/white-house-launches-plan-to-address-heroin-use/

*  Acting on Australia's Weight: a Strategic Plan for the Prevention of Overweight and Obesity | National Health and Medical...

In 1997, the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) released the publication, Acting on Australia's Weight: a ... A summary report that contains the strategic plan and a summary of the scientific evidence that supports the strategic plan. ... The aim of the strategic plan is to prevent overweight and obesity by bringing about changes in the environments in which ... A complete report that contains a strategic plan for the prevention of overweight and obesity and a series of technical ...
https://nhmrc.gov.au/guidelines-publications/n21-n22

*  Upcoming Events - Events

Regional Health Improvement Plan Council 9:00 am - 12:00 pm 17 October 2017 ... SW Washington Accountable Community of Health Board 9:00 am - 12:00 pm ...
columbian.com/events/events/category/business/

*  PP/CONS/7/2017: Health Sector Supply Chain Strategy and Implementation Plan | National Emergency Response Council on HIV and...

PP/CONS/7/2017: Health Sector Supply Chain Strategy and Implementation Plan. RE- ADVERTISMENT. INVITATION TO TENDER ... Contract Title: Health Sector Supply Chain Strategy and Implementation Plan, PP/CONS/7/2017 ... Home » PP/CONS/7/2017: Health Sector Supply Chain Strategy and Implementation Plan. ... NATIONAL EMERGENCY RESPONSE COUNCIL ON HIV & AIDS (NERCHA). PLOT 738 OF FARM 2. EMJIKA ROAD. MBABANE. Telephone: (268) 2406 ...
nercha.org.sz/tender/ppcons72017-health-sector-supply-chain-strategy-and-implementation-plan-0

*  Gov. Cuomo's Brooklyn for-profit hospital proposal worries hospital workers and local reps | Brooklyn Daily Eagle

... and Interfaith Medical Center fear that Governor Andrew Cuomo is planning to close one or both hospitals and replace them with ... To operate the hospitals, the business corporations must be affiliated with a Public Health and Health Planning Council (PHHPC ... PHHPC is a statewide health planning and oversight body.. The term "affiliated" has not been defined as yet, according to ... Currently we do not know how Downstate fits into the plan since there is no plan." ...
brooklyneagle.com/articles/gov-cuomos-brooklyn-profit-hospital-proposal-worries-hospital-workers-and-local-reps

*  Gauteng sangomas to get code of ethics | News24

"The planned traditional health practitioners' council has not yet been established, which gives the government communication ... with other health care providers, traditional or orthodox, in pursuing programmes that will improve health care provision for ... THE Gauteng health department today proposed a code of conduct for traditional healers. ... relationship with traditional health practitioners, because there were many associations, organisations and independent ...
news24.com/Archives/City-Press/Gauteng-sangomas-to-get-code-of-ethics-20150429

*  Minnesota health care interests cool to Senate health bill - InsuranceNewsNet

... the federally paid health insurance program for the poor. The big story has been and continues to be what it is going to do to ... Leaders in Minnesota's health care community called the Senate Republican health care reform bill disappointing Thursday ... Minnesota Council of Health Plans. , a health insurance company trade group. "In Minnesota. , that cares for people who are ... Under the Republican plan, people will not be required to pay a penalty if they do not have health insurance as they were under ...
https://insurancenewsnet.com/oarticle/minnesota-health-care-interests-cool-to-senate-health-bill

*  Research | Institute for Child Health Policy | NSU

Funded by the Health Foundation of South Florida and the Broward Regional Health Planning Council (BRHCP) (2006), the Institute ... Project partners include BRHPC and 10 other Florida Local Health Planning Councils, the Institute for Child Health Policy at ... Our partners and collaborators include the Broward Regional Health Planning Council, Broward Health System (NBHD) and the ... Broward Regional Health Planning Council and the Institute for Child Health Policy at Nova Southeastern University. ...
nova.edu/ichp/research/index.html

*  DMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Immune Disorders: Immune Deficiency: AIDS: Regional: North America: United States:...

Greater Baltimore HIV Health Services Planning Council Identifies service needs of people living with HIV and AIDS, establishes ... Health Conditions and Diseases Immune Disorders Immune Deficiency AIDS Regional North America United States Maryland 3 ... priorities for the allocation of federal service dollars, and develops plans for delivering HIV services. Membership ...
dmoztools.net/Health/Conditions_and_Diseases/Immune_Disorders/Immune_Deficiency/AIDS/Regional/North_America/United_States/Maryland/

*  Resolution Master 3-13-14 5.10pm | Medicaid | Insurance

... and competence review for Article 28 facilities from ten to seven years if the Public Health and Health Planning Council (PHHPC ... Insurance plans outside of any established health insurance marketplace must offer out-of-network options, regardless of ... Developmental Disabilities Planning Council State Operations (S.6350-B)  The Senate concurs with the Executive's proposal of $ ... The Senate encourages the Office of Mental Health to develop a plan to ensure sufficient community housing is available to meet ...
https://scribd.com/document/212344807/Resolution-Master-3-13-14-5-10pm

*  Annual Report - Chief Medical Officer's Report

Council, and subsequently by Health Ministers, is planned for late 2005. ... Public health experts in the teams made rapid health assessments and coordinated improvements in the health and sanitation ... incorporating the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre.. While planning for an influenza pandemic and health ... In my role as Chair of the National Health Priority Action Council, I am pleased to be closely involved with this work.. ...
health.gov.au/internet/annrpt/publishing.nsf/Content/chief-medical-officers-report-1

*  NYC Council OKs sick days plan, seen as key step

Health care and hurricanes - What to watch in the week ahead. Yahoo Finance ... Saying they hoped that requiring sick leave in the nation's largest metropolis would set an example, City Council members ... Trump promising huge tax cut; focus on taxes vs health care. Associated Press ... Manufacturing companies would be exempt because they're struggling, Council Speaker Christine Quinn said. ...
https://finance.yahoo.com/news/nyc-council-oks-sick-days-203626301.html?soc_src=mediacontentsharebuttons

*  Witney borough: Local government | British History Online

Thereafter Witney retained only a town council, largely divested of powers over planning, health, and roads. (fn. 96) ... From 1919, under the Housing and Town Planning Act, the council built and administered council houses (chiefly financed from ... the district council acquiring most of the disbanded UDC's powers over planning, housing, and public health, while Oxfordshire ... 123) In the mid 1960s the council continued to deal with housing, planning, slumclearance, and new building, as well as with ...
british-history.ac.uk/vch/oxon/vol14/pp111-130

*  acronynms - Genesee Finger Lakes Regional Planning Council

NYS DOH New York State Department of Health. NYS DOT New York State Department of Transportation. NYSERDA New York State Energy ... G/FLRPC Genesee/Finger Lakes Regional Planning Council. GOSC Governors Office for Small Cities. GPS Global Positioning System. ... HOCCPP Herkimer-Oneida Counties Comprehensive Planning Program. HOV High Occupancy Vehicle. HTBC High Tech Business Council. ... PB Planning Board. PBS Petroleum Bulk Storage. PCC G/FLRPC Planning Coordination Committee. pdf Portable Document Format. PIRG ...
gflrpc.org/acronynms.html

*  Oregon Health Authority : Oregon Consumer Advisory Council (OCAC) : Addictions and Mental Health Services : State of Oregon

Questions about the Oregon Health Plan? To learn more about your new benefits, your welcome packet, and what to do if you have ... The Oregon Consumer Advisory Council (OCAC), established per ORS 430.073, advises the Director of the Oregon Health Authority ... evaluate and provide feedback on all site reviews related to mental health services provided by the Oregon Health Authority. ... Oregon Health Authority Contact Us. Find us on Facebook. Follow us on Twitter​ ...
oregon.gov/oha/HSD/AMH/Pages/OCAC.aspx

*  Majority of students support multi-tiered health plan, UMSU survey | The Manitoban

... vice president internal Adam Pawlak presented a proposal for a multi-tiered health and dental plan at council ... In June, UMSU council learned that a 58 per cent increase in the number of claims filed through its health and dental plan over ... Majority of students support multi-tiered health plan, UMSU survey. Potential plan will offer high-cost, high-coverage and low- ... vice president internal Adam Pawlak presented a proposal for a multi-tiered health and dental plan at council's regular meeting ...
themanitoban.com/2017/02/majority-students-support-multi-tiered-health-plan-umsu-survey/30629/

*  Buyer's guide to health cash plans (May 2010) - Employee Benefits

North Lanarkshire Council offers staff financial advice. 1st May 2010 12:00 am 6th April 2017 4:51 pm ... What are health cash plans?. Health cash plans provide cash lump sums towards a wide range of everyday health costs in exchange ... What is the annual spend on health cash plans?. Laing and Buisson's Health and Care Cover - UK Market Report 2009 showed the ... What are the origins of cash plans?. Health cash plans can be traced back to the 1800s, when they were set up to help people ...
https://employeebenefits.co.uk/issues/may-2010/buyers-guide-to-health-cash-plans-may-2010/

Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Local Health BoardGlobal Health Delivery ProjectHealth policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Halfdan T. MahlerBehavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Women's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.Comprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Healthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}Minati SenNational Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Sharon Regional Health System: Sharon Regional Health System is a profit health care service provider based in Sharon, Pennsylvania. Its main hospital is located in Sharon; additionally, the health system operates schools of nursing and radiography; a comprehensive pain management center across the street from its main hospital; clinics in nearby Mercer, Greenville, Hermitage, and Brookfield, Ohio; and Sharon Regional Medical Park in Hermitage.National Academy of Customs Excise and Narcotics: The National Academy of Customs, Excise and Narcotics, abbreviated as NACEN, is a premier National academy of the Government of India for the training of Indian Revenue Service (IRS) officers administering Customs, Central Excise, Service Tax and Narcotics laws in India. It imparts training to the officers of the elite Indian Revenue Service (IRS) who are selected through the prestigious Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) examination, popularly known as the Civil Services Examination.Resource leak: In computer science, a resource leak is a particular type of resource consumption by a computer program where the program does not release resources it has acquired. This condition is normally the result of a bug in a program.Northeast Community Health CentreNational Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories: National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories (NABL).Maternal Health Task ForceDenplanOpinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010: Opinion polling (popularly known as surveys in the Philippines) for the 2010 Philippine presidential election is managed by two major polling firms: Social Weather Stations and Pulse Asia, and several minor polling firms. The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.Basic Occupational Health Services: The Basic Occupational Health Services are an application of the primary health care principles in the sector of occupational health. Primary health care definition can be found in the World Health Organization Alma Ata declaration from the year 1978 as the “essential health care based on practical scientifically sound and socially accepted methods, (…) it is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work (…)”.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Standard evaluation frameworkIntegrated catchment management: Integrated catchment management is a subset of environmental planning which approaches sustainable resource management from a catchment perspective, in contrast to a piecemeal approach that artificially separates land management from water management.Essence (Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics): Essence is the United States Department of Defense's Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics. Essence's goal is to monitor health data as it becomes available and discover epidemics and similar health concerns before they move out of control.Time-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Companies OfficeInternational Network of Prison Ministries: The International Network of Prison Ministries (INPM) is a Dallas, Texas based crime prevention and rehabilitation trans-national organization. INPM functions through a website that serves as a clearinghouse for information about various Christian prison ministries.Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Aultman Hospital: Aultman Hospital is a non-profit hospital located in Canton, Ohio, United States. It is the largest hospital and the largest employer, with over 5000 employees, in Stark County.Implementation research: Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the uptake of research findings. Often research projects focus on small scale pilot studies or laboratory based experiments, and assume that findings can be generalised to roll out into a practice based domain with few changes.The Flash ChroniclesAge adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Open Fuel Standard Coalition: The Open Fuel Standard Coalition is a bipartisan group in the United States actively working for passage of H.R.Mental disorderHealth management system: The health management system (HMS) is an evolutionary medicine regulative process proposed by Nicholas Humphrey reprinted fromGay Men's Health Crisis: The GMHC (formerly Gay Men's Health Crisis) is a New York City–based non-profit, volunteer-supported and community-based AIDS service organization whose mission statement is "end the AIDS epidemic and uplift the lives of all affected."

(1/38) Is there primary health care in the UK?

In the period since the Alma-Ata Declaration, there has been much activity in many countries in drawing up strategies for primary health care (PHC). This paper argues that the UK, though a signatory to the Declaration, has failed to provide an adequate framework for such a strategy, and that, in spite of the strong record of the National Health Service (NHS) as a system of social medicine, much remains to be done in order to achieve the principles of PHC. The paper analyses the record of the NHS in these areas, as set against the principles of PHC. It argues that such a review is important, not only for the NHS itself, but for some overseas students of the NHS who, through the strong links between the NHS and their own health services and the strong tradition of the NHS as a (nearly) free health system, might consider it a suitable blueprint for their own health services. THough there are a number of elements of the NHS, such as its resource allocation mechanism, that are relevant to PHC, it is argued that, as a whole, its structure may not be a suitable model.  (+info)

(2/38) Choices without reasons: citizens' juries and policy evaluation.

Citizens' juries are commended as a new technique for democratising health service reviews. Their usefulness is said to derive from a reliance on citizens' rational deliberation rather than on the immediate preferences of the consumer. The author questions the assertion of critical detachment and asks whether juries do in fact employ reason as a means of resolving fundamental disagreements about service provision. He shows that juries promote not so much a critically detached point of view as a particular evaluative framework suited to the bureaucratic idiom of social welfare maximisation. Reports of jury practice reveal a tendency among juries to suppress by non-rational means the everyday moral language of health care evaluation and substitute for it a system of thought in which it can be deemed permissible to deny treatment to sick people. The author concludes that juries are chiefly concerned with non-rational persuasion and because of this they are morally and democratically irrelevant. Juries are no substitute for voting when it comes to protecting the public from zealous minorities.  (+info)

(3/38) Democratic prioritization of maternity care: a rational basis for planning a clinical effectiveness programme.

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of a democratic process for prioritizing the ASQUAM (Achieving Sustainable Quality in Maternity) clinical effectiveness programme. METHODS: Twenty-two improvements in the standards of maternity care were chosen as top-topic priorities at the 1996 and 1997 ASQUAM meetings. We wished to assess the relative priorities of local and national delegates, by comparing their voting patterns at the two meetings. The setting was North Staffordshire ASQUAM prioritization days, and the subjects were all the delegates at the 1996 and 1997 ASQUAM meetings. Main outcome measures were comparison of numbers of votes cast by local and national delegates for each of the 20 topics presented at the two ASQUAM meetings, and proportions of the 11 top-topics decided at each meeting that were chosen by local and national delegates. RESULTS: In 1996, significantly more local than national delegates voted for two topics related to maternal mortality or morbidity (incontinence and hypertensive diseases of pregnancy), but there were no statistically significant differences between the proportions of votes cast for any of the other 18 topics presented on the day. Indeed, local delegates had prioritized 11/11 of the final top-topics, and only one was omitted by the national delegates (10/11). In 1997, significantly more national than local delegates voted for three topics relating to professional stress levels, user involvement in working groups and antibiotic prophylaxis, but there were no statistically significant differences between the proportions of votes cast for any of the other 17 topics presented on the day. Again, local delegates had prioritized 11/11 of the final topics, with only one being omitted by the national delegates (10/11). CONCLUSION: There appeared to be a remarkable concordance between local and national delegates at both meetings, suggesting an underlying rationality to decision making. We believe this to be a reflection of the process of careful evaluation of outcome and intervention supported by the protection of a secret ballot, allowing free expression of individual's values.  (+info)

(4/38) Involvement of consumers in the development of evidence based clinical guidelines: practical experiences from the North of England evidence based guideline development programme.

BACKGROUND: Consumer involvement in clinical guidelines has long been advocated although there are few empirical accounts of attempts to do so. It is therefore not surprising that there is a lack of clarity about how and when to involve consumers and what to expect from them within the process of guideline development. METHODS: The North of England evidence based guideline development programme has used four different methods of consumer involvement. RESULTS: When individual patients were included in a guideline development group they contributed infrequently and had problems with the use of technical language. Although they contributed most in discussions of patient education, their contributions were not subsequently acted on. In a "one off" meeting with a group of patients there were again reported problems with medical terminology and the group were most interested in sections on patient education and self management. However, their understanding of the use of scientific evidence in order to contribute to a more cost effective health care remained unclear. In a workshop it was possible to explain the technical elements of guideline development to patients who could then engage with such a process and make relevant suggestions as a consequence. However, this was relatively resource intensive. A patient advocate within a guideline development group felt confidence to speak, was used to having discussions with health professionals, and was familiar with the medical terminology. CONCLUSIONS: Consumers should be involved in all stages of guideline development. While this is possible, it is not straightforward. There is no one right way to accomplish this and there is a clear need for further work on how best to achieve it.  (+info)

(5/38) A seat at the table: membership in federal advisory committees evaluating public policy in genetics.

OBJECTIVES: This study examined who participates in federal government advisory committees regarding public policy in human and medical genetics, what parties they represent, and to what extent the general public is meaningfully represented. METHODS: Analysis focused on 7 federal government documents published from January 1990 to February 1995. Advisors were categorized into 4 groups based on the professional affiliations that were listed in the publications. After a search of several references and data-bases, the study examined whether these individuals also had other affiliations not listed in the government publications. RESULTS: Individuals whose principal affiliations were with academia (n = 32; 44%) or industry (n = 19; 26%) represented nearly three fourths of the sample, followed by government employees (n = 13; 18%) and consumer advocates (n = 8; 11%). At least 16% of the advisors serving on the federal committees, mostly members of academia, had a dual affiliation. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that the public has modest representation on key federal advisory committees making policy recommendations regarding human genetics technology and clinical practice and that there is ample room for additional public participation.  (+info)

(6/38) Partnering with communities to improve health: the New York City Turning Point experience.

Concurrent with the New York City Department of Health's reorganization efforts, the Robert Wood Johnson and W.K. Kellogg Foundations launched Turning Point, a national initiative designed to strengthen the nation's public health system. The Turning Point initiative has emphasized broad-based partnership building and planning as key prerequisites for improving public health practice. In response to the foundations' request for proposals, the department formed a New York City Public Health Partnership, which in turn applied for and was granted a Turning Point planning grant. This funding allowed New York City Turning Point to initiate a public health planning process, part of which involved convening forums in each of the five boroughs. With over 1,100 community participants, these forums provided both a starting point for establishing public health priorities and an interactive setting for sharing health and demographic data. Included among the issues that emerged as priorities were: access to care, environmental health, mental health, housing, asthma, education, and dietary issues. Building on the forum outcomes, the New York City Public Health Partnership developed a public health system improvement plan. The goals delineated in this plan are: (1) to create and support public health partnerships at the community, borough, and citywide levels; (2) to identify community health concerns and develop strategies responsive to these concerns; and (3) to develop policies to support and sustain a community health approach to improve health status. This article also discusses possible roles for local health departments in promoting a community health approach to address public health concerns.  (+info)

(7/38) Community participation in local health boards in a decentralized setting: cases from the Philippines.

Decentralization has been associated traditionally with participation and empowerment in local decision-making. This study of four cases analyzed the role of local health boards in enhancing community participation and empowerment under a decentralized system in the Philippines. Local government units (LGUs) with functioning local health boards were compared with LGUs whose health boards were not meeting regularly as mandated by law. The study found that there were more consultations with the community, fund-raising activities, health initiatives and higher per capita health expenditure in LGUs with functioning local health boards. Only the mayors and municipal health officers felt empowered by devolution. In general, awareness of devolution and their potential roles in health decision-making was low among members of the community. These findings can be attributed to the socio-cultural and historical traditions of centralized governance with little popular participation, overall attitudes of the community and board members, perceptions of health as primarily a medical matter, economic circumstances of LGUs, and insufficient preparation for devolution. Recommendations are suggested in response to these findings.  (+info)

(8/38) Boards of Health as venues for clean indoor air policy making.

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the tobacco industry's strategies for opposing health board actions and to identify elements necessary for public health to prevail. METHODS: Newspaper articles, personal interviews, and tobacco industry documents released through litigation were reviewed. RESULTS: Twenty-five instances in which the tobacco industry opposed health board regulations were identified. It was shown that the tobacco industry uses 3 strategies against health boards: "accommodation" (tobacco industry public relations campaigns to accommodate smokers in public places), legislative intervention, and litigation. These strategies are often executed with the help of tobacco industry front groups or allies in the hospitality industry. CONCLUSIONS: Although many tobacco control advocates believe that passing health board regulations is easier than the legislative route, this is generally not the case. The industry will often attempt to involve the legislature in fighting the regulations, forcing advocates to fight a battle on 2 fronts. It is important for health boards to verify their authority over smoking restrictions and refrain from considering non-health factors (including industry claims of adverse economic impacts) so as to withstand court challenges.  (+info)



employee health


  • The Tecumseh City Council voted to opt out of Public Act 152, which addresses employee health care costs. (lenconnect.com)
  • The GOP plan also raises the number of workers that businesses may employ without offering employee health insurance. (insurancenewsnet.com)

strategic plan


  • In 1997, the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) released the publication, Acting on Australia's Weight: a strategic plan for the prevention of overweight and obesity. (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • A summary report that contains the strategic plan and a summary of the scientific evidence that supports the strategic plan. (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • The aim of the strategic plan is to prevent overweight and obesity by bringing about changes in the environments in which people live, work and study to make it easier for them to be physically active and consume a healthy diet. (nhmrc.gov.au)

stakeholders


  • The plan has been developed through the County Durham Mental Health Partnership Board, a sub-group of the Health and Wellbeing Board, involving a wide range of stakeholders, partner agencies and people with 'lived experience' of mental health issues. (durham.gov.uk)
  • Extensive planning occurred, engaging stakeholders, policy makers, funders, consumers and included consultation with evaluators throughout the application development process. (nova.edu)

Care


  • The HIVPC is the planning body for the Ryan White Care (RWC) Program of Broward County (Broward-RWC). (southfloridagaynews.com)
  • The city chose to opt out and enter into a separate agreement with our labor organizations that requires the employees to pay 15 percent of the total cost of health care, including the fees and taxes applied by the ACA (Affordable Care Act) and the cost of an increase that we will face on July 1, 2014," Welch wrote. (lenconnect.com)
  • This new funding has the potential to support health centers in treating heroin overdose as a public health problem, rather than a criminal issue, as Health Care for the Homeless projects have been advocating for years. (nhchc.org)
  • According to an analysis of the legislation published by the Epstein Becker Green legal firm, the legislation is "a potentially significant development in New York," allowing "increased capital investment in health care facilities. (brooklyneagle.com)
  • Previously, the state's Certificate of Need (CON) process prevented for-profit hospitals from operating in the state, under the assumption that the provision of health care "is a charitable activity and that there must be transparency and accountability as far as the owners of hospitals are concerned. (brooklyneagle.com)
  • programmes that will improve health care provision for the patient. (news24.com)
  • June 22 -- WASHINGTON -- Leaders in Minnesota's health care community called the Senate Republican health care reform bill disappointing Thursday because of the GOP's continued insistence on significantly cutting Medicaid, the federally paid health insurance program for the poor. (insurancenewsnet.com)
  • The Senate version of the American Health Care Act (AHCA) mirrors much of what the House passed earlier. (insurancenewsnet.com)
  • signature health care reform. (insurancenewsnet.com)
  • The Senate bill would cover substance abuse treatment and mental health care, unlike the House version, which slashed funding for both. (insurancenewsnet.com)
  • It has the potential to really create a lot of chaos and disruption in people's health care needs. (insurancenewsnet.com)
  • Over 20 health care centers and services for the community. (nova.edu)
  • This meeting's purpose was to gain input into the development of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy on 1) reducing HIV incidence among youth, 2) increasing access to care and optimizing health outcomes for youth, and 3) reducing HIV-related health disparities. (nova.edu)
  • HIV community planning is an ongoing and ever evolving process whereby state and local HIV prevention and care organizations share responsibilities for developing a comprehensive HIV prevention and care plan with other state and local agencies, community based organizations and representatives of communities and groups at risk for or affected by HIV. (nova.edu)
  • As a result we were able to rapidly supply nine medical teams comprising doctors, nurses, paramedics and other health care professionals to the tsunami affected regions. (health.gov.au)

priorities


  • Identifies service needs of people living with HIV and AIDS, establishes priorities for the allocation of federal service dollars, and develops plans for delivering HIV services. (dmoztools.net)

assessments


  • Broward's CRUSHH has carefully considered the cultural make-up of the community, identified a realistic project target population based on the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration's objectives, corroborated by community needs assessments and focus group results. (nova.edu)
  • Public health experts in the teams made rapid health assessments and coordinated improvements in the health and sanitation services for displaced persons in Indonesia, Sri Lanka and the Maldives. (health.gov.au)

city council


  • Welch wrote the city council will need to explore this option for 2015 along with a self funded plan that could benefit the city. (lenconnect.com)
  • Saying they hoped that requiring sick leave in the nation's largest metropolis would set an example, City Council members positioned New York to become the most populous place to approve such a law during a campaign that has scored several victories but also a number of defeats. (yahoo.com)

AIDS


  • This report combines the monthly meetings of the HIV Planning Council (HIVPC) and the South Florida AIDS Network (SFAN). (southfloridagaynews.com)

Prevention


  • The summit will examine mushrooms and the strength of the science linking mushrooms and health in areas such as vitamin D, weight management and disease prevention. (thepacker.com)
  • Prevention and early intervention work should be a priority in reducing the prevalence of obesity, and that should start with maternal health and early years. (thestar.co.uk)
  • A total of $13.4 million is being made available to health centers in fifteen targeted states to use prescriptions like Naloxone and fortify prevention programs. (nhchc.org)

services


  • There is an increasing focus on the delivery of mental health and other human services from a community base. (mhcc.org.au)
  • Although gaps in tier three services for children under 15 was mentioned in the document, there is no further mention of how this will be redressed within the commissioning plan, which only refers to services for 15 years and above. (thestar.co.uk)
  • The County Durham Mental Health Implementation Plan for the national strategy 'No Health without Mental Health' sets out how we intend to develop and improve mental health services covering all ages across the county. (durham.gov.uk)
  • It is chaired by the Department of Health and Ageing Deputy Secretary, Ms Mary Murnane, and comprises all of Australia's Chief Health Officers, plus crucial emergency services such as Emergency Management Australia. (health.gov.au)

needs


  • AusAID prioritised the health needs, while the States and Territories, together with the Department of Defence, provided the personnel and equipment. (health.gov.au)

obesity


  • But Kath Sharman, managing director of the SHINE Health Academy, a community-based, not-for-profit company that aims to help obese young people aged 10 to 17, has also called on Sheffield Council not to 'abandon' people as it shifts its obesity focus. (thestar.co.uk)

made


  • After an overwhelming reception to the blendability concept in 2012, the council made an even greater impression at this year's conference by sampling several mushroom-blended school recipes and sponsoring a culinary demonstration," Preis said. (thepacker.com)
  • A full audit will be conducted every 12 months and adjustments made in response to the changing mental health environment. (mhcc.org.au)
  • She said: "I applaud the council for conducting such a wide consultation and there are some excellent points made. (thestar.co.uk)

Department


  • SFAN is the advisory and networking body for the RWC program of the Florida Department of Health in Broward (FL-DOH RWC). (southfloridagaynews.com)
  • The Florida Department of Health distributed Broward HIV data. (southfloridagaynews.com)
  • o The Senate advances legislation in S.6358-C and provides $2 million within the Department of Health, to expand the income eligibility for the Elderly Pharmaceutical Insurance Coverage (EPIC) program to $75,000 from the current $35,000 level, for singles and to $100,000 from the current $50,000 level, for married enrollees. (scribd.com)
  • While planning for an influenza pandemic and health disasters attract the most media attention, the Department continued to contribute to the development of the National Chronic Disease Strategy, the review of the governance of the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), efforts to change and diversify the vocational training of medical specialists, and a range of initiatives to improve Indigenous health. (health.gov.au)
  • The Department coordinated a collaborative health response effort through its National Incident Room in Canberra. (health.gov.au)

public health problem


  • Critics say some small enterprises can't afford the benefit and businesses resent the implication that they're forcing ailing employees to come in to work and creating a public health problem. (yahoo.com)

service


  • On July 27, the HIV Planning Council approved budget amounts for service categories for the fiscal year that will begin March 1, 2018 (FY 2018). (southfloridagaynews.com)

people


  • Under the Republican plan, people will not be required to pay a penalty if they do not have health insurance as they were under the ACA. (insurancenewsnet.com)
  • The years of preparation and planning bore fruit and the major relief effort helped many people in a time of very great need. (health.gov.au)
  • It is very gratifying to have the efforts of so many people rewarded by the release of a comprehensive national pandemic action plan, which has received favourable comment both at a local level and also by a number of international agencies. (health.gov.au)

medical


  • Doctors, nurses and staff of Brooklyn's ailing Long Island College Hospital (SUNY Downstate at LICH), and Interfaith Medical Center fear that Governor Andrew Cuomo is planning to close one or both hospitals and replace them with a for-profit hospital, something that has never been allowed in New York State before. (brooklyneagle.com)
  • To operate the hospitals, the business corporations must be affiliated with a Public Health and Health Planning Council (PHHPC) approved academic medical institution. (brooklyneagle.com)

report


  • The plan consists of a background report with supporting research and a directions report which includes action plans specific to each participating council. (sa.gov.au)

focus


  • The Mushroom Council will focus on the roles research and education play in growing the mushroom category at its inaugural Mushroom and Health Nutrition Summit from Sept. 9-10 in Washington, D.C. (thepacker.com)
  • Continued focus on mushroom research has unveiled the countless nutrition and health benefits mushrooms provide," he said. (thepacker.com)
  • I completely understand the public health focus on tier one and tier two - and there are some crucial gaps identified. (thestar.co.uk)

content


  • The Mushroom and Health Summit will bring together the world's top scientists, nutritionists and health professionals to discuss and explore the role research plays in improving consumer health and the nutrient content of the food supply, Minor said. (thepacker.com)

Board


  • The MHCC Board is responsible for monitoring implementation of this plan. (mhcc.org.au)

improve


  • The Australian Health Disaster Management and Policy Committee (AHD-MPC), an inter-jurisdictional committee, was formed in the wake of the 2002 Bali bombing to help improve national health disaster preparedness. (health.gov.au)

develop


  • Alexandrina Council participated in a regional partnership to develop a regional public health plan with Southern and Hills Local Government Association. (sa.gov.au)

field


  • I am very grateful to my many colleagues, ranging from the many doctors and nurses in the field, to staff across the health portfolios who returned from leave to organise and contribute to the health response. (health.gov.au)

body


regional


  • Under the Public Health Act 2011, councils are required to have an approved regional public health plan. (sa.gov.au)

director


  • Chef Steve Solomon (right), culinary director for the San Jose, Calif.-based Mushroom Council, talks to members of the fresh produce industry about his Mushroom and Beef Blended Burger Sliders July 27 at the Produce Marketing Association Foodservice Conference Chef Demos Lunch in Monterey, Calif. (thepacker.com)

years


  • In addition, the Australian Government announced in the Federal Budget in May 2005 that it is providing funding of $23.2 million over four years for the establishment of an independent influenza research centre, incorporating the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre. (health.gov.au)

research


  • Also this October, for the fifth year, the Mushroom Council plans to conduct its in-store City of Hope Pink Campaign to support breast cancer research and awareness. (thepacker.com)

support


  • The new commissioning plan will hopefully, in time, prevent children reaching this critical stage - but those requiring tier three support should not be abandoned in the process of achieving this. (thestar.co.uk)

national


  • The Mushroom Council returned for the second year to the School Nutrition Association's annual National Conference in Kansas City, Mo. (thepacker.com)
  • By 8am the next morning I was teleconferencing with the Chief Health Officers of all the States and Territories, and by noon Australia's peak health emergency committee the Australian Health Disaster Management and Policy Committee (AHD-MPC) was meeting in a national teleconference. (health.gov.au)

treatment


  • On Monday, August 17, the White House released its new plan to address the sharp rise in heroin use by focusing on treatment, rather than arrests. (nhchc.org)

year


  • Greater consumer awareness linking mushrooms and health should drive demand this year more than ever, she said. (thepacker.com)

state


  • PART WW: The Senate advances language exempting participants in the New York State Cattle Health Assurance Program from Freedom of Information Law requests for records. (scribd.com)

school


  • Council representatives served mushroom and turkey meatloaf, mushroom and beef taco salad, and pasta with mushroom marinara to school foodservice directors, and the council's digital team filmed school foodservice directors' personal testimonials about their experiences with blendability, she said. (thepacker.com)

gives


  • Supporters of the GOP reform say it gives flexibility for states to create plans that better suit their citizenry. (insurancenewsnet.com)

management


  • Two months ago CBS published an investigation of the country's fourth largest for-profit hospital chain, Health Management Associates (HMA). (brooklyneagle.com)

completely


  • select a 20 percent rule for employees to pay, or, opt out completely in favor of an alternative plan. (lenconnect.com)

development


  • The evidence base for the work of the community managed mental health sector requires ongoing development. (mhcc.org.au)

employees


  • The same plan will apply to all non-union employees as well. (lenconnect.com)

Washington


  • The Mushroom Council recently hosted a mushroom culinary competition at Washington University in St Louis, Mo. (thepacker.com)