Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Health Planning Support: Financial resources provided for activities related to health planning and development.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Great BritainPolicy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Comprehensive Health Care: Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Health Fairs: Community health education events focused on prevention of disease and promotion of health through audiovisual exhibits.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Health Communication: The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.United States Public Health Service: A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Prepaid Health Plans: Contracts between an insurer and a subscriber or a group of subscribers whereby a specified set of health benefits is provided in return for a periodic premium.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Health Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Health Transition: Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)Occupational Health Nursing: The practice of nursing in the work environment.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Education, Public Health Professional: Education and training in PUBLIC HEALTH for the practice of the profession.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Social Determinants of Health: The circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics (http://www.cdc.gov/socialdeterminants/).Maternal-Child Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Holistic Health: Health as viewed from the perspective that humans and other organisms function as complete, integrated units rather than as aggregates of separate parts.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Dental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.National Health Insurance, United StatesEmployment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Medically Uninsured: Individuals or groups with no or inadequate health insurance coverage. Those falling into this category usually comprise three primary groups: the medically indigent (MEDICAL INDIGENCY); those whose clinical condition makes them medically uninsurable; and the working uninsured.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act: Public Law 104-91 enacted in 1996, was designed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the healthcare system, protect health insurance coverage for workers and their families, and to protect individual personal health information.EnglandHealth Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Personal Health Services: Health care provided to individuals.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Health Facility Administration: Management of the organization of HEALTH FACILITIES.Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.BrazilMedical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Public Health Dentistry: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Minority Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of members of minority groups.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Financing, Personal: Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Employer Health Costs: That portion of total HEALTH CARE COSTS borne by an individual's or group's employing organization.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.IndiaMaternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.

*  MCCAIN'S HEALTH PLAN

John McCain's health care proposal would help rein in the nation's ballooning health care costs, says John Goodman... ... MCCAIN'S HEALTH PLAN. August 18, 2008. Democratic health care proposals may have gotten more attention during the primaries, ... Source: Jason Roberson, 'McCain's health insurance plan: More radical than Democrats'?' Dallas Morning News, August 16, 2008. ... At the same time, everyone would be offered a federal tax credit to help them pay for insurance -- whether a company plan or ...
ncpa.org/sub/dpd/index.php?Article_ID=16919

*  QUT - Health planning and evaluation

... and evaluates the effectiveness of health policies, planning and services. ... This course introduces the principles and practice of integrated health planning, ... Anyone seeking to develop skills and knowledge in the planning of health services, and the translation of health policy into ... Planning evaluation addresses approaches and design of evaluation and monitoring as related to health planning. ...
https://qut.edu.au/study/short-courses-and-professional-development/short-courses/health-planning-and-evaluation

*  Clueless About Health Plans - latimes

Did it really take researchers to tell us that many people haven't the foggiest notion about how their managed care plans work ... be it the health plans, employers that typically select the plans from which their workers choose or the patients themselves. ... Only 30% of consumers could correctly identify even the most basic features of their health plans, such as whether they were ... Health plans get mixed reviews in annual California report.... February 22, 2012 ...
articles.latimes.com/2001/mar/19/health/he-39680

*  Pet Health Plans - Coconino Accredited Businesses

Find BBB Accredited Pet Health Plans Businesses in Phoenix, AZ. ... Results for: Pet Health Plans in Coconino We did not find any ...
https://bbb.org/phoenix/accredited-business-directory/pet-health-plans/coconino

*  Meridian Health Plan Jobs | Glassdoor

110 Meridian Health Plan jobs including salaries, ratings, and reviews, posted by Meridian Health Plan employees. ... Meridian Health Plan. Detroit, MI. Community Care Coordination Team Lead - Clinton/St.Clair Counties. Meridian Health Plan. ... Meridian Health Plan. Detroit, MI. Medical Record Data Abstractor - Kent and Muskegon Counties. Meridian Health Plan. Grand ... Behavioral Health Reviewer. Meridian Health Plan. Chicago, IL. Medicare Program Oversight Reporting Analyst. Meridian Health ...
https://glassdoor.com/Jobs/Meridian-Health-Plan-Jobs-E493558.htm

*  Jeff's Pack Health Plan Fund · Causes

We are very proud of how well taken care of all the dogs on our property are, but sometimes accidents happen. In order not to pass on the burden of any dog's injury or sickness to its potential...
https://causes.com/causes/976588-jeff-s-pack-health-plan-fund

*  Texas Districts Merge Health Plans - Education Week

... the two largest school districts in Texas have formed a partnership to seek out health-care coverage for their 47,000 employees ... The current health-plan contract in Dallas runs out in December. Employees in the 162,000-student district will be watching ... Published in Print: April 11, 2001, as Texas Districts Merge Health Plans Related Stories ... to the health plan that covers state employees.. But with a price tag of $2 billion, it is unlikely that teachers will get a ...
edweek.org/ew/articles/2001/04/11/30insure.h20.html

*  Big Changes in College Health Plans - WSJ

... plans and others are telling students to expect sharp premium increases because of a provision in the federal health law ... College Health Plans to See Big Changes. Colleges are dropping student health-insurance plans due to a federal health-law ... The demise of low-cost, low-benefit health plans for students is a consequence of the 2010 health-care overhaul. The law is ... Big Changes in College Health Plans. Schools Are Raising Premiums Sharply or Dropping Offerings Altogether as Low-Benefit ...
https://wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702303506404577444410947791758

*  Obama's Health Plan Needs Spending Controls, CBO Says

President Obama's plan to expand health coverage to the uninsured is likely to dig the nation deeper into debt unless ... Obama's Health Plan Needs Spending Controls, CBO Says. CBO chief Douglas Elmendorf's statement is likely to complicate the task ... President Obama's plan to expand health coverage to the uninsured is likely to dig the nation deeper into debt unless ... We came up with common ground on all of these issues,' said Daschle, who was Obama's first choice to lead this year's health- ...
washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/06/16/AR2009061603440.html

*  Health Plan Prescription Drug Coverage

Need help? If you have any questions, please call The Health Plan SecureChoice PPO Customer Service toll free at 1.877.847.7907 ... SecureChoice PPO is a PPO plan with a Medicare contract. Enrollment in SecureChoice PPO depends on contract renewal. ...
https://express-scripts.com/consumer/site/home?partner=PDPC18THP5&BV_EngineID=cchiadhdlgdmiffcfklcgffdgkhdgfi.0&bvim=medco&CookieID=75cf61a06c108c357f7ee472d6a848660b5bd2f5

*  Grandfathered Health Plans | United States Department of Labor

Health Plans & Benefits* Health Plans & Benefits. *Back to Health Plans & Benefits *Continuation of Health Coverage - COBRA ... Plan Administration & Compliance* Plan Administration & Compliance. *Back to Plan Administration & Compliance *Abandoned Plans ... Plan Administration & Compliance* Plan Administration & Compliance. *Back to Plan Administration & Compliance *Abandoned Plans ... Plan Administration & Compliance* Plan Administration & Compliance. *Back to Plan Administration & Compliance *Abandoned Plans ...
https://dol.gov/agencies/ebsa/laws-and-regulations/laws/affordable-care-act/for-employers-and-advisers/grandfathered-healthplans

*  HHS: Health Plans Cannot Discriminate Against Transgender People

Under the new health law, beginning in 2014, health plans will no longer be able to deny coverage on that basis. ... Michelle Andrews is a consumer columnist atKaiser Health News, an editorially independent program of the Henry J. Kaiser Family ... Health Care Benefits Gender Identity Other Diversity Topics Other Benefits You have successfully saved this page as a bookmark. ... This is a population that's very underserved and in need of a lot of health care,' said M. Dru Levasseur, a transgender rights ...
https://shrm.org/resourcesandtools/hr-topics/benefits/pages/transgender-people-health.aspx

*  Many exchange health plans exclude top hospitals

For Illinois residents, the best advice is to shop carefully, making sure a preferred hospital or doctor is in the plan's ... network, said Jim Duffett, of the Campaign for Better Health Care. 'If it is not, and you go to that hospital, you will be ... Chicago's best known hospitals don't accept many of the health plans sold on the new insurance marketplace that's part of the ... by all the health plans insurers offered in Cook County. Now, of the 71 plans offered on the Illinois marketplace in the county ...
dailyherald.com/article/20131120/news/711209654/

*  Cigna Video Tips: Using Health Plans Effectively

... To help patients use their health plan most effectively for the rest of 2012 ... prepare for future health care expenditures, and make a proactive plan to manage overall health care needs. The insurer has ... Share the Health Plan Conversation with your patients by including links to the videos in your facility's newsletter or post ... Cigna executives discussing tips for consumers about how they can make good health care choices and best use their health plan ...
apta.org/PTinMotion/NewsNow/2012/9/18/CignaVideos/?blogmonth=1&blogday=11&blogyear=2013&blogid=10737418615

*  RNC site takes aim at Dem health plan - POLITICO

Republican National Committee starts site to harness grass-roots opposition to Dem health plan. ... But Health Care for America Now, a progressive grass-roots organization pushing for a government-run plan, said the Republicans ... "Maybe they should spend less time creating websites and more time coming up with an actual health care reform plan that's going ... "The Democrats want a government-run health care system that will control your health care, your treatments, your medicines, ...
politico.com/story/2009/07/rnc-site-takes-aim-at-dem-health-plan-025032

*  Chapter 284-43 WAC: HEALTH CARRIERS AND HEALTH PLANS

Deadline for filing individual health plans, small group health plans, and stand-alone dental plans. ... HEALTH PLANS, STAND-ALONE DENTAL PLANS AND STAND-ALONE VISION PLANS-FILING REQUIREMENTS ... Purpose and scope-Pediatric dental benefits for health benefit plans sold outside of the health benefit exchange. ... Recognizing the exercise of conscience by purchasers of basic health plan services and ensuring access for all enrollees to ...
apps.leg.wa.gov/WAC/default.aspx?cite=284-43

*  Companies staying fit with executive health plans - Atlanta Business Chronicle

Not only do executive health plans help maintain the physical health of a company's top executives, but in so doing, these ... Executive health plans are designed to provide today's busy senior executives with a comprehensive and advanced physical ... the latest technology and an assessment of an overall lifelong health plan. ... administrator of Emory Executive Health, an executive health-care services provider and a division of Emory Healthcare of ...
https://bizjournals.com/atlanta/stories/2006/07/03/smallb4.html

*  In reversal, Obama to allow canceled health plans

"Changing the rules after health plans have already met the requirements of the law could destabilize the market and result in ... Shortly after Obama spoke, the major industry trade group, America's Health Insurance Plans, warned in a statement that prices ... "You can't fix this government-run health care plan called Obamacare. It's just not fixable." ... Only last week, Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius told a Senate panel she doubted that retroactively ...
sify.com/finance/obamacare-enrollment-low-democrats-unhappy-news-international-nlonJhjjfac.html?ref=slideout

*  Important information about the state employee health plan

... By Stephanie Harvey. Check out the "Need to Know Information" on ...
k-state.edu/today/announcement.php?id=1639&category=human_resources-benefits-training&referredBy=K-State Today Archive

*  Medicaid Health Plans of America Jobs & Careers | Monster.com

Examine the company profile of Medicaid Health Plans of America and learn about Medicaid Health Plans of America jobs and ...
https://monster.com/jobs/search/Medicaid__20Health__20Plans__20of__20America_6

*  Lobbying Spending Database-AmeriHealth Mercy Health Plan, 2009 | OpenSecrets

AmeriHealth Mercy Health Plan. FIRST QUARTER REPORT. $60,000. AmeriHealth Mercy Health Plan AmeriHealth Mercy Health Plan. ... AmeriHealth Mercy Health Plan. THIRD QUARTER REPORT. $70,000. AmeriHealth Mercy Health Plan AmeriHealth Mercy Health Plan. ...
opensecrets.org/lobby/client_reports.php?id=D000047102&year=2009

*  Fallon Community Health Plan Bonus Pay, Salary Calculator | PayScale

Fallon Community Health Plan - Bonus - Get a free salary comparison based on job title, skills, experience and education. ...
https://payscale.com/research/US/Employer=Fallon_Community_Health_Plan/Bonus

*  California Assembly leader shelves single-payer health plan | Daily Mail Online

AP) - The prospects of a government-run health care system in California dimmed Friday when the leader of the state Assembly ... California Assembly leader shelves single-payer health plan. By Associated Press Published: 21:37 EDT, 23 June 2017 , Updated: ... The bill, which has passed the Senate, lays out a plan for a government-run health system in California, but it doesn't include ... It would guarantee health care for all California residents and eliminate out-of-pocket costs for consumers, like copays and ...
dailymail.co.uk/wires/ap/article-4634652/California-Assembly-leader-shelves-single-payer-health-plan.html

*  Health Plan Enrollment | Human Resources | San Jose State University

To enroll or makes changes to a benefit plan, log in to MySJSU and navigate to Self Service. Under the Self Service-Benefits ... Before enrolling or making any benefit plan changes online, you must sign and submit the California State University Electronic ... Benefits-eligible employees use PeopleSoft's Self Service online enrollment called eBenefits to enroll and make benefit plan ... area, click the New Enrollment hyperlink to enroll or click the Life Events hyperlink to make plan changes. ...
sjsu.edu/hr/benefits/health_benefit_programs/health_plan_enrollment/

*  Choice of Health Plans to Vary Sharply By State

Under President Obama's health care law, it is becoming clear that the millions of people purchasing policies in the exchanges ... Health & Human Services Choice of Health Plans to Vary Sharply By State Under President Obama's health care law, it is becoming ... FINANCE HEALTH INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT POLITICS PUBLIC SAFETY URBAN EDUCATION DATA PUBLIC OFFICIALS OF THE YEAR WOMEN IN ... MORE FROM Health & Human Services. New Movie Spotlights the 'Hidden Homeless' and Already Has Oscar Buzz. It's rare to see a ...
governing.com/topics/health-human-services/Choice-of-Health-Plans-to-Vary-Sharply-By-State.html

Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Global Health Delivery ProjectHealth policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Halfdan T. MahlerBehavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Women's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.Comprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Healthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}Sharon Regional Health System: Sharon Regional Health System is a profit health care service provider based in Sharon, Pennsylvania. Its main hospital is located in Sharon; additionally, the health system operates schools of nursing and radiography; a comprehensive pain management center across the street from its main hospital; clinics in nearby Mercer, Greenville, Hermitage, and Brookfield, Ohio; and Sharon Regional Medical Park in Hermitage.Minati SenResource leak: In computer science, a resource leak is a particular type of resource consumption by a computer program where the program does not release resources it has acquired. This condition is normally the result of a bug in a program.Northeast Community Health CentreMaternal Health Task ForceDenplanBasic Occupational Health Services: The Basic Occupational Health Services are an application of the primary health care principles in the sector of occupational health. Primary health care definition can be found in the World Health Organization Alma Ata declaration from the year 1978 as the “essential health care based on practical scientifically sound and socially accepted methods, (…) it is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work (…)”.Essence (Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics): Essence is the United States Department of Defense's Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics. Essence's goal is to monitor health data as it becomes available and discover epidemics and similar health concerns before they move out of control.Implementation research: Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the uptake of research findings. Often research projects focus on small scale pilot studies or laboratory based experiments, and assume that findings can be generalised to roll out into a practice based domain with few changes.Opinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010: Opinion polling (popularly known as surveys in the Philippines) for the 2010 Philippine presidential election is managed by two major polling firms: Social Weather Stations and Pulse Asia, and several minor polling firms. The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Integrated catchment management: Integrated catchment management is a subset of environmental planning which approaches sustainable resource management from a catchment perspective, in contrast to a piecemeal approach that artificially separates land management from water management.Open Fuel Standard Coalition: The Open Fuel Standard Coalition is a bipartisan group in the United States actively working for passage of H.R.Health management system: The health management system (HMS) is an evolutionary medicine regulative process proposed by Nicholas Humphrey reprinted fromGay Men's Health Crisis: The GMHC (formerly Gay Men's Health Crisis) is a New York City–based non-profit, volunteer-supported and community-based AIDS service organization whose mission statement is "end the AIDS epidemic and uplift the lives of all affected."Mental disorderPoverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health: The Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health is one of the eight colleges of Georgia Southern University, located in Statesboro, Georgia, in the United States.Standard evaluation frameworkInjustice SocietyTime-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Community mental health service: Community mental health services (CMHS), also known as Community Mental Health Teams (CMHT) in the United Kingdom, support or treat people with mental disorders (mental illness or mental health difficulties) in a domiciliary setting, instead of a psychiatric hospital (asylum). The array of community mental health services vary depending on the country in which the services are provided.Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.

(1/691) Disease eradication and health systems development.

This article provides a framework for the design of future eradication programmes so that the greatest benefit accrues to health systems development from the implementation of such programmes. The framework focuses on weak and fragile health systems and assumes that eradication leads to the cessation of the intervention required to eradicate the disease. Five major components of health systems are identified and key elements which are of particular relevance to eradication initiatives are defined. The dearth of documentation which can provide "lessons learned" in this area is illustrated with a brief review of the literature. Opportunities and threats, which can be addressed during the design of eradication programmes, are described and a number of recommendations are outlined. It is emphasized that this framework pertains to eradication programmes but may be useful in attempts to coordinate vertical and horizontal disease control activities for maximum mutual benefits.  (+info)

(2/691) Potential advantages of DNA immunization for influenza epidemic and pandemic planning.

Immunization with purified DNA is a powerful technique for inducing immune responses. The concept of DNA immunization involves insertion of the gene encoding the antigen of choice into a bacterial plasmid and injection of the plasmid into the host where the antigen is expressed and where it induces humoral and cellular immunity. The most effective routes and methods for DNA immunization are bombardment with particles coated with DNA ("gene gun" technique), followed by the intramuscular and intradermal routes. DNA immunization technology has the potential to induce immunity to all antigens that can be completely encoded in DNA, which therefore include all protein, but not carbohydrate, antigens. DNA immunization results in presentation of antigens to the host's immune system in a natural form, like that achieved with live-attenuated vaccines. The DNA immunization strategy has the potential to rapidly provide a new vaccine in the face of an emerging influenza pandemic.  (+info)

(3/691) Containing health costs in the Americas.

In recent years, a series of policy measures affecting both demand and supply components of health care have been adopted in different Latin American and Caribbean countries, as well as in Canada and the United States. In applying these measures various objectives have been pursued, among them: to mobilize additional resources to increase operating budgets; to reduce unnecessary utilization of health services and consumption of pharmaceuticals; to control increasing production costs; and to contain the escalation of health care expenditures. In terms of demand management, some countries have established cost-recovery programmes in an attempt to offset declining revenues. These measures have the potential to generate additional operating income in public facilities, particularly if charges are levied on hospital care. However, only scant information is available on the effects of user charges on demand, utilization, or unit costs. In terms of supply management, corrective measures have concentrated on limiting the quantity and the relative prices of different inputs and outputs. Hiring freezes, salary caps, limitations on new construction and equipment, use of drug lists, bulk procurement of medicines and vaccines, and budget ceilings are among the measures utilized to control production costs in the health sector. To moderate health care expenditures, various approaches have been followed to subject providers to 'financial discipline'. Among them, new reimbursement modalities such as prospective payment systems offer an array of incentives to modify medical practice. Cost-containment efforts have also spawned innovations in the organization and delivery of health services. Group plans have been established on the basis of prepaid premiums to provide directly much or all health care needs of affiliates and their families. The issue of intrasectorial co-ordination, particularly between ministries of health and social security institutions, has much relevance for cost containment. In various countries, large-scale reorganization processes have been undertaken to eliminate costly duplications of resources, personnel, and services that resulted from the multiplicity of providers in the public subsector. Given the pluralistic character of the region's health systems, an important challenge for policy-makers is to find ways to redefine the role of state intervention in health from the simple provision of services to one that involves the 'management' of health care in the entire sector.  (+info)

(4/691) The potential of health sector non-governmental organizations: policy options.

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have increasingly been promoted as alternative health care providers to the state, furthering the same goals but less hampered by government inefficiencies and resource constraints. However, the reality of NGO health care provision is more complex. Not only is the distinction between government and NGO providers sometimes difficult to determine because of their operational integration, but NGOs may also suffer from resource constraionts and management inefficiencies similar to those of government providers. Some registered NGOs operate as for-profit providers in practice. Policy development must reflect the strengths and weaknesses of NGOs in particular settings and should be built on NGO advantages over government in terms of resource mobilization, efficiency and/or quality. Policy development will always require a strong government presence in co-ordinating and regulating health care provision, and an NGO sector responsive to the policy goals of government.  (+info)

(5/691) The state of health planning in the '90s.

The art of health planning is relatively new in many developing countries and its record is not brilliant. However, for policy makers committed to sustainable health improvements and the principle of equity, it is an essential process, and in need of improvement rather than minimalization. The article argues that the possibility of planning playing a proper role in health care allocative decisions is increasingly being endangered by a number of developments. These include the increasing use of projects, inappropriate decentralization policies, and the increasing attention being given to NGOs. More serious is the rise of New Right thinking which is undermining the role of the State altogether in health care provision. The article discusses these developments and makes suggestions as to possible action needed to counteract them.  (+info)

(6/691) Environment, development and health: ideological metaphors of post-traditional societies?

Environment and health have become nearly interchangeable concepts in post-traditional societies. We are able to observe almost an obsession with them, as if individual changes in ways of life--important for the individual and significant for the culture though they may be--possessed the power to overthrow a system of economic relations that aims at growth in numerical terms rather than at development, enabling society to sustain its specific modes of private and public interaction.  (+info)

(7/691) Planning for the sustainability of community-based health programs: conceptual frameworks and future directions for research, practice and policy.

Attention to the sustainability of health intervention programs both in the US and abroad is increasing, but little consensus exists on the conceptual and operational definitions of sustainability. Moreover, an empirical knowledge base about the determinants of sustainability is still at an early stage. Planning for sustainability requires, first, a clear understanding of the concept of sustainability and operational indicators that may be used in monitoring sustainability over time. Important categories of indicators include: (1) maintenance of health benefits achieved through an initial program, (2) level of institutionalization of a program within an organization and (3) measures of capacity building in the recipient community. Second, planning for sustainability requires the use of programmatic approaches and strategies that favor long-term program maintenance. We suggest that the potential influences on sustainability may derive from three major groups of factors: (1) project design and implementation factors, (2) factors within the organizational setting, and (3) factors in the broader community environment. Future efforts to develop sustainable health intervention programs in communities can build on the concepts and strategies proposed here.  (+info)

(8/691) A reassessment of the cost-effectiveness of water and sanitation interventions in programmes for controlling childhood diarrhoea.

Cost-effectiveness analysis indicates that some water supply and sanitation (WSS) interventions are highly cost-effective for the control of diarrhoea among under-5-year-olds, on a par with oral rehydration therapy. These are relatively inexpensive "software-related" interventions such as hygiene education, social marketing of good hygiene practices, regulation of drinking-water, and monitoring of water quality. Such interventions are needed to ensure that the potentially positive health impacts of WSS infrastructure are fully realized in practice. The perception that WSS programmes are not a cost-effective use of health sector resources has arisen from three factors: an assumption that all WSS interventions involve construction of physical infrastructure, a misperception of the health sector's role in WSS programmes, and a misunderstanding of the scope of cost-effectiveness analysis. WSS infrastructure ("hardware") is generally built and operated by public works agencies and financed by construction grants, operational subsidies, user fees and property taxes. Health sector agencies should provide "software" such as project design, hygiene education, and water quality regulation. Cost-effectiveness analysis should measure the incremental health impacts attributable to health sector investments, using the actual call on health sector resources as the measure of cost. The cost-effectiveness of a set of hardware and software combinations is estimated, using US$ per case averted, US$ per death averted, and US$ per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) saved.  (+info)



Reform


  • 1996 Benchmarks of Fairness for Health Care Reform - Oxford University Press. (slideserve.com)

proposals


  • The conference planning committee encourages program proposals regarding proven practices with content that will engage participants in fruitful discussions and provide meaningful content to bring back to their campuses. (naspa.org)

practice


  • Nursing 435: Professional Practice in Mental Health Promotion This 16-week paced online course provides opportunities to integrate theory and develop further skills related to mental health promotion with a focus on individuals, families and groups experiencing mental health alterations. (athabascau.ca)

Financing


  • In comparison to a health insurance system with risk rated premiums, financing of the German social health insurance leads to interpersonal redistribution from higher to lower income, from the young to the elderly, from healthy to sick and from singles to families with children. (repec.org)

comparing health insurance


  • One thing to remember when comparing health insurance plans in Ada, OK is if you have higher monthly premiums, you will also have better overall coverage. (wirefly.com)

care


  • As a result, people often try to anticipate their medical care needs before deciding the most suitable health insurance plan. (wirefly.com)
  • Health care systems are financed through a mixture of different components: taxes, contributions to social health insurance, premiums to private health insurance, out of pocket payments by patients. (repec.org)
  • In such a comparison the redistributional impact of the German health care systems is rather regressive - which is basically caused by the opportunity for people with high income to leave social health insurance. (repec.org)
  • In comparison to a system in which each region finances its own health care expenditures, there are also considerable interregional redistributions. (repec.org)
  • Health insurance is one of the most important kinds of insurance for a person to have, as it covers part of his health care costs, from office visits to surgeries. (wirefly.com)

approaches


  • The 2018 NASPA Well-being and Health Promotion Leadership Conference will provide student affairs practitioners with the knowledge and skills to effectively address college student health and well-being through a variety of integrative approaches. (naspa.org)

public health


  • The case for risk-based premiums in public health insurance ," Health Economics, Policy and Law , Cambridge University Press, vol. 1(02), pages 171-188, April. (repec.org)

field


  • As a subcategory in the broader field of insurance, health insurance is the section that covers part of the health expenses incurred by an insured person. (wirefly.com)

education


  • The NASPA Well-being and Health Promotion Leadership Conference will build attendees' knowledge and capacity around creating a culture of health and well-being, and inform future planning at institutions of higher education. (naspa.org)

Promotion


  • Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over, and improve, their health. (naspa.org)
  • Consideration will be given to mental health promotion with vulnerable aggregates and recognition of psychiatric mental health disorders that emerge across the lifespan. (athabascau.ca)
  • A major focus of the course is a mental health promotion project. (athabascau.ca)

appropriate


  • Determining the differences between these choices will help you choose an appropriate plan. (wirefly.com)

types


  • It also makes it easy to compare the different types of health insurance plans available in Ada, OK. (wirefly.com)
  • There are many types of health insurance covers to choose from in Ada, OK. (wirefly.com)

future


  • For many individuals, one of the most difficult things about choosing a health insurance plan is not knowing what the future holds. (wirefly.com)

website


  • As a health insurance comparison website, Wirefly offers more than free online quotes. (wirefly.com)
  • Please consult the Centre for Nursing and Health Studies website for the most recent information relating to clinical course registration and start dates. (athabascau.ca)

comparison


  • Wirefly helps you save on cell phones and plans by offering innovative comparison tools so consumers can make educated choices. (wirefly.com)

different


  • Today, there are different kinds of health insurance plans available. (wirefly.com)
  • The best way to choose a health insurance plan in Silver Lake, NY is by comparing different options, and Wirefly makes it easy to do that and get a free online quote. (wirefly.com)

needs


  • To find the right plan, everyone must figure out their own healthcare needs. (wirefly.com)

higher


  • Higher cost plans will typically provide full coverage, while inexpensive health insurance could cover just emergency healthcare. (wirefly.com)

various


  • However, if you have a serious health condition that requires you to see your doctor on a routine basis, a health insurance company that offers various coverage options would be a better choice. (wirefly.com)

private


  • Although employers and private insurance companies are the most common providers of health insurance in Ada, OK, it is also available to low-income earners through Medicaid and to senior citizens via Medicare. (wirefly.com)
  • Compared to private insurance companies, Medicaid and Medicare provide health insurance services at a significantly lower cost. (wirefly.com)
  • Residents of Silver Lake, NY can usually get their health insurance through their employers or private insurance. (wirefly.com)

major


  • The major downside of HMO plans is that the network of doctors you can choose from is limited because some physicians do not offer HMO plans. (wirefly.com)

currently


  • This is something to consider if you currently have a health condition such as heart disease or diabetes, and need quality, ongoing coverage. (wirefly.com)

individuals


  • An affordable option for individuals in Ada, OK who only want health insurance for emergency situations would be catastrophic-only insurance. (wirefly.com)
  • An affordable option for individuals in Silver Lake, NY who only want health insurance for emergency situations would be catastrophic-only insurance. (wirefly.com)