Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Oral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Dental Devices, Home Care: Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.School Dentistry: Preventive dental services provided for students in primary and secondary schools.Gingival DiseasesQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Toothbrushing: The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Toothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Schools: Educational institutions.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Professional Practice: The use of one's knowledge in a particular profession. It includes, in the case of the field of biomedicine, professional activities related to health care and the actual performance of the duties related to the provision of health care.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.United StatesWorld Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.General Practice: Patient-based medical care provided across age and gender or specialty boundaries.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Practice Management, Medical: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a physician's practice.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Private Practice: Practice of a health profession by an individual, offering services on a person-to-person basis, as opposed to group or partnership practice.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Great BritainRural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Physicians, Family: Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Attitude to Computers: The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.EnglandPublic Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Attitude to Death: Conceptual response of the person to the various aspects of death, which are based on individual psychosocial and cultural experience.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Evidence-Based Practice: A way of providing health care that is guided by a thoughtful integration of the best available scientific knowledge with clinical expertise. This approach allows the practitioner to critically assess research data, clinical guidelines, and other information resources in order to correctly identify the clinical problem, apply the most high-quality intervention, and re-evaluate the outcome for future improvement.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Nurses: Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Practice (Psychology): Performance of an act one or more times, with a view to its fixation or improvement; any performance of an act or behavior that leads to learning.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Diffusion of Innovation: The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Professional-Patient Relations: Interactions between health personnel and patients.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Professional Practice Location: Geographic area in which a professional person practices; includes primarily physicians and dentists.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Knowledge Bases: Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.IndiaHealth Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Cultural Characteristics: Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Medical Staff, Hospital: Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Patients: Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures.Professional Role: The expected function of a member of a particular profession.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Dentist's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice in dentistry related to diagnosis and treatment.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.

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... with explanation for interviews, entrance tests and competitive exams. Practice online GK quiz and download PDF.
allindiaexams.in/general-knowledge-questions-answers/zoology-quiz

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Play Quick Quiz: General Knowledge Trivia 14 .,General Science.,General Knowledge Trivia 14 | Play Trivia Games, have fun, learn and challenge your friends.
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Background: Raising awareness of mothers has an important role to preventing neonatal severe hyperbilirubinemia. We aimed to investigate the role of educational intervention on the knowledge and practice of the mothers with icteric newborns. Materials and Methods: This study was interventional study with interventional and control group. Study population consisted of 384 consecutive parents of newborns with jaundice, who were admitted to Mahdieh and Mofid hospitals in Tehran- Iran, during 2013 to 2014. The participants were randomly assigned to the trained group (n = 192), who receiving educational programs in three sessions that each sessions was about 45 minutes and the control group (n = 192), without any educational intervention Two months after completing the educational program, the level of knowledge and practice of women in both groups was assessed by using the same questionnaire. The data were analyzed by using SPSS software. ...
ijp.mums.ac.ir/article_7299.html

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Physician practice behavior often produces poor clinical outcomes in the management of cardiovascular disease risk factors in spite of effective treatments and guidelines. The behavior of 165 physicians in 2 settings (suburban and urban) was studied.
biomedsearch.com/nih/Changing-physician-practice-behavior-to/17077421.html

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The International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES) and the National School of Administration (ENA) share a common objective: to raise awareness among Tunisia's future leaders on electoral matters," stated IFES Tunisia Chief of Party Nicolas Kaczorowski, during a January 25, 2017 seminar on campaign finance and its control that was co-organized by IFES and the ENA. This discussion, which included over 100 students from the ENA, was part of an ongoing joint effort between the two organizations to increase future Tunisian decision-makers' level of understanding of key aspects of the electoral process. The seminar was supported by funding from the U.S. Department of State's Middle East Partnership Initiative.. The January 25 seminar increased students' understanding of electoral processes and provided a platform to discuss the complexities of campaign finance and its control with senior officials from the Assembly of the Representatives of the People, the High Independent Authority for ...
ifes.org/news/raising-awareness-future-tunisian-leaders-campaign-finance

*  Challenges to providing HIV risk and prevention information online to gay, bisexual and other MSM: Findings from an...

ABSTRACT. Objectives: Health agency websites are a central hub for providing and accessing HIV information. We aimed to scope information provided about HIV risk and prevention on Canadian agency websites relevant to MSM. Our scan examined topics covered, how information was displayed, and the reading grade level of online information.. Methods: Eligible sites provided information relevant for MSM on HIV risk or prevention, were from community or government agencies, and for the public. Sites were found by google search using French and English search terms, expert suggestion, and review of links. Eligibility and content for review was determined by two independent reviewers, with data collected by a single reviewer using a standardized form and entered into EpiData (final results based on dual review will be presented). Reading grade level and usability scores were assessed through Flesch-Kincaid and LIDO instruments, respectively, Analyses were conducted in SPSS.. Results: Of 49 eligible ...
lovebytesresearch.ca/publications/challenges-to-providing-hiv-risk-and-prevention-information-online-to-gay-bisexual-and-other-msm-findings-from-an-environmental-scan-of-canadian-agency-websites-in-canada/

*  CURRICULUM FOR GES COURSES (2011 - DATE ) | UNIVERSITY OF IBADAN

The aim of this course is to provide students with knowledge and critical understanding of reproductive health, human sexuality and sexual health, including epidemiology, prevention and control of sexually transmitted diseases with emphasis on HIV. It is envisioned that this course will equip students with knowledge and skill to protect themselves against HIV infection and other STIs as well as prepare them to serve as agents of change in their present and future communities in the global efforts to control the scourge of HIV/AIDS. The objectives of the course are:. 1. To expose students to basic knowledge and unders-tanding of some contemporary health- related issues.. 2. To provide basic knowledge and understanding of the concepts of human sexuality and sexual health.. 3. To provide good knowledge of the transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS and other ...
ui.edu.ng/curriculumgsp

*  General Knowledge Quickie Quiz 213 | Triviala Quick Quiz

Play Quick Quiz: Once Again I Hope You Enjoy This 10 Question Quickie. | Play Trivia Games, have fun, learn and challenge your friends.
triviala.com/quizzes/playquick/id/28270

*  The Health Belief Model: a decade later.

Abstract Since the last comprehensive review in 1974, the Health Belief Model (HBM) has continued to be the focus of considerable theoretical and research attention. This article p..
https://omicsonline.org/references/the-health-belief-model-a-decade-later-177805.html

*  General knowledge of drugs - ppt download

Classification of drugs on the basis of strength Drugs cause poisoning only in high quantity (dosis), are stored on open selfs of pharmacies, and they can be dispensed for patients without prescriptions. Drugs designated by the symbol + have stronger activity. Drugs designated by the symbol empty + are the hypnotics or sedatives. Drugs designated by the symbol ++ have very strong biological activity. Drugs designated by the symbol empty ++ are narcotics. they act on the central nervous system and after chronic use dependency is developed which destroys the patients.
slideplayer.com/slide/253480/

*  Help at Hand for Students - Raising Awareness of Student Counselling Services - Counselling Directory

This week a friend told me the sad story of a nephew who had tried to kill himself while away at university. As the story went, no-one had seen it...
counselling-directory.org.uk/counsellor-articles/help-at-hand-for-students-raising-awareness-of-student-counselling-services

*  Background Knowledge Questionnaire

As a way to introduce a new topic, such as the process of second language acquisition, have students complete a short questionnaire on the topic, asking questions such as
busyteacher.org/6388-background-knowledge-questionnaire.html

*  Many facts, but insufficient knowledge: the story of asthma - Brocklehurst - 1976 - Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology -...

F. L. Pearce, H. Behrendt, U. Blum, G. Poblete-Freundt, P. Pult, Ch. Stang-Voss, W. Schmutzler, Isolation and study of functional mast cells from lung and mesentery of the guinea pig, Agents and Actions, 1977, 7, 1, ...
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.2042-7158.1976.tb04180.x/abstract

*  Patient Education | Sampson Regional Medical Center

The goal of patient education is to provide each patient a general knowledge of his or her specific medical problem. Inpatient education is done on a one-to-one basis and may be provided by your primary care nurse or by a registered nurse specially trained to provide patient education. We invite you to inform your nurse if you have any specific educational needs or concerns ...
sampsonrmc.org/patients-visitors/patient-education

*  TRINITY: CREED OF ST. ATHANASIUS | Mormon Beliefs

TRINITY: CREED OF ST. ATHANASIUS There is no greater subject to man than a correct knowledge of God. '3 And this is life eternal that they might know
mormonbeliefs.com/trinity-creed-of-st-athanasius/

*  GK and Most Important Questions: Simple but Important GK questions

General knowledge, current affairs questions and frequently asked gk questions for upsc, psc, RRB, bank exams, intelligence bureau, postal assistant and ibps. Also includes General Awareness question, confusing facts, Quiz questions, computer short forms and banking terms important gk Questions. ...
importantquestionsabout.blogspot.com/2012/06/psc-gk-questions-2013.html

*  EDID Overrides to solve bitstreaming issues for ATI 5xxx's - Page 144 - AVS Forum | Home Theater Discussions And Reviews

Originally Posted by Tulli ... Hi Tulli, Apologies for disturbing you but from my limited understanding as I'm trying to connect my PC to my TV and
avsforum.com/forum/26-home-theater-computers/1227161-edid-overrides-solve-bitstreaming-issues-ati-5xxx-s-144.html

*  Newsline - TheBodyPRO.com

Articles in the Newsline section were abstracted by the National Prevention Information Network (NPIN) of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and ...
thebodypro.com/content/art30535.html

*  nursing diagnosis list -order | allnurses

I am doing my nursing diagnosis list for a major care plan ok, I have this knowledge deficit diagnosis,(my pt is diabetic) I know that normally this would go way down at the end, but what if I have
allnurses.com/nursing-student-assistance/nursing-diagnosis-list-212590.html

Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Gingival disease: A gingival disease is a disorder primarily affecting the gingiva.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Toothbrush: The toothbrush is an oral hygiene instrument used to clean the teeth and gums that consists of a head of tightly clustered bristles mounted on a handle, which facilitates the cleansing of hard-to-reach areas of the mouth.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Dental Procedure Education System: The Dental Procedure Education System (DPES), is a web-based resource containing a collection of procedures from the dental disciplines. The procedures presented in DPES were developed by individual faculty members at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, in collaboration with a group of educational media and technology experts.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.The Alligator's Toothache: The Alligator's Toothache is a 1962 children's picture book written and illustrated by Marguerite Dorian. It tells the tale of an alligator called Alli and his child-friendly experiences with a painful tooth and a dentist's surgery.Global Health Delivery ProjectStandard evaluation frameworkHealth policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Dental cariesHalfdan T. MahlerPsychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Cigarette smoking among college students: The rates of college students smoking in the United States have fluctuated for the past twenty years. Majority of lifelong smokers begin smoking habits before the age of 24, which makes the college years a crucial time in the study of cigarette consumption.Poverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.National Clinical Guideline CentreSt. Vrain Valley School DistrictNeighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Layout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Samuel Bard (physician): Samuel Bard (April 1, 1742 – May 24, 1821) was an American physician. He founded the first medical school in New York.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.Comprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.Women's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.Internet organizations: This is a list of Internet organizations, or organizations that play or played a key role in the evolution of the Internet by developing recommendations, standards, and technology; deploying infrastructure and services; and addressing other major issues.Essex School of discourse analysis: The Essex School constitutes a variety of discourse analysis, one that combines theoretical sophistication – mainly due to its reliance on the post-structuralist and psychoanalytic traditions and, in particular, on the work of Lacan, Foucault, Barthes, Derrida, etc. – with analytical precision, since it focuses predominantly on an in-depth analysis of political discourses in late modernity.Red Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).Public opinion on nuclear issues: Public opinion on nuclear issues is the aggregate of attitudes or beliefs held by the adult population concerning nuclear power, nuclear weapons and uranium mining.European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Bestbets: BestBETS (Best Evidence Topic Reports) is a system designed by emergency physicians at Manchester Royal Infirmary, UK. It was conceived as a way of allowing busy clinicians to solve real clinical problems using published evidence.Leiden International Medical Student ConferenceHealthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:

(1/12010) Screening for cervical cancer: a review of women's attitudes, knowledge, and behaviour.

The United Kingdom (UK) cervical screening programme has been successful in securing participation of a high proportion of targeted women, and has seen a fall in mortality rates of those suffering from cervical cancer. There remains, however, a significant proportion of unscreened women and, of women in whom an abnormality is detected, many will not attend for colposcopy. The present work reviews the psychological consequences of receiving an abnormal cervical smear result and of secondary screening and treatment, and examines reasons for women's non-participation in the screening programme. Psychological theories of screening behavior are used to elucidate women's reactions and to suggest methods of increasing participation, of improving the quality of the service, and of reducing women's anxiety. A literature search identified studies that examine factors influencing women's participation in the screening programme, their psychological reaction to the receipt of an abnormal cervical smear result, and experiences of colposcopy. Reasons for non-participation include administrative failures, unavailability of a female screener, inconvenient clinic times, lack of awareness of the test's indications and benefits, considering oneself not to be at risk of developing cervical cancer, and fear of embarrassment, pain, or the detection of cancer. The receipt of an abnormal result and referral for colposcopy cause high levels of distress owing to limited understanding of the meaning of the smear test; many women believe the test aims to detect existing cervical cancer. The quality of the cervical screening service can be enhanced by the provision of additional information, by improved quality of communication, and by consideration of women's health beliefs. This may result in increased participation in, and satisfaction with, the service.  (+info)

(2/12010) Illness behaviour in elite middle and long distance runners.

OBJECTIVES: To examine the illness attitudes and beliefs known to be associated with abnormal illness behaviour (where symptoms are present in excess of objective signs and pathology) in elite middle and long distance runners, in comparison with non-athlete controls. METHODS: A total of 150 athletes were surveyed using the illness behaviour questionnaire as an instrument to explore the psychological attributes associated with abnormal illness behaviour. Subjects also completed the general health questionnaire as a measure of psychiatric morbidity. A control group of 150 subjects, matched for age, sex, and social class, were surveyed using the same instruments. RESULTS: A multivariate analysis of illness behaviour questionnaire responses showed that the athletes' group differed significantly from the control group (Hotelling's T: Exact F = 2.68; p = 0.01). In particular, athletes were more somatically focused (difference between means -0.27; 95% confidence interval -0.50 to -0.03) and more likely to deny the impact of stresses in their life (difference between means 0.78; 95% confidence interval 0.31 to 1.25). Athletes were also higher scorers on the Whiteley Index of Hypochondriasis (difference between means 0.76; 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 1.48). There were no differences in the levels of psychiatric morbidity between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The illness attitudes and beliefs of athletes differ from those of a well matched control population. The origin of these psychological attributes is not clear but those who treat athletes need to be aware of them.  (+info)

(3/12010) Provider attitudes toward dispensing emergency contraception in Michigan's Title X programs.

 (+info)

(4/12010) T

he pill in Japan: will approval ever come?  (+info)

(5/12010) Placebo medication use in patient care: a survey of medical interns.

The use of placebo medication, long recognized by clinicians, often has serious practical implications, such as patient deception. Past evidence has suggested that resident physicians tend to misuse placebo medication. Interns from two consecutive years of a residency program were surveyed anonymously to assess their knowledge and use of placebos. Of the 74 interns surveyed, 44 (59%) were familiar with placebo use in patient care. Fifty percent of these interns familiar with placebo use had learned about placebos from another physician. All interns who had learned about placebos during their internships had learned from another physician, whereas interns who had gained their knowledge of placebos as medical students were as likely to have learned from the medical literature as they were to have learned from a physician (P = 0.027). Interns aware of placebo use were more likely to consider placebo administration for suspected, factitious pain (P = 0.022). The present study uncovered no relationship between interns' estimations of placebo efficacy and the utility they attributed to placebos in assessing a complaint of pain. This suggests that conceptual inconsistencies underlie their use of placebos. Interns often learn of placebos as medical students and are influenced by physician-mentors. Placebo use in patient care is an area of attention for medical educators.  (+info)

(6/12010) Relationships between various attitudes towards self-determination in health care with special reference to an advance directive.

OBJECTIVES: The subject of patient self-determination in health care has gained broad interest because of the increasing number of incompetent patients. In an attempt to solve the problems related to doctors' decision making in such circumstances, advance directives have been developed. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between public attitudes towards patient autonomy and advance directives. SUBJECTS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A stratified random sample of 600 adults in northern Sweden was surveyed by a questionnaire with a response rate of 78.2%. The subjects were asked about their wish for control of their health care, their concerns about health care, their treatment preferences in a life-threatening situation (both reversible and irreversible), and their attitudes towards the application of advance directives. RESULTS: Numerous relationships between various aspects of self-determination in health care (desire for control, fears of over-treatment, and choice of treatment level) in general and advance directives, in particular, were found. Those who wanted to have a say in their health care (about 94%) also mainly supported the use of an advance directive. CONCLUSIONS: The fact that almost 30% of the respondents were undecided concerning their personal use of advance directives points to a lack of knowledge and to the necessity of education of the public on these issues.  (+info)

(7/12010) How physician executives and clinicians perceive ethical issues in Saudi Arabian hospitals.

OBJECTIVES: To compare the perceptions of physician executives and clinicians regarding ethical issues in Saudi Arabian hospitals and the attributes that might lead to the existence of these ethical issues. DESIGN: Self-completion questionnaire administered from February to July 1997. SETTING: Different health regions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of 457 physicians (317 clinicians and 140 physician executives) from several hospitals in various regions across the kingdom. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences in the perceptions of physician executives and clinicians regarding the existence of various ethical issues in their hospitals. The vast majority of physician executives did not perceive that seven of the eight issues addressed by the study were ethical concerns in their hospitals. However, the majority of the clinicians perceived that six of the same eight issues were ethical considerations in their hospitals. Statistically significant differences in the perceptions of physician executives and clinicians were observed in only three out of eight attributes that might possibly lead to the existence of ethical issues. The most significant attribute that was perceived to result in ethical issues was that of hospitals having a multinational staff. CONCLUSION: The study calls for the formulation of a code of ethics that will address specifically the physicians who work in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. As a more immediate initiative, it is recommended that seminars and workshops be conducted to provide physicians with an opportunity to discuss the ethical dilemmas they face in their medical practice.  (+info)

(8/12010) Attitudes, knowledge, and risk perceptions of women with breast and/or ovarian cancer considering testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2.

PURPOSE: This study examined baseline knowledge, beliefs, and risk perceptions among a group of 200 women with breast and/or ovarian cancer who participated in a trial designed to improve decision making about genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Women were identified by self-referral, physician referral, and tumor registry extraction and invited to participate in a randomized trial in which testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 was offered free of charge. Subjects completed baseline questionnaires and interviews that assessed knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of risk of having an alteration in BRCA1 or BRCA2. RESULTS: Sixty percent of women overestimated their chances of having a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation compared with estimates from a BRCA1/BRCA2 risk model. Women who have at least three relatives with breast or ovarian cancer were one third (95% confidence interval, 0.2 to 0.6) as likely to overestimate their risk of having a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation compared with women who have two or fewer affected relatives. Knowledge was limited about BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and cancer risk associated with gene mutations. Eighty-four percent of the women indicated a probable or definite interest in testing. CONCLUSION: A high proportion of the high-risk women in this study had knowledge deficits about BRCA1 and BRCA2 and overestimated their risk of having a mutation. Although some degree of caution should be used in generalizing the results of this study to practice settings, the data provide insight into the challenges clinicians will face in communicating with patients about cancer genetics.  (+info)



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