Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)National Health Insurance, United StatesUniversal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: An Act prohibiting a health plan from establishing lifetime limits or annual limits on the dollar value of benefits for any participant or beneficiary after January 1, 2014. It permits a restricted annual limit for plan years beginning prior to January 1, 2014. It provides that a health plan shall not be prevented from placing annual or lifetime per-beneficiary limits on covered benefits. The Act sets up a competitive health insurance market.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Privatization: Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Healthcare Financing: Methods of generating, allocating, and using financial resources in healthcare systems.Medically Uninsured: Individuals or groups with no or inadequate health insurance coverage. Those falling into this category usually comprise three primary groups: the medically indigent (MEDICAL INDIGENCY); those whose clinical condition makes them medically uninsurable; and the working uninsured.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Competitive Medical Plans: Alternative health care delivery mechanisms, such as PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS or other health insurance services or prepaid plans (other than HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS), that meet Medicare qualifications for a risk-sharing contract. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.United StatesReproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Managed Competition: A strategy for purchasing health care in a manner which will obtain maximum value for the price for the purchasers of the health care and the recipients. The concept was developed primarily by Alain Enthoven of Stanford University and promulgated by the Jackson Hole Group. The strategy depends on sponsors for groups of the population to be insured. The sponsor, in some cases a health alliance, acts as an intermediary between the group and competing provider groups (accountable health plans). The competition is price-based among annual premiums for a defined, standardized benefit package. (From Slee and Slee, Health Care Reform Terms, 1993)Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Reimbursement Mechanisms: Processes or methods of reimbursement for services rendered or equipment.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Comprehensive Health Care: Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Health Transition: Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Health Planning Support: Financial resources provided for activities related to health planning and development.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Insurance Carriers: Organizations which assume the financial responsibility for the risks of policyholders.Accountable Care Organizations: Organizations of health care providers that agree to be accountable for the quality, cost, and overall care of Medicare beneficiaries who are enrolled in the traditional fee-for-service program who are assigned to it. Assigned means those beneficiaries for whom the professionals in the organization provide the bulk of primary care services. (www.cms.gov/OfficeofLegislation/Downloads/Accountable CareOrganization.pdf accessed 03/16/2011)History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Great BritainUnited States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Financing, Personal: Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Liability, Legal: Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Single-Payer System: An approach to health care financing with only one source of money for paying health care providers. The scope may be national (the Canadian System), state-wide, or community-based. The payer may be a governmental unit or other entity such as an insurance company. The proposed advantages include administrative simplicity for patients and providers, and resulting significant savings in overhead costs. (From Slee and Slee, Health Care Reform Terms, 1993, p106)MassachusettsOutcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Public Assistance: Financial assistance to impoverished persons for the essentials of living through federal, state or local government programs.Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)Insurance Pools: An organization of insurers or reinsurers through which particular types of risk are shared or pooled. The risk of high loss by a particular insurance company is transferred to the group as a whole (the insurance pool) with premiums, losses, and expenses shared in agreed amounts.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Financial Management: The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Mandatory Programs: Programs in which participation is required.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Eligibility Determination: Criteria to determine eligibility of patients for medical care programs and services.Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Cost Sharing: Provisions of an insurance policy that require the insured to pay some portion of covered expenses. Several forms of sharing are in use, e.g., deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments. Cost sharing does not refer to or include amounts paid in premiums for the coverage. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Malpractice: Failure of a professional person, a physician or lawyer, to render proper services through reprehensible ignorance or negligence or through criminal intent, especially when injury or loss follows. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Insurance Benefits: Payments or services provided under stated circumstances under the terms of an insurance policy. In prepayment programs, benefits are the services the programs will provide at defined locations and to the extent needed.Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Medical Indigency: The condition in which individuals are financially unable to access adequate medical care without depriving themselves and their dependents of food, clothing, shelter, and other essentials of living.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Social Planning: Interactional process combining investigation, discussion, and agreement by a number of people in the preparation and carrying out of a program to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community. It usually involves the action of a formal political, legal, or recognized voluntary body.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Contract Services: Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act: Public Law 104-91 enacted in 1996, was designed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the healthcare system, protect health insurance coverage for workers and their families, and to protect individual personal health information.Health Fairs: Community health education events focused on prevention of disease and promotion of health through audiovisual exhibits.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Cost Savings: Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Organizations: Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Health Communication: The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Patient-Centered Care: Design of patient care wherein institutional resources and personnel are organized around patients rather than around specialized departments. (From Hospitals 1993 Feb 5;67(3):14)Labor Unions: Organizations comprising wage and salary workers in health-related fields for the purpose of improving their status and conditions. The concept includes labor union activities toward providing health services to members.Health Facility Administration: Management of the organization of HEALTH FACILITIES.

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https://medicalsearch.com.au/ama-releases-new-government-priority-health-investment-plan/f/3901

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motherjones.com/politics/2011/08/medical-loss-ratio-health-care-reform-insurance/

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*  7 little-known health care reform gems

Stay tuned to Bankrate.com for information about health care reform. ... Not sure about the new health care reform programs that benefit families? ... Overlooked goodies in health care reform. A law as far-reaching as health care reform legislation with 2,407 pages and a $940 ... Millions of Americans turn to the Web everyday for health advice that may or may not be accurate. The health care reform law ...
bankrate.com/finance/insurance/7-little-known-health-care-reform-measures-1.aspx

*  Study weighs healthcare reform options - Redorbit

The nation will be spending one out of every five dollars on health care by 2020, with millions more uninsured -- undermining ... Key to each version would be significant reforms to the way the nation pays for care, rewarding value and efficiency over ... A comprehensive approach could slow healthcare cost increases in the United Sates even while achieving near-universal coverage ... The private foundation's analysis examined three scenarios: a public plan option with healthcare providers paid midway between ...
redorbit.com/news/health/1710490/study_weighs_healthcare_reform_options/

*  Healthcare Rationing: When Is It OK? - Better Health - Better Health

... health policy, healthcare reform, true stories, disease management and expert interviews. ... Better Health is a network of healthcare professional blogs, offering commentary on news, research, ... Better Health Audio. Featured Audio. Healthy VisionTM with Dr. Val: Safe Contact Lens Wear and Care. ... Better Health Channels. Better Health , Health Policy , Video , Audio , Interviews , News , Health Tips , Opinion , Book ...
getbetterhealth.com/healthcare-rationing-when-is-it-ok/2009.09.23

*  Immigration reform no tougher nut than health care

His drop in the polls probably wouldn't have been any worse than the dip he's received in attempting comprehensive health-care ... President Obama should have tackled immigration reform first. ... Immigration reform no tougher nut than health care Updated: ... Now, immigration reform may become a collateral victim in the health-care war, which has Republicans walking in lockstep with ... But considering the greater likelihood of success with it - which, like health-care reform, has been a defining goal of Sen. ...
philly.com/philly/blogs/inq_ed_board/Immigration_reform_no_tougher_nut_than_health_care.html

*  PPT - Benchmarks of Fairness for Health Sector Reform in Developing Countries: Overview and Latin American Applications...

Benchmarks of Fairness for Health Sector Reform in Developing Countries: Overview and Latin American Applications. Norman ... Health Insurance, Health Care Reform and Resources in the Washington DC Area -Health insurance, health care reform and ... Health Insurance, Health Care Reform and Resources in San Francisco/Oakland -Health insurance, health care reform and resources ... Building an Integrated Health Team and a Vision of Health Care Reform -The spectrum of health care. preventionpublic health. ...
slideserve.com/Lucy/benchmarks-of-fairness-for-health-sector-reform-in-developing

*  Finally, healthcare reform in plain English - AOL Finance

President Obama outlined his plan for overhauling the nation's health care system in a speech before Congress on Wednesday. It ... percent of respondents to a CBS News poll released last week said they didn't have a clear understanding of health care reform ... At the same time, the president stuck to his core message that we need to provide quality health care to all Americans. He said ... "It will provide insurance to those who don't, and it will slow the growth of health care costs for our families, our businesses ...
https://aol.com/2009/09/12/health-care-reform-in-plain-english/

*  Health reform to reduce women's premiums - UPI.com

More than 20 million women with private health insurance have received preventive care without a co-pay under the Affordable ... Before the Affordable Care Act became law, health insurance companies selling individual policies could deny coverage to women ... The healthcare reform law, signed by President Barack Obama in 2010, requires health insurance plans to cover preventive ... Survey: Many fuzzy on healthcare reform *2.5 million U.S. adults newly insured *Health insurance lifetime limits lifted ...
upi.com/Health_News/2012/03/20/Health-reform-to-reduce-womens-premiums/UPI-85281332296161/ph3/

*  Survey: Docs Glum on Healthcare Reform | Medpage Today

... doctors believe that healthcare reform will increase use of public health insurance programs but will not reduce costs, ... diagnosis or treatment provided by a qualified health care provider.. © 2017 MedPage Today, LLC. All rights reserved. ... Most U.S. doctors believe that healthcare reform will increase use of public health insurance programs but will not reduce ... Doctors don't have a rosy view of the future of medicine: seven out of 10 surveyed said they think healthcare reform will make ...
https://medpagetoday.com/washington-watch/reform/30261

*  Our Network - Bios - Better Health - Better Health

... health policy, healthcare reform, true stories, disease management and expert interviews. ... Better Health is a network of healthcare professional blogs, offering commentary on news, research, ... She is also an accomplished author and speaker on topics regarding medical care, health care reform and health policy. She has ... Sikka is widely published in professional and peer-reviewed journals on medical care, healthcare reform, and health policy. She ...
getbetterhealth.com/our-network-bios?wpmp_switcher=mobile

*  healthcare reform Archives

4 years ago Jennifer Wadsworth Current Events, Health Care Reform and Human Resources, HR Management 0 ... A big part of the president's healthcare reform plan is to extend coverage to those who need it most - the old, the poor and ... Conservatives Want YOU to Go Without Healthcare. 3 years ago Beth Taylor Beth Taylor, Compensation Plans, Current Events, ... The Affordable Care Act is now law, and in spite of the various technical glitches, Americans have been signing up, so that ...
https://payscale.com/career-news/tag/healthcare-reform

*  Healthcare Reform: HR's Golden Opportunity

Take the Lead on Healthcare Reform Healthcare reform is a hot topic right now. I am not an expert on it, and you may not be ... you need to get educated and prepare to take the lead on your company's attempt to make sense of healthcare. ... Are you going to win them over? Probably not because employees are struggling with bigger concerns, like taking care of their ... Don't Be Shy: Take the Lead on Healthcare Reform. Healthcare reform is a hot topic right now. I am not an expert on it, and you ...
https://payscale.com/compensation-today/2011/09/us-healthcare-reform-bill

*  Preventive Health Tip: Get Vaccinated For Whooping Cough - Better Health - Better Health

... health policy, healthcare reform, true stories, disease management and expert interviews. ... Better Health is a network of healthcare professional blogs, offering commentary on news, research, ... Preventive Health, Primary Care, Public Awareness, Public Health, Spread Of Disease, Tdap Vaccine, Up-To-Date Care, Whooping ... Better Health Channels. Better Health , Health Policy , Video , Audio , Interviews , News , Health Tips , Opinion , Book ...
getbetterhealth.com/preventive-health-tip-get-vaccinated-for-whooping-cough/2010.06.30

*  From the Editor : The Journal of Ambulatory Care Management

Founder of Iora Health, Dr Fernandopulle believes that for health reform to succeed, primary care needs to be completely ... but it does so in a critical area-primary care-that needs to witness dramatic advances if health reform is to systematically ... This issue highlights a very exciting collaboration between the journal and the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality. ... Finally and irreverently, we conclude with observations from the front lines of Texas health reform. ...
journals.lww.com/ambulatorycaremanagement/Fulltext/2014/04000/From_the_Editor.1.aspx

*  Health care reform: Elgin man with heart troubles has change of heart - tribunedigital-chicagotribune

Tim Fraas was largely indifferent to the debate over health reform.The Elgin man was employed as a land surveyor, and his ... health insurance covered most of the medical bills ... Health care reform: Elgin man with heart troubles has change of ... Unlike many people who fall out of the work force, Fraas has affordable health care coverage through his wife's employer. But ... As Congress prepares to pass a health reform bill, lawmakers in both parties are hearing from many voters like Fraas. Some ...
articles.chicagotribune.com/2009-12-27/news/0912260249_1_health-care-health-insurance-heart

*  Health systems in transition: learning from experience. - GOV.UK

European Observatory on Health Care Systems, Copenhagen, Denmark. Links. Health systems in transition: learning from experience ... and the countries emerging from the process have each engaged to varying degrees in health system reform. It is at last ... It is now timely to take stock of these experiences and to draw lessons for the future development of health systems in this ... The health sector has not been spared the effects of transition, ... Theme: Health Authors: Cain, J. McKee, M. Figueras, J. Lessof, ...
https://gov.uk/dfid-research-outputs/health-systems-in-transition-learning-from-experience

*  Health Care Reform

... ensuring any action puts patient safety first and stresses affordable access to quality health care. ... The American Nurses Association recognizes that health care reform is a national priority and is working on behalf of the ... ANA Health Care Talking Points: The Better Care Reconciliation Act of 2017 (BCRA) and Its Impact on the Health Care System June ... ANA Principles on Health Care System Reform *. How Repealing Portions of the Affordable Care Act Would Affect Health Insurance ...
nursingworld.org/healthcarereform

*  Health Care Reform | Mass.gov

Health Care Reform Find the information you need on health care reform. ... The Massachusetts Health Care Reform Law requires most residents over 18 who can afford insurance to have health coverage for ... You must be enrolled in health insurance plans that meet Minimum Creditable Coverage (MCC) requirements. ... Learn about health care reform for individuals Learn about health care reform as an insurance carrier ...
https://mass.gov/health-care-reform

*  Health care reform alternative

... The debate over health care reform has been heated. ... Did you miss Richard Cebula's analysis of House Resolution 3200, the proposed national health care reform bill? Read his six ... this column offers a basic alternative approach to health reform, one that can meet these two goals without fundamentally ... does not have insurance and health care costs are by some measure "out of control." ...
savannahnow.com/column/2009-09-24/health-care-reform-alternative

*  Health Care Reform's New Poster Girls

... you asked for health care reform's poster girls . This week a few have emerged. Our own Sarah Wildman was called to testify on ... Her husband died of kidney cancer seven weeks ago on the day the Senate took up health care reform. He couldn't afford health ... KJ, you asked for health care reform's poster girls . This week a few have emerged. Our own Sarah Wildman was called to testify ... on the Hill about her health insurance nightmare during her pregnancy. And Regina Holliday, a Washington neighbor, is featured ...
slate.com/blogs/xx_factor/2009/08/06/poster_girls_for_health_care_reform.html

*  House Approves Health-Care Reform Bill

McCain May Have Killed Zombie GOP Health-Care Bill - Again With his rejection of a GOP health-care bill due to its partisanship ... House Approves Health-Care Reform Bill Share on Facebook Tweet this Story Top Stories. * Donald Trump, White Supremacy, and the ... Health-care reform has passed this evening, as Congress has given final approval to the legislation that will provide medical ... House Approves Health-Care Reform Bill. By Josh Duboff. Share. * Share * Tweet ...
nymag.com/daily/intelligencer/2010/03/house_approves_health_care_ref.html

Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Global Health Delivery ProjectHealth policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Opinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010: Opinion polling (popularly known as surveys in the Philippines) for the 2010 Philippine presidential election is managed by two major polling firms: Social Weather Stations and Pulse Asia, and several minor polling firms. The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.Halfdan T. MahlerBehavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.List of largest employers: ==Largest public and private and Government employers in the world==School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Comprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.DenplanWomen's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: The Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program is a system of "managed competition" through which employee health benefits are provided to civilian government employees and annuitants of the United States government.Minati SenChronic care: Chronic care refers to medical care which addresses pre-existing or long term illness, as opposed to acute care which is concerned with short term or severe illness of brief duration. Chronic medical conditions include asthma, diabetes, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, congestive heart disease, cirrhosis of the liver, hypertension and depression.Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}Healthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:Sharon Regional Health System: Sharon Regional Health System is a profit health care service provider based in Sharon, Pennsylvania. Its main hospital is located in Sharon; additionally, the health system operates schools of nursing and radiography; a comprehensive pain management center across the street from its main hospital; clinics in nearby Mercer, Greenville, Hermitage, and Brookfield, Ohio; and Sharon Regional Medical Park in Hermitage.Resource leak: In computer science, a resource leak is a particular type of resource consumption by a computer program where the program does not release resources it has acquired. This condition is normally the result of a bug in a program.Privatization in criminal justice: Privatization in criminal justice refers to a shift to private ownership and control of criminal justice services.Northeast Community Health CentrePrivate healthcareFederal budget of Russia: The Federal budget of Russia () is the leading element of the Budget system of Russia. The federal budget is a major state financial plan for the fiscal year, which has the force of law after its approval by the Russian parliament and signed into law by the President of Russia.Injustice SocietyImplementation research: Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the uptake of research findings. Often research projects focus on small scale pilot studies or laboratory based experiments, and assume that findings can be generalised to roll out into a practice based domain with few changes.Maternal Health Task ForceSunshine Social Welfare Foundation: Sunshine Social Welfare Foundation (Chinese: 陽光社會福利基金會) is a charity established in 1981 in Taiwan to provide comprehensive services for burn survivors and people with facial disfigurement.Toyota NZ engine: The Toyota NZ engine family is a straight-4 piston engine series. The 1NZ series uses aluminum engine blocks and DOHC cylinder heads.Poundage quota: A poundage quota, also called a marketing quota, is a quantitative limit on the amount of a commodity that can be marketed under the provisions of a permanent law. Once a common feature of price support programs, this supply control mechanism ended with the quota buyouts for peanuts in 2002 and tobacco in 2004.State health agency: A state health agency (SHA), or state department of health, is a department or agency of the state governments of the United States focused on public health. The state secretary of health is a constitutional or at times a statutory official in several states of the United States.Open Fuel Standard Coalition: The Open Fuel Standard Coalition is a bipartisan group in the United States actively working for passage of H.R.Poverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria: (first Board of Directors meeting)Hoya Corporation: TOPIX 100 Component

(1/1516) Towards evidence-based health care reform.

Health care reform in Europe is discussed in the light of the Ljubljana Charter, with particular reference to progress made in Estonia and Lithuania.  (+info)

(2/1516) Restructuring the primary health care services and changing profile of family physicians in Turkey.

A new health-reform process has been initiated by Ministry of Health in Turkey. The aim of that reform is to improve the health status of the Turkish population and to provide health care to all citizens in an efficient and equitable manner. The restructuring of the current health system will allow more funds to be allocated to primary and preventive care and will create a managed market for secondary and tertiary care. In this article, we review the current and proposed primary care services models and the role of family physicians therein.  (+info)

(3/1516) Managing the health care market in developing countries: prospects and problems.

There is increasing interest in the prospects for managed market reforms in developing countries, stimulated by current reforms and policy debates in developed countries, and by perceptions of widespread public sector inefficiency in many countries. This review examines the prospects for such reforms in a developing country context, primarily by drawing on the arguments and evidence emerging from developed countries, with a specific focus on the provision of hospital services. The paper begins with a discussion of the current policy context of these reforms, and their main features. It argues that while current and proposed reforms vary in detail, most have in common the introduction of competition in the provision of health care, with the retention of a public monopoly of financing, and that this structure emerges from the dual goals of addressing current public sector inefficiencies while retaining the known equity and efficiency advantages of public health systems. The paper then explores the theoretical arguments and empirical evidence for and against these reforms, and examines their relevance for developing countries. Managed markets are argued to enhance both efficiency and equity. These arguments are analysed in terms of three distinct claims made by their proponents: that managed markets will promote increased provider competition, and hence, provider efficiency; that contractual relationships are more efficient than direct management; and that the benefits of managed markets will outweigh their costs. The analysis suggests that on all three issues, the theoretical arguments and empirical evidence remain ambiguous, and that this ambiguity is attributable in part to poor understanding of the behaviour of health sector agents within the market, and to the limited experience with these reforms. In the context of developing countries, the paper argues that most of the conditions required for successful implementation of these reforms are absent in all but a few, richer developing countries, and that the costs of these reforms, particularly in equity terms, are likely to pose substantial problems. Extensive managed market reforms are therefore unlikely to succeed, although limited introduction of particular elements of these reforms may be more successful. Developed country experience is useful in defining the conditions under which such limited reforms may succeed. There is an urgent need to evaluate the existing experience of different forms of contracting in developing countries, as well as to interpret emerging evidence from developed country reforms in the light of conditions in developing countries.  (+info)

(4/1516) Reforming the health sector in developing countries: the central role of policy analysis.

Policy analysis is an established discipline in the industrialized world, yet its application to developing countries has been limited. The health sector in particular appears to have been neglected. This is surprising because there is a well recognized crisis in health systems, and prescriptions abound of what health policy reforms countries should introduce. However, little attention has been paid to how countries should carry out reforms, much less who is likely to favour or resist such policies. This paper argues that much health policy wrongly focuses attention on the content of reform, and neglects the actors involved in policy reform (at the international, national sub-national levels), the processes contingent on developing and implementing change and the context within which policy is developed. Focus on policy content diverts attention from understanding the processes which explain why desired policy outcomes fail to emerge. The paper is organized in 4 sections. The first sets the scene, demonstrating how the shift from consensus to conflict in health policy established the need for a greater emphasis on policy analysis. The second section explores what is meant by policy analysis. The third investigates what other disciplines have written that help to develop a framework of analysis. And the final section suggests how policy analysis can be used not only to analyze the policy process, but also to plan.  (+info)

(5/1516) Donor funding for health reform in Africa: is non-project assistance the right prescription?

During the past 10 years, donors have recognized the need for major reforms to achieve sustainable development. Using non-project assistance they have attempted to leverage reforms by offering financing conditioned on the enactment of reform. The experience of USAID's health reform programmes in Niger and Nigeria suggest these programmes have proved more difficult to implement than expected. When a country has in place a high level of fiscal accountability and high institutional capacity, programmes of conditioned non-project assistance may be more effective in achieving reforms than traditional project assistance. However, when these elements are lacking, as they were in Niger, non-project assistance offers nothing inherently superior than traditional project assistance. Non-project assistance may be most effective for assisting the implementation of policy reforms adopted by the host government.  (+info)

(6/1516) Introducing health insurance in Vietnam.

Like many other countries Vietnam is trying to reform its health care system through the introduction of social insurance. The small size of the formal sector means that the scope for compulsory payroll insurance is limited and provinces are beginning to experiment with ways of encouraging people to buy voluntary insurance. Methods of contracting between hospitals and insurance centres are being devised. These vary in complexity and there is a danger that those based on fee for service will encourage excessive treatment for those insured. It is important that the national and provincial government continue to maintain firm control over funding while also ensuring that a substantial and targeted general budget subsidy is provided for those unable to make contributions.  (+info)

(7/1516) Overview: health financing reforms in Africa.

 (+info)

(8/1516) The impact of alternative cost recovery schemes on access and equity in Niger.

The authors examine accessibility and the sustainability of quality health care in a rural setting under two alternative cost recovery methods, a fee-for-service method and a type of social financing (risk-sharing) strategy based on an annual tax+fee-for-service. Both methods were accompanied by similar interventions aimed at improving the quality of primary health services. Based on pilot tests of cost recovery in the non-hospital sector in Niger, the article presents results from baseline and final survey data, as well as from facility utilization, cost, and revenue data collected in two test districts and a control district. Cost recovery accompanied by quality improvements increases equity and access to health care and the type of cost recovery method used can make a difference. In Niger, higher access for women, children, and the poor resulted from the tax+fee method, than from the pure fee-for-service method. Moreover, revenue generation per capita under the tax+fee method was two times higher than under the fee-for-service method, suggesting that the prospects of sustainability were better under the social financing strategy. However, sustainability under cost recovery and improved quality depends as much on policy measures aimed at cost containment, particularly for drugs, as on specific cost recovery methods.  (+info)



legislation


  • All of these restraints on health insurance firms should probably be a separate piece of legislation and acted on with dispatch. (savannahnow.com)
  • Health-care reform has passed this evening, as Congress has given final approval to the legislation that will provide medical coverage for millions of uninsured Americans, aligned with Barack Obama's vision (the president celebrated the news with a "Yes We Can" tweet ). (nymag.com)
  • The legislation makes sweeping changes in the nation's health-care system, including how health coverage is obtained and what it covers.Before you worry too much about the changes, know that if your business has fewer than 50 employees, there are no penalties if you don't provide insurance, even after the law goes into full effect in 2014. (washingtonpost.com)
  • A law as far-reaching as health care reform legislation with 2,407 pages and a $940 billion price tag is bound to contain programs and grants that are overlooked. (bankrate.com)
  • The Senate failed last night to pass legislation repealing the health care reform law, but did pass legislation repealing a provision of the law that. (propertycasualty360.com)
  • House Majority Leader Steny Hoyer (D-Md.) predicted on Tuesday that Democrats would pass health-care overhaul legislation even if it doesn't include a public option. (politico.com)
  • Hoyer seemed resigned to what many on Capitol Hill are beginning to come to grips with: health care reform legislation will not have the much-talked-about public option, which has been touted by House and Senate Democrats as significantly lowering costs and increasing competition. (politico.com)
  • Too often it appears that the psychology in the Senate is the psychology of one," Hoyer said in response to a question about frustrations with Sen. Joe Lieberman (I-Conn.), who opposes the public option and Medicare buy-in provisions in health-care overhaul legislation. (politico.com)
  • A new poll shows that public support for health care reform dropped sharply in August - a dagger in Democrats' hopes that their landmark legislation will help them in November's midterm. (politico.com)
  • But in that scenario, many Republicans would have supported the legislation as an effort to bring free market principles to universal health care, and many Democrats would have opposed it. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Would they oppose the bill if they knew it was the most modest, conservative, universal health-care legislation a president has ever proposed, or that Democrats have included literally hundreds of Republican amendments? (washingtonpost.com)

preventive


  • With the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), millions of people have greater protection against losing or being denied health insurance coverage, and better access to primary and preventive services. (nursingworld.org)
  • Primary health care that includes preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services delivered in a coordinated manner by members of the health care team. (nursingworld.org)
  • Under the new law, national education programs and a media campaign armed with up to $500 million will promote better health practices at home, preventive care and awareness of life-threatening diseases such as breast cancer and diabetes. (bankrate.com)
  • They include a ban on lifetime or annual caps on insurance coverage and free preventive care on new insurance plans. (politico.com)
  • On top of that, our agent told us that we'd also be gaining access to more preventive care, with no deductibles. (courant.com)

Senate


  • Her husband died of kidney cancer seven weeks ago on the day the Senate took up health care reform. (slate.com)
  • Senior members of the Senate Judiciary Committee clashed over whether the government can force individuals to buy health insurance, with Senate Democrats ultimately blocking a. (propertycasualty360.com)
  • The package makes a number of changes to the Senate-authored health care overhaul demanded by House Democrats. (rollcall.com)
  • Sen. Benjamin Cardin (D-Md.) said Democrats were largely committed to keeping the reconciliation bill free of other amendments because of the House's leap of faith in passing the Senate health care bill. (rollcall.com)

overhaul


  • The Congressional Democratic push to overhaul health care is finally, at very long last, done. (rollcall.com)

provisions


  • In all, the bill has 18 such short-term provisions affecting everything from coverage limits to Medicare.Of course, these changes are just the start of reform. (washingtonpost.com)
  • About one-quarter (26 percent) indicated they will try to keep a grandfathered health plan, which is exempt from certain PPACA provisions. (shrm.org)
  • To help them comply with reform provisions, employers are turning to their insurance brokers (78 percent), SHRM resources (62 percent), legal counsel (48 percent), consultants (34 percent) and internal experts (20 percent). (shrm.org)
  • The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's new series of animated educational videos aim to help patients and health care consumers understand how the new benefits and provisions of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) will affect them. (apta.org)

nation's


  • ANA continues to deliver nursing's message, provide resources, develop solutions and take action to ensure the successful implementation of health reform while continuing to represent the interests of the nation's nurses and patients. (nursingworld.org)

respondents


  • Respondents listed health care as the third most important factor in deciding how they'll vote this fall - behind the economy and "dissatisfaction with government. (politico.com)
  • Forty-two percent of respondents said health care reform will play an "extremely important" role in their ballot-box decisions, on par with the 41 percent who said the same thing in June. (politico.com)

millions


  • The alleged reasons for reform are the fact that roughly 15.8 percent of the population residing in the U.S., which includes millions of illegal immigrants, does not have insurance and health care costs are by some measure "out of control. (savannahnow.com)
  • The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act includes millions in spending on a smorgasbord of programs designed to improve your health outside the doctor's office. (bankrate.com)
  • Millions of Americans turn to the Web everyday for health advice that may or may not be accurate. (bankrate.com)

implementation


  • Some health policy analysts anticipate more conflicts like this as implementation of the ACA moves along (or doesn't). (motherjones.com)

employers


  • More babies will enjoy the health benefits many attribute to nursing, thanks to a new requirement that employers provide reasonable break time and a place other than a bathroom for nursing mothers to use a breast pump. (bankrate.com)
  • Health exchange regulations finalized by the Obama administration envision allowing agents, brokers and private companies, to sell coverage on the exchange to individuals and employers. (propertycasualty360.com)
  • New survey reports detailing how U.S. employers are responding to health care reform were released by the Society for Human Resource Management on June 16, 2013, in conjunction with its Annual Conference & Exposition. (shrm.org)

2016


  • In December 2016, we delivered a letter to then President-elect Trump outlining ANA's Principles for Health System Transformation . (nursingworld.org)

practices


PPACA


  • On March 23, the face of health care in the United States changed dramatically when President Barack Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) into law. (washingtonpost.com)
  • PPACA also provides $5 billion to fund the temporary Early Retiree Reinsurance Program, which will help businesses continue to provide health-care coverage for early retirees age 55 and older who are not yet eligible for Medicare. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Although the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) is currently under scrutiny by the U.S. Supreme Court for possibly being unconstitutional, many states. (propertycasualty360.com)

afford


  • The Massachusetts Health Care Reform Law requires most residents over 18 who can afford insurance to have health coverage for the entire year, or pay a penalty through their tax returns. (mass.gov)
  • He couldn't afford health insurance, so he never got the tests that would have detected the cancer early. (slate.com)

coverage


  • Inclusion of children on parent's health insurance coverage until age 26. (nursingworld.org)
  • You must be enrolled in health insurance plans that meet Minimum Creditable Coverage (MCC) requirements. (mass.gov)
  • Bristol-Myers Squibb supports accessible and affordable health care and measures to reduce the number of uninsured, especially vulnerable populations such as children and people with lower incomes, with the goal of achieving universal, continuous, and affordable health care coverage. (bms.com)
  • We support market-based policy approaches to reduce significantly the number of uninsured that build on the current public-private mix of health insurance coverage, while preserving incentives for innovation. (bms.com)
  • We have collaborated with and will continue to collaborate with other organizations to achieve accessible and affordable health care coverage. (bms.com)
  • This had never happened before in all the years we've been offering health coverage. (courant.com)
  • P art two, Health Care Reform-Impact of Health Care Coverage and Costs , focuses on future health care coverage benefits and expected costs. (shrm.org)
  • A large majority of those surveyed (84 percent) expect their health care coverage costs to increase in 2014. (shrm.org)
  • More than one-half (56 percent) already offer (37 percent) or plan to offer (19 percent) their employees alternative, lower-premium coverage, including high-deductible plans with health savings accounts or health reimbursement arrangements. (shrm.org)

Bill


  • That is happening now.At the heart of the bill are state-based exchanges called the American Health Benefit Exchanges and the Small Business Health Options Program (SHOP) Exchanges. (washingtonpost.com)
  • This bill will provide our generation with the opportunity to pursue our dreams without fear of a lack of health insurance. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • I want to remind you that my view is the guts of this bill, on both sides of the aisle, is the adding of some 30 million plus people to access to affordable quality health care," Hoyer said. (politico.com)
  • The Kaiser Health Tracking Poll has support for the bill dropping 7 percentage points in August - down to 43 percent - while opposition rose 10 points to 45 percent. (politico.com)
  • It's a chart from Pollster.com tallying surveys asking whether you support or oppose the health-care reform bill. (washingtonpost.com)
  • But if you actually tell people what's in the health-care reform bill, then it becomes quite popular. (washingtonpost.com)
  • As a thought experiment, imagine that George W. Bush, who proposed the Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit, had also proposed this health-care reform bill. (washingtonpost.com)

Medicaid


  • By 2014, more young people without children will be able to qualify for Medicaid, the government health insurance program for poor and low-income people. (huffingtonpost.com)

Exchanges


  • The program will end on Jan. 1, 2014, when other options will be available through the bill's state-run exchanges.The fund will reimburse employer plans up to 80 percent of claims costs for health benefits provided to retirees, as well as their covered spouses and dependents, totaling between $15,000 and $90,000. (washingtonpost.com)

Supreme Court


  • Smaller agencies selling employee-benefit services face increased compliance demands and lower commissions now that the health-care-reform law has been upheld by the Supreme Court, but. (propertycasualty360.com)
  • I've been dismayed to hear that one of the groups arguing against the health care law before the Supreme Court is a group that claims to represent the best interests of small businesses. (courant.com)
  • Mr. England is a small business leader in the national Main Street Alliance network, which has filed a 'friend of the court' brief to the U.S. Supreme Court presenting a small business case for upholding the Affordable Care Act. (courant.com)

regulations


  • Part one, Health Care Reform-Challenges and Strategies , examines the difficulties that HR professionals are facing and the strategies they are using to handle the new regulations. (shrm.org)

costs


  • Care coordination services that reduce costs and improve outcomes with consistent payment for all qualified health professionals delivering such services, including nurses. (nursingworld.org)
  • Encourage mechanisms to stimulate economical use of health care services while supporting those who do not have the means to share in costs. (nursingworld.org)
  • A partnership between the government and private sector to bear health care costs. (nursingworld.org)
  • For example, once a person/household has a health insurance policy, it cannot be canceled (so long as the premiums continue to be paid in full and on time) simply because the medical costs associated with the insured have become high. (savannahnow.com)
  • It seemed like a good idea at the time: a key piece of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), known as the medical loss ratio (MLR), would require insurance companies to spend 80-85 percent of their customers' premium payments on medical costs. (motherjones.com)
  • If insurance companies spent more on quality care and less on administrative and overhead costs, the thinking went, patients would stand to benefit. (motherjones.com)
  • That goes for the evidence that supports both sides: Would the public still support financing health care for poor people if they were told the system's costs were growing faster than their wages? (washingtonpost.com)
  • As a small business owner, I am not a constitutional scholar, but I can definitively say this: the Affordable Care Act is cutting my health care costs and helping my business. (courant.com)
  • We'd been getting squeezed by escalating health insurance costs all that time. (courant.com)
  • Our agent explained that our rate correction was thanks to the 'medical loss ratio' requirement in the Affordable Care Act - a piece of the law that requires insurance companies to spend at least 80 percent of the premiums they collect on actual health care costs, as opposed to CEO salaries, advertising and administration. (courant.com)

incentives


  • Micah Weinberg, a senior policy advisor at the Bay Are Council and a proponent of the ACA, points out that the law was crafted to help change the financial incentives of the health care industry-to, in essence, make it more profitable to cover sicker people. (motherjones.com)

people


  • People who consume tobacco products, illicit drugs, engage in risky sexual behavior (promiscuity and unprotected sex), unhealthy eating and excessive alcohol need to be made responsible for their irresponsible behavior and poor health choices. (savannahnow.com)
  • When it comes to early diagnosis and treatment, some people just need a little knowledge or a gentle push to take positive steps toward better health. (bankrate.com)
  • Even for young people, who have a lot to gain from reform, there will be a cost. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Now, people who want to leave their jobs will be able to keep their health insurance, and people who want to start their own businesses will be able to get insurance she said. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Health care reform represented "1,000 of the best ideas that people have had about health care policy over the past thirty years, all rolled into one big burrito," he says. (motherjones.com)

Americans


  • For all Americans, but particularly young Americans, this is a historic moment that guarantees affordable, stable health care for all," said Aaron Smith, co-founder of the health reform advocacy group Young Invincibles , in a statement released Monday. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • A recent Newsweek poll found the same thing: "The majority of Americans are opposed to President Obama's health-care reform plan - until they learn the details. (washingtonpost.com)

help


  • Nearly three-quarters of organizations are educating HR staff members through classes (74 percent) or working with legal/benefits counsel (73 percent) to help them understand the health care law. (shrm.org)

diabetes


  • Young adults who don't get health insurance at work will be able to buy insurance through a health insurance exchange, even if they have pre-existing health conditions like asthma or diabetes. (huffingtonpost.com)

affordable


  • So even as health care becomes more affordable, consumers could potentially find a less diverse marketplace. (motherjones.com)
  • We are so glad that something has been done about health care and that we're already seeing some real savings from the Affordable Care Act. (courant.com)

support


  • About one-third of voters said support for the health reform law would make it more likely that they'd vote for a candidate. (politico.com)

fairly


  • Public opinion on health reform has been stuck in a fairly narrow band and is not changing dramatically," said Drew Altman, president and CEO of the Kaiser Family Foundation. (politico.com)

benefits


  • An essential benefits package that provides access to comprehensive services, including mental health services. (nursingworld.org)
  • HR3200 does not stop illegal immigrants residing in the U.S. from qualifying for public health benefits. (savannahnow.com)
  • More than one-half are working with their benefits provider to design a compliant health care plan for 2014 (61 percent) or analyzing the short-term financial impact of the law (60 percent). (shrm.org)

Business


  • Can Group Health Business Ruin Your M&A Prospects? (propertycasualty360.com)
  • Some say agency health business can decrease valuation by as much as 90 percent--while other buyers actively seek out this specialty. (propertycasualty360.com)
  • One of the biggest barriers to growing a successful business has been the rising cost of health insurance. (courant.com)
  • The health care law is already working for my business. (courant.com)

public


  • ANA recognizes the debate of health care is ongoing, and the organization remains committed to educating the nursing public about how the changing system impacts our lives and our profession. (nursingworld.org)
  • House Majority Leader Steny Hoyer predicted Tuesday that health care reform will pass, even if it doesn't have a public option. (politico.com)

plan


  • Having everyone who needs/wants health insurance file a tax return also will enable us, if it is judged necessary at a later date, to set up a system of health insurance tax credits for those who actually enroll in a real health insurance plan. (savannahnow.com)

vote


  • House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, who has been a major player in passing health reform, said in a speech before the vote that health reform will "unleash an entrepreneurial spirit" in America. (huffingtonpost.com)

government


  • Since the proposals to date all assume that the federal government ultimately can take over the system and do a better job, this column offers a basic alternative approach to health reform, one that can meet these two goals without fundamentally changing our way of life or bankrupting the U.S. Treasury. (savannahnow.com)
  • First, the federal government must enact serious tort reform. (savannahnow.com)
  • It will be up to the government agencies that implement and oversee the new system--such as the Department of Health and Human Services, the Internal Revenue Service, state insurance commissions, and others--to figure out how the details will be carried out. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Administered in each state by the government or a nonprofit institution, these insurance marketplaces will offer qualified health insurance options for individuals and small businesses with up to 100 employees. (washingtonpost.com)

Patients


  • In addition, prohibit all health insurance companies from refusing to cover high-risk/pre-existing condition patients. (savannahnow.com)

Encourage


  • With grants for everything from revamping school clinics, to designing sidewalks to encourage walking, health care reform could be a gold mine if you're looking to improve your family's health without spending your own money to do it. (bankrate.com)
  • The health care reform law provides up to $50 million for Community Transformation Grants to promote access to healthy food and to encourage exercise. (bankrate.com)

Access


  • For decades, the American Nurses Association has been advocating for health care reforms that would guarantee access to high-quality health care for all. (nursingworld.org)
  • Ensure universal access to a standard package of essential health care services for all citizens and residents. (nursingworld.org)
  • The health care reform law calls for creation of a Web-based tool to give consumers access to up-to-date medical research, calculate their susceptibility to certain diseases and get personalized suggestions on how to stay healthy. (bankrate.com)
  • But having access to health insurance might mean something more -- it might mean pursuing the dream of becoming a musician , not having to choose between buying winter boots or going to the doctor , or getting the critical scans and tests to make sure your cancer is still in remission . (huffingtonpost.com)

already


  • What changes have already taken place since healthcare reform took effect? (redorbit.com)

debate


changes


  • For young adults, health reform will bring big changes -- with some changes happening as soon as this year . (huffingtonpost.com)

plans


  • Later this year, health care reform would begin to allow young adults, the age group most likely to be uninsured , to stay on their parents' insurance plans until age 26. (huffingtonpost.com)

good


  • Although stating that the health care reform law will do more harm than good, Arthur J. Gallagher's chief executive said one benefit of the law. (propertycasualty360.com)

exchange


  • Arthur J. Gallagher's move to offer a private-insurance-exchange platform is a smart strategy for leveraging the health-care-reform law into new solutions for employee-benefit clients-but smaller. (propertycasualty360.com)

includes


  • The health care reform law includes $50 million to build and run clinics to give students free diagnoses, treatment for chronic medical conditions and mental health screenings . (bankrate.com)

Find


  • Find the information you need on health care reform. (mass.gov)

year


  • Funding for implementing the medical loss ratio provision of the health care reform law would be eliminated for the remainder of this fiscal year under. (propertycasualty360.com)
  • Last year, we heard a lot of speculation about how rates were going to go up even more because of health care reform . (courant.com)

last


  • Last week, theU.S. Supreme Courtheard six hours of oral arguments for and against the constitutionality of the new health care law. (courant.com)

mental


  • And having time and privacy for this sometimes stressful activity probably won't hurt mom's mental health, either. (bankrate.com)

important


  • For young adults, who are less likely to get insurance through work, being able to change jobs or create their own job without worrying about health insurance is important. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • And with concerns about the economy and jobs dominating the public's agenda, and local issues always so important in midterm elections, it is not clear that health reform will play a significant role at the polls in November. (politico.com)

Third