Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Insurance, Pharmaceutical Services: Insurance providing for payment of services rendered by the pharmacist. Services include the preparation and distribution of medical products.Employee Retirement Income Security Act: A 1974 Federal act which preempts states' rights with regard to workers' pension benefits and employee benefits. It does not affect the benefits and rights of employees whose employer is self-insured. (From Slee & Slee, Health Care Reform Terms, 1993)Insurance Carriers: Organizations which assume the financial responsibility for the risks of policyholders.Cost Sharing: Provisions of an insurance policy that require the insured to pay some portion of covered expenses. Several forms of sharing are in use, e.g., deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments. Cost sharing does not refer to or include amounts paid in premiums for the coverage. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Formularies as Topic: Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.Drugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.United StatesPublic Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Insurance Benefits: Payments or services provided under stated circumstances under the terms of an insurance policy. In prepayment programs, benefits are the services the programs will provide at defined locations and to the extent needed.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Employer Health Costs: That portion of total HEALTH CARE COSTS borne by an individual's or group's employing organization.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Personnel Management: Planning, organizing, and administering all activities related to personnel.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Retirement: The state of being retired from one's position or occupation.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Sick Leave: An absence from work permitted because of illness or the number of days per year for which an employer agrees to pay employees who are sick. (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Insurance Selection Bias: Adverse or favorable selection bias exhibited by insurers or enrollees resulting in disproportionate enrollment of certain groups of people.Medical Savings Accounts: Tax-exempt trusts or custodial accounts established by individuals with financial institutions for saving money for future medical expenses.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Competitive Medical Plans: Alternative health care delivery mechanisms, such as PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS or other health insurance services or prepaid plans (other than HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS), that meet Medicare qualifications for a risk-sharing contract. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Personnel, Hospital: The individuals employed by the hospital.National Health Insurance, United StatesDelivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Employee Incentive Plans: Programs designed by management to motivate employees to work more efficiently with increased productivity, and greater employee satisfaction.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Absenteeism: Chronic absence from work or other duty.Deductibles and Coinsurance: Cost-sharing mechanisms that provide for payment by the insured of some portion of covered expenses. Deductibles are the amounts paid by the insured under a health insurance contract before benefits become payable; coinsurance is the provision under which the insured pays part of the medical bill, usually according to a fixed percentage, when benefits become payable.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Prepaid Health Plans: Contracts between an insurer and a subscriber or a group of subscribers whereby a specified set of health benefits is provided in return for a periodic premium.Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Mandatory Programs: Programs in which participation is required.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.Great BritainPublic Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Blue Cross Blue Shield Insurance Plans: Prepaid health and hospital insurance plan.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Models, Econometric: The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.Efficiency: Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Group Purchasing: A shared service which combines the purchasing power of individual organizations or facilities in order to obtain lower prices for equipment and supplies. (From Health Care Terms, 2nd ed)Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Tax Exemption: Status not subject to taxation; as the income of a philanthropic organization. Tax-exempt organizations may also qualify to receive tax-deductible donations if they are considered to be nonprofit corporations under Section 501(c)3 of the United States Internal Revenue Code.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Government Programs: Programs and activities sponsored or administered by local, state, or national governments.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Eligibility Determination: Criteria to determine eligibility of patients for medical care programs and services.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Labor Unions: Organizations comprising wage and salary workers in health-related fields for the purpose of improving their status and conditions. The concept includes labor union activities toward providing health services to members.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Financing, Personal: Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: An Act prohibiting a health plan from establishing lifetime limits or annual limits on the dollar value of benefits for any participant or beneficiary after January 1, 2014. It permits a restricted annual limit for plan years beginning prior to January 1, 2014. It provides that a health plan shall not be prevented from placing annual or lifetime per-beneficiary limits on covered benefits. The Act sets up a competitive health insurance market.Urban Renewal: The planned upgrading of a deteriorating urban area, involving rebuilding, renovation, or restoration. It frequently refers to programs of major demolition and rebuilding of blighted areas.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Job Satisfaction: Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Employee Grievances: Formal procedures whereby the employee expresses any dissatisfaction or feeling of injustice regarding the work situation.Medicare Part C: The Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997 establishes a Medicare+Choice program under part C of Title XVIII, Section 4001, of the Social Security Act. Under this program, an eligible individual may elect to receive Medicare benefits through enrollment in a Medicare+Choice plan. Beneficiaries may choose to use private pay options, establish medical savings accounts, use managed care plans, or join provider-sponsored plans.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Quality-Adjusted Life Years: A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Functional Food: Components of the usual diet that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrients. Examples of functional foods include soy, nuts, chocolate, and cranberries (From NCCAM Backgrounder, March 2004, p3).Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Insurance, Psychiatric: Insurance providing benefits to cover part or all of the psychiatric care.FinlandQualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Work Capacity Evaluation: Assessment of physiological capacities in relation to job requirements. It is usually done by measuring certain physiological (e.g., circulatory and respiratory) variables during a gradually increasing workload until specific limitations occur with respect to those variables.Behavioral Medicine: The interdisciplinary field concerned with the development and integration of behavioral and biomedical science, knowledge, and techniques relevant to health and illness and the application of this knowledge and these techniques to prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Accounting: System of recording financial transactions.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Occupational Health Nursing: The practice of nursing in the work environment.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Health Insurance Exchanges: State-provided health insurance marketplaces established under the PATIENT PROTECTION AND AFFORDABLE CARE ACT.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Health Impact Assessment: Combination of procedures, methods, and tools by which a policy, program, or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Personnel Downsizing: Reducing staff to cut costs or to achieve greater efficiency.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Preferred Provider Organizations: Arrangements negotiated between a third-party payer (often a self-insured company or union trust fund) and a group of health-care providers (hospitals and physicians) who furnish services at lower than usual fees, and, in return, receive prompt payment and an expectation of an increased volume of patients.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Cost Savings: Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Fee-for-Service Plans: Method of charging whereby a physician or other practitioner bills for each encounter or service rendered. In addition to physicians, other health care professionals are reimbursed via this mechanism. Fee-for-service plans contrast with salary, per capita, and prepayment systems, where the payment does not change with the number of services actually used or if none are used. (From Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Inflation, Economic: An increase in the volume of money and credit relative to available goods resulting in a substantial and continuing rise in the general price level.

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Implications Of Same-Sex Marriage Decisions By U.S. Supreme Court For Employer-Sponsored Health And Welfare Benefit Plans. by ... The Supreme Court's DOMA Decision: What Does it Mean for Employee Benefit Plans?. by Fenwick & West LLP on 7/16/2013. ... The DOMA Decision - Employee Benefit Plans Bracing for Impact by Reed Smith on 7/12/2013. ... The Impact of the Supreme Court's DOMA Decision on Employee Benefit Plans - Some Certainty, Many Unanswered Questions. by Mintz ...
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Employers must comply with a myriad of federal regulations when it comes to employee benefits. In fact, there are more than 100 ... The plan document must be made available to any employee who requests to review it, and the summary plan description must be ... Smart Benefits: New Study Shows Health Costs Hurt Small Biz Hiring. *Smart Benefits: Reverse Auctions Bring Down Health Benefit ... The employer must calculate a COBRA working rate - increased by each benefit that applies - and provide it to the participant. ...
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Executive Order on Association Health Plans Could Benefit Employers. by Barley Snyder on 10/20/2017. ... Health Insurance › Employee Benefits › Employee Retirement Income Security Act. + Follow x Following x Following - Unfollow ... Supreme Court's decision on Monday that defined benefit qualified retirement plans (a/k/a pension plans) are not subject to the ... Health Care Providers Should Review Assignment of Benefit Forms After 9th Cir. Decision. by Pepper Hamilton LLP on 4/4/2017. ...
https://jdsupra.com/topics/health-insurance/employee-benefits/erisa/

*  Drivers of 2017 Health Insurance Premium Changes | American Academy of Actuaries

Changes in Benefit Design. A plan's benefit design encompasses both the benefits covered as well as the associated cost-sharing ... employer coverage, Medicaid).5 This turnover limits the ability to use 2014 and 2015 experience data to project risk profiles ... On the other hand, mergers of health care plans can have the opposite effect if they increase health plans' negotiating ... Not only do broader network plans tend to have higher provider reimbursement rates, but health plan experience for 2014 and ...
actuary.org/content/drivers-2017-health-insurance-premium-changes-0

*  Facebook Employee Benefits and Perks | Glassdoor

Retiree Health & Medical. *Accidental Death & Dismemberment Insurance. Financial & Retirement. *Pension Plan. *Checkmark401K ... For example, it's a tech company with very casual attire and you get a dry cleaning benefit. ... StarStarStarStarStar Current Employee in Menlo Park, California. health insurance is great, and at Menlo Park main campus, they ... StarStarStarStarStar Former Employee in Menlo Park, California. Great time there as a summer intern. They held a lot of intern ...
https://glassdoor.com/Benefits/Facebook-US-Benefits-EI_IE40772.0,8_IL.9,11_IN1.htm

*  EMPLOYEE BENEFIT PLANS REPORTS THIRD-QUARTER RESULTS; COMMENTS ON OUTLOOK - Free Online Library

EMPLOYEE BENEFIT PLANS REPORTS THIRD-QUARTER RESULTS; COMMENTS ON OUTLOOK by 'PR Newswire'; Business News, opinion and ... the competitive climate in the health care industry has resulted in slower growth in several of EBP's markets. EBP is committed ... Warne of Employee Benefit Plans, 612-546-4353/ (EBP) CO: Employee Benefit Plans, Inc. ST: Minnesota IN: HEA,INS SU: ERN DS -- ... EMPLOYEE BENEFIT PLANS REPORTS THIRD-QUARTER RESULTS; COMMENTS ON OUTLOOK MINNEAPOLIS, April 13 /PRNewswire/ -- Employee ...
https://thefreelibrary.com/EMPLOYEE BENEFIT PLANS REPORTS THIRD-QUARTER RESULTS; COMMENTS ON...-a012042724

*  S&T Bank - S&T-Evergreen Insurance - Employee Benefits - Group Dental

S&T-Evergreen Insurance understands that dental coverage is an essential employee benefit. For most employers, dental plans are ... provide diagnostic opportunities and reduce overall health risks. ... Our team of benefit specialists work with companies to design ... a relatively low-cost, high-value benefit that can help them attract and retain quality employees, decrease missed work hours, ...
https://stbank.com/content/insurance/employee-benefits/group-dental.aspx

*  Federal Register :: Use of Electronic Technologies for Providing Employee Benefit Notices and Transmitting...

... certain notices to recipients or to transmit participant and beneficiary elections or consents with respect to employee benefit ... The rules of this section also apply to any applicable notice or any participant election relating to accident and health plans ... Plan A, a qualified plan, permits participants to request benefit distributions from the plan on Plan A's Intranet web site. ... i) Facts. Plan B, a qualified plan, permits participants to request benefit distributions from the plan by e-mail. Under Plan ...
https://federalregister.gov/documents/2005/07/14/05-13911/use-of-electronic-technologies-for-providing-employee-benefit-notices-and-transmitting-employee

*  Health Insurance, Employee Benefits, Estate Tax | JD Supra

Implications Of Same-Sex Marriage Decisions By U.S. Supreme Court For Employer-Sponsored Health And Welfare Benefit Plans. by ... Defense of Marriage Act: What the U.S. Supreme Court's Windsor Decision May Mean for Employer-Sponsored Benefit Plans. by ... Health Insurance › Employee Benefits › Estate Tax. + Follow x Following x Following - Unfollow ... 8 Decisions Mean for Employers - Last Week's Decisions Will Impact Employer-Provided Benefits. by Best Best & Krieger LLP on 7/ ...
jdsupra.com/topics/health-insurance/employee-benefits/estate-tax/

*  Cardinal Health Employee Benefits and Perks | Glassdoor

Cardinal Health benefits and perks, including insurance benefits, retirement benefits, and vacation policy. Reported ... StarStarStarStarStar Current Employee in Tampa, Florida. Great vacation plans and medical benefits. Company is very charitable ... Employee Benefit Reviews. Showing 1-10 of 212 comments. Most Commented. *. Health Insurance ... StarStarStarStarStar Current Employee in Groveport, Ohio. The best benefits package I've had. Day one PTO, health, 401k. All ...
https://glassdoor.com/Benefits/Cardinal-Health-US-Benefits-EI_IE1227.0,15_IL.16,18_IN1.htm

*  Small Businesses, Large Problems: Health Care Costs Hit Small Employers

"The Future of Employment-Based Health Benefits: Will Employers Reach a Tipping Point?" Employee Benefit Research Institute ... Because Association Health Plans allow insurers to circumvent state regulations protecting consumers, they become tools for ... The Kaiser Family Foundation and Health Research and Educational Trust, Employer Health Benefits 2008 Annual Survey, September ... Health Care. Small Businesses, Large Problems. Health Care Costs Hit Small Employers. By Lester Feder and Ellen-Marie Whelan ...
https://americanprogress.org/issues/healthcare/news/2008/10/30/5140/small-businesses-large-problems/

*  What are some of the best employee benefits plans? | Reference.com

... fathers and adoptive parents and health, and dental and vision insurance fully funded by the... ... The best employee benefit plans include paid vacation and sick leave, maternity leave for mothers, ... The best employee benefit plans include paid vacation and sick leave, maternity leave for mothers, fathers and adoptive parents ... Retirement plans and investment accounts, such as 401(k) plans, are beneficial when they include a significant employer match ...
https://reference.com/business-finance/employee-benefits-plans-ceb32a9311450629

*  Aquarium Believes Pet Insurance Industry Could Profit from Employee Benefits

PRWEB) April 27, 2015 -- As more British based companies follow America's lead in offering health and dental insurance as part ... "Employer subsidised plans could be a great benefit to both the pet market and the pet owners," said Mark Colonnese, Sales and ... As more British based companies follow America's lead in offering health and dental insurance as part of their employee ... US brands such as VPI and Pet Plan offer pet policies as employee benefits, with the approach seen as a cost effective ...
prweb.com/releases/2015/04/prweb12678735.htm

*  Prime Time Health Advisors, LLC | Insurance | Employee Benefit Plans ...

Prime Time Health Advisors, LLC , Insurance , Employee Benefit Plans ...
rochestermnchamber.com/list/member/prime-time-health-advisors-llc-rochester-9120

*  Racial disparities in outcomes of military and civilian births in California.

... and fetal and neonatal mortality in a population for whom financial barriers to health care services are minimal. Using linked ... Health Benefit Plans, Employee / utilization. Humans. Infant Mortality. Infant Welfare. Infant, Low Birth Weight. Infant, ... Previous Document: Influence of family functioning and income on vaccination in inner-city health centers.. Next Document: ... 8114239 - Health status of urban american indians and alaska natives. a population-based study.. 22654149 - Welfare as ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Racial-disparities-in-outcomes-military/8859139.html

*  Prevailing Wage Information for Employees

Does this mean that my employer has to provide employee health, pension and supplemental unemployment benefit plans?. No. For ... Payments by employers to bona fide employee benefit plans for health and welfare, pension and supplemental unemployment, in ... If an employer makes no contributions to allowable benefit plans, the employer must pay the worker the total rate as wages. ... only those amounts actually contributed by an employer to a health and welfare, pension and supplemental unemployment plan may ...
mass.gov/ago/doing-business-in-massachusetts/workplace-rights/public-construction/prevailing-wage-information-for-employees.html

*  Administration Lays Down Rules For Future Health Insurance | Northeast Indiana Public Radio

You've got questions about the health law? The Obama administration has some answers. Finally. Now that the Supreme Court has ... any of the largest three state employee health benefit plans options by enrollment; (3) any of the largest three national ... Generally, bronze plans will cover 60 percent of costs, silver plans 70 percent, gold plans 80 percent and platinum plans 90 ... Among them, how will health plans sell policies to people with pre-existing health conditions? And what kinds of benefits will ...
wboi.org/post/administration-lays-down-rules-future-health-insurance

*  Joint Venture Health Plans May Give ACOs a Run for Their Money.

Joint venture plans are starting to demonstrate their ability to implement clinical management and financial management reforms ... Health Benefit Plans, Employee. Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a ... State Health Plans. State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans ... A JV health plan replaces the offloading of financial risk by health plans to ill-equipped providers with an executive-level ...
https://bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/1661346/Joint-Venture-Health-Plans-May-Give-ACOs-a-Run-for-Their-Money.html

*  Aricent Employee Benefit: Health Insurance | Glassdoor

Aricent Health Insurance, reported anonymously by Aricent employees. ... What Health Insurance benefit do Aricent employees get? ... good plan, comprehensive includes dependents. Flag as ... Learn about Aricent Health Insurance, including a description from the employer, and comments and ratings provided anonymously ... StarStarStarStarStar Current Employee in San Diego, California. ... StarStarStarStarStar Current Employee in San Diego, California ...
https://glassdoor.com/Benefits/Aricent-Health-Insurance-US-BNFT1_E28187_N1.htm

*  Recent Headlines (with Excerpts) about 'Health plans - info for employees'

Health plans - info for employees' gathered by BenefitsLink.com. ... Employee Benefit News). Successful Consumer-Directed Health ... Many Annual Notice Requirements Apply to Employer Group Health Plans in 2014. Checklist and discussion of health plan notice ... Year-End Checklist for Plan Sponsors of Retirement and Group Health Plans. "Over the next few months, employers and plan ... health care needs.... Don't buy on price alone.... Explore other health plan choices offered by your employer.... Evaluate your ...
https://benefitslink.com/buzz/subjects/healthplansinfoforemployees.html

*  Federal Register :: 2003 Nonforeign Area Cost-of-Living Allowance Survey Report: Alaska and Washington, DC, Areas

To compare the employee health benefit premium of these often highly different plans, OPM would have to adjust for differences ... OPM surveyed the non-Postal employee's premium for the various Federal Employees Health Benefit (FEHB) plans offered in each ... Postal Service employee's share of the Federal Employees Health Benefits premiums by Start Printed Page 12004plan for each plan ... Health Insurance: It was not practical to compare the prices of exactly the same quality and quantity of health benefits ...
https://federalregister.gov/documents/2004/03/12/04-5428/2003-nonforeign-area-cost-of-living-allowance-survey-report-alaska-and-washington-dc-areas

*  Blue Ribbon Task Force on the State Health Plan for Teachers and State Employees : report to the 2011 session of the General...

... health benefit financing, managing large group employer-sponsored health benefits plans, care quality, prevention and health ... health benefit financing, managing large group employer-sponsored health benefits plans, care quality, prevention and health ... an independent board or executive branch agency or department houses the function of a public employer health benefit plan. The ... an independent board or executive branch agency or department houses the function of a public employer health benefit plan. The ...
digital.ncdcr.gov/cdm/singleitem/collection/p249901coll22/id/642225/rec/17

*  Benefits of a Vegetarian Diet | BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee

BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee is a Qualified Health Plan issuer in the Health Insurance Marketplace. 1 Cameron Hill Circle ... With the myBlue TN app you can locate a doctor or health care facility, and access your benefit information on the go. ... Employer & Group Plans. * Wellness Products. * Medicare Plans. * Individual & Family Plans. * Dental & Vision Plans. ... Shop for plans. I Want to See. Select a Plan. Medicare Plans Individual & Family Plans. Dental and Vision Plans. Employer & ...
bcbst.com/health-wellness/health-wellness-library/food-and-nutrition/benefits-of-a-vegetarian-diet.page

*  Insurance - Life - San Marcos, TX Accredited Businesses

Affordable Health Plans ----. Converse, TX 78109 210-637-6481 BBB Business Profile ... Advanced Benefit Solutions, Inc. PO Box 317. Driftwood, TX 78619 512-291-9300 ... Insurance - Employee Benefits * Insurance - Fire & Flood Specialists * Insurance - Funeral * Insurance - Health * Insurance - ...
https://bbb.org/central-texas/accredited-business-directory/insurance-life-102/san-marcos-tx

*  Vaccine Information Statements - WellSpan Health Library

Community Benefit. *Awards & Recognitions. *Quality & Performance. *Philanthropy. *Volunteering. *Employer Services. *Patient/ ... Health Plans We Accept. *Pre-register for Your Test or Procedure. *Provide Feedback ... Search Health Library. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 0-9 Search Content:. Search Health Library. ... Immunization schedules are for healthy children, teens, and adults as well as for people who have health problems and other ...
wellspan.org/health-library/Document.aspx?id=ue5884

DenplanOncology benefit managementDefined benefit pension plan: A defined benefit pension plan is a type of pension plan in which an employer/sponsor promises a specified monthly benefit on retirement that is predetermined by a formula based on the employee's earnings history, tenure of service and age, rather than depending directly on individual investment returns. Traditionally, many governmental and public entities, as well as a large number of corporations, provided defined benefit plans, sometimes as a means of compensating workers in lieu of increased pay.Munich Reinsurance America: Munich Reinsurance America (also called Munich Re America), formerly known as American Re Corporation before September 2006, is a major provider of property and casualty reinsurance in the United States. Munich Reinsurance America is a subsidiary of Munich Re.Iranian National Formulary: The Iranian National Formulary (INF) has more than 2,300 molecules registered at the Iran's Ministry of Health, including various strengths and dosage forms. The standards regarding pharmaceutical products in Iran are determined and modified by the Pharmacopeia Council.Copayment: A copayment or copay is a fixed payment for a covered service, paid when an individual receives service. In the United States, copayment is a payment defined in an insurance policy and paid by an insured person each time a medical service is accessed.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Global Health Delivery ProjectLifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Healthcare in Tanzania: Health care in Tanzania is available depending on one's income and accessibility. People in urban areas have better access to private and public medical facilities.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Basic Occupational Health Services: The Basic Occupational Health Services are an application of the primary health care principles in the sector of occupational health. Primary health care definition can be found in the World Health Organization Alma Ata declaration from the year 1978 as the “essential health care based on practical scientifically sound and socially accepted methods, (…) it is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work (…)”.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Halfdan T. MahlerBehavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: The Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program is a system of "managed competition" through which employee health benefits are provided to civilian government employees and annuitants of the United States government.Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is a statistic used in cost-effectiveness analysis to summarise the cost-effectiveness of a health care intervention. It is defined by the difference in cost between two possible interventions, divided by the difference in their effect.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.Cross-training (business)Anglican Retirement Villages, Diocese of Sydney: Anglican Retirement Villages, Diocese of Sydney (ARV) is a not-for-profit public benevolent institution formed in 1959. This inception date places ARV as one of the founding entities of the social service now referred to as retirement or seniors living.Health food storeClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Sick leave: Sick leave (or paid sick days or sick pay) is time off from work that workers can use to stay home to address their health and safety needs without losing pay. Paid sick leave is a statutory requirement in many nations around the world.Drugstore.comComprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.Women's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.List of largest employers: ==Largest public and private and Government employers in the world==Companies OfficePocket petOccupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.Private healthcareStandard evaluation frameworkEuropean Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Healthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:Inverse benefit law: The inverse benefit law states that the more a new drug is marketed, the worse it is for patients. More precisely, the ratio of benefits to harms among patients taking new drugs tends to vary inversely with how extensively a drug is marketed.Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}

(1/623) Explaining the decline in health insurance coverage, 1979-1995.

The decline in health insurance coverage among workers from 1979 to 1995 can be accounted for almost entirely by the fact that per capita health care spending rose much more rapidly than personal income during this time period. We simulate health insurance coverage levels for 1996-2005 under alternative assumptions concerning the rate of growth of spending. We conclude that reduction in spending growth creates measurable increases in health insurance coverage for low-income workers and that the rapid increase in health care spending over the past fifteen years has created a large pool of low-income workers for whom health insurance is unaffordable.  (+info)

(2/623) Behavioral health benefits in employer-sponsored health plans, 1997.

Data for 1997 show that three-quarters or more of employer-sponsored health plans continue to place greater restrictions on behavioral health coverage than on general medical coverage. The nature of these restrictions varies by plan type. Some improvement in the treatment of mental health/substance abuse (MH/SA) benefits in employer plans may be occurring, however. Comparisons with data from 1996 show that the proportion of plans with benefits for "alternative" types of MH/SA services, such as nonhospital residential care, has increased. Further, the proportion with special limitations on these benefits shows a modest decrease.  (+info)

(3/623) Raising the bar: the use of performance guarantees by the Pacific Business Group on Health.

In 1996 the Pacific Business Group on Health (PBGH) negotiated more than two dozen performance guarantees with thirteen of California's largest health maintenance organizations (HMOs) on behalf the seventeen large employers in its Negotiating Alliance. The negotiations put more than $8 million at risk for meeting performance targets with the goal of improving the performance of all health plans. Nearly $2 million, or 23 percent of the premium at risk, was refunded to the PBGH by the HMOs for missed targets. The majority of plans met their targets for satisfaction with the health plan and physicians, as well as cesarean section, mammography, Pap smear, and prenatal care rates. However, eight of the thirteen plans missed their targets for childhood immunizations, refunding 86 percent of the premium at risk.  (+info)

(4/623) Cost of tax-exempt health benefits in 1998.

The tax expenditure for health benefits is the amount of revenues that the federal government forgoes by exempting the following from the federal income and Social Security taxes: (1) employer health benefits contribution, (2) health spending under flexible spending plans, and (3) the tax deduction for health expenses. The health tax expenditure was $111.2 billion in 1998. This figure varied from $2,357 per family among those with annual incomes of $100,000 or more to $71 per family among those with annual incomes of less than $15,000. Families with incomes of $100,000 or more (10 percent of the population) accounted for 23.6 percent of all tax expenditures.  (+info)

(5/623) Why are workers uninsured? Employer-sponsored health insurance in 1997.

This study examines the number of workers in firms offering employee health plans, the number of workers eligible for such plans, and participation in employer-sponsored insurance. Data from the February 1997 Contingent Worker Supplement to the Current Population Survey indicate that 10.1 million workers are employed by firms offering insurance but are not eligible. Not all of these workers are eligible for coverage, most often because of hours of work. Our results indicate that 11.4 million workers rejected coverage when it was offered. Of those, 2.5 million workers were uninsured. Workers cited high cost of insurance most often as the primary factor for refusing coverage.  (+info)

(6/623) Employer's willingness to pay: the case for compulsory health insurance in Tanzania.

This article documents employers' expenditure on the arrangements for the health care of their employees in one of the least developed countries; Tanzania. The case for compulsory health insurance is considered in the light of the fact that only 3% of the population is employed in the formal sector and could be covered at first. It is shown from a survey of larger employers, outside government, that they were spending on average 11% of payroll on health care for their employees. This demonstrated their lack of satisfaction with the government health services. Nevertheless, those who could readily be covered by insurance were making considerable use of the more expensive government hospital services. It is argued that a compulsory health insurance scheme could be introduced for the formal sector of employment which would cover a wider range of health services at lower cost. The scheme would also have the desirable economic effect of lowering employers' labour costs while making it possible to improve the standards of the government health services.  (+info)

(7/623) Changes in benefit payments and health insurance premiums among firms switching health insurance carriers.

Employer-purchased group health insurance is a major source of funding in the US healthcare system, accounting for approximately one third of each healthcare dollar spent. Surprisingly, little is known about employers' behavior in purchasing health insurance or the circumstances leading employers to switch health insurance carriers. We descriptively analyzed data for a cohort of 95 insured groups between 1985 and 1991 to determine the frequency with which employers switch health insurance carriers and the growth pattern in premiums and benefit payments before the switch was made. Thirty-seven percent of groups switched carriers during the study period, with at least five groups switching each year from 1987 through 1991. The groups that switched insurance carriers experienced higher average annual rates of growth in benefit payments than those that did not switch (18% versus 11%). Groups that switched did not have significantly higher observed premium growth rates than those that did not switch, suggesting that employers decided to switch insurers before absorbing an increase in premiums. However, some firms that switched experienced below average increases in both benefit payments and premiums, indicating that premiums and anticipated premium increases are not solely responsible for the decision to switch health insurance carriers.  (+info)

(8/623) Does competition by health maintenance organizations affect the adoption of cost-containment measures by fee-for-service plans?

How groups insured by fee-for-service health plans react to increased competition from health maintenance organizations (HMOs) is an unresolved question. We investigated whether groups insured by indemnity plans respond to HMO market competition by changing selected health insurance features, such as deductible amounts, stop loss levels, and coinsurance rates, or by adopting utilization management or preferred provider organization (PPO) benefit options. We collected benefit design data for the years 1985 through 1992 from 95 insured groups in 62 US metropolitan statistical areas. Multivariate hazard analysis showed that groups located in markets with higher rates of change in HMO enrollment were less likely to increase deductibles or stop loss levels. Groups located in markets with higher HMO enrollment were more likely to adopt utilization management or PPO benefit options. A group located in a market with an HMO penetration rate of 20% was 65% more likely to have included a PPO option as part of its insurance benefit plan than a group located in a market with an HMO penetration rate of 15% (p < 0.05). Concern about possible adverse selection effects may deter some fee-for-service groups from changing their health insurance coverage. Under some conditions, however, groups insured under fee-for-service plans do respond to managed care competition by changing their insurance benefits to achieve greater cost containment.  (+info)



high-deductible health plans


  • More Americans are enrolling in high-deductible health plans, which means they'll pay more out of pocket for 'commodity' health services -- whether lab tests or common surgeries such as hip and knee replacements. (benefitslink.com)
  • Only high-deductible health plans offered, but I rarely encountered a desirable provider not being in-network. (glassdoor.com)

employers


  • Payments by employers to bona fide employee benefit plans for health and welfare, pension and supplemental unemployment, in accordance with applicable collective bargaining agreements or understandings between organized labor and employers, can be included in the wage rates. (mass.gov)
  • We recently sent an E-Alert on what the recent Supreme Court same-sex marriage decisions mean for employers, but what do those decisions mean for the couples themselves in terms of employer and tax benefits? (jdsupra.com)
  • The rise in insurance premiums for group health plans has prompted many employers to reexamine the decision whether to fund participant health benefits with insurance or self-fund benefits and limit their claims risk by. (jdsupra.com)
  • M]any employers offer incentives around open enrollment for participation in health screenings, health risk assessments, and wellness activities -- this can essentially put more money back into the employee's pocket, with the added benefit of helping the employee to better understand and manage health risks. (benefitslink.com)
  • With our current defined benefit model, employers determine health benefits, dictate costs for individuals and families, and hold the contract with the insurance company. (govtrack.us)
  • While many questions and issues will be resolved by future interpretation and guidance from federal agencies, employers should begin thinking about the near and long-term implications of Windsor as it will have a significant impact on many employee benefits plans, including tax implications for both employers and employees. (jdsupra.com)
  • The savings that PBMs generate for Part D are also highly encouraging for the employers, unions, health plans and others in the private sector working to keep prescription drug costs in check for their employees and members. (benefitslink.com)

2017


  • The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) issued interim final rules on October 6, 2017, expanding exemptions to protect religious beliefs and moral convictions for certain entities and individuals whose health plans. (jdsupra.com)
  • The Employee Benefits practice group is pleased to present the Benefits Developments Newsletter for the month of August, 2017. (jdsupra.com)
  • In Ariana M. v. Humana Health Plan of Texas, Inc., No. 16-20174, 2017 U.S. App. (jdsupra.com)
  • 21, 2017), which involved a claim for benefits under an ERISA-governed health policy, the Fifth Circuit held that. (jdsupra.com)
  • Deadline to Provide QSEHRA Notice Suspended - IRS Notice 2017-20 - Citing the lack of published guidance, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) suspended the employer advance notice requirement for qualified small. (jdsupra.com)

premiums


  • The law requires that health insurance be made available to everyone regardless of health status and that people with pre-existing conditions not be charged higher premiums. (wboi.org)
  • Premiums for employer-based health insurance rose by 7.7 percent in 2006. (govtrack.us)

DOMA


  • The Supreme Court's DOMA Decision: What Does it Mean for Employee Benefit Plans? (jdsupra.com)

Glassdoor


  • Glassdoor is your resource for information about the Health Insurance benefits at VHA. (glassdoor.com)
  • Glassdoor is your resource for information about the Health Insurance benefits at Philadelphia Sign. (glassdoor.com)

Welfare


  • No. For the purposes of prevailing wage requirements, only those amounts actually contributed by an employer to a health and welfare, pension and supplemental unemployment plan may be deducted from the total prevailing wage rate. (mass.gov)

Contribution


  • The average employee contribution to company-provided health insurance has increased more than 143 percent since 2000. (govtrack.us)
  • Providing individuals and families with various options to help them secure and maintain personal, defined contribution coverage of their choice, would make health care coverage more affordable and accessible for all Americans. (govtrack.us)
  • or changing employee premium contribution, co-payment, or deductible levels. (legalbistro.com)

incentives


  • To provide for incentives to encourage health insurance coverage, and for other purposes. (govtrack.us)

pension


  • Does this mean that my employer has to provide employee health, pension and supplemental unemployment benefit plans? (mass.gov)
  • Hospitals that are "church-affiliated" may be breathing easier this week, following the U.S. Supreme Court's decision on Monday that defined benefit qualified retirement plans (a/k/a pension plans) are not subject to the. (jdsupra.com)

dependents


  • Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium. (bioportfolio.com)

ERISA


  • Seyfarth Synopsis: The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals recently confirmed that ERISA preempts state insurance law bans on discretionary clauses for self-funded ERISA plans. (jdsupra.com)
  • Class Action Plaintiffs Target University 403(b) Plans - In June, an ERISA action - a proposed. (jdsupra.com)
  • DOMA's definitions of 'spouse' and 'marriage' control more than 1,000 federal laws in which marital or spousal status is addressed, including the Internal Revenue Code (IRC), Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA), Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA), Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA). (jdsupra.com)

percentage


  • The percentage of Americans who are uninsured continues to rise due to a decrease of employees with employer-sponsored coverage. (govtrack.us)

wages


  • If an employer makes no contributions to allowable benefit plans, the employer must pay the worker the total rate as wages. (mass.gov)
  • Employer-sponsored defined benefit health insurance plans have led employees to believe they are receiving free coverage, while economists have shown that workers forgo higher wages in lieu of health benefits. (govtrack.us)

individuals


  • This rule continues to stipulate that every health plan for individuals and small businesses offer a core package of benefits. (wboi.org)
  • The rules spell out that programs must not be " overly burdensome " and must provide a "reasonable alternative means of qualifying for the reward" for individuals whose medical conditions "make it unreasonably difficult, or for whom it is medically inadvisable, to meet the specified health-related standard. (wboi.org)
  • Individuals with chronic conditions can benefit from formulating action plans to engage in regular physical activity. (bioportfolio.com)
  • There are 18 million Americans who purchase health insurance on their own and currently, these individuals pay higher taxes than those who get insurance through their employer, due to the tax deductibility allowed to the employer for the purchase pf health insurance. (govtrack.us)
  • Health insurers would be more responsive to individuals and families if health insurance policies were owned by the person most directly affected by the coverage-the patient. (govtrack.us)

insurers


  • Health insurers are pushing back against a recent report that accuses them of denying some patients coverage for medical products and procedures, alleging it is part of a campaign by the pharmaceutical industry to distract the public from rising drug prices. (benefitslink.com)

contributions


  • On prevailing wage rate schedules, you can see which benefit plan contributions comprise the total prevailing wage rate. (mass.gov)
  • With maximum annual contributions and minimal medical expense withdrawals, you can build a hefty nest egg to complement your regular retirement plan. (benefitslink.com)

benefits


  • Federal District Court (In Its Capacity As An Employer) Must Reimburse Employee for the Cost of Health Benefits for her Same-Sex. (jdsupra.com)
  • Proskauer - Employee Benefits & Executive. (jdsupra.com)
  • The Ninth Circuit Judicial Council, an administrative body that reviews decisions of the court's chief judge, recently weighed in on an issue involving same-sex domestic partner health benefits in the post-Windsor world. (jdsupra.com)
  • A second rule lays out more detail on how states and insurance plans will have to determine which benefits to offer. (wboi.org)
  • This is the third iteration of the rule regarding so-called essential health benefits . (wboi.org)
  • The rule also seeks to establish that the minimum benefits "be equal in scope to benefits offered by a 'typical employer plan. (wboi.org)
  • The precise plan, however, will vary by state, since generosity of benefits tends to vary by state. (wboi.org)
  • It is important that essential health benefits echo available market coverage today. (wboi.org)
  • Chances are that you see your employee benefits as an integral part of your overall compensation. (benefitslink.com)
  • If you have access to financial coaching via your workplace financial wellness program, consider setting up a time to talk to a planner about how you can fully maximize the value of your employee benefits. (benefitslink.com)
  • Many employee benefits plans use DOMA's definition of 'spouse' and 'marriage' to determine various entitlements and other plan-related matters. (jdsupra.com)
  • The decision has immediate and clear implications for the taxation of benefits and the application of spousal rights in retirement plans and in other plans that already use definitions of 'spouse' and 'marriage' that treat a valid same-sex marriage as a marriage. (jdsupra.com)
  • For example, the tax exemption for family health benefits under the IRC is now available to same-sex spouses who are considered lawfully married and reside in a state that recognizes same-sex marriage. (jdsupra.com)
  • Are same-sex couples who are married in a state that recognizes such marriages subject to imputed income and withholding taxes at either the federal or state level for employer-provided healthcare benefits in states that do not recognize same-sex marriages? (jdsupra.com)
  • After 90 days of employment, an employee is eligible for family health insurance coverage (medical, prescription benefits & vision) through the Company's group plan. (glassdoor.com)

entities


  • August 12, 2010 The Task Force was presented recommendations on changing the governance of the State Health Plan by two separate entities with a relationship to the Plan. (ncdcr.gov)
  • Mr. Trogdon pointed out that Navigant Consulting, Inc. had provided the Task Force an Assessment of Compatibility of Selected State Departments, Agencies and Entities with the State Health Plan which recommended placement of the State Health Plan in the Office of the Governor. (ncdcr.gov)

amounts


  • It also provides for 100 percent federal financial participation (FFP) for any increase in payment above the amounts that would be due for these services under the provisions of the approved Medicaid state plan, as of July 1, 2009. (federalregister.gov)
  • List of the amounts an insurance plan will pay for covered health care services. (legalbistro.com)

Americans


  • The proposed rules and guidance we're releasing today would make it illegal for insurance companies to discriminate against the approximately 129 million Americans with pre-existing health conditions," Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius told health reporters on a conference call. (wboi.org)
  • Americans are best served by a health care system that thrives on and rewards competition, choice, personal control, affordability, accessibility, and quality. (govtrack.us)
  • Americans pay higher prices for fewer choices under our current defined benefit model. (govtrack.us)

Council


  • State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Mr. Trogdon reviewed the following location options for organizational placement of the State Health Plan: Office of the Governor, Cabinet agency, Council of State agency, or other location. (ncdcr.gov)
  • Mr. Trogdon also reminded the Task Force that during their prior meeting they received a report from the Board of Trustees recommending placement of the State Health Plan in an executive agency, but not specifying whether it should be a Cabinet or Council of State agency. (ncdcr.gov)

Services


  • OBJECTIVE: To examine racial disparities in prenatal care utilization, birth weight, and fetal and neonatal mortality in a population for whom financial barriers to health care services are minimal. (biomedsearch.com)
  • And, Julie, what exactly did the Department of Health and Human Services release today and why does it matter? (wboi.org)
  • Alternative health care delivery mechanisms, such as PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS or other health insurance services or prepaid plans (other than HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS), that meet Medicare qualifications for a risk-sharing contract. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Fee-for-service plans contrast with salary, per capita, and prepayment systems, where the payment does not change with the number of services actually used or if none are used. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This minimum payment level applies to specified primary care services furnished by a physician with a specialty designation of family medicine, general internal medicine, or pediatric medicine, and also applies to services rendered by these provider types paid by Medicaid managed care plans contracted by states to provide the primary care services. (federalregister.gov)

state


  • If a state doesn't select a benchmark plan, HHS will use option 1, the largest plan for small groups in the state. (wboi.org)
  • First, Navigant Consulting, a consulting firm to the State Health Plan, presented recommendations regarding the State Health Plan's governance arrangement. (ncdcr.gov)
  • The second recommendation was from the State Health Plan's Board of Trustees. (ncdcr.gov)
  • Dr. John Hammond, a member of the State Health Plan's current Board of Trustees, presented a recommendation to require that oversight of the Plan's day-to-day operations and appointment of the Plan's Executive Administrator fall under the responsibility of an executive agency with a reporting relationship to the Governor. (ncdcr.gov)
  • The balance of the meeting was devoted to discussion about the information presented to Task Force members regarding State Health Plan governance changes and ways to move forward with developing a Task Force recommendation. (ncdcr.gov)
  • September 21, 2010 At the request of the co-chairs in an effort to guide the Task Force discussion on governance options, Mark Trogdon, staff fiscal analyst, presented a broad overview of issues related to governance of the State Health Plan. (ncdcr.gov)
  • Next Mr. Trogdon reviewed a list of potential authorities to appoint or remove the Executive Administrator of the State Health Plan. (ncdcr.gov)

Impact


  • The overall goal is to rigorously evaluate the impact of interactive health plans and self. (bioportfolio.com)

efficiency


  • It is appropriate to encourage increased efficiency in the offering of health insurance coverage through a collaborative approach by the States in regulating this coverage. (govtrack.us)

Generally


  • Generally, bronze plans will cover 60 percent of costs, silver plans 70 percent, gold plans 80 percent and platinum plans 90 percent. (wboi.org)

coverage


  • National surveys show that the primary reason people are uninsured is the high cost of health insurance coverage. (govtrack.us)

controversial


  • Public spending on external consultancies, particularly within the health sector, is highly controversial in many countries. (bioportfolio.com)

status


  • Health status of urban american indians and alaska natives. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to improve the health status of people living with HIV in Australia. (bioportfolio.com)

important


  • If your employer offers an HRA plan, here are some important things to know about the accounts: HRA plan specifics can vary widely. (benefitslink.com)
  • As you prepare and compile tax documents, it's important to know what forms you may need to file if you have a Health Savings Account (HSA). (benefitslink.com)
  • Although Windsor involved one individual's claim to the estate tax exemption for surviving spouses, the holding of the Court also has important implications for employee benefit plans and federal tax and employment law statutes. (jdsupra.com)

financial


  • CONCLUSIONS: In populations with decreased financial barriers to health care, racial disparities in prenatal care use and low birth weight were reduced. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Joint venture plans are starting to demonstrate their ability to implement clinical management and financial management reforms. (bioportfolio.com)

policy


  • Joining us in the studio with some answers is NPR health policy correspondent Julie Rovner. (wboi.org)

value


  • Can my employer deduct the value of sick and vacation time from the total wage rate? (mass.gov)
  • The role, costs and value for money of external consultancies in the health sector: A study of New Zealand's District Health Boards. (bioportfolio.com)

summary


Public


  • Representatives of Navigant Consulting noted that in most states, an independent board or executive branch agency or department houses the function of a public employer health benefit plan. (ncdcr.gov)

work


  • Federal officials today began addressing several key questions about how the federal health law will work when it takes effect just over a year from now. (wboi.org)

family


  • Influence of family functioning and income on vaccination in inner-city health centers. (biomedsearch.com)

subject


  • For non-construction jobs that are subject to prevailing wage, you should ask your employer for a copy of the wage rate schedule or you can contact the DLS for a copy. (mass.gov)

review


  • Health Care Providers Should Review Assignment of Benefit Forms After 9th Cir. (jdsupra.com)
  • As you prepare to file your 2016 tax return, review this chart to see how the health care law affects you. (benefitslink.com)

care providers


  • A federal appeals court recently brushed aside the claims of several health care providers, in large part because of the language in the assignment forms signed by their patients. (jdsupra.com)

policies


  • Among them, how will health plans sell policies to people with pre-existing health conditions? (wboi.org)
  • The Board of Trustees also recommended that the Plan's Board of Trustees be given the responsibility to formulate policies implemented by the Plan, to conduct rule-making, and to make final agency decisions. (ncdcr.gov)
  • What changes should plan sponsors, trustees, and custodians of Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs) and retirement plans make to procedures and policies regarding the spousal rights of same-sex spouses? (jdsupra.com)

Comments


  • Learn about VHA Health Insurance, including a description from the employer, and comments and ratings provided anonymously by current and former VHA employees. (glassdoor.com)
  • Learn about Philadelphia Sign Health Insurance, including a description from the employer, and comments and ratings provided anonymously by current and former Philadelphia Sign employees. (glassdoor.com)

medical


  • The rule also lays out a complex formula to help consumers figure out how much each plan (labeled a little like Olympic medals) will cover in medical bills. (wboi.org)

individual


  • With both government and employer provided health care, there is a lack of individual ownership and personal choice for patients. (govtrack.us)

offers


  • If you scored an 8 or lower, you may be leaving money on the table by not taking full advantage of everything your employer offers. (benefitslink.com)

however


  • however, due to the fragmented nature of the US health care system, successful coor. (bioportfolio.com)
  • However, the content and the successful translation of plans into action, so-calle. (bioportfolio.com)