Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.LithuaniaEducational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.United StatesLongitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Health Communication: The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Oral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Psychological Theory: Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System: Telephone surveys are conducted to monitor prevalence of the major behavioral risks among adults associated with premature MORBIDITY and MORTALITY. The data collected is in regard to actual behaviors, rather than on attitudes or knowledge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 1984.Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Directive Counseling: Counseling during which a professional plays an active role in a client's or patient's decision making by offering advice, guidance, and/or recommendations.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.FinlandIntention: What a person has in mind to do or bring about.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Great BritainStereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Behavioral Medicine: The interdisciplinary field concerned with the development and integration of behavioral and biomedical science, knowledge, and techniques relevant to health and illness and the application of this knowledge and these techniques to prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Telephone: An instrument for reproducing sounds especially articulate speech at a distance. (Webster, 3rd ed)Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Minority Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of members of minority groups.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Personal Health Services: Health care provided to individuals.Acculturation: Process of cultural change in which one group or members of a group assimilate various cultural patterns from another.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Psychology, Social: The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Intervention Studies: Epidemiologic investigations designed to test a hypothesized cause-effect relation by modifying the supposed causal factor(s) in the study population.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Economic Recession: Significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real gross domestic product, real income, employment, industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales. (National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, www.nber.org/cycles.html, accessed 4/23/2009)Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Self-Assessment: Appraisal of one's own personal qualities or traits.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Toothbrushing: The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.EstoniaNorth CarolinaInternal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).

*  Better think positive: Pessimism blocks treatment - Health - Behavior | NBC News

Next story in Behavior Holding a gun may make you think others are, too ...
nbcnews.com/id/41835397/ns/health-behavior/

*  YOUR MONEY-Private health exchanges begin to shift behavior | Reuters

However, expert opinions about growthhave been based on projections, not actual consumer behavior inthe exchanges that only ... The Aon Active Health Exchange, a private health insurance market run by the benefit consultant Aon Hewitt, enrolled 600,000 ... If Aon's exchange ends up being indicative of consumer behavior, most people will pick a lower-cost plan than they were ... NEW YORK, March 6 (Reuters) - Shopping for employee health insurance on private marketplaces might be the way of the future for ...
reuters.com/article/health-exchanges-private-idUSL1N0M21O520140306?feedType=RSS

*  Contact Us : Health Behavior Research Center : University of Vermont

Health Behavior Research Center. Department of Psychiatry University of Vermont College of Medicine. University Heal Center ... Health Behavior Research Center. *College of Medicine Home. Health Behavior Research Center ...
uvm.edu/medicine/hbrc/?Page=contact.html

*  YRBSS | Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System | Data | Adolescent and School Health | CDC

... monitors six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among youth and ... adults, including behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; sexual behaviors that contribute to ... unhealthy dietary behaviors; inadequate physical activity. YRBSS also measures the prevalence of obesity and asthma among youth ... The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading ...
https://cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/index.htm

*  U.S. Physician Prescribing Behavior Impacted by Health Insurance Exchanges and Accountable Care

24, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- U.S. Physician Prescribing Behavior Impacted by Health Insurance Exchanges and Accountable Care... ... U.S. Physician Prescribing Behavior Impacted by Health Insurance Exchanges and Accountable Care Organizations. Healthcare ... ACOs, of which there are more than 500 across the US, will also impact prescribing behavior and brand uptake across therapies. ... NEW Healthcare Reform: Impact of Expanding Role for Medicaid and Health Exchanges on Prescribing of Schizophrenia, Bipolar ...
prnewswire.com/news-releases/us-physician-prescribing-behavior-impacted-by-health-insurance-exchanges-and-accountable-care-organizations-229127881.html

*  Study: Bullies Derive Health Benefits From Behavior - The Onion - America's Finest News Source

"The trick is to bully someone just enough that you reap the health benefits but not so much that they come to school and kill ... LEWISBURG, PA-Refuting one of the most fundamental assumptions about feline behavior, a new study published Wednesday by ... LEWISBURG, PA-Refuting one of the most fundamental assumptions about feline behavior, a new study published Wednesday by ...
theonion.com/americanvoices/study-bullies-derive-health-benefits-from-behavior-36021

*  Health and Human Behavior Science Fair Projects Page 19 | Education.com

Check out Education.com's rich collection of behavioral science projects and health science fair projects for kids. (Page 19) ... Whether your little scientist is interested in human behavior topics like psychology, health, forensic science, sports, or even ... Health and Behavioral Science Projects. Check out Education.com's rich collection of behavioral science projects and health ...
https://education.com/science-fair/behavioral-health-science/?page=19

*  Health Behavior in School-Aged Children, 1995-1996: [United States]

... school-based study of health-related attitudes and behaviors of young people. These studies, generally known as Health Behavior ... school-based study of health-related attitudes and behaviors of young people. These studies, generally known as Health Behavior ... World Health Organization. Health Behavior in School-Aged Children, 1995-1996: [United States]. ICPSR03154-v3. Ann Arbor, MI: ... The study also examines a person's health and health behaviors such as eating habits, depression, injuries, anti-social ...
icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/NAHDAP/studies/3154?restrictionType[0]=Public Use&q="mental health"&keyword[0]=drug use&paging.startRow=1

*  Health Behavior in School-Aged Children, 2001-2002 [United States]

Subject Terms: adolescents, alcohol, body image, drug use, family relationships, health attitudes, health behavior, health care ... Health Resources and Services Administration. Maternal and Child Health Bureau. Health Behavior in School-Aged Children, 2001- ... school-based study of health-related attitudes and behaviors of young people. These studies, generally known as Health Behavior ... school-based study of health-related attitudes and behaviors of young people. These studies, generally known as Health Behavior ...
icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/ICPSR/studies/4372?keyword=family relationships&permit[0]=AVAILABLE&dataFormat[0]=Delimited&paging.startRow=1

*  Retiree Health Insurance and the Labor Force Behavior of Older Men in the 1990s

We use data from the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS), which contains more detailed and accurate measures of retiree health ... The accurate and detailed health insurance measures available in the HRS help account for the larger effects found here. ... The results show that availability of employer-provided retiree health insurance (EPRHI) increases the rate of exit from ... estimated are an approximation of the employment decision rules implied by a dynamic stochastic model of employment behavior of ...
https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/5948.html

*  UCR Newsroom: Guide to Changing Health Behavior

Health behavior change] is do-able if practitioners have a simple strategy for helping patients make those changes. These are ... Vast bodies of research point to the vital role each of these plays in adherence and health behavior change. If a patient is ... "Changing health behaviors may reduce the risk of some chronic diseases, decreasing the accompanying financial burden; and ... Book a Guide to Health Behavior Change. Researchers from UC Riverside, La Sierra University and Texas State offer tools to help ...
newsroom.ucr.edu/2240

*  JACKSONVILLE BEHAVIOR AND MENTAL HEALTH - Jacksonville, NC - Ratings & Reviews - RateMDs

Visit RateMDs for information on JACKSONVILLE BEHAVIOR AND MENTAL HEALTH in Jacksonville. Get contact info, maps, doctors at ... Doctors at JACKSONVILLE BEHAVIOR AND MENTAL HEALTH. Dr. Gustavo E. Rios. Pediatrician ... Sign up for our newsletter to get the latest health news and tips. ...
https://ratemds.com/clinic/us-nc-jacksonville-jacksonville-behavior-and-mental-health-999/

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20029082 - Project examines health behaviors and healthHealth team's research project investigates culture-specific health behavior patterns in order to develop appropriate health ... Project examines health behaviors and health promotion methods for Hmong farming families.. ... Health team's research project investigates culture-specific health behavior patterns in order to develop appropriate health ... Cultural knowledge, health and safety beliefs, and decision-making processes of the Hmong farming community were examined as ...
https://cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20029082.html

*  Citation Machine: Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior format citation generator for federal rule

Cite your federal rule in Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior format for free. ...
citationmachine.net/fatigue-biomedicine-health-and-behavior/cite-a-fedrule/manual

*  GENErating Behavior Change, An Integrative Health Coaching and Genetic Risk Testing Pilot - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Experimental: SRA plus Health Coaching plus Genetic Testing Behavioral: Health Coaching biweekly health coaching for 5 months ... Experimental: SRA plus Health Coaching Behavioral: Health Coaching biweekly health coaching for 5 months ... GENErating Behavior Change, An Integrative Health Coaching and Genetic Risk Testing Pilot. This study has been completed. ... Primary Purpose: Health Services Research. Official Title:. GENErating Change, An Integrative Health Coaching and Genetic Risk ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01766271

*  The Health Status and Health Behaviors of Hispanics by Rubén G. Rumbaut, Jose Escar

The next three sections cover the health status and health behaviors of Hispanic adults, the health status and health behaviors ... The health status and health behaviors of today's Hispanic youth will play a central role in shaping the long-term health and ... The Health Status and Health Behaviors of Hispanics. HISPANICS AND THE FUTURE OF AMERICA, pp. 362-409, Marta Tienda, Faith ... In this chapter, we provide an overview of the health status and health behaviors of Hispanics in the U.S. The chapter is ...
https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1950763

*  About us - Vermont Center on Behavior and Health | College of Medicine | University of Vermont

The Vermont Center on Behavior and Health (VCBH) was established in 2013 to study the relationship between behavior and health ... Unhealthy behaviors (e.g., tobacco and other substance abuse, physical inactivity, obesity, risky sexual behavior) represent ... The focus of the VCBH is on investigating relationships between personal behaviors and risk for chronic disease and premature ... The contribution of socioeconomic factors to vulnerability and the need for interventions and policies to promote health and ...
med.uvm.edu/behaviorandhealth/aboutoverview

*  410.676.01 Clinical Health Behavior Change Experience in Weight Management, 2014 4th term - Course Catalog - Johns Hopkins...

Enables students to work directly with patients of the Johns Hopkins Weight Management Center (JHWMC) to promote behavior ... Clinical Health Behavior Change Experience in Weight Management: Focuses on the practical application of principles from ... 410.676.01 Clinical Health Behavior Change Experience in Weight Management. Discontinued. Department:. Health Behavior and ... Home , 410.676.01 Clinical Health Behavior Change Experience in Weight Management, 2014 4th term - Course Catalog - Johns ...
https://jhsph.edu/courses/course/20479/2014/410.676.01/clinical-health-behavior-change-experience-in-weig

*  Health and Nutrition of West Columbia, TX Residents: Sexual Behavior, Medical Conditions, Reproductive city-data.com/health-nutrition/West-Columbia-Texas.html

*  Inconsistent Paternal Behavior Predicts Turkish Immigrant and German Children s and Adolescents Mental Health

Inconsistent Paternal Behavior Predicts Turkish Immigrant and German Children s and Adolescents Mental Health. The last three ... behavior on their offspring's mental health are still scarce. The majority of studies investigating effects of specific ... If children learn that they can rely on their parents and that their own behavior will cause expected reactions then this may ... Inconsistent parenting is one example of parenting behaviors that may be detrimental to children's outcomes. Mothers and ...
https://omicsonline.org/blog/2016/09/22/26079-Inconsistent-Paternal-Behavior-Predicts-Turkish-Immigrant-and-German-Children-s-and-Adolescents-Mental-Health.html

*  Applying a new theory to smoking cessation: case of multi-theory model (MTM) for health behavior change

Il fait fond sur PubMed Central (PMC), les archives numériques gratuites des National Institutes of Health (NIH) des États-Unis ... Using multitheory model of health behavior change to predict adequate sleep behavior. Fam Community Health. 2017;40(1):56-61. [ ... attempts to address health behavior change as opposed to a mere acquisition of a behavior, avoids overlap among constructs so ... initiation of the behavior change and sustenance or continuation of the health behavior change. In the context of smoking ...
pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC5350547/

*  VITAL SIGNS: BEHAVIOR; Tired Toddlers, Troubled Teens - The New York Times

Health , VITAL SIGNS: BEHAVIOR VITAL SIGNS: BEHAVIOR; Tired Toddlers, Troubled Teens. By JOHN O'NEIL. APRIL 20, 2004. ...
nytimes.com/2004/04/20/health/vital-signs-behavior-tired-toddlers-troubled-teens.html?_r=0

*  20 Best Behavioral Health Aide jobs (with Commute Times) | Simply Hired

2827 Behavioral Health Aide jobs. Find your next opportunity on Simply Hired. New jobs are posted every day. ... Behavior Interventionist jobs. Behavior Interventionist jobs in West Covina, CA. jobs in West Covina, CA. Related ... Specialized AFC Health Aide jobs. Specialized AFC Health Aide jobs in Delton, MI. jobs in Delton, MI. Related ... Mental Health Assistant jobs. Mental Health Assistant jobs in Yankton, SD. jobs in Yankton, SD. Related ...
simplyhired.com/a/jobs/list/q-behavioral health aide/fcn-Concentra

*  Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking

... this essential peer-reviewed journal has followed the effects of social networking and virtual reality on society and behavior ... Games for Health Journal Games for Health Journal. A must for anyone interested in the research and design of health games that ... Telemedicine and e-Health Telemedicine and e-Health. The leading international peer-reviewed journal covering the advances and ... evidence-based behavioral health strategies to help improve health and to support the delivery of care. ...
https://liebertpub.com/subscribe/addtocart/cyberpsychology-behavior-and-social-networking/10/

*  Women's Actions Related to Health Behaviors after Receiving Bone Mineral Density Results: An Exploratory Study

Women's Actions Related to Health Behaviors after Receiving Bone Mineral Density Results: An Exploratory Study. ... A growing need exists to determine how health care professionals and women use the information obtained from DXA scans in the ... However, 75% of women with low BMD status and who shared their results with health care professionals reported that they did ... Using a telephone survey, actions of 138 women, who participated in a previous study of bone health, were evaluated regarding ...
https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/35049

*  DMOZ - Health: Mental Health: Disorders: Child and Adolescent: Disruptive Behavior D

"Health ... Disruptive Behavior Disorders" search on: AOL - Ask - Bing - DuckDuckGo - Gigablast - Google - ixquick - Yahoo - ... The Behavior Home Page Annotated resources related to dealing with people, especially children, who exhibit challenging ... This category contains information for parents, families, and caregivers, about Disruptive Behavior Disorders. There are 3 ... Explanation for parents of the similarities and differences of two adolescent behavior disorders. ...
dmoztools.net/Health/Mental_Health/Disorders/Child_and_Adolescent/Disruptive_Behavior_Disorders/

Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Global Health Delivery ProjectBehavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Halfdan T. MahlerClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Genetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.Disinhibition: In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment. Disinhibition affects motor, instinctual, emotional, cognitive, and perceptual aspects with signs and symptoms similar to the diagnostic criteria for mania.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.High-intensity interval training: High-intensity interval training (HIIT), also called high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) or sprint interval training (SIT), is an enhanced form of interval training, an exercise strategy alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise with less-intense recovery periods. HIIT is a form of cardiovascular exercise.Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Excessive alcohol intake is associated with an elevated risk of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), heart failure, some cancers, and accidental injury, and is a leading cause of preventable death in industrialized countries. However, extensive research has shown that moderate alcohol intake is associated with health benefits, including less cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and lower all-cause mortality.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Relative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.Women's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Drainage basins of Lithuania: There are six major drainage basins in Lithuania: the rivers Neman (Lithuanian:Nemunas), Lielupe, Venta, Daugava, Pregolya, and a strip along the Baltic where rivers flow directly into the sea.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.Comprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Sexual motivation and hormones: Sexual motivation is influenced by hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, oxytocin, and vasopressin. In most mammalian species, sex hormones control the ability to engage in sexual behaviours.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.Stressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.African-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.Cigarette smoking among college students: The rates of college students smoking in the United States have fluctuated for the past twenty years. Majority of lifelong smokers begin smoking habits before the age of 24, which makes the college years a crucial time in the study of cigarette consumption.Healthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:Bicameralism (psychology): Bicameralism (the philosophy of "two-chamberedness") is a hypothesis in psychology that argues that the human mind once assumed a state in which cognitive functions were divided between one part of the brain which appears to be "speaking", and a second part which listens and obeys—a bicameral mind. The term was coined by Julian Jaynes, who presented the idea in his 1976 book The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, wherein he made the case that a bicameral mentality came to be the normal and ubiquitous state of the human mind until as recently as 3000 years ago.Neighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.Poverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Northeast Community Health CentreCuriosity: Curiosity (from Latin curiosus "careful, diligent, curious," akin to cura "care") is a quality related to inquisitive thinking such as exploration, investigation, and learning, evident by observation in human and animal species. Curiosity is heavily associated with all aspects of human development, in which derives the process of learning and desire to acquire knowledge and skill.Standard evaluation frameworkNon-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.

(1/6426) Physician advice and individual behaviors about cardiovascular disease risk reduction--seven states and Puerto Rico, 1997.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) (e.g., heart disease and stroke) is the leading cause of death in the United States and accounted for 959,227 deaths in 1996. Strategies to reduce the risk for heart disease and stroke include lifestyle changes (e.g., eating fewer high-fat and high-cholesterol foods) and increasing physical activity. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and the American Heart Association (AHA) recommend that, as part of a preventive health examination, all primary-care providers counsel their patients about a healthy diet and regular physical activity. AHA also recommends low-dose aspirin use as a secondary preventive measure among persons with existing CVD. To determine the prevalence of physician counseling about cardiovascular health and changes in individual behaviors, CDC analyzed data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for seven states and Puerto Rico. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicate a lower prevalence of counseling and behavior change among persons without than with a history of heart disease or stroke.  (+info)

(2/6426) Hygiene behaviour in rural Nicaragua in relation to diarrhoea.

BACKGROUND: Childhood diarrhoea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Nicaragua. Amongst the risk factors for its transmission are 'poor' hygiene practices. We investigated the effect of a large number of hygiene practices on diarrhoeal disease in children aged <2 years and validated the technique of direct observation of hygiene behaviour. METHODS: A prospective follow-up study was carried out in a rural zone of Nicaragua. From the database of a previously conducted case-control study on water and sanitation 172 families were recruited, half of which had experienced a higher than expected rate of diarrhoea in their children and the other half a lower rate. Hygiene behaviour was observed over two mornings and diarrhoea incidence was recorded with a calendar, filled out by the mother, and collected every week for 5 months. RESULTS: Of 46 'good' practices studied, 39 were associated with a lower risk of diarrhoea, five were unrelated and only for two a higher risk was observed. Washing of hands, domestic cleanliness (kitchen, living room, yard) and the use of a diaper/underclothes by the child had the strongest protective effect. Schooling (>3 years of primary school) and better economic position (possession of a radio) had a positive influence on general hygiene behaviour, education having a slightly stronger effect when a radio was present. Individual hygiene behaviour appeared to be highly variable in contrast with the consistent behaviour of the community as a whole. Feasible and appropriate indicators of hygiene behaviour were found to be domestic cleanliness and the use of a diaper or underclothes by the child. CONCLUSION: A consistent relationship between almost all hygiene practices and diarrhoea was detected, more schooling producing better hygiene behaviour. The high variability of hygiene behaviour at the individual level requires repeated observations (at least two) before and after the hygiene education in the event one wants to measure the impact of the campaign on the individual.  (+info)

(3/6426) Reliability of information on physical activity and other chronic disease risk factors among US women aged 40 years or older.

Data on chronic disease risk behaviors and related variables, including barriers to and attitudes toward physical activity, are lacking for women of some racial/ethnic groups. A test-retest study was conducted from July 1996 through June 1997 among US women (n = 199) aged 40 years or more who were white, black, American Indian/Alaska Native, or Hispanic. The sample was selected and interviews were conducted using a modified version of the methods of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. For behavioral risk factors such as physical inactivity, smoking, and low fruit and vegetable consumption, group prevalences were generally similar between interviews 1 and 2. However, kappa values for selected physical activity variables ranged from 0.26 to 0.51 and tended to be lower for black women. Discordance was low for variables on cigarette smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (kappa = 0.64-0.92). Discordance was high (kappa = 0.33) for low consumption of fruits and vegetables. Additional variables for barriers to and access to exercise ranged widely across racial/ethnic groups and in terms of measures of agreement. These methods illustrate an efficient way to sample and assess the reliability of data collected from women of racial/ethnic minority groups.  (+info)

(4/6426) Women's interest in vaginal microbicides.

CONTEXT: Each year, an estimated 15 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV, occur in the United States. Women are not only at a disadvantage because of their biological and social susceptibility, but also because of the methods that are available for prevention. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 1,000 women aged 18-44 in the continental United States who had had sex with a man in the last 12 months were interviewed by telephone. Analyses identified levels and predictors of women's worry about STDs and interest in vaginal microbicides, as well as their preferences regarding method characteristics. Numbers of potential U.S. microbicide users were estimated. RESULTS: An estimated 21.3 million U.S. women have some potential current interest in using a microbicidal product. Depending upon product specifications and cost, as many as 6.0 million women who are worried about getting an STD would be very interested in current use of a microbicide. These women are most likely to be unmarried and not cohabiting, of low income and less education, and black or Hispanic. They also are more likely to have visited a doctor for STD symptoms or to have reduced their sexual activity because of STDs, to have a partner who had had other partners in the past year, to have no steady partner or to have ever used condoms for STD prevention. CONCLUSIONS: A significant minority of women in the United States are worried about STDs and think they would use vaginal microbicides. The development, testing and marketing of such products should be expedited.  (+info)

(5/6426) Condom use and HIV risk behaviors among U.S. adults: data from a national survey.

CONTEXT: How much condom use among U.S. adults varies by type of partner or by risk behavior is unclear. Knowledge of such differentials would aid in evaluating the progress being made toward goals for levels of condom use as part of the Healthy People 2000 initiative. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the 1996 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse, an annual household-based probability sample of the noninstitutionalized population aged 12 and older that measures the use of illicit drugs, alcohol and tobacco. The personal behaviors module included 25 questions covering sexual activity in the past year, frequency of condom use in the past year, circumstances of the last sexual encounter and HIV testing. RESULTS: Sixty-two percent of adults reported using a condom at last intercourse outside of an ongoing relationship, while only 19% reported using condoms when the most recent intercourse occurred within a steady relationship. Within ongoing relationships, condom use was highest among respondents who were younger, black, of lower income and from large metropolitan areas. Forty percent of unmarried adults used a condom at last sex, compared with the health objective of 50% for the year 2000. Forty percent of injecting drug users used condoms at last intercourse, compared with the 60% condom use objective for high-risk individuals. Significantly, persons at increased risk for HIV because of their sexual behavior or drug use were not more likely to use condoms than were persons not at increased risk; only 22% used condoms during last intercourse within an ongoing relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial progress has been made toward national goals for increasing condom use. The rates of condom use by individuals at high risk of HIV need to be increased, however, particularly condom use with a steady partner.  (+info)

(6/6426) Follow-up care in general practice of patients with myocardial infarction or angina pectoris: initial results of the SHIP trial. Southampton Heart Integrated Care Project.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of a nurse-led programme to ensure that follow-up care is provided in general practice after hospital diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI) or angina pectoris. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial with stratified random allocation of practices to intervention and control groups within all 67 practices in Southampton and South-West Hampshire, England. The subjects were 422 adult patients with a MI and 175 patients with a new diagnosis of angina recruited during hospital admission or chest pain clinic attendance between April 1995 and September 1996. Intervention involved a programme of secondary preventive care led by specialist liaison nurses in which we sought to improve communication between hospital and general practice and to encourage general practice nurses to provide structured follow-up. The main outcome measures were: extent of general practice follow-up; attendance for cardiac rehabilitation; medication prescribed at hospital discharge; self-reported smoking, diet and exercise; and symptoms of chest pain and shortness of breath. Follow-ups of 90.1 % of subjects at 1 month and 80.6% at 4 months were carried out. RESULTS: Median attendance for nurse follow-up in the 4 months following diagnosis was 3 (IQR 2-5) in intervention practices and 0 (IQR 0-1) in control practices; the median number of visits to a doctor was the same in both groups. At hospital discharge, levels of prescribing of preventive medication were low in both intervention and control groups: aspirin 77 versus 74% (P = 0.32), cholesterol lowering agents 9 versus 10% (P = 0.8). Conversely, 1 month after diagnosis, the vast majority of patients in both groups reported healthy lifestyles: 90 versus 84% reported eating healthy food (P = 0.53); 73 versus 67% taking regular exercise (P = 0.13); 89 versus 92% not smoking (P = 0.77). Take up of cardiac rehabilitation was 37% in the intervention group and 22% in the control group (P = 0.001); the median number of sessions attended was also higher (5 versus 3 out of 6). CONCLUSIONS: The intervention of a liaison nurse is effective in ensuring that general practice nurses follow-up patients after hospital discharge. It does not alter the number of follow-up visits made by the patient to the doctor. Levels of prescribing and reported changes in behaviour at hospital discharge indicate that the main tasks facing practice nurses during follow-up are to help patients to sustain changes in behaviour, to encourage doctors to prescribe appropriate medication and to encourage patients to adhere to medication while returning to an active life. These are very different tasks to those traditionally undertaken by practice nurses in relation to primary prevention, where the emphasis has been on identifying risk and motivating change. Assessment of the effectiveness of practice nurses in undertaking these new tasks requires a longer follow-up.  (+info)

(7/6426) Socioeconomic and behavioral factors leading to acquired bacterial resistance to antibiotics in developing countries.

In developing countries, acquired bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents is common in isolates from healthy persons and from persons with community-acquired infections. Complex socioeconomic and behavioral factors associated with antibiotic resistance, particularly regarding diarrheal and respiratory pathogens, in developing tropical countries, include misuse of antibiotics by health professionals, unskilled practitioners, and laypersons; poor drug quality; unhygienic conditions accounting for spread of resistant bacteria; and inadequate surveillance.  (+info)

(8/6426) Exercise clinical trials in cancer prevention research: a call to action.

The experimental study design can yield valuable information in measuring the association between physical activity and occurrence of cancers. Randomized clinical exercise trials can provide insight into the avenues through which physical activity might affect cancer development and can provide experience with diffusing an exercise intervention into certain populations. This report describes the potential utility of the randomized clinical trial design in providing answers about bias, mechanisms, behavior change, and dose-response in defining the causal pathway between physical activity and cancer. The challenges and limitations of exercise clinical trial are discussed. The research experience in cardiovascular disease and exercise is used as a model for developing a research agenda to explore the potential role of physical activity as a cancer-prevention modality. We recommend that a series of small clinical trials of exercise interventions be conducted to measure exercise change effects on biomarkers for cancer risk, to learn about exercise behavior change in individuals at risk for cancer, and to serve as feasibility studies for larger randomized controlled trials of cancer and precursor end points and for community intervention studies.  (+info)



Unhealthy


  • Haskard-Zolnierek said she hopes the book will encourage every health care professional to regularly discuss with their patients the value of adherence and changing unhealthy behaviors. (ucr.edu)
  • A common thread across VCBH research projects is the application of knowledge from the disciplines of behavioral economics and behavioral pharmacology to: (a) increase understanding of vulnerability to unhealthy behavior, and (b) the use of incentives and other behavioral and pharmacological interventions to support healthy behavior change interventions and policies. (uvm.edu)
  • Unhealthy behaviors (e.g., tobacco and other substance abuse, physical inactivity, obesity, risky sexual behavior) represent the leading cause of chronic disease and premature deaths in the U.S. and are a major driver behind spiraling health-care costs. (uvm.edu)

person's health


  • The study also examines a person's health and health behaviors such as eating habits, depression, injuries, anti-social behavior including questions concerning bullying, fighting, using weapons, and how one deals with anger. (umich.edu)
  • Other topics include questions about the person's health and other health behaviors. (umich.edu)

School-Aged Children


  • These studies, generally known as Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC), are based on nationally independent surveys of school-aged children in as many as 30 participating countries. (umich.edu)

examines


  • Project examines health behaviors and health promotion methods for Hmong farming families. (cdc.gov)

obesity


  • YRBSS also measures the prevalence of obesity and asthma and other priority health-related behaviors plus sexual identity and sex of sexual contacts. (cdc.gov)

patterns


  • Yet, despite the importance of adherence to medications and healthy lifestyle patterns, DiMatteo points out that doctors get very little training in medical school for changing patient behavior. (ucr.edu)
  • The University of Minnesota Agricultural Safety and Health team's research project investigates culture-specific health behavior patterns in order to develop appropriate health promotion methods for Hmong farming families. (cdc.gov)
  • The VCBH is an interdisciplinary center of research excellence committed to investigating relationships between personal behavior patterns (i.e., lifestyle) and risk for chronic disease and premature death. (uvm.edu)

behavioral


  • Check out Education.com's rich collection of behavioral science projects and health science fair projects for kids. (education.com)
  • RIVERSIDE, Calif. - Health care practitioners often struggle to create a systematic plan to help their patients make the behavioral changes necessary to control chronic illnesses or to practice preventive care. (ucr.edu)
  • To our knowledge, the VCBH is the only NIH-funded center that is applying the disciplines of behavioral economics and behavioral pharmacology to tackling these enormous, interrelated U.S. public health challenges. (uvm.edu)
  • The VCBH will leverage knowledge from the disciplines of behavioral economics and behavioral pharmacology to better understand and support healthy behavior change. (uvm.edu)

researchers


  • LEWISBURG, PA-Refuting one of the most fundamental assumptions about feline behavior, a new study published Wednesday by researchers at Bucknell University found that 90 percent of all meowing actually comes from owners trying to get their cats to meow back. (theonion.com)
  • The second objective is to provide researchers with relevant information to understand and explain the development of health attitudes and behaviors through early adolescence. (umich.edu)
  • The book also will be helpful to researchers who study health behavior and adherence, and to the sophisticated layperson who wants to take a more proactive role in managing personal health. (ucr.edu)
  • Despite these limitations, researchers have learned a great deal about the health status and health behaviors of Hispanics over the last 25 years. (ssrn.com)

change


  • As important as new medical breakthroughs are, you could argue that most disease management requires behavior change on the part of the patient. (ucr.edu)
  • We're always studying behavior change, how you motivate people to change, and how you reinforce new behaviors. (ucr.edu)
  • Vast bodies of research point to the vital role each of these plays in adherence and health behavior change. (ucr.edu)
  • This book offers a method by which health care providers can help patients understand what they need to do, persuade them to change their behavior, and overcome barriers to change. (ucr.edu)
  • Health behavior change] is do-able if practitioners have a simple strategy for helping patients make those changes. (ucr.edu)
  • Enables students to work directly with patients of the Johns Hopkins Weight Management Center (JHWMC) to promote behavior change in the areas of diet and fitness. (jhsph.edu)

study


  • Since 1982, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe has sponsored a cross-national, school-based study of health-related attitudes and behaviors of young people. (umich.edu)
  • Listing of a study on this site does not reflect endorsement by the National Institutes of Health. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The Vermont Center on Behavior and Health (VCBH) was established in 2013 to study the relationship between behavior and health. (uvm.edu)

Data


  • We use data from the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS), which contains more detailed and accurate measures of retiree health insurance than those used in most previous studies. (repec.org)
  • Collecting qualitative, contextual data to design the most responsive and culturally competent solutions is essential to help meet the agricultural safety and health needs of ethnic communities. (cdc.gov)
  • In this context, the gaps in the available data on the health and health behavior of Hispanics impose serious limitations. (ssrn.com)

healthcare


  • BURLINGTON, Mass. , Oct. 24, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Decision Resources Group, one of the world's leading research and advisory firms for pharmaceutical and healthcare issues, finds that pharmaceutical companies are facing a paradigm shift in the way their brands gain access to the U.S. market, as Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) continue to develop across the nation and enrollment on the health insurance exchanges moves forward. (prnewswire.com)

among


  • Among the foreign-born, moreover, health status and health behaviors may differ by degree of acculturation to U.S. culture. (ssrn.com)
  • In this chapter, we provide an overview of the health status and health behaviors of Hispanics in the U.S. The chapter is divided into several sections: First we discuss mortality rates among Hispanics, compare them with rates for non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks, and illustrate the variation in mortality across Hispanic national origin groups. (ssrn.com)
  • Importantly, these risk behaviors are overrepresented among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations and are major contributors to the problem of health disparities. (uvm.edu)

Department


  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. (umich.edu)
  • Health Insurance Availability and the Retirement Decision ," Working papers 94-04, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics. (repec.org)

Children


  • The next three sections cover the health status and health behaviors of Hispanic adults, the health status and health behaviors of Hispanic children and adolescents, and birth outcomes. (ssrn.com)

impact


  • ACOs, of which there are more than 500 across the US, will also impact prescribing behavior and brand uptake across therapies. (prnewswire.com)
  • The 2013 "Physician & Payer Dynamics" Series investigates how novel payer-led care coordination and financing programs impact prescribing behavior. (prnewswire.com)
  • We estimate the impact of employer-provided retiree health insurance on the rate at which men aged 51-62 enter and exit the labor force and switch jobs. (repec.org)

personal


  • Personal, visual, and tactile methods of health promotion within the Hmong community have been found to be the most culturally appropriate. (cdc.gov)
  • The focus of the VCBH is on investigating relationships between personal behaviors and risk for chronic disease and premature death, with a specific focus on understanding mechanisms underpinning risk, and developing effective interventions and policies to promote healthy behavior. (uvm.edu)

interventions


  • The picture of both advantage and disadvantage that has surfaced must be appreciated and understood in order to develop interventions and design policies to improve Hispanic health. (ssrn.com)
  • The contribution of socioeconomic factors to vulnerability and the need for interventions and policies to promote health and reduce disparities in disadvantaged populations is an overarching VCBH focus. (uvm.edu)
  • There is a tremendous need for greater scientific understanding of the mechanisms underpinning vulnerability to these risk behaviors and for more effective interventions and policies to promote healthy behavior. (uvm.edu)

exchanges


  • However, expert opinions about growth have been based on projections, not actual consumer behavior in the exchanges that only really got going last year. (reuters.com)

identify


  • The first objective is to monitor health-risk behaviors and attitudes in youth over time to provide background and identify targets for health promotion initiatives. (umich.edu)

factors


  • Yet efforts to provide a detailed and comprehensive description of the health and health behaviors of Hispanics are complicated by a variety of factors. (ssrn.com)

topics


  • Whether your little scientist is interested in human behavior topics like psychology, health, forensic science, sports, or even food science, Education.com's science fair ideas can help her shine at her upcoming science fair. (education.com)

rate


  • The results show that availability of employer-provided retiree health insurance (EPRHI) increases the rate of exit from employment by two percentage points per year on average if the individual shares the cost of the insurance coverage with the firm, and by six percentage points if the firm pays the entire cost. (repec.org)
  • West Columbia residents rate the overall health of their teeth and gums on average at 47 percent. (city-data.com)

people


  • If Aon's exchange ends up being indicative of consumer behavior, most people will pick a lower-cost plan than they were previously offered, and then stick with it. (reuters.com)
  • Ten percent of people living in West Columbia have ever been told by a doctor or health professional that they have diabetes. (city-data.com)

risk


  • The purpose of this 4 group (2x2) pilot randomized controlled trial is to test the feasibility and logistics of incorporating genetic risk information (9p21)into standard Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) risk counseling or health coaching intervention (or both) in primary care at 2 Duke Clinics. (clinicaltrials.gov)

youth


  • The health status and health behaviors of today's Hispanic youth will play a central role in shaping the long-term health and health care needs not only of Hispanics in the U.S. but of all Americans. (ssrn.com)

format


  • Standard health and safety educational materials in a written format are not widely accepted by Minnesota Hmong farmers. (cdc.gov)

represent


  • Hispanics living in the U.S. represent an increasing diversity of national origin groups, and health status differs across national origin groups. (ssrn.com)

policies


  • A school administrator and the lead health education teacher also completed individual surveys concerning school programs and policies that affect students' health and the content of various health courses. (umich.edu)

model


  • The models estimated are an approximation of the employment decision rules implied by a dynamic stochastic model of employment behavior of older individuals. (repec.org)

insurance


  • NEW YORK, March 6 (Reuters) - Shopping for employee health insurance on private marketplaces might be the way of the future for tens of millions. (reuters.com)
  • The Aon Active Health Exchange, a private health insurance market run by the benefit consultant Aon Hewitt, enrolled 600,000 employees and family members in 2014, after signing up 150,000 in 2013, according to a report released today. (reuters.com)
  • The accurate and detailed health insurance measures available in the HRS help account for the larger effects found here. (repec.org)
  • Retiree Health Insurance And The Labor Force Behavior Of Older Men In The 1990s," Review of Economics and Statistics, 2001, v83(1,Feb), 64-80. (repec.org)
  • Retiree Health Insurance and the Labor Force Behavior of Older Men in the 1990s ," The Review of Economics and Statistics , MIT Press, vol. 83(1), pages 64-80, February. (repec.org)
  • Health-Insurance Availability and the Retirement Decision ," American Economic Review , American Economic Association, vol. 85(4), pages 938-948, September. (repec.org)
  • Health Insurance Availability and the Retirement Decision ," NBER Working Papers 4469, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. (repec.org)

News


  • Sign up for our newsletter to get the latest health news and tips. (ratemds.com)

education


  • YRBSS includes a national school-based survey conducted by CDC and state, territorial, tribal, and local surveys conducted by state, territorial, and local education and health agencies and tribal governments. (cdc.gov)

better


  • On numerous dimensions, foreign-born Hispanics - i.e., immigrants to the U.S. - have better health indicators than their U.S.-born counterparts. (ssrn.com)

find


  • Towers Watson's latest analysis, also released today in conjunction with the National Business Group on Health, is bullish on the private health exchange front, saying two-thirds of employers find it a viable alternative. (reuters.com)
  • Individuals, too, frequently find that even the most straightforward and reasonable health behaviors are difficult to put into practice. (ucr.edu)

promotion


  • Learning styles and preferences for receiving health promotion information can be described as cooperative and group-oriented rather than focused on the individual. (cdc.gov)

needs


  • Finally, we conclude with a summary of our findings and what they mean for the health and health care needs of future generations of Hispanics in the U.S. (ssrn.com)

national


  • NAHDAP is supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). (umich.edu)
  • This book's release date is timely, given the current national debate over health care reform. (ucr.edu)

Administration


  • Health Resources and Services Administration. (umich.edu)