Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.LithuaniaEducational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.United StatesLongitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Health Communication: The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Oral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Psychological Theory: Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System: Telephone surveys are conducted to monitor prevalence of the major behavioral risks among adults associated with premature MORBIDITY and MORTALITY. The data collected is in regard to actual behaviors, rather than on attitudes or knowledge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 1984.Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Directive Counseling: Counseling during which a professional plays an active role in a client's or patient's decision making by offering advice, guidance, and/or recommendations.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.FinlandIntention: What a person has in mind to do or bring about.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Great BritainStereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Behavioral Medicine: The interdisciplinary field concerned with the development and integration of behavioral and biomedical science, knowledge, and techniques relevant to health and illness and the application of this knowledge and these techniques to prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Telephone: An instrument for reproducing sounds especially articulate speech at a distance. (Webster, 3rd ed)Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Minority Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of members of minority groups.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Personal Health Services: Health care provided to individuals.Acculturation: Process of cultural change in which one group or members of a group assimilate various cultural patterns from another.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Psychology, Social: The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Intervention Studies: Epidemiologic investigations designed to test a hypothesized cause-effect relation by modifying the supposed causal factor(s) in the study population.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Economic Recession: Significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real gross domestic product, real income, employment, industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales. (National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc,, accessed 4/23/2009)Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Self-Assessment: Appraisal of one's own personal qualities or traits.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Toothbrushing: The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.EstoniaNorth CarolinaInternal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).

*  New in the Literature: Behavior Change (Physiother Theory Pract. 2012;28(8):571-587.)
According to the authors, multiple health behavior change needs to be a primary 21st century clinical competence in physical ... The podcasts and other resources can be found on APTA's Health Behavior Change webpage. ... Future studies will establish the degree to which effective health counseling augments physical therapy as well as health ... APTA recently launched a podcast series on behavior change that provides information on key theories and models and their value ...
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The purpose of this study is to describe the preventive health behaviors for chronic diseases among Mexican Americans residing ... the majority of Mexican Americans had poor preventive health behaviors and are at risk for multiple non-communicable chronic ... Adherence to preventive health behaviors for chronic diseases would avert 80% of all heart disease, stroke, type II diabetes, ... University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston School of Public HealthFollow. Jing Wang, University of Texas Health ...
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Periodic prompts that encourage healthy behaviors are a way to remind and help motivate people to change their health behaviors ... Periodic Prompts and Reminders in Health Promotion and Health Behavior Interventions: Systematic Review. ... as well as other health behaviors [4]. This review builds upon that work by examining interventions targeting other health ... Long-term behavior change and health improvements were not examined by this review because of a lack of long-term follow-up in ...
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So Many Health Behaviors, So Little Time. TalkingNutrition provides perspectives on the exciting and ever-changing field of ... So Many Health Behaviors, So Little Time *Long-term Use of Multivitamin-Multimineral Supplements Linked to Heart Health in ... the more you do for your health the better you are. Sometimes, we focus so much on individual health behaviors (as a for ... Health behaviors maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, not smoking, and getting enough vitamins, minerals, and ...
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Health Benefits of Dandelion Plant. What is dandelion? Dandelion greens are nutrition powerhouses with a wide range of health ... When questioned about four of the behaviors promoted as part of the Great American Health Challenge, (not smoking, getting ... Healthy Behaviors Can Prevent at Least 50 Percent of Cancer Deaths. by Medindia Content Team on January 29, 2007 at 5:46 PM ... The Great American Health Challenge, a year-long program, encourages Americans to make a commitment to take the following ...
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... preventive health behaviors in Hong Kong, China. Assessment of whether health behaviors increased after launching SARS ... The recent health screening for metabolic diseases in Thai workers, Bangkok reported that health behavior of workers aged 25-59 ... An Outbreak of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: Predictors of Health Behaviors and Effect of Community Prevention ... This study aimed to investigate gender, age, screening practices, health beliefs, and perceived future health needs for healthy ...
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... determine the magnitude and direction of intervention effect sizes for inflammatory-related serum markers and relevant health ... outcomes among breast cancer survivors (BCSs) receiving a physical activity behavior cha ... Health Behavior*. Health Status. Humans. Inflammation / blood, etiology*, therapy*. Middle Aged. Motor Activity / physiology*. ... CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity behavior change interventions in BCSs can achieve large effect size changes for several health ...
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BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The ideal cardiovascular health (iCVH) construct consists of 4 health behaviors (smoking status, body mass ... With public health concerns surrounding rates of sedentary behavior (SB), there is often speculation on the role of screen time ... This study sought to determine health-seeking behavior and barriers to care in patients with rectal bleeding in Nigeria. This ... Health-Seeking Behavior and Barriers to Care in Patients With Rectal Bleeding in Nigeria. ...
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Self-reports of health status, health behaviors, and health attitudes are collected by in-school and online surveys. ... Self-reports of health status, health behaviors, and health attitudes are collected by in-school and online surveys. ... health behaviors, and health behavior change. Hispanic youth do not require oversampling because they currently represent a ... health behaviors, and health behavior change. Hispanic youth do not require oversampling because they currently represent a ...
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Her research focuses on changing behavior including developing and testing theoretically based health behavior interventions. ... choosing not to change our risky health behavior is detrimental to long-term health. ... Self-affirmation changes health behavior Submitted by hdaniel on Tue, 06/23/2015 - 15:25 ... The impact of self-affirmation on health behavior change was not affected by other characteristics of the sample such as: the ...
*  Madison Avenue Methods Can Drive Health-Behavior Change
Changing health behavior can be daunting. It is a process that requires a fundamental understanding of the employees' mindset ... But there is much that HR can learn from advertising, especially as it relates to addressing health-behavior change in the ... Most employees are focused on their jobs and might not react to a health-oriented message. Messages about health improvement or ... So the next time you think about Madison Avenue, remember that its tactics can be part of your world as a health benefits ...
*  Education, cognition, health knowledge, and health behavior
Controlling for health knowledge does not influence the impact of education on health behavior, supporting the productive ... Similarly, the impact of education on health behavior is the same between those with and without a learning disability, ... Accounting for cognitive ability does not significantly alter the relationship between education and health behavior. ... suggesting that cognition is not likely to be a significant factor in explaining the impact of education on health behavior. ...
*  health behavior change conferences and events | Lanyrd
Browse health behavior change conferences and events around the world. See who's going, who's speaking and subscribe to alerts ... There are currently no upcoming health behavior change events. Know of one? Add it to Lanyrd. ...
*  The Economics of Health Behavior and Vitamin Consumption
We use the 2003-04 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to examine the relationship between HEI and ... These are respondents who have been told by a health professional that they have high blood pressure and elevated cholesterol ... The objective of this paper is to determine the impact of lifestyle, diet behavior including vitamin supplement consumption, ... Selected variables include demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as a large number of dietary, health indicators, and ...
*  New Podcasts: Health Behavior Change Models and Theories
... Changing behavior is important for patient or client success in all ... A new podcast introduces a series on health behavior change, providing an overview of key theories and models and their value ... and behavior. This model, relying on self-report, has been applied to a wide variety of problem behaviors including smoking ... A second podcast focuses exclusively on the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change, an important and complex model that ...
*  HPER C589 21510 Models and Theories of Health Behavior
Models and Theories of Health Behavior (3 cr.) Selected theories and models of health behavior relevant to the practice of ... Health, Physical Education and Recreation , Models and Theories of Health Behavior. C589 , 21510 , Susan Middlestadt. ... and health problems. The content will focus on models of individual and interpersonal health behavior. ... health promotion are examined. Students will be expected to determine which theories or models are appropriate for given ...
*  Health Behavior | UAB School of Public Health
Accessibility , Disclaimer , UAB Web Pages Policy , Contact Us , Site Feedback , © Copyright UAB School of Public Health ... prevention and control of addictive behaviors, sexual health risks including HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, addition to the ... Students concentrating in these fields learn how practical research and solutions help improve the health of individuals and ... Our research covers obesity prevention including lifestyle interventions, family and adolescent health issues, ...
*  Changing Health Behavior Through Games: Education Book Chapter | IGI Global
This chapter discusses how proven health communication theories can be used in electronic games to affect behavior change. ... After discussing the need for effective health communication and reviewing the current trends in online health-seeking behavior ... "Changing Health Behavior Through Games." In Handbook of Research on Effective Electronic Gaming in Education, ed. Richard E. ... "Changing Health Behavior Through Games." Handbook of Research on Effective Electronic Gaming in Education. IGI Global, 2009. ...
*  Upgrade Fast Food Ambiance, Improve Health Behaviors
Home » News » Upgrade Fast Food Ambiance, Improve Health Behaviors. Upgrade Fast Food Ambiance, Improve Health Behaviors. By ... health administration, health education and health policy. His research efforts included the area of telehealth with a ... Nauert PhD, R. (2015). Upgrade Fast Food Ambiance, Improve Health Behaviors. Psych Central. Retrieved on October 20, 2017, from ... He is currently an associate professor for Rocky Mountain University of Health Professionals doctoral program in health ...
*  The relationship between education and health behavior: some empirical evidence
This paper also examines whether there are degree effects in the health behaviors of binge drinking and smoking. Results ... costs represent any utility-improving future outcome that is affected by currently engaging in health-related behavior. ... Although researchers agree that more educated people typically engage in healthier behaviors, they have not uncovered the ... "Cross-National Sources of Health Inequality: Education and Tobacco Use in the World Health Survey," Demography, Springer; ...
*  American Academy of Health Behavior - Wikipedia
The Academy sponsors the American Journal of Health Behavior (formerly Health Values). American Academy of Health Behavior ... The American Academy of Health Behavior was founded in 1997 to "transform the health promotion and health education field from ... The origination of the Academy was based on the belief that the future growth and evolution of the health promotion and health ... in the Department of Public and Community Health. ... as a means of improving practice and enhancing public health. ...
... to inspire parents to become knowledgable partners who can work with their children's physicians to improve children's health. ... This unique guide includes advice on how to transform a baby's eating habits that will positively impact their health & ... Our goal is to improve children's health by inspiring parents to become knowledgable partners who can work with their ... Our goal is to improve children's health by inspiring parents to become knowledgable partners who can work with their ...

Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Global Health Delivery ProjectBehavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Halfdan T. MahlerClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Genetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.Disinhibition: In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment. Disinhibition affects motor, instinctual, emotional, cognitive, and perceptual aspects with signs and symptoms similar to the diagnostic criteria for mania.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.High-intensity interval training: High-intensity interval training (HIIT), also called high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) or sprint interval training (SIT), is an enhanced form of interval training, an exercise strategy alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise with less-intense recovery periods. HIIT is a form of cardiovascular exercise.Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Excessive alcohol intake is associated with an elevated risk of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), heart failure, some cancers, and accidental injury, and is a leading cause of preventable death in industrialized countries. However, extensive research has shown that moderate alcohol intake is associated with health benefits, including less cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and lower all-cause mortality.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Relative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.Women's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Drainage basins of Lithuania: There are six major drainage basins in Lithuania: the rivers Neman (Lithuanian:Nemunas), Lielupe, Venta, Daugava, Pregolya, and a strip along the Baltic where rivers flow directly into the sea.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.Comprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Sexual motivation and hormones: Sexual motivation is influenced by hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, oxytocin, and vasopressin. In most mammalian species, sex hormones control the ability to engage in sexual behaviours.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.Stressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.African-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.Cigarette smoking among college students: The rates of college students smoking in the United States have fluctuated for the past twenty years. Majority of lifelong smokers begin smoking habits before the age of 24, which makes the college years a crucial time in the study of cigarette consumption.Healthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:Bicameralism (psychology): Bicameralism (the philosophy of "two-chamberedness") is a hypothesis in psychology that argues that the human mind once assumed a state in which cognitive functions were divided between one part of the brain which appears to be "speaking", and a second part which listens and obeys—a bicameral mind. The term was coined by Julian Jaynes, who presented the idea in his 1976 book The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, wherein he made the case that a bicameral mentality came to be the normal and ubiquitous state of the human mind until as recently as 3000 years ago.Neighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.Poverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Northeast Community Health CentreCuriosity: Curiosity (from Latin curiosus "careful, diligent, curious," akin to cura "care") is a quality related to inquisitive thinking such as exploration, investigation, and learning, evident by observation in human and animal species. Curiosity is heavily associated with all aspects of human development, in which derives the process of learning and desire to acquire knowledge and skill.Standard evaluation frameworkNon-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.

(1/6426) Physician advice and individual behaviors about cardiovascular disease risk reduction--seven states and Puerto Rico, 1997.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) (e.g., heart disease and stroke) is the leading cause of death in the United States and accounted for 959,227 deaths in 1996. Strategies to reduce the risk for heart disease and stroke include lifestyle changes (e.g., eating fewer high-fat and high-cholesterol foods) and increasing physical activity. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and the American Heart Association (AHA) recommend that, as part of a preventive health examination, all primary-care providers counsel their patients about a healthy diet and regular physical activity. AHA also recommends low-dose aspirin use as a secondary preventive measure among persons with existing CVD. To determine the prevalence of physician counseling about cardiovascular health and changes in individual behaviors, CDC analyzed data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for seven states and Puerto Rico. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicate a lower prevalence of counseling and behavior change among persons without than with a history of heart disease or stroke.  (+info)

(2/6426) Hygiene behaviour in rural Nicaragua in relation to diarrhoea.

BACKGROUND: Childhood diarrhoea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Nicaragua. Amongst the risk factors for its transmission are 'poor' hygiene practices. We investigated the effect of a large number of hygiene practices on diarrhoeal disease in children aged <2 years and validated the technique of direct observation of hygiene behaviour. METHODS: A prospective follow-up study was carried out in a rural zone of Nicaragua. From the database of a previously conducted case-control study on water and sanitation 172 families were recruited, half of which had experienced a higher than expected rate of diarrhoea in their children and the other half a lower rate. Hygiene behaviour was observed over two mornings and diarrhoea incidence was recorded with a calendar, filled out by the mother, and collected every week for 5 months. RESULTS: Of 46 'good' practices studied, 39 were associated with a lower risk of diarrhoea, five were unrelated and only for two a higher risk was observed. Washing of hands, domestic cleanliness (kitchen, living room, yard) and the use of a diaper/underclothes by the child had the strongest protective effect. Schooling (>3 years of primary school) and better economic position (possession of a radio) had a positive influence on general hygiene behaviour, education having a slightly stronger effect when a radio was present. Individual hygiene behaviour appeared to be highly variable in contrast with the consistent behaviour of the community as a whole. Feasible and appropriate indicators of hygiene behaviour were found to be domestic cleanliness and the use of a diaper or underclothes by the child. CONCLUSION: A consistent relationship between almost all hygiene practices and diarrhoea was detected, more schooling producing better hygiene behaviour. The high variability of hygiene behaviour at the individual level requires repeated observations (at least two) before and after the hygiene education in the event one wants to measure the impact of the campaign on the individual.  (+info)

(3/6426) Reliability of information on physical activity and other chronic disease risk factors among US women aged 40 years or older.

Data on chronic disease risk behaviors and related variables, including barriers to and attitudes toward physical activity, are lacking for women of some racial/ethnic groups. A test-retest study was conducted from July 1996 through June 1997 among US women (n = 199) aged 40 years or more who were white, black, American Indian/Alaska Native, or Hispanic. The sample was selected and interviews were conducted using a modified version of the methods of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. For behavioral risk factors such as physical inactivity, smoking, and low fruit and vegetable consumption, group prevalences were generally similar between interviews 1 and 2. However, kappa values for selected physical activity variables ranged from 0.26 to 0.51 and tended to be lower for black women. Discordance was low for variables on cigarette smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (kappa = 0.64-0.92). Discordance was high (kappa = 0.33) for low consumption of fruits and vegetables. Additional variables for barriers to and access to exercise ranged widely across racial/ethnic groups and in terms of measures of agreement. These methods illustrate an efficient way to sample and assess the reliability of data collected from women of racial/ethnic minority groups.  (+info)

(4/6426) Women's interest in vaginal microbicides.

CONTEXT: Each year, an estimated 15 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV, occur in the United States. Women are not only at a disadvantage because of their biological and social susceptibility, but also because of the methods that are available for prevention. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 1,000 women aged 18-44 in the continental United States who had had sex with a man in the last 12 months were interviewed by telephone. Analyses identified levels and predictors of women's worry about STDs and interest in vaginal microbicides, as well as their preferences regarding method characteristics. Numbers of potential U.S. microbicide users were estimated. RESULTS: An estimated 21.3 million U.S. women have some potential current interest in using a microbicidal product. Depending upon product specifications and cost, as many as 6.0 million women who are worried about getting an STD would be very interested in current use of a microbicide. These women are most likely to be unmarried and not cohabiting, of low income and less education, and black or Hispanic. They also are more likely to have visited a doctor for STD symptoms or to have reduced their sexual activity because of STDs, to have a partner who had had other partners in the past year, to have no steady partner or to have ever used condoms for STD prevention. CONCLUSIONS: A significant minority of women in the United States are worried about STDs and think they would use vaginal microbicides. The development, testing and marketing of such products should be expedited.  (+info)

(5/6426) Condom use and HIV risk behaviors among U.S. adults: data from a national survey.

CONTEXT: How much condom use among U.S. adults varies by type of partner or by risk behavior is unclear. Knowledge of such differentials would aid in evaluating the progress being made toward goals for levels of condom use as part of the Healthy People 2000 initiative. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the 1996 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse, an annual household-based probability sample of the noninstitutionalized population aged 12 and older that measures the use of illicit drugs, alcohol and tobacco. The personal behaviors module included 25 questions covering sexual activity in the past year, frequency of condom use in the past year, circumstances of the last sexual encounter and HIV testing. RESULTS: Sixty-two percent of adults reported using a condom at last intercourse outside of an ongoing relationship, while only 19% reported using condoms when the most recent intercourse occurred within a steady relationship. Within ongoing relationships, condom use was highest among respondents who were younger, black, of lower income and from large metropolitan areas. Forty percent of unmarried adults used a condom at last sex, compared with the health objective of 50% for the year 2000. Forty percent of injecting drug users used condoms at last intercourse, compared with the 60% condom use objective for high-risk individuals. Significantly, persons at increased risk for HIV because of their sexual behavior or drug use were not more likely to use condoms than were persons not at increased risk; only 22% used condoms during last intercourse within an ongoing relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial progress has been made toward national goals for increasing condom use. The rates of condom use by individuals at high risk of HIV need to be increased, however, particularly condom use with a steady partner.  (+info)

(6/6426) Follow-up care in general practice of patients with myocardial infarction or angina pectoris: initial results of the SHIP trial. Southampton Heart Integrated Care Project.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of a nurse-led programme to ensure that follow-up care is provided in general practice after hospital diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI) or angina pectoris. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial with stratified random allocation of practices to intervention and control groups within all 67 practices in Southampton and South-West Hampshire, England. The subjects were 422 adult patients with a MI and 175 patients with a new diagnosis of angina recruited during hospital admission or chest pain clinic attendance between April 1995 and September 1996. Intervention involved a programme of secondary preventive care led by specialist liaison nurses in which we sought to improve communication between hospital and general practice and to encourage general practice nurses to provide structured follow-up. The main outcome measures were: extent of general practice follow-up; attendance for cardiac rehabilitation; medication prescribed at hospital discharge; self-reported smoking, diet and exercise; and symptoms of chest pain and shortness of breath. Follow-ups of 90.1 % of subjects at 1 month and 80.6% at 4 months were carried out. RESULTS: Median attendance for nurse follow-up in the 4 months following diagnosis was 3 (IQR 2-5) in intervention practices and 0 (IQR 0-1) in control practices; the median number of visits to a doctor was the same in both groups. At hospital discharge, levels of prescribing of preventive medication were low in both intervention and control groups: aspirin 77 versus 74% (P = 0.32), cholesterol lowering agents 9 versus 10% (P = 0.8). Conversely, 1 month after diagnosis, the vast majority of patients in both groups reported healthy lifestyles: 90 versus 84% reported eating healthy food (P = 0.53); 73 versus 67% taking regular exercise (P = 0.13); 89 versus 92% not smoking (P = 0.77). Take up of cardiac rehabilitation was 37% in the intervention group and 22% in the control group (P = 0.001); the median number of sessions attended was also higher (5 versus 3 out of 6). CONCLUSIONS: The intervention of a liaison nurse is effective in ensuring that general practice nurses follow-up patients after hospital discharge. It does not alter the number of follow-up visits made by the patient to the doctor. Levels of prescribing and reported changes in behaviour at hospital discharge indicate that the main tasks facing practice nurses during follow-up are to help patients to sustain changes in behaviour, to encourage doctors to prescribe appropriate medication and to encourage patients to adhere to medication while returning to an active life. These are very different tasks to those traditionally undertaken by practice nurses in relation to primary prevention, where the emphasis has been on identifying risk and motivating change. Assessment of the effectiveness of practice nurses in undertaking these new tasks requires a longer follow-up.  (+info)

(7/6426) Socioeconomic and behavioral factors leading to acquired bacterial resistance to antibiotics in developing countries.

In developing countries, acquired bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents is common in isolates from healthy persons and from persons with community-acquired infections. Complex socioeconomic and behavioral factors associated with antibiotic resistance, particularly regarding diarrheal and respiratory pathogens, in developing tropical countries, include misuse of antibiotics by health professionals, unskilled practitioners, and laypersons; poor drug quality; unhygienic conditions accounting for spread of resistant bacteria; and inadequate surveillance.  (+info)

(8/6426) Exercise clinical trials in cancer prevention research: a call to action.

The experimental study design can yield valuable information in measuring the association between physical activity and occurrence of cancers. Randomized clinical exercise trials can provide insight into the avenues through which physical activity might affect cancer development and can provide experience with diffusing an exercise intervention into certain populations. This report describes the potential utility of the randomized clinical trial design in providing answers about bias, mechanisms, behavior change, and dose-response in defining the causal pathway between physical activity and cancer. The challenges and limitations of exercise clinical trial are discussed. The research experience in cardiovascular disease and exercise is used as a model for developing a research agenda to explore the potential role of physical activity as a cancer-prevention modality. We recommend that a series of small clinical trials of exercise interventions be conducted to measure exercise change effects on biomarkers for cancer risk, to learn about exercise behavior change in individuals at risk for cancer, and to serve as feasibility studies for larger randomized controlled trials of cancer and precursor end points and for community intervention studies.  (+info)

  • attitudes
  • Through exploration of the elaboration likelihood model, social cognitive theory, and stages of change theory, this chapter will discuss how games can be used to change perceptions, attitudes, and actions relating to health behaviors. (
  • Health belief model: It is a psychological model attempting to provide an explanation and prediction of health behaviors through a focus on the attitudes and beliefs of individuals. (
  • A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality. (
  • Peer pressure (or social pressure) is the direct influence on people by peers, or the effect on an individual who gets encouraged to follow their peers by changing their attitudes, values or behaviors to conform to those of the influencing group or individual. (
  • one's
  • For example, behavior change steps to include more physical activity can improve one's life expectancy, control weight, and boost mental health. (
  • While infant formula had been introduced in developed countries in the 1920s as a healthy way to feed one's children, the emergence of research on health benefits of breastfeeding precipitated the beginning of the breastfeeding promotion movement in the United States. (
  • prevention
  • The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare had, on September 19, 2008, notified the Prevention of Food Adulteration (5th Amendment) Rules, 2008, mandating packaged food manufacturers to declare on their product labels nutritional information and a mark from the F.P.O or Agmark (Companies that are responsible for checking food products) to enable consumers make informed choices while purchasing. (
  • condom
  • This model, relying on self-report, has been applied to a wide variety of problem behaviors including smoking cessation, condom use for HIV protection, the use of sunscreens to prevent skin cancer, and stress management. (
  • risks
  • As self-affirmation works by reducing defensive responding when people feel threatened, it could be that self-affirmation is most effective on more proximal health risks as they are perceived as more threatening (e.g., they are perceived as more vivid and relevant) than more distal risks. (
  • This is best done with an array of data-aggregate insurance claims, health-risk assessments, biometrics, surveys and other elements that can help profile the workforce and identify current and future health risks. (
  • typically
  • Self-affirmation and health studies typically involve comparing a group who have completed a self-affirming task (e.g., writing about a personal value) with a control group who have completed a non-affirming task. (
  • healthy
  • The objective of this paper is to determine the impact of lifestyle, diet behavior including vitamin supplement consumption, and food culture on diet quality outcomes as measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI) and total energy intake. (
  • A new study suggests the mood or tone of a restaurant can influence healthy behaviors (even in a fast food joint). (
  • Healthy behaviors and practices during youth, particularly in school settings, is far more cost-effective than waiting until unhealthy behaviors are entrenched. (
  • preventive
  • He holds a faculty appointment at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, where he has served as Associate Director of the Johns Hopkins University Weight Management Center and as a member of the core faculty of the Preventive Medicine Residency Program. (
  • Dr. Kahan has advised the White House, U.S. House of Representatives, numerous national and international organizations, and federal and state government agencies on issues related to obesity, weight management, nutrition, preventive medicine and public health. (
  • refers
  • Play media Breastfeeding promotion refers to coordinated activities and policies to promote health among women, newborns and infants through breastfeeding. (
  • children's
  • Social constructionists state, for example, that gender-segregated children's activities create the appearance that gender differences in behavior reflect an essential nature of male and female behavior. (
  • After describing a series of tasks to their classroom that included bathroom usage, cleaning up, and general classroom behavior, teachers and researchers would observe children's performance on the tasks. (
  • Social
  • Some theories - which are collectively termed social construction theories - claim that gender behavior is mostly due to social conventions, although opposing theories disagree, such as theories in evolutionary psychology. (
  • The main concept in social cognitive theory is that an individual's actions and reactions, including social behaviors and cognitive processes, in almost every situation are influenced by the actions that individual has observed in others. (
  • public
  • How effective are public health departments at preventing mortality? (
  • The Academy's executive offices are located at the University of Maryland at College Park, in the Department of Public and Community Health. (
  • Discrepancies remain between the level of use optimal for public health and reported rate of use particularly by people over 40. (
  • He received his Masters of Public Health degree from Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. (
  • Dr. Kahan is the Director of the George Washington University-based Strategies to Overcome and Prevent (STOP) Obesity Alliance, a nonprofit coalition of more than 70 consumer, provider, government, labor, business, health insurers and quality-of-care organizations whose purpose is to advance the public conversation about obesity and develop practical strategies to combat obesity and weight bias. (
  • He also holds a faculty appointment at the George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services, is a clinical professor at George Washington University School of Medicine, and previously served as Co-Director of the George Washington University Weight Management Center. (
  • Public health awareness events such as World Breastfeeding Week, as well as training of health professionals and planning, aim to increase this number. (
  • They work in a variety of health care settings, including hospitals, private doctor's offices, and public health clinics. (
  • Economics
  • The impact of education on health knowledge ," Economics of Education Review , Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 792-812, October. (
  • Psychology
  • The SIUE School of Education, Health and Human Behavior consists of the Departments of Curriculum and Instruction, Educational Leadership, Kinesiology and Health Education, Psychology, and Special Education and Communication Disorders. (
  • consumption
  • Several published studies have shown promising results, with self-affirmation leading to more appropriate responses to risk information about a range of health issues, including alcohol consumption, caffeine consumption, unsafe sex, poor diet, and cigarette smoking. (
  • National Health
  • We use the 2003-04 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to examine the relationship between HEI and caloric intake. (
  • activities
  • The school supports a number of community outreach activities, including the Attention and Behavior Clinic, the Cougar Literacy Clinic, the SIUE Charter High School at the SIUE East St. Louis Center, the Southern Illinois Professional Development Center, the Speech-Language-Hearing Center, and the Weight Management Clinic. (
  • belief
  • The origination of the Academy was based on the belief that the future growth and evolution of the health promotion and health education fields rested on a strong commitment to conducting and disseminating quality research. (
  • Research
  • Research in Health Behavior (1-10 cr. (
  • Research projects in the area of health behavior are conducted under the direction of a member of the graduate teaching faculty. (
  • Education, Cognition, Health Knowledge, and Health Behavior ," Koç University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum Working Papers 1310, Koc University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum. (
  • Students concentrating in these fields learn how practical research and solutions help improve the health of individuals and communities. (
  • Time Preference and Health: An Exploratory Study ," NBER Chapters ,in: Economic Aspects of Health, pages 93-120 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. (
  • The name of the school was changed to the School of Education, Health and Human Behavior on July 1, 2014 to reflect its wider range of academics and research. (
  • Epidemiology: Results of the 4th EC Medical and Health Research Program. (
  • Research has found extensive evidence of discrimination based on skin color in criminal justice, business, labor market, housing, health care, media and politics in the United States and Europe. (
  • Recent research in the U.S. shows that socioeconomic and health inequality among African Americans along the color continuum is often similar or even larger in magnitude than what obtains betweens whites and African Americans as a whole. (
  • Study
  • A study conducted in a remedial kindergarten class in the Edna A. Hill Child Development Laboratory in the University of Kansas designed a program to measure how children could ease disruptive behavior in their peers through a two-part system. (
  • School
  • Southern Illinois University Edwardsville School of Education, Health and Human Behavior is an academic unit of Southern Illinois University Edwardsville located in Edwardsville, Illinois, United States. (
  • risk
  • In these circumstances we act defensively to avoid accepting the health information and the fact that we might be behaving irrationally and putting our health at risk. (
  • What's really interesting about self-affirmation theory is that it suggests a technique for overcoming defensiveness to threatening health-risk information. (
  • Affirming" the self (i.e., reflecting on positive aspects of the self) gives a sense that our self-integrity is intact which acts as a buffer when threatening health-risk information is presented. (
  • Then both groups are given health-risk information to read before completing dependent variables such as measures of message acceptance, intentions and actual behavior. (
  • Unfortunately, most Americans are doing a fairly poor job at caring for their health and well-being, as evidenced by the rising rates of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular risk, stress, anxiety and other lifestyle-related conditions. (
  • influence
  • Controlling for health knowledge does not influence the impact of education on health behavior, supporting the productive efficiency hypothesis. (
  • Adolescence is the time when a person is most susceptible to peer pressure because peers become an important influence on behavior during adolescence, and peer pressure has been called a hallmark of adolescent experience. (
  • outcome
  • We included all papers that (i) compared a self-affirmation condition with a non-affirming control (that differed only in the presence/ absence of a self-affirmation task), (ii) measured at least one of three outcome variables: message acceptance, intentions, health behavior and (iii) included sufficient information (or information was provided by the author) to calculate an effect size. (
  • Future opportunity costs represent any utility-improving future outcome that is affected by currently engaging in health-related behavior. (
  • promotion
  • He is currently an associate professor for Rocky Mountain University of Health Professionals doctoral program in health promotion and wellness. (
  • Breastfeeding promotion is a movement that came about in the twentieth century in response to high rates of bottle-feeding among mothers, and in recognition of the many health benefits to both mothers and children that breastfeeding offers. (
  • optimal
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life to achieve optimal health and development, followed by complementary foods while continuing breastfeeding for up to two years or beyond. (
  • factors
  • Selected variables include demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as a large number of dietary, health indicators, and lifestyle-related information. (
  • issues
  • To improve communications targeting health issues, a bit of perspective from Madison Avenue can help. (
  • which provides clinical treatment of obesity and weight-related health issues. (
  • physical
  • The 3-4-50 concept outlines that there are 3 behaviors (poor diet, little to no physical activity, and smoking), that lead to four diseases (heart disease/stroke, diabetes, cancer, pulmonary disease), that account for 50% of deaths worldwide. (
  • improve
  • We found that self-affirmation does indeed improve message acceptance, intentions, and behavior. (
  • However, there is the development of HealthyPeople 2020 that has national objectives aimed to accomplish in 10 years to improve the health of all Americans. (
  • currently
  • Dr. Karney currently serves on several editorial boards and reviews grants for the National Institute of Mental Health. (
  • relevant
  • But the lessons learned from this early experience of televised drug advertising can provide a helpful guide to improving behavior with relevant messages in the right media. (
  • provide
  • However, for some individuals gender roles may provide a positive effect, and their absence may prove difficult: while gender roles may be used as deleterious gender stereotypes, they can offer a clear avenue to verify and structure socially acceptable behavior. (