Economics, Behavioral: The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.Economics, Medical: Economic aspects of the field of medicine, the medical profession, and health care. It includes the economic and financial impact of disease in general on the patient, the physician, society, or government.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Health Care Economics and Organizations: The economic aspects of health care, its planning, and delivery. It includes government agencies and organizations in the private sector.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Economics, Hospital: Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Economics, Pharmaceutical: Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Economics, Nursing: Economic aspects of the nursing profession.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Decision Theory: A theoretical technique utilizing a group of related constructs to describe or prescribe how individuals or groups of people choose a course of action when faced with several alternatives and a variable amount of knowledge about the determinants of the outcomes of those alternatives.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Organizations: Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Economics, Dental: Economic aspects of the dental profession and dental care.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Cost Savings: Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Financial Management: The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Great BritainQuality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Ethics, Institutional: The moral and ethical obligations or responsibilities of institutions.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Psychology, Social: The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.Models, Econometric: The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Resource Allocation: Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.United StatesValue of Life: The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Quality-Adjusted Life Years: A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Hospitals, Voluntary: Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Embryophyta: Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.Hospital Costs: The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Games, Experimental: Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Capital Expenditures: Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.EuropeState Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Organizations, Nonprofit: Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Cost Allocation: The assignment, to each of several particular cost-centers, of an equitable proportion of the costs of activities that serve all of them. Cost-center usually refers to institutional departments or services.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Interdisciplinary Communication: Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Accountable Care Organizations: Organizations of health care providers that agree to be accountable for the quality, cost, and overall care of Medicare beneficiaries who are enrolled in the traditional fee-for-service program who are assigned to it. Assigned means those beneficiaries for whom the professionals in the organization provide the bulk of primary care services. (www.cms.gov/OfficeofLegislation/Downloads/Accountable CareOrganization.pdf accessed 03/16/2011)Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Consummatory Behavior: An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.Health Planning Support: Financial resources provided for activities related to health planning and development.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Urological Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of urogenital conditions and diseases such as URINARY INCONTINENCE; PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA; and ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Teaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Comprehensive Health Care: Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Health Planning Organizations: Organizations involved in all aspects of health planning activities.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Direct Service Costs: Costs which are directly identifiable with a particular service.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Health Fairs: Community health education events focused on prevention of disease and promotion of health through audiovisual exhibits.Health Facility Administration: Management of the organization of HEALTH FACILITIES.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.

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*  Ineffective Leadership in Health Care Organizations

Ineffective Leadership in Health Care Organization or in any organization in general (APA double space format). Can you give me ... Ineffective Leadership in Health Care Organizations. Add. Remove. Ineffective Leadership in Health Care Organization or in any ... care sector, indicating a ethical crisis and ineffective management of ... Organization. ethics in health care. ... M.,W., ... Intra/Inter Organizational Coordination in Healthcare. ... and inter-organizational coordination in health care organizations ...
https://brainmass.com/english-language-and-literature/language/ineffective-leadership-in-health-care-organizations-321566

*  People | Health Economics Research Unit | The University of Aberdeen

Details of the staff and students at the Health Economics Research Unit ... Senior Research Fellow, Theme Leader - Workforce and Organisation of Care. Spoor, Chris. Senior Teaching Fellow. ...
https://abdn.ac.uk/heru/people/

*  Healthcare Organization/Systems/Management - MSN - Clinical Nurse Specialist - Tracker - Nursing

... healthcare administration, psychology, public health, rehabilitation & social work ... Find the top health care books on counseling, gerontology, nursing, ... Health Care System Transformation for Nursing and Health Care Leaders: Implementing a Culture of Caring Anne Boykin PhD, MN, ... Economics and Financial Management for Nurses and Nurse Leaders, Third Edition Susan J. Penner RN, MN, MPA, DrPH, CNL ...
springerpub.com/nursing/tracker/msn-clinical-nurse-specialist/healthcare-organization-systems-management.html

*  Health Care Economics av Thomas E. Getzen (Heftet) - Økonomi og ledelse | Tanum nettbokhandel

Health Care Economics (Heftet) av forfatter Thomas E. Getzen. Økonomi og ledelse. Pris kr 649. Se flere bøker fra Thomas E. ... Health Care Economics. Becoming a manager of a health care organization requires a broad understanding of the field. This ... Getzen breaks down difficult topics while explaining the importance of economics in the function of the health care system. Til ... includes a strong grasp of the economics involved in the daily operation of the organization. Providing an accessible ...
https://tanum.no/_fagboker/okonomi-og-ledelse/health-care-economics-thomas-e.-getzen-9780471790761

*  Racial Differences in Breast Cancer Treatment Persist, Despite Similar Economics

The membership includes 32,000 basic, translational and clinical researchers; health care professionals; and cancer survivors ... Founded in 1907, the AACR is the world's oldest and largest professional organization dedicated to advancing cancer research. ... The data Young presented at the Third AACR Conference on the Science of Cancer Health Disparities was able to capture ... treatment and patient care. The AACR publishes six major peer-reviewed journals: Cancer Research; Clinical Cancer Research; ...
https://mdtmag.com/news/2010/10/racial-differences-breast-cancer-treatment-persist-despite-similar-economics

NeuroeconomicsMcCloskey critique: The McCloskey critique refers to a critique of post-1940s "official modernist" methodology in economics, inherited from logical positivism in philosophy. The critique maintains that the methodology neglects how economics can be done, is done, and should be done to advance the subject.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Global Health Delivery ProjectHealth policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is a statistic used in cost-effectiveness analysis to summarise the cost-effectiveness of a health care intervention. It is defined by the difference in cost between two possible interventions, divided by the difference in their effect.Halfdan T. MahlerPenalized present value: The Penalized Present Value (PPV) is a method of Capital Budgeting under risk developed by Fernando Gómez-Bezares in the 1980s.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Pavement life-cycle cost analysis: In September 1998, the United States Department of Transportation (DoT) introduced risk analysis, a probabilistic approach to account for the uncertainty of the inputs of the cost/benefit evaluation of pavement projects, into its decision-making policies. The traditional (deterministic) approach did not consider the variability of inputs.School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.Pharmaceutical Research Institute (PRI)- AlbanyBehavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Comprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.Chronic care: Chronic care refers to medical care which addresses pre-existing or long term illness, as opposed to acute care which is concerned with short term or severe illness of brief duration. Chronic medical conditions include asthma, diabetes, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, congestive heart disease, cirrhosis of the liver, hypertension and depression.Women's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.Opinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010: Opinion polling (popularly known as surveys in the Philippines) for the 2010 Philippine presidential election is managed by two major polling firms: Social Weather Stations and Pulse Asia, and several minor polling firms. The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.Loss function: In mathematical optimization, statistics, decision theory and machine learning, a loss function or cost function is a function that maps an event or values of one or more variables onto a real number intuitively representing some "cost" associated with the event. An optimization problem seeks to minimize a loss function.The Final Decision: The Final Decision is an episode from season 1 of the animated TV series X-Men Animated Series.Healthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:Friendship (NGO): Friendship is a French - Bangladeshi non-governmental organization that works with poor and marginalized communities in Bangladesh in remote chars and riverbanks in the North, poorer areas in Northeast, cyclone-prone areas in the South and most recently the hard-to-reach indigenous communities in the coastal belt of the country. It was established in Bangladesh in 2002 to provide basic services to the highly suffering inaccessible areas from climate changes impact.Injustice SocietySociety for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}Precautionary savings: Precautionary saving is saving (non-expenditure of a portion of income) that occurs in response to uncertainty regarding future income. The precautionary motive to delay consumption and save in the current period rises due to the lack of completeness of insurance markets.Sharon Regional Health System: Sharon Regional Health System is a profit health care service provider based in Sharon, Pennsylvania. Its main hospital is located in Sharon; additionally, the health system operates schools of nursing and radiography; a comprehensive pain management center across the street from its main hospital; clinics in nearby Mercer, Greenville, Hermitage, and Brookfield, Ohio; and Sharon Regional Medical Park in Hermitage.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Minati SenResource leak: In computer science, a resource leak is a particular type of resource consumption by a computer program where the program does not release resources it has acquired. This condition is normally the result of a bug in a program.Ageing Research Reviews: Ageing Research Reviews is a scientific journal covering ageing published by Elsevier. The editor in chief is Mark Mattson.International Network of Prison Ministries: The International Network of Prison Ministries (INPM) is a Dallas, Texas based crime prevention and rehabilitation trans-national organization. INPM functions through a website that serves as a clearinghouse for information about various Christian prison ministries.List of social psychology theoriesNortheast Community Health CentreStandard evaluation frameworkList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Document-centric collaboration: Document-centric collaboration is a new approach to working together on projects online which puts the document and its contents at the centre of the process.List of companies listed on the Oslo Stock Exchange: The Oslo Stock Exchange (Norwegian: Oslo Børs) serves as the main market for trading in the shares of Norwegian companies. It opens at 9:00am and closes 4:30pm local time (CET).Time-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Andrew Dickson White