Head Movements: Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular: A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.Vestibule, Labyrinth: An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Semicircular Canals: Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Vestibular Nuclei: The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Vestibular Nerve: The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Hawks: Common name for many members of the FALCONIFORMES order, family Accipitridae, generally smaller than EAGLES, and containing short, rounded wings and a long tail.Saimiri: A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.Otolithic Membrane: A gelatinous membrane overlying the acoustic maculae of SACCULE AND UTRICLE. It contains minute crystalline particles (otoliths) of CALCIUM CARBONATE and protein on its outer surface. In response to head movement, the otoliths shift causing distortion of the vestibular hair cells which transduce nerve signals to the BRAIN for interpretation of equilibrium.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Pursuit, Smooth: Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Electrooculography: Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.Magnetometry: The measurement of various aspects of MAGNETIC FIELDS.Restraint, Physical: Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.Kinesthesis: Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.Acceleration: An increase in the rate of speed.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Superior Colliculi: The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.Nystagmus, Physiologic: Involuntary rhythmical movements of the eyes in the normal person. These can be naturally occurring as in end-position (end-point, end-stage, or deviational) nystagmus or induced by the optokinetic drum (NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC), caloric test, or a rotating chair.Motion Sickness: Disorder caused by motion, as sea sickness, train sickness, car sickness, air sickness, or SPACE MOTION SICKNESS. It may include nausea, vomiting and dizziness.Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Nystagmus, Pathologic: Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p272)Vestibular Function Tests: A number of tests used to determine if the brain or balance portion of the inner ear are causing dizziness.Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Golf: A game whose object is to sink a ball into each of 9 or 18 successive holes on a golf course using as few strokes as possible.Vestibular Diseases: Pathological processes of the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH which contains part of the balancing apparatus. Patients with vestibular diseases show instability and are at risk of frequent falls.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Labyrinth Diseases: Pathological processes of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) which contains the essential apparatus of hearing (COCHLEA) and balance (SEMICIRCULAR CANALS).Eye Movement Measurements: Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.Volition: Voluntary activity without external compulsion.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Semicircular Ducts: The three membranous semicircular ducts within the bony semicircular canals. They open into the UTRICLE through five openings. Each duct has at one end a sensory area called the ampullary crest. AMPULLARY HAIR CELLS of the crests sense the movement of ENDOLYMPH resulting from rotation of the head.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Hair Cells, Vestibular: Sensory cells in the acoustic maculae with their apical STEREOCILIA embedded in a gelatinous OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE. These hair cells are stimulated by the movement of otolithic membrane, and impulses are transmitted via the VESTIBULAR NERVE to the BRAIN STEM. Hair cells in the saccule and those in the utricle sense linear acceleration in vertical and horizontal directions, respectively.Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Lisuride: An ergot derivative that acts as an agonist at dopamine D2 receptors (DOPAMINE AGONISTS). It may also act as an antagonist at dopamine D1 receptors, and as an agonist at some serotonin receptors (SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS).Muscimol: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.Motion: Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Eyeglasses: A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.Spheniscidae: The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.Athetosis: A dyskinesia characterized by an inability to maintain the fingers, toes, tongue, or other body parts in a stable position, resulting in continuous slow, sinusoidal, and flowing involuntary movements. This condition is frequently accompanied by CHOREA, where it is referred to as choreoathetosis. Athetosis may occur as a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES or DRUG TOXICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p76)Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Cerebellar Nuclei: Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.Vision, Binocular: The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.Plant Viral Movement Proteins: Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Gold Colloid: A suspension of metallic gold particles.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Torticollis: A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors.Sperm Head: The anterior portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that contains mainly the nucleus with highly compact CHROMATIN material.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Nystagmus, Optokinetic: Normal nystagmus produced by looking at objects moving across the field of vision.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Gravitation: Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Ear, Inner: The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.Vertigo: An illusion of movement, either of the external world revolving around the individual or of the individual revolving in space. Vertigo may be associated with disorders of the inner ear (EAR, INNER); VESTIBULAR NERVE; BRAINSTEM; or CEREBRAL CORTEX. Lesions in the TEMPORAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE may be associated with FOCAL SEIZURES that may feature vertigo as an ictal manifestation. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp300-1)Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Fetal Movement: Physical activity of the FETUS in utero. Gross or fine fetal body movement can be monitored by the mother, PALPATION, or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.ReadingDepth Perception: Perception of three-dimensionality.Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.Cetacea: An order of wholly aquatic MAMMALS occurring in all the OCEANS and adjoining seas of the world, as well as in certain river systems. They feed generally on FISHES, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Most are gregarious and most have a relatively long period of parental care and maturation. Included are DOLPHINS; PORPOISES; and WHALES. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp969-70)Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Saccule and Utricle: Two membranous sacs within the vestibular labyrinth of the INNER EAR. The saccule communicates with COCHLEAR DUCT through the ductus reuniens, and communicates with utricle through the utriculosaccular duct from which the ENDOLYMPHATIC DUCT arises. The utricle and saccule have sensory areas (acoustic maculae) which are innervated by the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Darkness: The absence of light.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.GABA Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Artifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Femur Head Necrosis: Aseptic or avascular necrosis of the femoral head. The major types are idiopathic (primary), as a complication of fractures or dislocations, and LEGG-CALVE-PERTHES DISEASE.Head Injuries, Closed: Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm: Dyssomnias associated with disruption of the normal 24 hour sleep wake cycle secondary to travel (e.g., JET LAG SYNDROME), shift work, or other causes.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Nonlinear Dynamics: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Fall Heads Roll: Fall Heads Roll is an album by The Fall, released in 2005. It was recorded at Gracieland Studios in Rochdale, UK and Gigantic Studios in New York, NY.Voluntary Parenthood League: The Voluntary Parenthood League (VPL) was an organization that advocated for contraception during the birth control movement in the United States. The VPL was founded in 1919 by Mary Dennett.Vision in fishes: Vision is an important sensory system for most species of fish. Fish eyes are similar to terrestrial vertebrates like birds and mammals, but have a more spherical lens.Doxanthrine: Doxanthrine is a synthetic compound which is a potent and selective full agonist for the dopamine D1 receptor. Doxanthrine has been shown to be orally active in producing contralateral rotation in the 6-hydroxy-dopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease.Vestibular system: The vestibular system, in most mammals, is the sensory system that provides the leading contribution about the sense of balance and spatial orientation for the purpose of coordinating movement with balance. Together with the cochlea, a part of the auditory system, it constitutes the labyrinth of the inner ear in most mammals, situated in the vestibulum in the inner ear (Figure 1).Sternohyoid muscle: The sternohyoid muscle is a thin, narrow muscle attaching the hyoid bone to the sternum, one of the paired strap muscles of the infrahyoid muscles serving to depress the hyoid bone. It is innervated by the ansa cervicalis.Saccade: A saccade ( , French for jerk) is quick, simultaneous movement of both eyes between two phases of fixation in the same direction.Cassin, B.Medial vestibular nucleus: The medial vestibular nucleus is one of the vestibular nuclei. It is located in the medulla oblongata.Head and Neck Cancer Alliance: The Head and Neck Cancer Alliance (HNCA) is a non-profit organization that works with health professionals and organizations, celebrities and survivors to enhance the overall effort in prevention, treatment, and detection of cancers of the head and neck region.Cicero Stephens Hawks: Cicero Stephens Hawks (May 26, 1812–April 19, 1868) was the first Episcopal bishop of Missouri.Grotto of the RedemptionOtolith: An otolith (οτο-, oto-, ear + λιθος, lithos, a stone), also called statoconium or otoconium, is a structure in the saccule or utricle of the inner ear, specifically in the vestibular labyrinth of vertebrates. They have been identified in both extinct and extant vertebrates.Marion ClignetProfessional DiscElectrooculographyMagnetometer: Magnetometers are measurement instruments used for two general purposes: to measure the magnetization of a magnetic material like a ferromagnet, or to measure the strength and, in some cases, the direction of the magnetic field at a point in space.Physical restraintAgraphesthesia: Agraphesthesia is a disorder of directional cutaneous kinesthesia or a disorientation of the skin's sensation across its space. It is a difficulty recognizing a written number or letter traced on the skin after parietal damage.Orders of magnitude (acceleration): This page lists examples of the acceleration occurring in various situations. They are grouped by orders of magnitude.Riding-like sittingFixation reflex: The fixation reflex is that concerned with attracting the eye on a peripheral object. For example, when a light shines in the periphery, the eyes shift gaze on it.Alexander's law: Jacobson GP et al. Alexander's law revisited.SeasicknessBiological motion: Biological motion is a term used by social and cognitive neuroscientists to refer to the unique visual phenomenon of a moving, animate object. Often, the stimuli used in biological motion experiments are just a few moving dots that reflect the motion of some key joints of the moving organism.NystagmusPosturography: Posturography is a general term that covers all the techniques used to quantify postural control in upright stance in either static or dynamic conditions. Among them, Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP), also called test of balance (TOB), is a non-invasive specialized clinical assessment technique used to quantify the central nervous system adaptive mechanisms (sensory, motor and central) involved in the control of posture and balance, both in normal (such as in physical education and sports training) and abnormal conditions (particularly in the diagnosis of balance disorders and in physical therapy and postural re-education).Extended physiological proprioception: Extended physiological proprioception (EPP) is a concept pioneered by D.C.Golf course superintendent: A Golf course superintendent is a person who professionally manages the labor, time, materials and financial resources needed to care for the turfgrass and landscaped grounds on a golf course. Golf course superintendents have also been referred to as greenskeepers and turf managers.Dog healthCanon EOS 5Autoimmune inner ear disease: Autoimmune inner ear disease is a suspected autoimmune disease characterized by rapidly progressive bilateral sensorineural hearing loss.Inner Ear, Autoimmune (eMedicine, 2006) It occurs when the body's immune system attacks cells in the inner ear that are mistaken for a virus or bacteria.Boxcar (band): Boxcar is an Australian Sydney-based synthpop and techno band. Formed in the mid-1980s in Brisbane by main songwriter guitarist and vocalist David Smith, he was soon joined by keyboardists Brett Mitchell and Carol Rohde and somewhat later by drummer-percussionist Crispin Trist.Mechanochemistry: Mechanochemistry or mechanical chemistry is the coupling of mechanical and chemical phenomena on a molecular scale and includes mechanical breakage, chemical behaviour of mechanically stressed solids (e.g.Utricle (ear)Aging movement control: Normal aging movement control in humans is about the changes on the muscles, motor neurons, nerves, sensory functions, gait, fatigue, visual and manual responses, in men and women as they get older but who do not have neurological, muscular (atrophy, dystrophy...) or neuromuscular disorder.TerguridePrinciples of motion economy: The principles of motion economy form a set of rules and suggestions to improve the manual work in manufacturing and reduce fatigue and unnecessary movements by the worker, which can lead to the reduction in the work related trauma.The Movement Disorder SocietyRimless eyeglasses: Rimless eyeglasses, are a type of eyeglasses in which the lenses are mounted directly to the bridge and/or temples. The style is divided into two subtypes: three piece glasses are composed of lenses mounted to a bridge and two separate temple arms, while rimways (also called cortlands) feature a supporting arch that connects the temples to the bridge and provides extra stability for the lenses.Flightless birdParoxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis: Paroxysmal kinesigenic choreathetosis (PKC) also called Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia (PKD) is a hyperkinetic movement disorder characterized by attacks of involuntary movements, which are triggered by sudden voluntary movements. The number of attacks can increase during puberty and decrease in a person’s 20s to 30s.Cerebral hemisphere: The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the medial longitudinal fissure. The brain can thus be described as being divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres.Withdrawal reflex: The withdrawal reflex (nociceptive or flexor withdrawal reflex) is a spinal reflex intended to protect the body from damaging stimuli. It is polysynaptic, causing stimulation of sensory, association, and motor neurons.Inferior rectus muscle: The inferior rectus muscle is a muscle in the orbit.Interposed nucleus: The interposed nucleus is a deep nucleus of the cerebellum and is composed of the globose nuclei and the emboliform nuclei. It is located in the roof (dorsal aspect) of the fourth ventricle, lateral to the fastigial nucleus.Binocular vision: Binocular vision is vision in which creatures having two eyes use them together. The word binocular comes from two Latin roots, bini for double, and oculus for eye.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingTorticollisHook protein: HOOK is a family of evolutionarily related proteins.Cortical stimulation mapping: Cortical stimulation mapping (often shortened to CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex. It remains one of the earliest methods of analyzing the brain and has allowed researchers to study the relationship between cortical structure and systemic function.Optokinetic reflexNephtheis fascicularisFujiyama (roller coaster)Vertigo (Marvel Comics): Vertigo is a native of the Savage Land who obtained superhuman powers at a young age by genetic engineering. Her powers enable her to render a person severely dizzy and even unconscious.Cats in the United States: Many different species of mammal can be classified as cats (felids) in the United States. These include domestic cat (both house cats and feral), of the species Felis catus; medium-sized wild cats from the genus Lynx; and big cats from the genera Puma and Panthera.Spalding MethodStereopsis: Stereopsis (from the Greek στερεο- [meaning "solid", and ὄψις] opsis, "appearance, [[visual perception|sight") is a term that is most often used to refer to the perception of depth and 3-dimensional structure obtained on the basis of visual information deriving from two eyes by individuals with normally developed binocular vision.Oculomotor nucleus: The fibers of the oculomotor nerve arise from a nucleus in the midbrain, which lies in the gray substance of the floor of the cerebral aqueduct and extends in front of the aqueduct for a short distance into the floor of the third ventricle. From this nucleus the fibers pass forward through the tegmentum, the red nucleus, and the medial part of the substantia nigra, forming a series of curves with a lateral convexity, and emerge from the oculomotor sulcus on the medial side of the cerebral peduncle.AmbulocetidaeHaptotaxis: Haptotaxis (from Greek ἅπτω (hapto, "touch, fasten") and τάξις (taxis, "arrangement, order")) is the directional motility or outgrowth of cells, e.g.SacculeHSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).Meridian (perimetry, visual field): Meridian (plural: "meridians") is used in perimetry and in specifying visual fields. According to IPS Perimetry Standards 1978 (2002): "Perimetry is the measurement of [an observer's] visual functions ...Maladaptation: A maladaptation () is a trait that is (or has become) more harmful than helpful, in contrast with an adaptation, which is more helpful than harmful. All organisms, from bacteria to humans, display maladaptive and adaptive traits.Intraguild predation: Intraguild predation, or IGP, is the killing and eating of potential competitors. This interaction represents a combination of predation and competition, because both species rely on the same prey resources and also benefit from preying upon one another.EEGLAB: EEGLAB is a MATLAB toolbox distributed under the free GNU GPL license for processing data from electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and other electrophysiological signals. Along with all the basic processing tools, EEGLAB implements independent component analysis (ICA), time/frequency analysis, artifact rejection, and several modes of data visualization.Temporal feedbackArcoClosed head injury: Closed Head are a type of traumatic brain injury in which the skull and dura mater remain intact. Closed-head injuries are the leading cause of death in children under 4 years old and the most common cause of physical disability and cognitive impairment in young people.Berg Balance Scale: The Berg Balance Scale (or BBS) is a widely used clinical test of a person's static and dynamic balance abilities, named after Katherine Berg, one of the developers. For functional balance tests, the BBS is generally considered to be the gold standard.
(1/868) Recovery of the vestibulocolic reflex after aminoglycoside ototoxicity in domestic chickens.
Avian auditory and vestibular hair cells regenerate after damage by ototoxic drugs, but until recently there was little evidence that regenerated vestibular hair cells function normally. In an earlier study we showed that the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) is eliminated with aminoglycoside antibiotic treatment and recovers as hair cells regenerate. The VOR, which stabilizes the eye in the head, is an open-loop system that is thought to depend largely on regularly firing afferents. Recovery of the VOR is highly correlated with the regeneration of type I hair cells. In contrast, the vestibulocolic reflex (VCR), which stabilizes the head in space, is a closed-loop, negative-feedback system that seems to depend more on irregularly firing afferent input and is thought to be subserved by different circuitry than the VOR. We examined whether this different reflex also of vestibular origin would show similar recovery after hair cell regeneration. Lesions of the vestibular hair cells of 10-day-old chicks were created by a 5-day course of streptomycin sulfate. One day after completion of streptomycin treatment there was no measurable VCR gain, and total hair cell density was approximately 35% of that in untreated, age-matched controls. At 2 wk postlesion there was significant recovery of the VCR; at this time two subjects showed VCR gains within the range of control chicks. At 3 wk postlesion all subjects showed VCR gains and phase shifts within the normal range. These data show that the VCR recovers before the VOR. Unlike VOR gain, recovering VCR gain correlates equally well with the density of regenerating type I and type II vestibular hair cells, except at high frequencies. Several factors other than hair cell regeneration, such as length of stereocilia, reafferentation of hair cells, and compensation involving central neural pathways, may be involved in behavioral recovery. Our data suggest that one or more of these factors differentially affect the recovery of these two vestibular reflexes. (+info)
(2/868) Projections and firing properties of down eye-movement neurons in the interstitial nucleus of Cajal in the cat.
To clarify the role of the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) in the control of vertical eye movements, projections of burst-tonic and tonic neurons in and around the INC were studied. This paper describes neurons with downward ON directions. We examined, by antidromic activation, whether these down INC (d-INC) neurons contribute to two pathways: a commissural pathway to the contralateral (c-) INC and a descending pathway to the ipsilateral vestibular nucleus (i-VN). Stimulation of the two pathways showed that as many as 74% of neurons were activated antidromically from one of the pathways. Of 113 d-INC neurons tested, 44 were activated from the commissural pathway and 40 from the descending pathway. No neurons were activated from both pathways. We concluded that commissural and descending pathways from the INC originate from two separate groups of neurons. Tracking of antidromic microstimulation in the two nuclei revealed multiple low-threshold sites and varied latencies; this was interpreted as a sign of existence of axonal arborization. Neurons with commissural projections tended to be located more dorsally than those with descending projections. Neurons with descending projections had significantly greater eye-position sensitivity and smaller saccadic sensitivity than neurons with commissural projections. The two groups of INC neurons increased their firing rate in nose-up head rotations and responded best to the rotation in the plane of contralateral posterior/ipsilateral anterior canal pair. Neurons with commissural projections showed a larger phase lag of response to sinusoidal rotation (54.6 +/- 7.6 degrees ) than neurons with descending projections (45.0 +/- 5.5 degrees ). Most neurons with descending projections received disynaptic excitation from the contralateral vestibular nerve. Neurons with commissural projections rarely received such disynaptic input. We suggest that downward-position-vestibular (DPV) neurons in the VN and VN-projecting d-INC neurons form a loop, together with possible commissural loops linking the bilateral VNs and the bilateral INCs. By comparing the quantitative measures of d-INC neurons with those of DPV neurons, we further suggest that integration of head velocity signals proceeds from DPV neurons to d-INC neurons with descending projections and then to d-INC neurons with commissural projections, whereas saccadic velocity signals are processed in the reverse order. (+info)
(3/868) Action of the brain stem saccade generator during horizontal gaze shifts. I. Discharge patterns of omnidirectional pause neurons.
Omnidirectional pause neurons (OPNs) pause for the duration of a saccade in all directions because they are part of the neural mechanism that controls saccade duration. In the natural situation, however, large saccades are accompanied by head movements to produce rapid gaze shifts. To determine whether OPNs are part of the mechanism that controls the whole gaze shift rather than the eye saccade alone, we monitored the activity of 44 OPNs that paused for rightward and leftward gaze shifts but otherwise discharged at relatively constant average rates. Pause duration was well correlated with the duration of either eye or gaze movement but poorly correlated with the duration of head movement. The time of pause onset was aligned tightly with the onset of either eye or gaze movement but only loosely aligned with the onset of head movement. These data suggest that the OPN pause does not encode the duration of head movement. Further, the end of the OPN pause was often better aligned with the end of the eye movement than with the end of the gaze movement for individual gaze shifts. For most gaze shifts, the eye component ended with an immediate counterrotation owing to the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR), and gaze ended at variable times thereafter. In those gaze shifts where eye counterrotation was delayed, the end of the pause also was delayed. Taken together, these data suggest that the end of the pause influences the onset of eye counterrotation, not the end of the gaze shift. We suggest that OPN neurons act to control only that portion of the gaze movement that is commanded by the eye burst generator. This command is expressed by driving the saccadic eye movement directly and also by suppressing VOR eye counterrotation. Because gaze end is less well correlated with pause end and often occurs well after counterrotation onset, we conclude that elements of the burst generator typically are not active till gaze end, and that gaze end is determined by another mechanism independent of the OPNs. (+info)
(4/868) Three-dimensional eye-head coordination during gaze saccades in the primate.
The purpose of this investigation was to describe the neural constraints on three-dimensional (3-D) orientations of the eye in space (Es), head in space (Hs), and eye in head (Eh) during visual fixations in the monkey and the control strategies used to implement these constraints during head-free gaze saccades. Dual scleral search coil signals were used to compute 3-D orientation quaternions, two-dimensional (2-D) direction vectors, and 3-D angular velocity vectors for both the eye and head in three monkeys during the following visual tasks: radial to/from center, repetitive horizontal, nonrepetitive oblique, random (wide 2-D range), and random with pin-hole goggles. Although 2-D gaze direction (of Es) was controlled more tightly than the contributing 2-D Hs and Eh components, the torsional standard deviation of Es was greater (mean 3.55 degrees ) than Hs (3.10 degrees ), which in turn was greater than Eh (1.87 degrees ) during random fixations. Thus the 3-D Es range appeared to be the byproduct of Hs and Eh constraints, resulting in a pseudoplanar Es range that was twisted (in orthogonal coordinates) like the zero torsion range of Fick coordinates. The Hs fixation range was similarly Fick-like, whereas the Eh fixation range was quasiplanar. The latter Eh range was maintained through exquisite saccade/slow phase coordination, i.e., during each head movement, multiple anticipatory saccades drove the eye torsionally out of the planar range such that subsequent slow phases drove the eye back toward the fixation range. The Fick-like Hs constraint was maintained by the following strategies: first, during purely vertical/horizontal movements, the head rotated about constantly oriented axes that closely resembled physical Fick gimbals, i.e., about head-fixed horizontal axes and space-fixed vertical axes, respectively (although in 1 animal, the latter constraint was relaxed during repetitive horizontal movements, allowing for trajectory optimization). However, during large oblique movements, head orientation made transient but dramatic departures from the zero-torsion Fick surface, taking the shortest path between two torsionally eccentric fixation points on the surface. Moreover, in the pin-hole goggle task, the head-orientation range flattened significantly, suggesting a task-dependent default strategy similar to Listing's law. These and previous observations suggest two quasi-independent brain stem circuits: an oculomotor 2-D to 3-D transformation that coordinates anticipatory saccades with slow phases to uphold Listing's law, and a flexible "Fick operator" that selects head motor error; both nested within a dynamic gaze feedback loop. (+info)
(5/868) Multichannel fenestrations of the petrous segment of the internal carotid artery.
Multichannel fenestration of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare, previously unreported developmental anomaly with unknown clinical significance. Although previously thought to have distinct embryologic origins, the presence of multiple channels in a short-segment fenestration favors a common developmental pathway for the origin of duplications and fenestrations: the persistence of a plexiform vascular network from the 4-mm to 5-mm embryologic stage of development. (+info)
(6/868) Spatial view cells in the primate hippocampus: allocentric view not head direction or eye position or place.
Hippocampal function was analysed by making recordings from hippocampal neurons in monkeys actively walking in the laboratory. 'Spatial view' cells, which respond when the monkey looks at a part of the environment, were analysed. It is shown that these cells code for the allocentric position in space being viewed and not for eye position, head direction or the place where the monkey is located. This representation of space 'out there' would be an appropriate part of a primate memory system involved in memories of where in an environment an object was seen, and more generally in the memory of particular events or episodes, for which a spatial component normally provides part of the context. (+info)
(7/868) Influence of head position on the spatial representation of acoustic targets.
Sound localization in humans relies on binaural differences (azimuth cues) and monaural spectral shape information (elevation cues) and is therefore the result of a neural computational process. Despite the fact that these acoustic cues are referenced with respect to the head, accurate eye movements can be generated to sounds in complete darkness. This ability necessitates the use of eye position information. So far, however, sound localization has been investigated mainly with a fixed head position, usually straight ahead. Yet the auditory system may rely on head motor information to maintain a stable and spatially accurate representation of acoustic targets in the presence of head movements. We therefore studied the influence of changes in eye-head position on auditory-guided orienting behavior of human subjects. In the first experiment, we used a visual-auditory double-step paradigm. Subjects made saccadic gaze shifts in total darkness toward brief broadband sounds presented before an intervening eye-head movement that was evoked by an earlier visual target. The data show that the preceding displacements of both eye and head are fully accounted for, resulting in spatially accurate responses. This suggests that auditory target information may be transformed into a spatial (or body-centered) frame of reference. To further investigate this possibility, we exploited the unique property of the auditory system that sound elevation is extracted independently from pinna-related spectral cues. In the absence of such cues, accurate elevation detection is not possible, even when head movements are made. This is shown in a second experiment where pure tones were localized at a fixed elevation that depended on the tone frequency rather than on the actual target elevation, both under head-fixed and -free conditions. To test, in a third experiment, whether the perceived elevation of tones relies on a head- or space-fixed target representation, eye movements were elicited toward pure tones while subjects kept their head in different vertical positions. It appeared that each tone was localized at a fixed, frequency-dependent elevation in space that shifted to a limited extent with changes in head elevation. Hence information about head position is used under static conditions too. Interestingly, the influence of head position also depended on the tone frequency. Thus tone-evoked ocular saccades typically showed a partial compensation for changes in static head position, whereas noise-evoked eye-head saccades fully compensated for intervening changes in eye-head position. We propose that the auditory localization system combines the acoustic input with head-position information to encode targets in a spatial (or body-centered) frame of reference. In this way, accurate orienting responses may be programmed despite intervening eye-head movements. A conceptual model, based on the tonotopic organization of the auditory system, is presented that may account for our findings. (+info)
(8/868) Enhancement of the vestibulo-ocular reflex by prior eye movements.
We investigated the effect of visually mediated eye movements made before velocity-step horizontal head rotations in eleven normal human subjects. When subjects viewed a stationary target before and during head rotation, gaze velocity was initially perturbed by approximately 20% of head velocity; gaze velocity subsequently declined to zero within approximately 300 ms of the stimulus onset. We used a curve-fitting procedure to estimate the dynamic course of the gain throughout the compensatory response to head rotation. This analysis indicated that the median initial gain of compensatory eye movements (mainly because of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, VOR) was 0. 8 and subsequently increased to 1.0 after a median interval of 320 ms. When subjects attempted to fixate the remembered location of the target in darkness, the initial perturbation of gaze was similar to during fixation of a visible target (median initial VOR gain 0.8); however, the period during which the gain increased toward 1.0 was >10 times longer than that during visual fixation. When subjects performed horizontal smooth-pursuit eye movements that ended (i.e., 0 gaze velocity) just before the head rotation, the gaze velocity perturbation at the onset of head rotation was absent or small. The initial gain of the VOR had been significantly increased by the prior pursuit movements for all subjects (P < 0.05; mean increase of 11%). In four subjects, we determined that horizontal saccades and smooth tracking of a head-fixed target (VOR cancellation with eye stationary in the orbit) also increased the initial VOR gain (by a mean of 13%) during subsequent head rotations. However, after vertical saccades or smooth pursuit, the initial gaze perturbation caused by a horizontal head rotation was similar to that which occurred after fixation of a stationary target. We conclude that the initial gain of the VOR during a sudden horizontal head rotation is increased by prior horizontal, but not vertical, visually mediated gaze shifts. We postulate that this "priming" effect of a prior gaze shift on the gain of the VOR occurs at the level of the velocity inputs to the neural integrator subserving horizontal eye movements, where gaze-shifting commands and vestibular signals converge. (+info)