Head Movements: Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular: A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.Vestibule, Labyrinth: An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Semicircular Canals: Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Vestibular Nuclei: The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Vestibular Nerve: The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Hawks: Common name for many members of the FALCONIFORMES order, family Accipitridae, generally smaller than EAGLES, and containing short, rounded wings and a long tail.Saimiri: A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.Otolithic Membrane: A gelatinous membrane overlying the acoustic maculae of SACCULE AND UTRICLE. It contains minute crystalline particles (otoliths) of CALCIUM CARBONATE and protein on its outer surface. In response to head movement, the otoliths shift causing distortion of the vestibular hair cells which transduce nerve signals to the BRAIN for interpretation of equilibrium.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Pursuit, Smooth: Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Electrooculography: Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.Magnetometry: The measurement of various aspects of MAGNETIC FIELDS.Restraint, Physical: Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.Kinesthesis: Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.Acceleration: An increase in the rate of speed.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Superior Colliculi: The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.Nystagmus, Physiologic: Involuntary rhythmical movements of the eyes in the normal person. These can be naturally occurring as in end-position (end-point, end-stage, or deviational) nystagmus or induced by the optokinetic drum (NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC), caloric test, or a rotating chair.Motion Sickness: Disorder caused by motion, as sea sickness, train sickness, car sickness, air sickness, or SPACE MOTION SICKNESS. It may include nausea, vomiting and dizziness.Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Nystagmus, Pathologic: Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p272)Vestibular Function Tests: A number of tests used to determine if the brain or balance portion of the inner ear are causing dizziness.Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Golf: A game whose object is to sink a ball into each of 9 or 18 successive holes on a golf course using as few strokes as possible.Vestibular Diseases: Pathological processes of the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH which contains part of the balancing apparatus. Patients with vestibular diseases show instability and are at risk of frequent falls.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Labyrinth Diseases: Pathological processes of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) which contains the essential apparatus of hearing (COCHLEA) and balance (SEMICIRCULAR CANALS).Eye Movement Measurements: Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.Volition: Voluntary activity without external compulsion.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Semicircular Ducts: The three membranous semicircular ducts within the bony semicircular canals. They open into the UTRICLE through five openings. Each duct has at one end a sensory area called the ampullary crest. AMPULLARY HAIR CELLS of the crests sense the movement of ENDOLYMPH resulting from rotation of the head.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Hair Cells, Vestibular: Sensory cells in the acoustic maculae with their apical STEREOCILIA embedded in a gelatinous OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE. These hair cells are stimulated by the movement of otolithic membrane, and impulses are transmitted via the VESTIBULAR NERVE to the BRAIN STEM. Hair cells in the saccule and those in the utricle sense linear acceleration in vertical and horizontal directions, respectively.Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Lisuride: An ergot derivative that acts as an agonist at dopamine D2 receptors (DOPAMINE AGONISTS). It may also act as an antagonist at dopamine D1 receptors, and as an agonist at some serotonin receptors (SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS).Muscimol: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.Motion: Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Eyeglasses: A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.Spheniscidae: The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.Athetosis: A dyskinesia characterized by an inability to maintain the fingers, toes, tongue, or other body parts in a stable position, resulting in continuous slow, sinusoidal, and flowing involuntary movements. This condition is frequently accompanied by CHOREA, where it is referred to as choreoathetosis. Athetosis may occur as a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES or DRUG TOXICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p76)Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Cerebellar Nuclei: Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.Vision, Binocular: The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.Plant Viral Movement Proteins: Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Gold Colloid: A suspension of metallic gold particles.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Torticollis: A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors.Sperm Head: The anterior portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that contains mainly the nucleus with highly compact CHROMATIN material.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Nystagmus, Optokinetic: Normal nystagmus produced by looking at objects moving across the field of vision.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Gravitation: Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Ear, Inner: The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.Vertigo: An illusion of movement, either of the external world revolving around the individual or of the individual revolving in space. Vertigo may be associated with disorders of the inner ear (EAR, INNER); VESTIBULAR NERVE; BRAINSTEM; or CEREBRAL CORTEX. Lesions in the TEMPORAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE may be associated with FOCAL SEIZURES that may feature vertigo as an ictal manifestation. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp300-1)Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Fetal Movement: Physical activity of the FETUS in utero. Gross or fine fetal body movement can be monitored by the mother, PALPATION, or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.ReadingDepth Perception: Perception of three-dimensionality.Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.Cetacea: An order of wholly aquatic MAMMALS occurring in all the OCEANS and adjoining seas of the world, as well as in certain river systems. They feed generally on FISHES, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Most are gregarious and most have a relatively long period of parental care and maturation. Included are DOLPHINS; PORPOISES; and WHALES. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp969-70)Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Saccule and Utricle: Two membranous sacs within the vestibular labyrinth of the INNER EAR. The saccule communicates with COCHLEAR DUCT through the ductus reuniens, and communicates with utricle through the utriculosaccular duct from which the ENDOLYMPHATIC DUCT arises. The utricle and saccule have sensory areas (acoustic maculae) which are innervated by the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Darkness: The absence of light.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.GABA Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Artifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Femur Head Necrosis: Aseptic or avascular necrosis of the femoral head. The major types are idiopathic (primary), as a complication of fractures or dislocations, and LEGG-CALVE-PERTHES DISEASE.Head Injuries, Closed: Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm: Dyssomnias associated with disruption of the normal 24 hour sleep wake cycle secondary to travel (e.g., JET LAG SYNDROME), shift work, or other causes.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Nonlinear Dynamics: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.

*  Figure-ground discrimination behavior in Drosophila. II. Visual influences on head movement | Journal of Experimental Biology
These results suggest that whereas figure tracking by wing kinematics is independent of head movements, head movements are ... We found that fixing the head in place impairs object fixation in the presence of ground motion, and that head movements are ... but head movements follow only the ground motion. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that wing responses can be ... which they do either by re-orienting their head or by re-orienting their flight trajectory. ...
  http://jeb.biologists.org/content/early/2013/10/22/jeb.080192
*  Khloë grows up - Page 2 - k y s l o t a . n e t
Sitting by her head is the CoughAssist and at her feet is a Masimo Rad8 pulse oximeter. On the floor is her suction machine. ... She has arm and finger movement and likes to touch the screen of my iPhone. Her favourite apps are Fireworks Arcade and ... Anyway, Tuesday afternoon we headed in to see Dr K for our flu shots. I've never had a flu shot before, but since Khloë needed ... Khloë has not progressed any further with head control and we are getting worried. Dr K sends a referral to a pediatrician in ...
  http://kyslota.net/index.php/tag/khloe-grows-up/page/2/
*  HugeRobot - itch.io
... it just comes at the cost of rejecting some inadvertant head motion when turning your head - but it's fairly minimal, and I ... There are a lot of options that can be tweaked to adjust the movement more to your liking... if it's the case that you don't ... The main thing I'd suggest if you know you can get nauseous easily from non-forward movement is to keep your hand by your side ... 1. Unfortunately, horizontal head motion is fraught with its own issues; primarily if you read horizontal motion as forward ...
  https://itch.io/profile/hugerobot
*  Plus it
This was followed by a final discrete transition from these intermediate T-G delay codes to a 'pure' G code in movement cells ... Three-dimensional recordings of head-unrestrained gaze shifts were made in two monkeys trained to make gaze shifts toward ... preferred in the movement response) during the memory delay interval. We treated neural population codes as a continuous ... with a further jump to coding intended gaze position in movement neurons with no delay response. Since our analytic method is ...
  http://www.eneuro.org/content/early/2016/04/05/ENEURO.0040-16.2016
*  4 Month Check Up
... w/o assistance b/c they haven't gotten there yet BUT it is necessary for them to be able to control their head movements. So, ... Another thing is that they should be able to support their heads w/o assistance. Now, that isn't sitting ...
  http://survivingtriplets.blogspot.com/2008/08/4-month-check-up.html
*  DSpace@MIT: Cross plane transfer of vestibular adaptation to human centrifugation
... and therefore entail a variety of unusual vestibular stimuli when certain head movements are made. Since these movements can ... A block of pitch movements was performed before and after the yaw movements, and these two pitch blocks were compared to assess ... during supine head-on-axis rotation. However, astronauts must be adapted to all planes of head motion if they are to function ... So far these efforts have been successful in showing that people will adapt to at least one plane of head motion, the yaw ( ...
  http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/17770
*  Vestibular System
... as the orientation of the head with respect to gravity ... detect and encode angular and linear components of head ... detect and encode angular and linear components of head movements as well as the orientation of the head with respect to ... b) At the onset of a head rotation to the right, the endolymph in the semicircular canals follows the head less rapidly (dashed ... At the onset of a head turn to the left, the discharge rate in afferent fibres increases on the left side (N. VIIIL) and ...
  http://www.els.net/WileyCDA/ElsArticle/refId-a0000220.html
*  Abnormal Eye and Head Movements in Children | LIVESTRONG.COM
Eye Movements. Unusual head movements may also help a child adapt to uncontrolled eye movements. Involuntary eye movements, a ... Head Movements. A child may position his head to compensate for eye misalignment that may occur with conditions such as a "lazy ... Abnormal Eye and Head Movements in Children by KATE BECK Last Updated: Aug 14, 2017. ... An abnormal eye or head movements may also stem from a "tic," a condition common in children. A child with a tic may squint, ...
  https://www.livestrong.com/article/523109-abnormal-eye-and-head-movements-in-children/
*  normal head movement? or parasites? | BackYard Chickens
... one of my pullets started shaking her head, kind of like a horse whinnying, if that makes sense. It happens every couple of... ... normal head movement? or parasites? Discussion in 'Managing Your Flock' started by wahmommy, Feb 9, 2013. ... Also, when I say whinnying, its only the movement side to side, they don't throw their heads back like horses do. ... but if the head movement is mite related then it doesn't matter right? Also, just to make matters more interesting, in the last ...
  https://www.backyardchickens.com/threads/normal-head-movement-or-parasites.743478/
*  Talking doll having head movement responsive to external sound - Mattel, Inc.
A doll includes a plush doll body having a movable head. A body housing within the doll body supports a control and sound ... and engages head coupler 66. of head housing 40. . Thus, head housing 40. is pivotally movable in response to pivotal movement ... triggers a movement of head housing 40. and head 12. in the direction indicated by arrow 34. . Conversely, the operative ... The result of this action is a movement of the head of doll 10. in the manner described above in FIG. 2. to produce a head ...
  http://www.freepatentsonline.com/6565407.html
*  Right-Left Asymmetries in the Whisking Behavior of Rats Anticipate Head Movements | Journal of Neuroscience
Right-Left Asymmetries in the Whisking Behavior of Rats Anticipate Head Movements. R. Blythe Towal and Mitra J. Hartmann ... Correction for Towal et al., Right-Left Asymmetries in the Whisking Behavior of Rats Anticipate Head Movements - October 04, ... of the world would seem to require that rats adjust the bilateral symmetry of whisker movements in response to head movements. ... Right-Left Asymmetries in the Whisking Behavior of Rats Anticipate Head Movements ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/26/34/8838
*  Neural Control of Eye-Head Movements - Recent Projects - Freedman Lab - University of Rochester Medical Center
Neural Control of Eye-head Movements Figure 1. Head, eye, and gaze position are plotted as functions of time during a. 60 ... We are currently studying the role of the brainstem in eye-head coordination, cerebellar contributions to eye-head movements ... distinguish our movements from the movements of objects in the world, and coordinate our own movements in order to orient, and ... head contributed ~10 degrees to the overall change in gaze direction during this movement.. The remaining 50 degrees of the ...
  https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/labs/freedman/projects/neural-control-of-eye-head-movements.aspx
*  Strange head movement from polish hen. *Video included* | BackYard Chickens
Her head movement may indicate discomfort in her crop. Do you feel anything hard in it?. Has she been laying? How long since ... Strange head movement from polish hen. *Video included* Discussion in 'Emergencies / Diseases / Injuries and Cures' started by ... In the last 15 minutes the head twitching has stopped and she is stood there with her head down. Will check what antibiotics I ... I'm not sure that antibiotics are necessary, since it appears to be abnormal neurological movement probably from a head or neck ...
  https://www.backyardchickens.com/threads/strange-head-movement-from-polish-hen-video-included.1086741/
*  The effect of head movement and head positioning on sound field audiometry.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the sound pressure level (SPL) at head positions likely to be ... Positioning and maintaining the subject's head at the calibration point (CP) of the sound field (SF) during SF assessment ... Head*. Head Movements*. Hearing*. Humans. Infant. Posture*. Pressure. Reproducibility of Results. Sound. ... due to head movement, is to be expected when performing SF audiometry. Furthermore, the typical head heights of infants will ...
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/effect-head-movement-positioning-sound/22486395.html
*  US20140375680A1 - Tracking head movement when wearing mobile device - Google Patents
... track head movements of the end user over time based on the initial head tracking vector and the one or more head tracking ... In some embodiments, the HMD may determine an initial head tracking vector associated with an initial head position of the end ... and adjust positions of virtual objects displayed to the end user based on the head movements. In some embodiments, the ... determine one or more head tracking vectors corresponding with one or more subsequent head positions of the end user relative ...
  https://patents.google.com/patent/US20140375680
*  Kessler Foundation researchers study impact of head movement on... ( West Orange NJ. February 19 2014. Ke...)
S...,Kessler,Foundation,researchers,study,impact,of,head,movement,on,fMRI,data,biological,biology news articles,biology news ... Because head movement during fMRI degrades data quality data associat... We found an interaction between task difficulty and ... Because head movement during fMRI degrades data quality, data associated with severe movement is frequently discarded as a ... Kessler Foundation researchers study impact of head movement on fMRI data. ...West Orange NJ. February 19 2014. Kessler ...
  http://www.bio-medicine.org/biology-news-1/Kessler-Foundation-researchers-study-impact-of-head-movement-on-fMRI-data-34210-1/
*  Data set: Head movements in bumblebees
The detailed analysis of the fine structure of the bees' head turning movements shows that the time course of single head ... Data set: Head movements in bumblebees. Boeddeker N, Mertes M, Dittmar L, Egelhaaf M (2015) : Bielefeld University. doi:10.4119 ... Here, we use high-speed video to analyse head- and body-movements of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris while approaching and ... We find a consistent relationship between the duration, peak velocity and amplitude of saccadic head movements, which in its ...
  https://pub.uni-bielefeld.de/data/2763686
*  An ICA based head movement classification system using video signals, Journal on Multimodal User Interfaces | 10.1007/s12193...
"An ICA based head movement classification system using video signals, Journal on Multimodal User Interfaces" on DeepDyve, the ... An ICA based head movement classification system using video signals. An ICA based head movement classification system using ... An ICA based head movement classification system using video signals. Devadethan, S.; Titus, Geevarghese ... Present systems employ algorithms that are based on various states of head, in the movement. These state based systems perform ...
  https://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/an-ica-based-head-movement-classification-system-using-video-signals-MwQKt7eoCx
*  How Not to Become a Buffoon in Front of a Shop Window: A Solution Allowing Natural Head Movement for Interaction with a Public...
We further describe our experiment aimed to explore how head movements relate to eye movements when looking at objects in a ... We show large variability in head movement and that per individual the gaze-head data could well be approximated with a ... We argue that conventional use of head tracking requires conscious intentional head movements and thus does not fit into the ... Based on these results we propose a new solution that enables natural gaze interaction by means of head tracking. Mubin, Omar; ...
  https://infoscience.epfl.ch/record/165536
*  Compensation of the effects of eye and head movements during walking and running | JOV | ARVO Journals
Michael von Grünau, Rong Zhou; Compensation of the effects of eye and head movements during walking and running. Journal of ... von Grünau, M. Zhou, R. (2007). Compensation of the effects of eye and head movements during walking and running [Abstract]. ... Purpose: A consequence of human locomotion (walking, running) is the occurrence of related eye (EM) and head (HM) movements, ... Compensation of the effects of eye and head movements during walking and running ...
  http://jov.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2133989
*  Using the optical flow to implement a relative virtual mouse controlled by head movements
... ... following paper introduces the work conducted to create a relative virtual mouse based on the interpretation of head movements ... as an alternative non-contact pointer for people with mobility impairments in the upper extremities and reduced head control. ...
  http://www.recercat.cat/handle/10459.1/41492
*  Emulation of chemical stimulus triggered head movement in the C. elegans nematode - Sheffield Hallam University Research...
Emulation of chemical stimulus triggered head movement in the C. elegans nematode ... elegans that responds to chemical stimulus is presented and a consequent realistic head movement demonstrated. An evolutionary ... Emulation of chemical stimulus triggered head movement in the C. elegans nematode. Neurocomputing. (In Press) ... the vast complexity of such systems has made it very difficult to fully understand even basic functions such as movement. ...
  http://shura.shu.ac.uk/18893/
*  016-Sparking CPMs: 1. Head - Movements
Church planting moveme..., Movement Principles, Movement Resources, Podcast, Podcasts 1-0-30 ... Church planting moveme..., Movement Principles, Movement Resources, Podcast, Podcasts 1-0-30 ... In this podcast he introduces the first one-Head: Knowing.. We'll work our way through the other three over the next few weeks. ... I caught up with Barney via skype recently and talked to him about the qualities required to spark church planting movements. ...
  https://www.movements.net/blog/2010/09/02/what-does-it-take-to-spark-church-planting-movements.html
*  Protocol for Restricting Head Movement when Recording Ultrasound Images of Speech - QMU Publications Repository
McLeod, Sharynne and Wrench, Alan A (2008) Protocol for Restricting Head Movement when Recording Ultrasound Images of Speech. ... Mid-sagittal or coronal dynamic two-dimensional images of tongue position and movement can be obtained as there are ... Data indicated that the palate trace had limited movement over 1 hour of recording. ...
  http://eresearch.qmu.ac.uk/1568/
*  Online Background Checks, US Criminal History Information | Free Warrant Search Delaware
Throughout the movement once exist students of possible dispositions and some larger arms covering a informal rough deadlines. ... The science featuring the brain has been even however removed, soon is most of the private toilet head, which had gradually ...
  http://tenant-credit-check.life/free-warrant-search-delaware.html

Fall Heads Roll: Fall Heads Roll is an album by The Fall, released in 2005. It was recorded at Gracieland Studios in Rochdale, UK and Gigantic Studios in New York, NY.Voluntary Parenthood League: The Voluntary Parenthood League (VPL) was an organization that advocated for contraception during the birth control movement in the United States. The VPL was founded in 1919 by Mary Dennett.Vision in fishes: Vision is an important sensory system for most species of fish. Fish eyes are similar to terrestrial vertebrates like birds and mammals, but have a more spherical lens.Doxanthrine: Doxanthrine is a synthetic compound which is a potent and selective full agonist for the dopamine D1 receptor. Doxanthrine has been shown to be orally active in producing contralateral rotation in the 6-hydroxy-dopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease.Vestibular system: The vestibular system, in most mammals, is the sensory system that provides the leading contribution about the sense of balance and spatial orientation for the purpose of coordinating movement with balance. Together with the cochlea, a part of the auditory system, it constitutes the labyrinth of the inner ear in most mammals, situated in the vestibulum in the inner ear (Figure 1).Sternohyoid muscle: The sternohyoid muscle is a thin, narrow muscle attaching the hyoid bone to the sternum, one of the paired strap muscles of the infrahyoid muscles serving to depress the hyoid bone. It is innervated by the ansa cervicalis.Saccade: A saccade ( , French for jerk) is quick, simultaneous movement of both eyes between two phases of fixation in the same direction.Cassin, B.Medial vestibular nucleus: The medial vestibular nucleus is one of the vestibular nuclei. It is located in the medulla oblongata.Head and Neck Cancer Alliance: The Head and Neck Cancer Alliance (HNCA) is a non-profit organization that works with health professionals and organizations, celebrities and survivors to enhance the overall effort in prevention, treatment, and detection of cancers of the head and neck region.Cicero Stephens Hawks: Cicero Stephens Hawks (May 26, 1812–April 19, 1868) was the first Episcopal bishop of Missouri.Grotto of the RedemptionOtolith: An otolith (οτο-, oto-, ear + λιθος, lithos, a stone), also called statoconium or otoconium, is a structure in the saccule or utricle of the inner ear, specifically in the vestibular labyrinth of vertebrates. They have been identified in both extinct and extant vertebrates.Marion ClignetProfessional DiscElectrooculographyMagnetometer: Magnetometers are measurement instruments used for two general purposes: to measure the magnetization of a magnetic material like a ferromagnet, or to measure the strength and, in some cases, the direction of the magnetic field at a point in space.Physical restraintAgraphesthesia: Agraphesthesia is a disorder of directional cutaneous kinesthesia or a disorientation of the skin's sensation across its space. It is a difficulty recognizing a written number or letter traced on the skin after parietal damage.Orders of magnitude (acceleration): This page lists examples of the acceleration occurring in various situations. They are grouped by orders of magnitude.Riding-like sittingFixation reflex: The fixation reflex is that concerned with attracting the eye on a peripheral object. For example, when a light shines in the periphery, the eyes shift gaze on it.Alexander's law: Jacobson GP et al. Alexander's law revisited.SeasicknessBiological motion: Biological motion is a term used by social and cognitive neuroscientists to refer to the unique visual phenomenon of a moving, animate object. Often, the stimuli used in biological motion experiments are just a few moving dots that reflect the motion of some key joints of the moving organism.NystagmusPosturography: Posturography is a general term that covers all the techniques used to quantify postural control in upright stance in either static or dynamic conditions. Among them, Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP), also called test of balance (TOB), is a non-invasive specialized clinical assessment technique used to quantify the central nervous system adaptive mechanisms (sensory, motor and central) involved in the control of posture and balance, both in normal (such as in physical education and sports training) and abnormal conditions (particularly in the diagnosis of balance disorders and in physical therapy and postural re-education).Extended physiological proprioception: Extended physiological proprioception (EPP) is a concept pioneered by D.C.Golf course superintendent: A Golf course superintendent is a person who professionally manages the labor, time, materials and financial resources needed to care for the turfgrass and landscaped grounds on a golf course. Golf course superintendents have also been referred to as greenskeepers and turf managers.Dog healthCanon EOS 5Autoimmune inner ear disease: Autoimmune inner ear disease is a suspected autoimmune disease characterized by rapidly progressive bilateral sensorineural hearing loss.Inner Ear, Autoimmune (eMedicine, 2006) It occurs when the body's immune system attacks cells in the inner ear that are mistaken for a virus or bacteria.Boxcar (band): Boxcar is an Australian Sydney-based synthpop and techno band. Formed in the mid-1980s in Brisbane by main songwriter guitarist and vocalist David Smith, he was soon joined by keyboardists Brett Mitchell and Carol Rohde and somewhat later by drummer-percussionist Crispin Trist.Mechanochemistry: Mechanochemistry or mechanical chemistry is the coupling of mechanical and chemical phenomena on a molecular scale and includes mechanical breakage, chemical behaviour of mechanically stressed solids (e.g.Utricle (ear)Aging movement control: Normal aging movement control in humans is about the changes on the muscles, motor neurons, nerves, sensory functions, gait, fatigue, visual and manual responses, in men and women as they get older but who do not have neurological, muscular (atrophy, dystrophy...) or neuromuscular disorder.TerguridePrinciples of motion economy: The principles of motion economy form a set of rules and suggestions to improve the manual work in manufacturing and reduce fatigue and unnecessary movements by the worker, which can lead to the reduction in the work related trauma.The Movement Disorder SocietyRimless eyeglasses: Rimless eyeglasses, are a type of eyeglasses in which the lenses are mounted directly to the bridge and/or temples. The style is divided into two subtypes: three piece glasses are composed of lenses mounted to a bridge and two separate temple arms, while rimways (also called cortlands) feature a supporting arch that connects the temples to the bridge and provides extra stability for the lenses.Flightless birdParoxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis: Paroxysmal kinesigenic choreathetosis (PKC) also called Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia (PKD) is a hyperkinetic movement disorder characterized by attacks of involuntary movements, which are triggered by sudden voluntary movements. The number of attacks can increase during puberty and decrease in a person’s 20s to 30s.Cerebral hemisphere: The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the medial longitudinal fissure. The brain can thus be described as being divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres.Withdrawal reflex: The withdrawal reflex (nociceptive or flexor withdrawal reflex) is a spinal reflex intended to protect the body from damaging stimuli. It is polysynaptic, causing stimulation of sensory, association, and motor neurons.Inferior rectus muscle: The inferior rectus muscle is a muscle in the orbit.Interposed nucleus: The interposed nucleus is a deep nucleus of the cerebellum and is composed of the globose nuclei and the emboliform nuclei. It is located in the roof (dorsal aspect) of the fourth ventricle, lateral to the fastigial nucleus.Binocular vision: Binocular vision is vision in which creatures having two eyes use them together. The word binocular comes from two Latin roots, bini for double, and oculus for eye.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingTorticollisHook protein: HOOK is a family of evolutionarily related proteins.Cortical stimulation mapping: Cortical stimulation mapping (often shortened to CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex. It remains one of the earliest methods of analyzing the brain and has allowed researchers to study the relationship between cortical structure and systemic function.Optokinetic reflexNephtheis fascicularisFujiyama (roller coaster)Vertigo (Marvel Comics): Vertigo is a native of the Savage Land who obtained superhuman powers at a young age by genetic engineering. Her powers enable her to render a person severely dizzy and even unconscious.Cats in the United States: Many different species of mammal can be classified as cats (felids) in the United States. These include domestic cat (both house cats and feral), of the species Felis catus; medium-sized wild cats from the genus Lynx; and big cats from the genera Puma and Panthera.Spalding MethodStereopsis: Stereopsis (from the Greek στερεο- [meaning "solid", and ὄψις] opsis, "appearance, [[visual perception|sight") is a term that is most often used to refer to the perception of depth and 3-dimensional structure obtained on the basis of visual information deriving from two eyes by individuals with normally developed binocular vision.Oculomotor nucleus: The fibers of the oculomotor nerve arise from a nucleus in the midbrain, which lies in the gray substance of the floor of the cerebral aqueduct and extends in front of the aqueduct for a short distance into the floor of the third ventricle. From this nucleus the fibers pass forward through the tegmentum, the red nucleus, and the medial part of the substantia nigra, forming a series of curves with a lateral convexity, and emerge from the oculomotor sulcus on the medial side of the cerebral peduncle.AmbulocetidaeHaptotaxis: Haptotaxis (from Greek ἅπτω (hapto, "touch, fasten") and τάξις (taxis, "arrangement, order")) is the directional motility or outgrowth of cells, e.g.SacculeHSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).Meridian (perimetry, visual field): Meridian (plural: "meridians") is used in perimetry and in specifying visual fields. According to IPS Perimetry Standards 1978 (2002): "Perimetry is the measurement of [an observer's] visual functions ...Maladaptation: A maladaptation () is a trait that is (or has become) more harmful than helpful, in contrast with an adaptation, which is more helpful than harmful. All organisms, from bacteria to humans, display maladaptive and adaptive traits.Intraguild predation: Intraguild predation, or IGP, is the killing and eating of potential competitors. This interaction represents a combination of predation and competition, because both species rely on the same prey resources and also benefit from preying upon one another.EEGLAB: EEGLAB is a MATLAB toolbox distributed under the free GNU GPL license for processing data from electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and other electrophysiological signals. Along with all the basic processing tools, EEGLAB implements independent component analysis (ICA), time/frequency analysis, artifact rejection, and several modes of data visualization.Temporal feedbackArcoClosed head injury: Closed Head are a type of traumatic brain injury in which the skull and dura mater remain intact. Closed-head injuries are the leading cause of death in children under 4 years old and the most common cause of physical disability and cognitive impairment in young people.Berg Balance Scale: The Berg Balance Scale (or BBS) is a widely used clinical test of a person's static and dynamic balance abilities, named after Katherine Berg, one of the developers. For functional balance tests, the BBS is generally considered to be the gold standard.

(1/868) Recovery of the vestibulocolic reflex after aminoglycoside ototoxicity in domestic chickens.

Avian auditory and vestibular hair cells regenerate after damage by ototoxic drugs, but until recently there was little evidence that regenerated vestibular hair cells function normally. In an earlier study we showed that the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) is eliminated with aminoglycoside antibiotic treatment and recovers as hair cells regenerate. The VOR, which stabilizes the eye in the head, is an open-loop system that is thought to depend largely on regularly firing afferents. Recovery of the VOR is highly correlated with the regeneration of type I hair cells. In contrast, the vestibulocolic reflex (VCR), which stabilizes the head in space, is a closed-loop, negative-feedback system that seems to depend more on irregularly firing afferent input and is thought to be subserved by different circuitry than the VOR. We examined whether this different reflex also of vestibular origin would show similar recovery after hair cell regeneration. Lesions of the vestibular hair cells of 10-day-old chicks were created by a 5-day course of streptomycin sulfate. One day after completion of streptomycin treatment there was no measurable VCR gain, and total hair cell density was approximately 35% of that in untreated, age-matched controls. At 2 wk postlesion there was significant recovery of the VCR; at this time two subjects showed VCR gains within the range of control chicks. At 3 wk postlesion all subjects showed VCR gains and phase shifts within the normal range. These data show that the VCR recovers before the VOR. Unlike VOR gain, recovering VCR gain correlates equally well with the density of regenerating type I and type II vestibular hair cells, except at high frequencies. Several factors other than hair cell regeneration, such as length of stereocilia, reafferentation of hair cells, and compensation involving central neural pathways, may be involved in behavioral recovery. Our data suggest that one or more of these factors differentially affect the recovery of these two vestibular reflexes.  (+info)

(2/868) Projections and firing properties of down eye-movement neurons in the interstitial nucleus of Cajal in the cat.

To clarify the role of the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) in the control of vertical eye movements, projections of burst-tonic and tonic neurons in and around the INC were studied. This paper describes neurons with downward ON directions. We examined, by antidromic activation, whether these down INC (d-INC) neurons contribute to two pathways: a commissural pathway to the contralateral (c-) INC and a descending pathway to the ipsilateral vestibular nucleus (i-VN). Stimulation of the two pathways showed that as many as 74% of neurons were activated antidromically from one of the pathways. Of 113 d-INC neurons tested, 44 were activated from the commissural pathway and 40 from the descending pathway. No neurons were activated from both pathways. We concluded that commissural and descending pathways from the INC originate from two separate groups of neurons. Tracking of antidromic microstimulation in the two nuclei revealed multiple low-threshold sites and varied latencies; this was interpreted as a sign of existence of axonal arborization. Neurons with commissural projections tended to be located more dorsally than those with descending projections. Neurons with descending projections had significantly greater eye-position sensitivity and smaller saccadic sensitivity than neurons with commissural projections. The two groups of INC neurons increased their firing rate in nose-up head rotations and responded best to the rotation in the plane of contralateral posterior/ipsilateral anterior canal pair. Neurons with commissural projections showed a larger phase lag of response to sinusoidal rotation (54.6 +/- 7.6 degrees ) than neurons with descending projections (45.0 +/- 5.5 degrees ). Most neurons with descending projections received disynaptic excitation from the contralateral vestibular nerve. Neurons with commissural projections rarely received such disynaptic input. We suggest that downward-position-vestibular (DPV) neurons in the VN and VN-projecting d-INC neurons form a loop, together with possible commissural loops linking the bilateral VNs and the bilateral INCs. By comparing the quantitative measures of d-INC neurons with those of DPV neurons, we further suggest that integration of head velocity signals proceeds from DPV neurons to d-INC neurons with descending projections and then to d-INC neurons with commissural projections, whereas saccadic velocity signals are processed in the reverse order.  (+info)

(3/868) Action of the brain stem saccade generator during horizontal gaze shifts. I. Discharge patterns of omnidirectional pause neurons.

Omnidirectional pause neurons (OPNs) pause for the duration of a saccade in all directions because they are part of the neural mechanism that controls saccade duration. In the natural situation, however, large saccades are accompanied by head movements to produce rapid gaze shifts. To determine whether OPNs are part of the mechanism that controls the whole gaze shift rather than the eye saccade alone, we monitored the activity of 44 OPNs that paused for rightward and leftward gaze shifts but otherwise discharged at relatively constant average rates. Pause duration was well correlated with the duration of either eye or gaze movement but poorly correlated with the duration of head movement. The time of pause onset was aligned tightly with the onset of either eye or gaze movement but only loosely aligned with the onset of head movement. These data suggest that the OPN pause does not encode the duration of head movement. Further, the end of the OPN pause was often better aligned with the end of the eye movement than with the end of the gaze movement for individual gaze shifts. For most gaze shifts, the eye component ended with an immediate counterrotation owing to the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR), and gaze ended at variable times thereafter. In those gaze shifts where eye counterrotation was delayed, the end of the pause also was delayed. Taken together, these data suggest that the end of the pause influences the onset of eye counterrotation, not the end of the gaze shift. We suggest that OPN neurons act to control only that portion of the gaze movement that is commanded by the eye burst generator. This command is expressed by driving the saccadic eye movement directly and also by suppressing VOR eye counterrotation. Because gaze end is less well correlated with pause end and often occurs well after counterrotation onset, we conclude that elements of the burst generator typically are not active till gaze end, and that gaze end is determined by another mechanism independent of the OPNs.  (+info)

(4/868) Three-dimensional eye-head coordination during gaze saccades in the primate.

The purpose of this investigation was to describe the neural constraints on three-dimensional (3-D) orientations of the eye in space (Es), head in space (Hs), and eye in head (Eh) during visual fixations in the monkey and the control strategies used to implement these constraints during head-free gaze saccades. Dual scleral search coil signals were used to compute 3-D orientation quaternions, two-dimensional (2-D) direction vectors, and 3-D angular velocity vectors for both the eye and head in three monkeys during the following visual tasks: radial to/from center, repetitive horizontal, nonrepetitive oblique, random (wide 2-D range), and random with pin-hole goggles. Although 2-D gaze direction (of Es) was controlled more tightly than the contributing 2-D Hs and Eh components, the torsional standard deviation of Es was greater (mean 3.55 degrees ) than Hs (3.10 degrees ), which in turn was greater than Eh (1.87 degrees ) during random fixations. Thus the 3-D Es range appeared to be the byproduct of Hs and Eh constraints, resulting in a pseudoplanar Es range that was twisted (in orthogonal coordinates) like the zero torsion range of Fick coordinates. The Hs fixation range was similarly Fick-like, whereas the Eh fixation range was quasiplanar. The latter Eh range was maintained through exquisite saccade/slow phase coordination, i.e., during each head movement, multiple anticipatory saccades drove the eye torsionally out of the planar range such that subsequent slow phases drove the eye back toward the fixation range. The Fick-like Hs constraint was maintained by the following strategies: first, during purely vertical/horizontal movements, the head rotated about constantly oriented axes that closely resembled physical Fick gimbals, i.e., about head-fixed horizontal axes and space-fixed vertical axes, respectively (although in 1 animal, the latter constraint was relaxed during repetitive horizontal movements, allowing for trajectory optimization). However, during large oblique movements, head orientation made transient but dramatic departures from the zero-torsion Fick surface, taking the shortest path between two torsionally eccentric fixation points on the surface. Moreover, in the pin-hole goggle task, the head-orientation range flattened significantly, suggesting a task-dependent default strategy similar to Listing's law. These and previous observations suggest two quasi-independent brain stem circuits: an oculomotor 2-D to 3-D transformation that coordinates anticipatory saccades with slow phases to uphold Listing's law, and a flexible "Fick operator" that selects head motor error; both nested within a dynamic gaze feedback loop.  (+info)

(5/868) Multichannel fenestrations of the petrous segment of the internal carotid artery.

Multichannel fenestration of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare, previously unreported developmental anomaly with unknown clinical significance. Although previously thought to have distinct embryologic origins, the presence of multiple channels in a short-segment fenestration favors a common developmental pathway for the origin of duplications and fenestrations: the persistence of a plexiform vascular network from the 4-mm to 5-mm embryologic stage of development.  (+info)

(6/868) Spatial view cells in the primate hippocampus: allocentric view not head direction or eye position or place.

Hippocampal function was analysed by making recordings from hippocampal neurons in monkeys actively walking in the laboratory. 'Spatial view' cells, which respond when the monkey looks at a part of the environment, were analysed. It is shown that these cells code for the allocentric position in space being viewed and not for eye position, head direction or the place where the monkey is located. This representation of space 'out there' would be an appropriate part of a primate memory system involved in memories of where in an environment an object was seen, and more generally in the memory of particular events or episodes, for which a spatial component normally provides part of the context.  (+info)

(7/868) Influence of head position on the spatial representation of acoustic targets.

Sound localization in humans relies on binaural differences (azimuth cues) and monaural spectral shape information (elevation cues) and is therefore the result of a neural computational process. Despite the fact that these acoustic cues are referenced with respect to the head, accurate eye movements can be generated to sounds in complete darkness. This ability necessitates the use of eye position information. So far, however, sound localization has been investigated mainly with a fixed head position, usually straight ahead. Yet the auditory system may rely on head motor information to maintain a stable and spatially accurate representation of acoustic targets in the presence of head movements. We therefore studied the influence of changes in eye-head position on auditory-guided orienting behavior of human subjects. In the first experiment, we used a visual-auditory double-step paradigm. Subjects made saccadic gaze shifts in total darkness toward brief broadband sounds presented before an intervening eye-head movement that was evoked by an earlier visual target. The data show that the preceding displacements of both eye and head are fully accounted for, resulting in spatially accurate responses. This suggests that auditory target information may be transformed into a spatial (or body-centered) frame of reference. To further investigate this possibility, we exploited the unique property of the auditory system that sound elevation is extracted independently from pinna-related spectral cues. In the absence of such cues, accurate elevation detection is not possible, even when head movements are made. This is shown in a second experiment where pure tones were localized at a fixed elevation that depended on the tone frequency rather than on the actual target elevation, both under head-fixed and -free conditions. To test, in a third experiment, whether the perceived elevation of tones relies on a head- or space-fixed target representation, eye movements were elicited toward pure tones while subjects kept their head in different vertical positions. It appeared that each tone was localized at a fixed, frequency-dependent elevation in space that shifted to a limited extent with changes in head elevation. Hence information about head position is used under static conditions too. Interestingly, the influence of head position also depended on the tone frequency. Thus tone-evoked ocular saccades typically showed a partial compensation for changes in static head position, whereas noise-evoked eye-head saccades fully compensated for intervening changes in eye-head position. We propose that the auditory localization system combines the acoustic input with head-position information to encode targets in a spatial (or body-centered) frame of reference. In this way, accurate orienting responses may be programmed despite intervening eye-head movements. A conceptual model, based on the tonotopic organization of the auditory system, is presented that may account for our findings.  (+info)

(8/868) Enhancement of the vestibulo-ocular reflex by prior eye movements.

We investigated the effect of visually mediated eye movements made before velocity-step horizontal head rotations in eleven normal human subjects. When subjects viewed a stationary target before and during head rotation, gaze velocity was initially perturbed by approximately 20% of head velocity; gaze velocity subsequently declined to zero within approximately 300 ms of the stimulus onset. We used a curve-fitting procedure to estimate the dynamic course of the gain throughout the compensatory response to head rotation. This analysis indicated that the median initial gain of compensatory eye movements (mainly because of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, VOR) was 0. 8 and subsequently increased to 1.0 after a median interval of 320 ms. When subjects attempted to fixate the remembered location of the target in darkness, the initial perturbation of gaze was similar to during fixation of a visible target (median initial VOR gain 0.8); however, the period during which the gain increased toward 1.0 was >10 times longer than that during visual fixation. When subjects performed horizontal smooth-pursuit eye movements that ended (i.e., 0 gaze velocity) just before the head rotation, the gaze velocity perturbation at the onset of head rotation was absent or small. The initial gain of the VOR had been significantly increased by the prior pursuit movements for all subjects (P < 0.05; mean increase of 11%). In four subjects, we determined that horizontal saccades and smooth tracking of a head-fixed target (VOR cancellation with eye stationary in the orbit) also increased the initial VOR gain (by a mean of 13%) during subsequent head rotations. However, after vertical saccades or smooth pursuit, the initial gaze perturbation caused by a horizontal head rotation was similar to that which occurred after fixation of a stationary target. We conclude that the initial gain of the VOR during a sudden horizontal head rotation is increased by prior horizontal, but not vertical, visually mediated gaze shifts. We postulate that this "priming" effect of a prior gaze shift on the gain of the VOR occurs at the level of the velocity inputs to the neural integrator subserving horizontal eye movements, where gaze-shifting commands and vestibular signals converge.  (+info)



  • torso
  • The musculoskeletal response required to play a musical instrument involves substantial body movement, usually of the hands, arms and torso. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, even with no alternation in the angle of the interaural axis (i.e. without tilting one's head) the hearing system can capitalize on interference patterns generated by pinnae, the torso, and even the temporary re-purposing of a hand as extension of the pinna (e.g., cupping one's hand around the ear). (wikipedia.org)
  • The supplementary eye field (SEF) is a relatively anterior portion of the SMA that, when stimulated, evokes head and eye movements and perhaps movements of the limbs and torso. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • These results suggest that whereas figure tracking by wing kinematics is independent of head movements, head movements are important for stabilizing ground motion during active figure tracking. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, the improvement of music sight reading and the differences between skilled and unskilled readers have always been of prime importance to research into eye movement in music reading, whereas research into eye movement in language reading has been more concerned with the development of a unified psychological model of the reading process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that this is not the same description of ocular torsion as rotation around the line of sight: whereas movements that start or end at the primary position can indeed be performed without any rotation about the line of sight, this is not the case for arbitrary movements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Utricle responds to linear accelerations and head-tilts in the horizontal plane (head to shoulder), whereas saccule responds to linear accelerations and head-tilts in the vertical plane (up and down). (wikipedia.org)
  • neck
  • I have experienced wry neck before but this is not the usual head twisting associated with this. (backyardchickens.com)
  • Studies have shown that over 75% of patients report neck pain, and 33% to 40% experience tremor of the head. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary spasmodic torticollis is defined as having no other abnormality other than dystonic movement and occasional tremor in the neck. (wikipedia.org)
  • line of si
  • Note that when the line of sight is directed toward the new location (gaze end) that the head continues to move. (rochester.edu)
  • For example, we might hear or see an object in the periphery, and in order to visually localize and identify the object we need to plan and execute a movement which will re-direct our line of sight. (rochester.edu)
  • Then we must compute the difference between our current line of sight and the position of the target, incorporate information about the capabilities of the body segments which will contribute to moving the line of sight (e.g. the mobility of the eyes and head given their current positions), and coordinate more than 40 muscles and muscle groups to smoothly look at the target. (rochester.edu)
  • Humans
  • The fact that bumblebee head saccades are highly stereotyped as in humans, may hint at a common principle, where fast and precise motor control is used to reliably reduce the time during which the retinal images moves. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • temporal
  • Kinematic analysis suggested that these asymmetric movements did not serve to maintain any fixed temporal relationship between right and left arrays, but rather to redirect the whiskers to a different region of space. (jneurosci.org)
  • It is this uniquely strict temporal requirement in musical performance that has made the observation of eye movement in music reading fraught with more difficulty than that in language reading. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four main hypotheses have been proposed for the function of SMA: the control of postural stability during stance or walking, coordinating temporal sequences of actions, bimanual coordination, and the initiation of internally generated as opposed to stimulus driven movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • vestibular
  • We suggest that the spatial asymmetries are analogous to the saccade that occurs during the initial portion of a combined head-eye gaze shift, and we begin to develop the rat vibrissal system as a new model for studying vestibular and proprioceptive contributions to the acquisition of sensory data. (jneurosci.org)
  • Vision, audition and somatosensation provide information about objects in the world, information about self movement is provided through the vestibular and proprioceptive systems. (rochester.edu)
  • The vestibular system, the region of the inner ear where three semicircular canals converge, works with the visual system to keep objects in focus when the head is moving. (wikipedia.org)
  • velocity
  • More specifically, spatial asymmetry was found to be strongly correlated with rotational head velocity, ensuring a "look-ahead" distance of almost exactly one whisk. (jneurosci.org)
  • stimulus
  • We examined how fruit flies adjust their gaze in response to a compound visual stimulus comprising a small moving figure against an independently moving wide-field ground, which they do either by re-orienting their head or by re-orienting their flight trajectory. (biologists.org)
  • In this paper a simulation of the neural network in C. elegans that responds to chemical stimulus is presented and a consequent realistic head movement demonstrated. (shu.ac.uk)
  • position
  • A child may position his head to compensate for eye misalignment that may occur with conditions such as a "lazy eye. (livestrong.com)
  • and a position switch operatively coupled to said shaft coupler providing an off signal to said control and sound circuit when said shaft coupler is pivoted left or right beyond a predetermined position, said head being pivoted to left or right in response to said sound from left or right respectively and said means for moving said mouth operating independent of left or right pivoting head movement. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Methods for tracking the head position of an end user of a head-mounted display device (HMD) relative to the HMD are described. (google.com)
  • Mid-sagittal or coronal dynamic two-dimensional images of tongue position and movement can be obtained as there are particularly strong ultrasound wave reflections from boundaries between tissue and air. (qmu.ac.uk)
  • It is often assumed the primary position is at the mechanical center of the eye's range of movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • in fact, Listing's law requires that the rotation axis of most saccades lies outside of Listing's plane, more specifically, the rotation axis lies in Listing's plane only if the movement starts or ends at the primary position or if it is a prolongation of such a movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • The axes of rotation associated with Listing's law are only in Listing's plane for movements that head toward or away from primary position. (wikipedia.org)
  • For all other eye movements towards or away from some non-primary position, the eye must rotate about an axis of rotation that tilts out of Listing's plane. (wikipedia.org)
  • when baby is held in a prone (face down) position, the head is held upright and legs are fully extended. (wikipedia.org)
  • The past-tense morpheme then requires a subject at the spec-TP position and forces the movement of "Mary," as shown by (3d). (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • My approach to understanding these critical brain functions focuses on issues of sensori-motor integration and the neural computations necessary to plan and execute coordinated movements. (rochester.edu)
  • These studies will facilitate a clearer understanding of the neural mechanisms that mediate the control of coordinated movements. (rochester.edu)
  • These IC's are compared with reference IC's and similarity values obtained were used for classification of the head movement by the neural network classifier. (deepdyve.com)
  • tilt
  • If your child has an eyelid condition known as ptosis, in which his upper eyelid droops down over his eyes, he may tilt his head back and look "down" to see beyond his eyelids. (livestrong.com)
  • data
  • Because head movement during fMRI degrades data quality data associat. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Because head movement during fMRI degrades data quality, data associated with severe movement is frequently discarded as a source of random error. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This finding indicates that discarding data with severe movement artifact may bias MS samples such that only subjects with less-severe cognitive impairment are included in the analyses. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Boeddeker N, Mertes M, Dittmar L, Egelhaaf M. (2015): Data set: Head movements in bumblebees. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Data indicated that the palate trace had limited movement over 1 hour of recording. (qmu.ac.uk)
  • Eye movement in music reading is an extremely complex phenomenon that involves a number of unresolved issues in psychology, and which requires intricate experimental conditions to produce meaningful data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the film rolled through the device vertically, the vertical movement of the eyes in their journey across the page was either unrecorded or was recorded using a second camera and subsequently combined to provide data on both dimensions, a cumbersome and inaccurate solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • coordination
  • We are currently studying the role of the brainstem in eye-head coordination, cerebellar contributions to eye-head movements and motor learning processes, and the interactions between cerebellum and brainstem regions involved in control of visual orienting. (rochester.edu)
  • In addition, we are expanding our interests in eye-head coordination in a study involving human subjects investigating the ability to adapt motor output based on changed visual inputs, and the effects of aging on eye-head coordination. (rochester.edu)
  • This hypothesis is consistent with previous hypotheses, including the involvement of SMA in postural stabilization, in internally generated movements, in bimanual coordination, and in the planning of movement sequences, because all of these functions are heavily recruited in complex locomotion. (wikipedia.org)
  • upright
  • Listing's law has been shown to hold when the head is stationary and upright and gaze is directed toward far targets, i.e., when the eyes are either fixating, making saccades, or pursuing moving visual targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • detection
  • Titus, Geevarghese 2017-05-08 00:00:00 Automatic head movement detection and analysis have significant applications in automobile safety systems, sign language and human computer interaction. (deepdyve.com)
  • precise
  • Our system achieved $$98\%$$ 98 % classification accuracy and it is capable of precise classification of head movements such as left, right, up and down. (deepdyve.com)
  • Thus
  • Thus, in this paper, we introduce a new real-time head movement classification system from video streams based on the trajectory. (deepdyve.com)
  • We argue that conventional use of head tracking requires conscious intentional head movements and thus does not fit into the context of applications such as the ISW. (epfl.ch)
  • primary
  • The studies hypothesize the hyper activation of the cortical areas is due to reduced pallidal inhibition of the thalamus, leading to over activity of the medial and prefrontal cortical areas and under activity of the primary motor cortex during movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • trace
  • Since trace transmits theta-role, movements resulting in non-local relations between theta-role assigners and receivers in surface structure don't violate theta-criterion. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • These studies have typically reflected a curiosity among performing musicians about a central process in their craft, and a hope that investigating eye movement might help in the development of more effective methods of training musicians' sight reading skills. (wikipedia.org)
  • move
  • Involuntary eye movements, a condition often referred to as a nystagmus, make the eyes appear to shake or move back and forth, up or down. (livestrong.com)
  • This is a condition in which when you move your head, you feel dizzy with a tendency to fall at times. (healthcaremagic.com)
  • sensory
  • We must be able to gather accurate sensory information about our surroundings, distinguish our movements from the movements of objects in the world, and coordinate our own movements in order to orient, and navigate smoothly through a complex setting. (rochester.edu)
  • driven
  • The system monitors the car's movements and assesses whether the vehicle is being driven in a controlled or uncontrolled way. (wikipedia.org)
  • motion
  • We found that fixing the head in place impairs object fixation in the presence of ground motion, and that head movements are necessary for stabilizing wing steering responses to wide-field ground motion when a figure is present. (biologists.org)
  • When a figure is moving relative to a moving ground, wing steering responses follow components of both the figure and ground trajectories, but head movements follow only the ground motion. (biologists.org)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that wing responses can be uncoupled from head responses and that the two follow distinct trajectories in the case of simultaneous figure and ground motion. (biologists.org)
  • Vigo - Smart Bluetooth headset that detects signs of drowsiness through the eyes and head motion, and uses a combination of light, sound and vibration to alert the user. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media Eye tracking is the process of measuring either the point of gaze (where one is looking) or the motion of an eye relative to the head. (wikipedia.org)
  • positions
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the sound pressure level (SPL) at head positions likely to be encountered in routine audiological practice. (biomedsearch.com)
  • An eye tracker is a device for measuring eye positions and eye movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • show
  • Invite her to show a movement to the family or playgroup and talk about it just like the animals in the book. (yourparentinginfo.com)
  • show conclusively that the character of the eye movement is either completely independent of or only very slightly dependent on the material of the picture and how it was made, provided that it is flat or nearly flat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Records of eye movements show that the observer's attention is usually held only by certain elements of the picture. (wikipedia.org)
  • examination
  • so the observer's thought may be followed to some extent from records of eye movement (the thought accompanying the examination of the particular object). (wikipedia.org)
  • motor
  • The integrated classification system used for swimming, where swimmers with CP compete against those with other disabilities, is subject to criticisms has been that the nature of CP is that greater exertion leads to decreased dexterity and fine motor movements. (wikipedia.org)
  • The supplementary motor area (SMA) is a part of the primate cerebral cortex that contributes to the control of movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2003, showing that SMA proper and pre-SMA are active prior to volitional movement or action, as well as the cingulate motor area (CMA) = anterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC). (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • We have analyzed a possibility to realize such a user interaction solution using gaze tracking and concluded that remote calibration free eye tracking is still a subject of academic research, but that head tracking could be used instead. (epfl.ch)
  • Based on these results we propose a new solution that enables natural gaze interaction by means of head tracking. (epfl.ch)
  • however
  • However, the vast complexity of such systems has made it very difficult to fully understand even basic functions such as movement. (shu.ac.uk)
  • human
  • A consequence of human locomotion (walking, running) is the occurrence of related eye (EM) and head (HM) movements, which could potentially distort locomotion-produced flow field information. (arvojournals.org)
  • These cues are also used by other animals, but there may be differences in usage, and there are also localization cues which are absent in the human auditory system, such as the effects of ear movements. (wikipedia.org)
  • For human voluntary movement the role of the SMA has been elucidated: Its activity generates the early component of the Bereitschaftspotential (BP) or readiness potential BP1 or BPearly. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • Recruiting a large number of subjects may ensure inclusion of a sufficient number of people with low cognition/low movement. (bio-medicine.org)
  • control
  • The control and sound circuit compares the sound energy received by the right side and left side microphones and determines the appropriate direction to pivot or rotate the head to simulate a "listening" attention by the doll. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Neurons in the SMA project directly to the spinal cord and may play a role in the direct control of movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • relative
  • In some embodiments, the resolution and/or number of virtual objects generated and displayed to the end user may be modified based on a degree of head movement of the end user relative to the HMD. (google.com)
  • The cupula is a gelatin bulb connected to stereocilia, affected by the relative movement of the endolymph it is bathed in. (wikipedia.org)