Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Hazardous Waste: Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.Household Products: Substances or materials used in the course of housekeeping or personal routine.AccidentsEnvironmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Ganglia, Invertebrate: Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.United StatesRisk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.

*  ATSDR - CERCLA Priority List of Hazardous Substances - REDIRECT

... and providing trusted health information to prevent harmful exposures and diseases related to toxic substances. ... Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, Atlanta, GA 30341. Contact CDC: 800-232-4636 / TTY: 888- ... Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 4770 Buford Hwy NE. Atlanta, GA 30341-3717 USA ...
https://atsdr.cdc.gov/cercla/

*  BTLG archive (rev. 2011) - Hazardous Substances Tax Law - Sec. 43452.1

Hazardous Substances Tax Law. CHAPTER 5. OVERPAYMENTS AND REFUNDS. Article 1. Claim for Refund. Section 43452.1. ... BTLG Table of Contents , Hazardous Substances Tax Law , Chapter 5 , Section 43452.1 ...
boe.ca.gov/lawguides/business/archive/2011/vol4/hstl/hstl-43452-1.html

*  16 CFR 1500.85 - Exemptions from classification as banned hazardous substances. | US Law | LII / Legal Information Institute

1500.85 Exemptions from classification as banned hazardous substances.. (a) The term banned hazardous substances as used in ... 78 FR 15660 - Hazardous Substances and Articles; Supplemental Definition of "Strong Sensitizer". GPO FDSys XML , Text. ... 82 FR 2193 - Hazardous Substances and Articles: Administration and Enforcement Regulations. GPO FDSys XML , Text. ... 79 FR 8825 - Hazardous Substances and Articles; Administration and Enforcement Regulations: Final Rule; Revisions to ...
https://law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/16/1500.85

*  Federal Register :: National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 4 announces its intent to delete the Kassouf-Kimerling Superfund Site from the National Priorities List (NPL) and requests public comment on this proposed action. The NPL constitutes Appendix B of 40 CFR part 300 which is the National...
https://federalregister.gov/documents/1999/08/05/99-20039/national-oil-and-hazardous-substance-pollution-contingency-plan-national-priorities-list

*  To indemnify States, political subdivisions of States, and certain other entities from liability relating to the release of...

... and certain other entities from liability relating to the release of hazardous substances at military installations that are ...
https://govtrack.us/congress/bills/102/hr4025

*  Hazardous Substances Archives - Safetycare

For over 25 years Safetycare has been helping organizations protect their most valuable asset; its people.. Safetycare produces engaging workplace safety training video content that is used and viewed by organizations around the world.. ...
safetycare.com/en/product/training-dvds/hazardous-substances-en_us/

*  Use safe work practices<i class='nav-toggle'...

Working with hazardous substances?. Review the following EHS guidelines that pertain to your work:. *Code of Practice: ...
https://ualberta.ca/environment-health-safety/lab-safety-and-management/set-up-a-lab/use-safe-work-practices

*  Medical Information Search (Hazardous Substances • Definitions)

They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Hazardous Waste: Waste products which threaten life ... Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the ... Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse. ... Substances or materials used in the course of housekeeping or personal routine.AccidentsEnvironmental Pollution: Contamination ...
lookformedical.com/definitions.php?q=Hazardous Substances&lang=1

*  DMOZ - Health: Occupational Health and Safety: Hazardous Substances

Toxic substances can be found in most places of work, and their safe use and storage is essential. ... "Health ... Hazardous Substances" search on: AOL - Ask - Bing - DuckDuckGo - Gigablast - Google - ixquick - Yahoo - Yandex - ... Toxic substances can be found in most places of work, and their safe use and storage is essential. ... There are as many as 575,000 hazardous chemical products in workplaces. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA ...
dmoztools.net/Health/Occupational_Health_and_Safety/Hazardous_Substances/

*  describe safe practices for disposing of hazardous substances

User: describe safe practices for disposing of hazardous substances. Weegy: The items listed here include Asbestos, Batteries, ... These provisions are built into the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 and the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health ... These provisions are built into the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 and the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health ... Q: describe safe practices for disposing of hazardous substances. A: The items listed here include Asbestos, Batteries, CFCs ( ...
weegy.com/?ConversationId=FSQC1LIL

*  Superfund Hazardous Substance Research and Training Program (P42) - Division of Research

The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) is announcing the continuation of the Superfund Hazardous Substance Research and Training Program, referred to as Superfund Research Program (SRP) Centers. SRP Center grants will support problem-based, solution-oriented research Centers that consist of multiple, integrated projects representing both the biomedical and non-biomedical disciplines; as well as cores tasked with administrative, community engagement, research translation, research support, and training functions. The scope of the SRP Centers is taken directly from the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, and include: (1) advanced techniques for the detection, assessment, and evaluation of the effect on human health of hazardous substances; (2) methods to assess the risks to human health presented by hazardous substances; (3) methods and technologies to detect ...
vpr.tamu.edu/researchdevelopment/funding/lsp/2012/superfund-hazardous-substance-research-and-training-program-p42-1

*  Hazardous Substances - Safety Talk (PDF)

There are approximately 50,000 different chemicals used worldwide, many of which are classified as hazardous substances. Incorrect transport, use, handling, storage and disposal of hazardous substances can result in: ? personal injury and illness; ? fatalities; ? fire and explosion; and ? environmental damage. However, with the correct information and proper care, hazardous substances can be used and handled safely. While it is not possible to discuss every hazardous substance used, we will look at the basic safety concerns.
flevy.com/browse/business-document/hazardous-substances-safety-talk-500

*  ATSDR - ToxFAQs™: Hazardous Substance Fact Sheets

The ATSDR ToxFAQs™ is a series of summaries about hazardous substances developed by the ATSDR Division of Toxicology. Information for this series is excerpted from the ATSDR Toxicological Profiles and Public Health Statements. Each fact sheet serves as a quick and easy to understand guide.
atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/index.asp

*  National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan - The Full Wiki

The National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan, more commonly called the National Contingency Plan or NCP, is the United States federal government's blueprint for responding to both oil spills and hazardous substance releases. The National Contingency Plan is the result of our country's efforts to develop a national response capability and promote overall coordination among the hierarchy of responders and contingency plans[1] .. The first National Contingency Plan was developed and published in 1968 in response to a massive oil spill from the oil tanker Torrey Canyon off the coast of England the year before. More than 37 million gallons of crude oil spilled into the water, causing massive environmental damage. To avoid the problems faced by response officials involved in this incident, U.S. officials developed a coordinated approach to cope with potential spills in U.S. waters. The 1968 plan provided the first comprehensive system of ...
thefullwiki.org/National_Oil_and_Hazardous_Substances_Pollution_Contingency_Plan

*  Environment and Climate in the Middle East - Train carrying hazardous substances derails in southern Israel - Haaretz

By Shirly Seidler , Sep. 24, 2013. Train service between Be'er Sheva and Kiryat Gat has been suspended following the derailing of a cargo train carrying hazardous substances near Kiryat Gat on Monday night.. In the absence of trains, Israel Railways is operating a bus shuttle service from Be'er Sheva to destinations further north. However, the buses are reportedly packed and experiencing delays.. The derailed train was transporting the chemicals bromine and potassium. No cause was given for the accident, which resulted in the wagons overturning and one of the chemical tanks being cracked. Firefighters said that no chemical leaks had been found.. "The containers holding bromine were in the front of the train and weren't damaged, which prevented a great tragedy," said an area fire service spokesman.. The other hazardous substance the train carried was solid potassium, which only becomes dangerous when placed in contact with water. As a result, police have ...
mideastenvironment.apps01.yorku.ca/2013/09/train-carrying-hazardous-substances-derails-in-southern-israel-haaretz/

*  NXP Semiconductors :: Secure Connections for a Smarter World

The many processes used to manufacture semiconductors are complex and delicate, and require a variety of specialized chemicals and materials. To protect our employees and the environment, we have several programs in place that regulate our use of hazardous chemicals or "substances of concern". In fact, we follow some of the toughest practical standards in the industry.. We carefully monitor our use of substances categorized as restricted, hazardous, or relevant, and have committed, as part of our near-term Sustainability Program, to achieving a 100% reduction of all restricted and hazardous substances that aren't critical use. We track our usage of chemicals in our company-wide Chemical Management program, which registers and classifies the chemical substances we handle. Any use or emission of restricted or hazardous substances must be covered by internal ...
https://nxp.com/chemical-content/BAP63LX.html

*  UMD-EHSO Hazardous Chemicals Waste Management

Collection by the Chemical Waste Program. Typically, laboratories and shops can expect their waste to be picked up within one to two weeks of sending in the waste packing forms. If you have concerns about the timeliness of your waste collection, or your waste has not been picked up within three weeks, call the EHSO at 726-7273, or 726-6764 or e-mail at ehso@d.umn.edu, Include the tracking number from the upper right-hand corner of the waste packing form, along with the generator name and department when requesting the status of your order. Experiment Stations have collections scheduled at less frequent ...
d.umn.edu/ehso/waste_management/stepbystep.html

*  The use of mental models in chemical risk protection: developing a generic workplace methodology -ORCA

We adopted a comparative approach to evaluate and extend a generic methodology to analyze the different sets of beliefs held about chemical hazards in the workplace. Our study mapped existing knowledge structures about the risks associated with the use of perchloroethylene and rosin-based solder flux in differing workplaces. "Influence diagrams" were used to represent beliefs held by chemical experts; "user models" were developed from data elicited from open-ended interviews with the workplace users of the chemicals. The juxtaposition of expert and user understandings of chemical risks enabled us to identify knowledge gaps and misunderstandings and to reinforce appropriate sets of safety beliefs and behavior relevant to chemical risk communications. By designing safety information to be more relevant to the workplace context of users, we believe that employers and employees may gain improved knowledge about chemical hazards in the workplace, such that better chemical risk management, ...
orca.cf.ac.uk/3383/

*  Pesticide Residue Common on Kitc... ( Study detects hazardous substances un...)

Health,...Study detects hazardous substances underfoot even some banned decades...FRIDAY June 19 (HealthDay News) -- Perhaps it's time to rethink the ...New U.S. research shows that most kitchen floors have some insecticide...The study is in the June 15 issue of the journal Environmental Scie...,Pesticide,Residue,Common,on,Kitchen,Floors,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
bio-medicine.org/medicine-news-1/Pesticide-Residue-Common-on-Kitchen-Floors-49522-1/

*  Hazardous substances handling training in Auckland, New Zealand

TCC not just offers you courses to make your employees better handlers of hazardous substances, but we offer comprehensive Training as well.
techcomp.co.nz/training/

*  Beyond Pesticides Daily News Blog » Blog Archive Workers and Communities Still Unprotected by EPA Fumigant Rule, Advocates...

Beyond Pesticides, May 29, 2008) The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced May 27, 2009 modified safety measures for soil fumigant pesticides, falling short of safety advocate efforts to adopt more stringent use restrictions and chemical bans. The new regulations follow a July 10, 2008 proposed rule, which resulted from three years of deliberation. Safety advocates said last July that while substantially better than the past, the proposed regulation fell short in protecting people, workers and the environment and from that perspective this weeks regulation is a disappointment. Advocates believe that the country can do better to phase out uses of highly hazardous chemicals that have devastating impact on exposed workers and communities in which they are used, and advance green technologies and organic practices.. Fumigants, which are among the most toxic chemicals used in agriculture, are gases or liquids that are injected or dripped into the soil to sterilize a field before ...
beyondpesticides.org/dailynewsblog/2009/05/workers-and-communities-still-unprotected-by-epa-fumigant-rule-advocates-say/

*  Cutting Edge Contamination - A Study of Environmental Pollution during the manufacture of Electronic Products | Greenpeace...

In recent years, concerns have grown over the use of hazardous chemicals and materials in these products. Attention has tended to focus on the impacts on human health and the environment due to such chemicals, through the use and ultimate disposal or recycling of these products. Less consideration has been paid to the potential environmental impacts that result from their manufacture.This industry has high resource intensity, in terms of chemicals, energy and water demands. This is especially the case for printed wiring board (PWBs) and semiconductor chip manufacture. Processes used in both sectors are highly complex and chemically intensive; many of the chemicals employed do not form part of the final product (e.g. solvents). Substantial concerns exist for many chemicals used in this industry, both for potential exposure in the workplace and the possible environmental consequences of their release in waste streams.
greenpeace.org/international/en/publications/reports/cutting-edge-contamination-a/

*  Jolly Green Mama

This is the user-friendly name for the most hazardous chemical in my Eucerin. What makes it potentially hazardous? It releases the same stuff that your lab frog was floating in before you dissected it in 9th grade biology. Formaldehyde. The Big F is apparently released in small quantities by this DMDM stuff, and in large doses, F causes all sorts of problems. Supposedly, my Eucerin does not have enough of the junk to cause problems, and is approved by the EU's most recent laws governing which chemicals are allowed in cosmetics. The other problem, though, is that DMDM Hydantoin causes allergies in susceptible individuals, one of whom is my husband. Which means my daughter may be a future candidate for allergies to the same chemicals (she already has some of his other allergy issues). I guess that means maybe I shouldn't be slathering it all over my face and then ask my family members to kiss me ...
jollygreenmama.blogspot.com

*  Wells show low levels of chemical - tribunedigital-baltimoresun

The Army's latest tests of Harford County's drinking water supply have turned up a low level of a hazardous chemical in the water, as well as in two of the county's five Perryman production wells, a
articles.baltimoresun.com/2003-02-07/news/0302070333_1_perchlorate-drinking-water-water-supply

*  Detox is SEO Hot Right Now! | Greenpeace International

I'll explain.... Almost ten years ago, rumours began to surface about American hip hop artist Dr. Dre creating an epic "Detox" album. As it has a few times in the past decade, buzz about the album is now reaching fever pitch. Just Google it and see for yourself.. Less than three months into our Detox water pollution campaign, some of the world's biggest clothing brands -- Nike, Adidas, Puma and now H&M -- have committed to clean up their act. They've committed to eliminate discharges of all hazardous chemicals across their entire supply chains and their entire product life-cycle in less than ten years.. Sure, that's a mouthful to say, but it's relevant to everybody who depends on clean water, and wants others to have clean water too (whether they're psyched about Dr. Dre's elusive album or not).. So back to the task at hand.... Whether you're blogging about our recent wins or the campaign in general, you can help spread the word even farther by linking to our Detox campaign page too. If you ...
greenpeace.org/international/en/news/Blogs/makingwaves/detox-is-seo-hot-right-now/blog/36931/

*  Hazardous Materials | St. Joseph County, IN

From industrial chemicals and toxic waste to household detergents and air fresheners, hazardous materials are part of our everyday lives.
sjcparks.org/348/Hazardous-Materials

*  Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), based in Atlanta, Georgia, is a federal public health agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. ATSDR serves the public by using the best science, taking responsive public health actions, and providing trusted health information to prevent harmful exposures and diseases related to toxic substances.
atsdr.cdc.gov

*  CDC - NIOSH Publications and Products - School Chemistry Laboratory Safety Guide (2007-107)

In 1984, the Council of State Science Supervisors, in association with the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, published the safety guide School Science Laboratories: A Guide to Some Hazardous Substances to help science teachers identify hazardous substances that may be used in school laboratories and provide an inventory of these substances.. Because school science curricula have changed since then, the safety guide has been updated and revised to reflect those changes. This guide on safety in the chemistry laboratory was also written to provide high school chemistry teachers with an easy-to-read reference to create a safe learning environment in the laboratory for their students. The document attempts to provide teachers, and ultimately their students, with information so that they can take the appropriate precautionary actions in order to prevent or ...
https://cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2007-107/default.html

*  Student Supervisor Handbook - CSB/SJU

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires employers to conduct safety training in a number of areas in an effort to ensure a safe environment for all employees (including part-time and student employees). In order to comply with OSHA regulations and the College of St. Benedict and St. John's University safety policies, employees must receive orientation training before being assigned to a task that would put them at risk. The following is a list of required training:. Employee Right-To-Know (MN Chapter 5206): For employees who are routinely exposed to hazardous substances, harmful physical agents, and infectious agents. Orientation and annual refresher training required.. Definitions:. Hazardous substance - a chemical or substance, or mixture of chemicals or substances which is either toxic or highly toxic, an irritant, corrosive, a strong oxidizer, a strong sensitizer, combustible, flammable or otherwise may cause ...
csbsju.edu/student-employment/handbooks/student-supervisor-handbook

*  DMOZ - Health: Occupational Health and Safety: Hazardous Substances: Mercury

U.S. EPA fact sheets, reference information, and other materials related to updating the ambient water quality criteria for methylmercury to protect human health. This form of mercury is taken up by plant and aquatic life and accumulates in fish. ...
dmoztools.net/Health/Occupational_Health_and_Safety/Hazardous_Substances/Mercury/

*  Hazardous substance concerns lead to FBI search Lehigh home - ABC-7.com WZVN News for Fort Myers, Cape Coral & Naples, Florida

The Federal Bureau of Investigation recovered a 'potentially hazardous substance' Sunday during the search of a Lehigh Acres home.
abc-7.com/story/33401561/hazardous-substance-concerns-lead-to-fbi-search-lehigh-home

*  Chemicals under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) | US EPA

Chemicals can be found in many of the products we use in our everyday lives. Some chemicals pose risks to humans and the environment. Under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and the Pollution Prevention Act, EPA evaluates potential risks from new and existing chemicals and finds ways to prevent or reduce pollution before it gets into the environment. Use this site to get information on chemicals and their regulation under TSCA, on ways to prevent and reduce pollution, and on safer chemicals, products and practices.. ...
https://epa.gov/chemicals-under-tsca

*  Sundstrom Safety AB - The Hazardous Materials Expo 2017, ExCel London

Sundstrom Safety AB - Exhibiting at the Contamination Expo Series 2017. Sign up for free tickets and meet them on the 27th and 28th of September at ExCel London
hazardousmaterialexpo.com/exhibitors/sundstrom-safety-ab/

Highly hazardous chemical: A highly hazardous chemical is a substance classified by the American Occupational Safety and Health Administration as material that is both toxic and reactive and whose potential for human injury is high if released. Highly hazardous chemicals may cause cancer, birth defects, induce genetic damage, cause miscarriage, injury and death from relatively small exposures.List of Superfund sites in the United States: These are lists of Superfund sites in the United States, designated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980. Superfund sites are polluted locations requiring a long-term response to clean up hazardous material contaminations.Household chemicals: Household chemicals are non-food chemicals that are commonly found and used in and around the average household. They are a type of consumer goods, designed particularly to assist cleaning, pest control and general hygiene purposes.List of film accidents: This is intended to be a list of notable accidents which occurred during the shooting of films and television, such as cast or crew fatalities or serious accidents which plagued production. It is not intended to be a list of every minor injury an actor or stuntman suffered during filming.Polarized light pollution: Polarization is a property of light waves that describes the orientation of their oscillations. Polarized light pollutionGábor Horváth, György Kriska, Péter Malik, Bruce Robertson.Occupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.Pocket petWHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Autopharmacology: Autopharmacology relates to the scientific study of the regulation of body functions by the activity of its naturally existent (or endogenous) chemical factors of the tissues. A more restricted definition would consider substances that were first identified as external agents which had a documented action on physiological functions, but later were discovered as existing as endogenous factors.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Substance-related disorder

(1/726) Bioterrorism alleging use of anthrax and interim guidelines for management--United States, 1998.

From October 30 through December 23, 1998, CDC received reports of a series of bioterroristic threats of anthrax exposure. Letters alleged to contain anthrax were sent to health clinics on October 30, 1998, in Indiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee. During December 17-23 in California, a letter alleged to contain anthrax was sent to a private business, and three telephone threats of anthrax contamination of ventilation systems were made to private and public buildings. All threats were hoaxes and are under investigation by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and local law enforcement officials. The public health implications of these threats were investigated to assist in developing national public health guidelines for responding to bioterrorism. This report summarizes the findings of these investigations and provides interim guidance for public health authorities on bioterrorism related to anthrax.  (+info)

(2/726) The marginalization of hormesis.

Despite the substantial development and publication of highly reproducible toxicological data, the concept of hormetic dose-response relationships was never integrated into the mainstream of toxicological thought. Review of the historical foundations of the interpretation of the bioassay and assessment of competitive theories of dose-response relationships lead to the conclusion that multiple factors contributed to the marginalization of hormesis during the middle and subsequent decades of the 20th Century. These factors include the following: (a) the close association of hormesis with homeopathy, which led to the hostility of modern medicine toward homeopathy, thereby creating a guilt-by-association framework, and the carryover influence of that hostility toward hormesis in the judgements of medically based pharmacologists/toxicologists; (b) the emphasis of high-dose effects linked with a lack of appreciation of the significance of the implications of low-dose stimulatory effects; (c) the lack of an evolution-based mechanism(s) to account for hormetic effects; and (d) lack of appropriate scientific advocates to counter aggressive and intellectually powerful critics of the hormetic perspective.  (+info)

(3/726) Chemical hormesis: its historical foundations as a biological hypothesis.

Despite the long history of hormesis-related experimental research, no systematic effort to describe its early history has been undertaken. The present paper attempts to reconstruct and assess the early history of such research and to evaluate how advances in related scientific fields affected the course of hormesis-related research. The purpose of this paper is not only to satisfy this gap in current knowledge but also to provide a foundation for the assessment of how the concept of hormetic dose-response relationships may have affected the nature of the bioassay, especially with respect to hazard assessment practices within a modern risk assessment framework.  (+info)

(4/726) Migration patterns of children with cancer in Britain.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the early migration patterns of children who later developed cancer. To test a prior hypothesis that some cancers are initiated by early exposures to toxic atmospheric pollutants from point sources. DESIGN: Address changes in children dying from cancer are examined in relation to potentially hazardous sites of several different types. The relative proximities of birth addresses and death addresses to these sites, are compared. The approach is based upon the premise that a local exposure, effective only at an early age, must be preferentially linked with an early address. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Records of 22,458 children dying from leukaemia or other cancer under the age of 16 years in Great Britain between 1953 and 1980: including 9224 who moved house between birth and death. The migration analysis was based upon birth and death addresses, converted first to postcodes and thence to map coordinates. The geographical locations of potentially toxic industrial sites were obtained through direct map searches and from commercial directories. RESULTS: Systematic asymmetries were found between measured distances from birth and death addresses to sources emitting volatile organic compounds, or using large scale combustion processes. The children had more often moved away from these hazards than towards them. Many of the sources had already been identified as hazardous using other methods. There was also a birth association with areas of dense habitation; possibly because of unidentified toxic sources contained within them. All forms of cancer were involved although some effluents were associated preferentially with specific types. CONCLUSIONS: The main findings of an earlier study, based upon a different and independent method, were confirmed. Proximities to several types of industrial source, around the time of birth, were followed by a raised risk of childhood cancer. Combustion products and volatile organic compounds were especially implicated. Within the 16 year limit of the study, the increased risk did not decay with advancing age. Low atmospheric concentrations of many carcinogenic substances suggest that the mother acts as a cumulative filter and passes them to the fetus across the placenta or in breast milk.  (+info)

(5/726) Emergency planning and the acute toxic potency of inhaled ammonia.

Ammonia is present in agriculture and commerce in many if not most communities. This report evaluates the toxic potency of ammonia, based on three types of data: anecdotal data, in some cases predating World War 1, reconstructions of contemporary industrial accidents, and animal bioassays. Standards and guidelines for human exposure have been driven largely by the anecdotal data, suggesting that ammonia at 5,000-10,000 parts per million, volume/volume (ppm-v), might be lethal within 5-10 min. However, contemporary accident reconstructions suggest that ammonia lethality requires higher concentrations. For example, 33,737 ppm-v was a 5-min zero-mortality value in a major ammonia release in 1973 in South Africa. Comparisons of secondary reports of ammonia lethality with original sources revealed discrepancies in contemporary sources, apparently resulting from failure to examine old documents or accurately translate foreign documents. The present investigation revealed that contemporary accident reconstructions yield ammonia lethality levels comparable to those in dozens of reports of animal bioassays, after adjustment of concentrations to human equivalent concentrations via U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) procedures. Ammonia levels potentially causing irreversible injury or impairing the ability of exposed people to escape from further exposure or from coincident perils similarly have been biased downwardly in contemporary sources. The EPA has identified ammonia as one of 366 extremely hazardous substances subject to community right-to-know provisions of the Superfund Act and emergency planning provisions of the Clean Air Act. The Clean Air Act defines emergency planning zones (EPZs) around industrial facilities exceeding a threshold quantity of ammonia on-site. This study suggests that EPZ areas around ammonia facilities can be reduced, thereby also reducing emergency planning costs, which will vary roughly with the EPZ radius squared.  (+info)

(6/726) Health and safety practices among farmers and other workers: a needs assessment.

The development of appropriate health and safety interventions for farmers and agri-workers is important world-wide but data on present practices and attitudes to change are lacking. A representative quota sample (n = 1,938) of the Irish population was surveyed on lifestyle practices and workplace risk assessment and control measures, in relation to chemical exposure, manual handling and machinery. Focus group discussions were conducted also with 47 representatives of national farming organizations. As compared with the general workforce, farmers had a significantly (p < 0.01) lower level of assessment of risk hazards associated with manual handling and machinery. Both farmers and employees in workplaces with less than 20 employees reported a significantly lower level of safety training. Male farmers had a particularly negative health profile with only 18% reporting regular dental checks, 26% practising skin protection and 29% taking regular exercise. Discussions indicated that barriers to change included low perceived susceptibility, lack of time and resources. Mental health issues were particularly highlighted. We conclude farmers differ significantly in many instances from the rest of the workforce in regard to occupational health and safety issues and specific interventions in key areas are required for the agri-sector.  (+info)

(7/726) Hazards of chemical weapons release during war: new perspectives.

The two major threat classes of chemical weapons are mustard gas and the nerve agents, and this has not changed in over 50 years. Both types are commonly called gases, but they are actually liquids that are not remarkably volatile. These agents were designed specifically to harm people by any route of exposure and to be effective at low doses. Mustard gas was used in World War I, and the nerve agents were developed shortly before, during, and after World War II. Our perception of the potency of chemical weapons has changed, as well as our concern over potential effects of prolonged exposures to low doses and potential target populations that include women and children. Many of the toxicologic studies and human toxicity estimates for both mustard and nerve agents were designed for the purpose of quickly developing maximal casualties in the least sensitive male soldier. The "toxicity" of the chemical weapons has not changed, but our perception of "toxicity" has.  (+info)

(8/726) Mass psychogenic illness attributed to toxic exposure at a high school.

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Mass psychogenic illness may be difficult to differentiate from illness caused by bioterrorism, rapidly spreading infection, or toxic substances. We investigated symptoms attributed to exposure to toxic gas at a high school in Tennessee. In November 1998, a teacher noticed a 'gasoline-like' smell in her classroom, and soon thereafter she had a headache, nausea, shortness of breath, and dizziness. The school was evacuated, and 80 students and 19 staff members went to the emergency room at the local hospital; 38 persons were hospitalized overnight. Five days later, after the school had reopened, another 71 persons went to the emergency room. An extensive investigation was performed by several government agencies. RESULTS: We were unable to find a medical or environmental explanation for the reported illnesses. The persons who reported symptoms on the first day came from 36 classrooms scattered throughout the school. The most frequent symptoms (in this group and the group of people who reported symptoms five days later) were headache, dizziness, nausea, and drowsiness. Blood and urine specimens showed no evidence of carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, paraquat, or mercury. There was no evidence of toxic compounds in the environment. A questionnaire administered a month later showed that the reported symptoms were significantly associated with female sex, seeing another ill person, knowing that a classmate was ill, and reporting an unusual odor at the school. CONCLUSIONS: The illness attributed to toxic exposure had features of mass psychogenic illness - notably, widespread subjective symptoms thought to be associated with environmental exposure to a toxic substance in the absence of objective evidence of an environmental cause. Alleviation of the anxiety surrounding an episode of mass psychogenic illness requires prompt recognition and a detailed investigation.  (+info)



chemicals


  • European hazardous chemicals database. (dmoztools.net)
  • Occupational medicine toxicology database to assist in the recognition of diseases caused by hazardous chemicals. (dmoztools.net)
  • The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) estimates that over 32 million workers are exposed to hazardous chemicals. (dmoztools.net)
  • Data on 677 chemicals or substance groupings found in the work environment. (dmoztools.net)
  • Provides access to a cluster of databases on toxicology, hazardous chemicals, and related areas. (dmoztools.net)
  • Such a person leads his team and trains them on the safest ways to handle the chemicals, substances, and wastes. (techcomp.co.nz)
  • This legislation controls chemicals and substances. (kenwoodworld.com)

wastes


  • that workplace hazardous wastes are correctly identified at each stage of production and appropriate measures are taken to protect the health of employees and contractors who transport or dispose of waste. (weegy.com)

Regulations


  • These provisions are built into the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 and the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH) 1999 (SI 1999 No. 437). (weegy.com)
  • We strive to seek the best for our clients through providing chemical handling courses, consultancy services, and advice on Hazardous Substances regulations. (techcomp.co.nz)

Control


  • These people are essential for your company because they control the damage in case of hazardous substance spills. (techcomp.co.nz)

materials


  • The careful disposal of hazardous materials is a public responsibility to prevent damage to man and animals. (weegy.com)

Games


  • 7) Games containing, as the sole hazardous component, a self-pressurized container of soap solution or similar foam-generating mixture provided that the foam-generating component has no hazards other than being in a self-pressurized container. (cornell.edu)

Business


  • For our business it defines the safe levels of certain substances within the products, packaging and spare parts we place on the market. (kenwoodworld.com)

chemical


  • There are as many as 575,000 hazardous chemical products in workplaces. (dmoztools.net)

products


  • This legislation restricts hazardous substances within the products we place on the market. (kenwoodworld.com)

Sites


  • This report discusses the Superfund program designed for cleaning up the nation's worst hazardous waste sites was created by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, or CERCLA (P.L. 96-510, as amended). (unt.edu)

safe


  • Toxic substances can be found in most places of work, and their safe use and storage is essential. (dmoztools.net)
  • Food contact legislations define the safe limits of migration of certain substances from these parts into the food. (kenwoodworld.com)